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1

Improving Software Development Process through Economic Mechanism Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the novel concept of applying economic mechanism design to software development process, and aim to find ways to adjust the incentives and disincentives of the software organization to align them with the motivations of the participants in order to maximize the delivered value of a software project. We envision a set of principles to design processes that allow people to be self motivated but constantly working toward project goals. The resulting economic mechanism will rely on game theoretic principles (i.e. Stackelberg games) for leveraging the incentives, goals and motivation of the participants in the service of project and organizational goals.

Yilmaz, Murat; O'Connor, Rory V.; Collins, John

2

Acetone-butanol fermentation process development and economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for the manufacture of butanol from corn is described. An improved bacterial strain has made the multistage fermentation process stable, productive, and high yielding. Economic evaluation of the process and the rhodium catalyst petrochemical process for a 200 MM lb/year butanol plant is presented. 13 references.

Marlatt, J.A.; Datta, R.

1986-03-01

3

Economic consequences of increasing oil prices on the economic development process of the oil-deficit developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

International inflation has brought about especially adverse consequences on the economic development process of the oil-deficit developing countries in the 1970s. These nations experienced exceptionally high inflation rates. The inflation therein was mainly of an import-cost push type and was fueled by excessive monetary expansions, economic stagnation, and inflationary expectations. Increasing oil prices, in particular, contributed to import-cost push inflation.

Pourgerami

1982-01-01

4

Economic consequences of increasing oil prices on the economic development process of the oil-deficit developing countries  

SciTech Connect

International inflation has brought about especially adverse consequences on the economic development process of the oil-deficit developing countries in the 1970s. These nations experienced exceptionally high inflation rates. The inflation therein was mainly of an import-cost push type and was fueled by excessive monetary expansions, economic stagnation, and inflationary expectations. Increasing oil prices, in particular, contributed to import-cost push inflation. The terms of trade tended to deteriorate as a result of the rising import prices relative to export prices. Deterioration in the terms of trade caused financial resources to flow out from these nations to the oil-exporting developing countries. Consequently, their balance of payments deficits grew and their external debt began to accumulate. The rising prices of fuel and energy-capital intensive inputs undermined the ability of the oil-deficit developing countries to promote agricultural development. This inability is likely to increase their dependence on imported food in the immediate decades. The energy crisis thus brought about an economic disequilibrium in the world economy. The income gap between the oil-deficit developing countries and the oil-exporting developing nations has substantially increased since 1973. A theoretical analysis in this thesis is supported by empirical studies.

Pourgerami, A.

1982-01-01

5

INNOVATIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities faced with the challenge of attracting and retaining industrial and commercial businesses to increase economic development can increase their effectiveness and decision making processes through the use of GIS and 3D visualization. The ability to communicate visually proposed plans for developments, determine the potential visual impact on surrounding areas, and educate the public about how these proposed developments appear

Robert Montgomery

6

Bioenergy and economic development  

SciTech Connect

Bioenergy, a promising alternative for developing countries, is already a key resource (in the form of fuelwood, for example) in millions of households around the world. In this book, William Ramsay details the characteristics of a wide variety of bioenergy crops and discusses planning for bioenergy development, emphasising its economic, social, and political aspects. He also analyses how general cost trends, credit problems, and the pricing of alternative fuels affect the viability of various bioenergy options. Concluding with a discussion of how energy and national economic development planning can be coordinated, he argues that some kind of durable national or regional commitment to bioenergy programs is vital if bioenergy is to become a successful modern alternative to fuel and play a key role in the economic development process.

Ramsay, W.

1985-01-01

7

Democracy and economic development.  

PubMed

This discussion explains why democracy as is generally understood may not be suitable to meet the challenges of a developing economy and how democratic institutions generally fail to respond to the immediate demands of a population impatient to raise its level of living. It defines the terms economic development and democracy, reviews some theoretical models of democracy which have been proposed in economic theory, proposes an approach to the process of economic development, and considers problems of development. Economic development is a process which calls for huge investments in personnel and material. Such investment programs imply cuts in current consumption that would be painful at the low levels of living that exist in almost all developing societies. Governments need to resort to strong measures, and they must enforce them vigorously in order to marshal the surpluses required for investment. If such measures were put to a popular vote, they would certainly be defeated. Mainstream economic theory assumes the virtues of a market system and the decisions arrived at by the interaction of market forces. This is the economic equivalent of democracy. Yet, mainstream economic theory devotes little attention to the conditions under which a market system generates a just solution. The democratic developing countries have all inherited a class society, with a highly skewed distribution of income. The wealthy minority often seeks to preserve its privileged position and to enjoy the benefits of development. It even seeks the help of the judiciary to preserve the sanctity of private property and to assure that its patterns of conspicuous consumption can continue. This is done in the name of democratic rights. Many developing societies are burdened with outmoded traditions and value systems that are incompatible with the production relations of the new society they hope to achieve. The international exchange of resources is believed by some to be an attempt to control the pace and character of development so that the economic colonization will survive. To end such unfavorable conditions for development, 3rd world governments must demand greater sacrifices from their citizens, and this cannot be achieved by normal democratic means. Recent events in several developing nations illustrate this point. PMID:12340151

Rao, V

1985-01-01

8

Overall Economic Development Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Overall Economic Development Program for the Fourth Planning and Development District Commission is the documentation of proposals considered necessary for economic development. It provides rationale to support a request for official recognition as an...

1974-01-01

9

Rethinking Community Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors present arguments for a more interdisciplinary approach to community economic development. Building an alternative paradigm that includes six elements—resources, markets, institutions, society, decision making, and space—they rethink the framework that links economic theory to the practice of community economic development. Major attention is paid to the integration of economic and noneconomic factors in the practice

Ron Shaffer; Steve Deller; Dave Marcouiller

2006-01-01

10

Culture and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter begins by noting that culture as an element in economic development in the Third World has been largely neglected in traditional development economics, most writers either seeing culture as an obstacle to development or ignoring it altogether. Recently a shift in thinking has occurred whereby culture is now more widely seen as being more central to the development

Paul Streeten

11

Curriculum Development in Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book reproduces sixteen papers on recent developments in economics curriculum in Britain. The papers, presented and examined at a two-day conference at the University of Manchester in January, 1973, offer a comprehensive look at the current state of economic education and research. Directed to economics teachers and curriculum specialists,…

Whitehead, David, Ed.

12

Hazardous-chemical waste management: development of process technology, economics, and system-selection methodology  

SciTech Connect

A general methodology is developed for the solution of many hazardous-water problems, which accounts for technical, economic, and social considerations. The methodology includes five phases involving information base development, identifying alternatives using an expert system, consultation concerning the social aspects, a ranking of the results and development of preferential solutions. The IBM Expert System Environment is the shell utilized to develop the expert program. This study presents three main steps in developing the expert program: Strategy for Problem Solving, Expert System Development Environment, and the Consultation Environment. The expert program is developed for the solution of hazardous-waste problems derived from the insecticide industrial sector. An important phase of the methodology involved the interaction with a panel of experts to account for the social and political impacts of the solutions, in addition to the economic and technical aspects. The methodology is applied to an existing problem in the pesticide industry and results are presented.

Ferrada, J.J.

1987-01-01

13

Processes in Economic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic conception of human behavior assumes that a person has a single set of well-defined goals, and that the person's behavior is chosen to best achieve those goals. We develop a model in which a person's behavior is the outcome of an interaction between two systems: a deliberative system that assesses options with a broad, goal-based perspective, and an

George Loewenstein; Ted O'Donoghue

14

The Role of Educational Quality and Quantity in the Process of Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We develop a theory of human capital investment to study the effects of school quality on student choices of education, and to understand its effect on economic growth. In a dynamic general equilibrium closed economy, primary education is mandatory but there is an opportunity to continue to secondary education and beyond. High-quality education…

Castello-Climent, Amparo; Hidalgo-Cabrillana, Ana

2012-01-01

15

China's recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postreform landscape is characterised by the formation of a more market-oriented system and the ‘open-door’ policy. Economic globalisation and marketisation, especially in the arena of urban land and housing, are becoming the key variables determining the postreform urban development in China. Since China opened its door in 1978, foreign investment has continued to flow into the cities and played

Fulong Wu

2001-01-01

16

Economic Development and Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-based economic development (EBED) can provide economic, social, and environmental benefits, such as job creation, industry development, and alternative energy deployment. The United States has recently devoted substantial financial support to EBED efforts. Although early assessments of these efforts are promising, the discipline is at risk of becoming compromised or discredited. It lacks a basic framework, common definitions, and clear

Sanya Carley; Adrienne Brown; Sara Lawrence

2012-01-01

17

Globalization and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries engaged actively in globalization have experienced phenomenal changes in economic, social, cultural, political, and technological progress. Some countries have benefited significantly from greater integration, while others have held globalization accountable for their economic failure and instability. Globalization introduces new political and social challenges. Benefiting from globalization requires complementary institutions and social development to deal with the changes and risks

Ming Yu Cheng; Ron Mittelhammer

2008-01-01

18

Program Memorandum: Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Program Memorandum discusses the major program, Economic Development. The overall objective of the program is to assist in maintaining the state's economy in a strong and competitive condition by providing policies, operations, facilities, services, a...

1977-01-01

19

Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics.  

PubMed

Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1) the cosmopolitan, arborescent bryozoan Bugula neritina (Phylum Bryozoa) for its anticancer chemical constituent bryostatin 1; and (2) Ecteinascidia turbinate (Phylum Tunicata) the source of anticancer ecteinascidin 743. For the third invertebrate Phylum Porifera, and its representative sponge Acanthella cavernosa (desired for its anti-parasitic and anti-infective kalihinols) in-sea systems were not developed in favor of controlled environment tank aquaculture systems. For the bryozoan and tunicate, projected economics for commercial-scale in-sea production proved cost effective. This was in contrast to the controlled environment sponge culture tank system, which did not prove to be economical due to inherent slow growth and low natural product yields of the sponge in culture. A non-destructive method for "milking" natural product chemicals from sponges was tested and is described. PMID:12919831

Mendola, Dominick

2003-07-01

20

International Economic Development Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

21

Coal-to-methanol via new processes under development: an engineering and economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a screening study evaluating two coal-to-methanol routes via new processes under development. For the purpose of this study, two coals have been investigated in two different plant configurations: (1) Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal in an all methanol scheme, and (2) Wyodak subbituminous coal in a methanol and distillate fuel oil coproduction scheme. The

W. S. Chia; G. E. Good; Y. S. Ng

1979-01-01

22

Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

1984-01-01

23

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} has been achieved at 600 C with Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

2003-12-01

24

Training Programs in Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes courses offered under a training program developed by the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, and the Industrial Development Division, Georgia Institute of Technology, for staffs of economic development d...

R. B. Cassell

1971-01-01

25

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the technical progress from April to September 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. Characteristics of doped lanthanum gallate (LSGMF) powder suitable for thin electrolyte fabrication have been defined. Bilayers with thin LSGMF electrolyte supported on an anode were fabricated and the fabrication process was improved. Preliminary performance was characterized. High performance cathode material Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} has been down-selected and is being optimized by modifying materials characteristics and processing parameters. The selected cathode exhibited excellent performance with cathode polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} at 600 C.

Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

2003-10-01

26

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

2003-04-01

27

Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1)

Dominick Mendola

2003-01-01

28

Environmental management and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of

G. Schramm; J. J. Warford

1989-01-01

29

Western Economic Developments: May 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FRB San Francisco's bi-monthly publication Western Economic Developments summarizes economic growth and development in the Twelfth District. The economy remained strong throughout the first quarter of 2000, with an employment growth rate of 2.5 percent annually. California's economic growth rate was especially high, due to "usually rapid growth of income and consumer spending."

30

Property Rights and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter develops a unified analytical framework, drawing on and extending the existing literature on the subject, for studying the role of property rights in economic development. It addresses two fundamental and related questions concerning the relationship between property rights and economic activity. (i) What are the mechanisms through which property rights affect economic activity? (ii) What are the determinants

Timothy Besley; Maitreesh Ghatak

2010-01-01

31

The Bologna Process and the Economic Impacts of Research and Development within the Context of Europeanization: The Case of Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Higher education and public research play an important role in economic development, mainly in industrial research and development (R & D) and innovation through the manufacturing sector. Finland has taken great strides in this regard as it represents a Europeanization of a knowledge system in the European Union, being relevant at the…

Habti, Driss

2010-01-01

32

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

33

SCIENCE, RELIGION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The correlations between scientometric indices, macroeco- nomic variables and results from attitude polls in different countries were explored. The results show that a minimum threshold of economic development (around GDP per capita of 1000US$) is required for science and the economy of a country to interact. Above that threshold, a positive interaction can be observed between economic development, scientific

Klaus Jaffe

2005-01-01

34

A Model of Quantum Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum Economic Development (or the QED MODEL) is an entirely new field of theoretical economic conceptualisation into the evolutionary end point of the New Global Economy. A full description of the process of forming a kernel of fundamental 'quantum like' logic of the architecture and mechanics of these totally new quantum economies is included, as well as some of the

Craig Sobey

2009-01-01

35

Environmental management and economic development  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of and demand for fuelwood in Africa; economic aspects of afforestation and soil-conservation projects; multilevel resource analysis and management: the case of watersheds.

Schramm, G.; Warford, J.J.

1989-01-01

36

Frontiers and sustainable economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting new resource “frontiers,” such as agricultural land and mineral reserves, is a fundamental feature of economic\\u000a development in poor economies. Yet frontier-based development is symptomatic of a pattern of economy-wide resource exploitation\\u000a in developing economies that: (a) generates little additional economic rents, and (b) what rents are generated are not being\\u000a reinvested in other sectors. Such development is inherently

Edward B. Barbier

2007-01-01

37

Industrial policy and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the past two decades, the slowdown in global economic growth has posed a singularly daunting task for national policy\\u000a makers throughout a wide range of countries at different levels of economic development, with greatly varying national resource\\u000a endowments, disparate economic organization, and a wide range of aspirations. As discussed, many policy makers in the 1970s\\u000a enthusiastically began to advocate

Josef M. Brabant

38

Economic Development Action Program, Southern West Virginia, Economic Development District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a twelve month program of technical assistance to help southern West Virginia implement certain key aspects of its overall economic development program. Two major subject areas comprised the scope of the project. These w...

1969-01-01

39

Economic Development and Women's Empowerment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between economic development, cultural background, and women's empowerment in eight countries of South Asia and South East Asia. The data are from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), the Penn World Tables, and the ILO's Key Indicators of Labour Market (KILM.) of the 1990s and 2000s. Women's empowerment indicators studied are economic participation rate, educational

Sanjukta Chaudhuri

40

FE: Aspects of Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents national and international perspectives on the role of further education (FE) in economic development in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Throughout the papers, special attention is paid to the need to reassess FE and its role as service provider, stakeholder, and strategic partner in view of the following social and economic

James, Simon, Ed.

1998-01-01

41

Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield

A. Talib; D. Gray; M. Neuworth

1984-01-01

42

Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

Phillips, Phillip D.

43

Environmental Management and Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; Environmental and natural resource accounting; Marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; The environmental basis of sustainable developme...

G. Schramm J. J. Warford

1989-01-01

44

Economic Development in Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mongolian economy has evolved rapidly in recent decades. It has a number of particular features which makes it interesting to study from a development perspective. One is the landlocked condition which limits its development potential. Another is its high dependence on a few products and natural resources like minerals, energy and agriculture. A third is the large scale of its

Erkhemchimeg Byambasuren; Almas Heshmati

2010-01-01

45

Conservation and economic development  

SciTech Connect

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I'm going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today's energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

46

Conservation and economic development  

SciTech Connect

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I`m going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today`s energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work!

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

47

Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.  

PubMed

This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully-contained, growing, dependent sub-system of a non-growing ecosphere. Potential solutions fly in the face of contemporary development trends and cultural values. PMID:12858997

Rees, William E

48

75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Tribal Economic Development Bonds AGENCY: Department...Tribal Governments regarding the Tribal Economic Development Bond provision in Section...tribal governments, known as ``Tribal Economic Development Bonds,'' under...

2010-07-12

49

Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As many cities have begin to grapple with their vast areas of brownfields that dot the urban landscape, the federal government has begun to step in and provide various financial assistance in order to assist with the redevelopment of abandoned, idled and underused industrial and commercial facilities. This website, provided by the U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, provides information about the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI), which is a competitive grant program that is meant to serve as a stimulus for local government and private sector parties to start the long redevelopment process. The site contains detailed information about the program, along with archived webcasts that talk about various success stories that have been funded with monies from the program thus far. Also on the site, information is provided about how brownfields are defined and how monies for the program have been distributed to various communities. Finally, visitors will want to take a look at the related publications available here, including those that detail various brownfields initiative and the potential long-term effects of environmental degradation.

50

Innovation Capacity and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both China and India, the emerging giants in Asia, have achieved significant economic development in recent years. China has enjoyed a high annual GDP growth rate of 10 per cent and India has achieved an annual GDP growth rate of 6 per cent since 1981. Decomposing China and India's GDP growth from 1981 to 2004 into the three factors' contribution

Peilei Fan

2008-01-01

51

Economic Viability and Regional Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An area will be considered developed if all members of its population are able to earn as much as people of comparable ability elsewhere in the national economy, and if regional aggregate welfare is at a maximum. A region will be considered economically v...

S. S. Handel

1966-01-01

52

Integrating regional economic development analysis and land use economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two largely separate literatures exist on regional economic development and land use economics. In this chapter, we argue that a full understanding of each of the two areas requires greater knowledge of their interrelationship. We review key studies of the two literatures, particularly those related to the close interconnectedness of regional economic development and land use. We contend that a

Mark D. Partridge; Dan S. Rickman

2012-01-01

53

Missing links between urban economic growth theory and real estate development processes: Economic growth and building investments in the city of ‘s?Hertogenbosch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent contributions to the literature on urban economic theory focus mainly on the relations between changes in the organization of firms and the spatial restructuring of urban regions. In this respect, it is argued that changes in the production system result in new locational preferences of firms and consequently in changes in the spatial pattern of cities. In this paper

Erwin Van Der Krabben; Frans Boekema

1994-01-01

54

The role of government in economic development: the chinese experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of government in China's economic reform and development years. The study first provides a literature review about major functions government played in the modern economic system and the importance of government policies to economic development. It then evaluates the experience of the Chinese government in the process of reform and development by focusing on five

Kuotsai Tom Liou

1998-01-01

55

Engineering Economic Model for Fish Protein Concentration Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process engineering economic model for fish protein concentration processes has been developed. The model predicts the construction and operating costs for fish meal plants and for plants producing fish protein concentrate (FPC) by: isopropyl alcohol ex...

J. W. Gentry K. K. Almenas L. C. Durilla M. B. Hale R. C. Ernst

1972-01-01

56

Methodological Problems in Forecasting Economic Development and Technical Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under socialism, scientific forecasting is a necessary stage in the process of national economic planning. It is called upon to determine, in the stage preceding the plan, possible variants of technical, economic, and social development in the long run, the knowledge of which makes it possible to proceed to the preparation of state national economic plans. In the forecasting process,

L. Berri

1970-01-01

57

Economics of Processing Tomatoes in Egypt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report in Arabic has an English summary. Consumption of processed tomato products has been rising dramatically, leading to sharply increased imports. Egypt processes only about 1 percent of its tomato production; the industry currently is not economic...

A. K. M. Ashry

1983-01-01

58

Joining Others for Community Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the basic principles of economic development and provides a case study of the Communitywide Work Force Development Project, which was designed to involve the community in solving the economic development and work force problems of Terre Haute, Indiana. (DMM)

Borgen, Joseph A.; Shade, William B.

1984-01-01

59

Coming clean for economic development: A resource book on environmental cleanup and economic development  

SciTech Connect

Economic Development practitioners increasingly confront environmental concerns and the added costs associated with site contamination. This report seeks to bring this knowledge to local officials who are struggling to increase economic activity in their communities. This guidebook offers detailed information on state and federal regulations and programs. It will help practitioners understand the problems, opportunities, and available tools needed to thoughtfuly integrate environmental cleanup into the economic development process. The report is laid out in five parts: (1) Framing the Issue, (2) Environmental Considerations, (3) Financing Tools, (4) Environmental Program Tools, and (5) Success Stories.

Bartsch, C.; Collaton, E.

1995-11-01

60

Symbolism and Economic Development Work: Perceptions of Urban Economic Development Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elaborate themes suggested by Edelman's model of symbolic politics, data from a national survey of economic development practitioners are examined. In response to the uncertainty of municipal economic development efforts, economic development practitioners claim they undertake formalistic activities and indicate that city leaders encourage symbolic economic development projects. Concerns with formalism and symbolism are most prevalent among those economic

Herbert J. Rubin

1989-01-01

61

Bench-scale development of coal\\/oil co-processing technology conceptual commercial plant design and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project is to expand the data base for Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. Coal\\/Oil Co-Processing Technology and to allow for process optimization. The specific objectives are to: define process performance at commerically viable catalyst cost and activity levels; determine the dependence of process performance on changes in feedstock characteristics; improve effectiveness of catalyst system; expand data base to

J. E. Duddy; M. S. Pramanik; G. A. Popper

1990-01-01

62

Enterprise, Inequality and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize an equilibrium development process driven by the interaction of the distribution of wealth with credit constraints and the distribution of entrepreneurial skills. When efficient entrepreneurs are relatively abundant, a \\

Huw Lloyd-Ellis; Dan Bernhardt

2000-01-01

63

Performance Monitoring: Achieving Excellence in Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report seeks to help economic developers understand the potential of using performance monitoring to improve program effectiveness. It is a companion volume to Benchmarking Practices to Achieve Customer Driven Economic Development (1996). In that fir...

S. Garmise

1999-01-01

64

Preliminary economic evaluation of the Alkox process  

SciTech Connect

A new chemical process has been invented at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories for converting alkanes to alcohols. This new chemistry has been named the Alkox Process.'' Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared a preliminary economic analysis for converting cyclohexane to cyclohexanol, which may be one of the most attractive applications of the Alkox process. A process flow scheme and a material balance were prepared to support rough equipment sizing and costing. The results from the economic analysis are presented in the non-proprietary section of this report. The process details, including the flow diagram and material balance, are contained in separate section of this report that is proprietary to Battelle. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

Silva, L.J.; Lilga, M.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Snowden, L.J.

1991-09-01

65

The Economic Development of Singapore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis gives a comprehensive account of how the Republic of Singapore has achieved its present status and of the formidable social and economic problems confronting its government and people during these days of world economic and monetary instabilit...

P. H. Quek

1974-01-01

66

The economics of inclusion body processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many recombinant proteins are often over-expressed in host cells, such as Escherichia coli, and are found as insoluble and inactive protein aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs). Recently, a novel process for IB extraction and solubilisation, based on chemical extraction, has been reported. While this method has the potential to radically intensify traditional IB processing, the process economics of the

G. H. Lee; D. Cooney; A. P. J. Middelberg; W. S. Choe

2006-01-01

67

Assessing the economic impact of indirect liquefaction process improvements: Volume 1, Development of the integrated indirect liquefaction model and baseline case  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of an integrated indirect liquefaction system model, which processes input coal to refined liquid products, and the model's application in the analysis of a baseline case. The baseline case uses Shell gasification of coal followed by gas cleaning to produce a clean synthesis gas for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The raw liquid products are refined to produce gasoline and diesel. Costs of liquid products have been estimated for the baseline plant. The model also alloys many sensitivity studies to be performed so that the economic impacts of research and development advances can be quantified. When used in this manner, the model can provide research guidance for future indirect liquefaction studies. 18 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.C. (Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (USA). Civil Systems Div.)

1990-10-01

68

Economic diversity, development capacity and sustainable development of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's economic growth over the past several decades has been among the highest in the world. It has been fueled by cheap fossil fuel energy so energy consumption has risen rapidly, but there are signs that negative feedbacks in the form of waste and inefficiency may affect future development. If energy throughput exceeds the capacity of the environment to process

Zhongmin Xu; Guodong Cheng; Dongjin Chen; Paul H. Templet

2002-01-01

69

Economic development strategies in the American states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development has always been a moving target. Not surprisingly, there is growing evidence that the shape of economic policy and practice is significantly changing in many American states on the eve of the 21st Century. This article reviews the evolution and transformation of state economic development as well as its multidimentional character. The evolution includes roughly three broad, overlapping

Mary Jo Waits

2000-01-01

70

Economics of Nuclear Process Heat Applications  

SciTech Connect

Attractive applications for nuclear process heat are driven primarily by the opportunity to displace natural gas and other premium fuels, and to respond to incentives to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Using high temperature process heat to provide the heat of reaction in steam reforming of natural gas is one of the most promising applications and serves to maximize the production of synthesis gas from available methane. High temperature water-splitting technologies are also being developed that can reduce the amount of electricity needed and maximize the role of thermal energy that can be provided by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Production of steam for oil sands and viscous liquids recovery represents another opportunity for nuclear process heat to displace natural gas. This paper presents the results of conceptual design work and economics developed for these applications, and highlights the levels of investment that will be required and the sensitivities to key drivers like the future price of natural gas and other fuels, and the values placed on CO{sub 2} emissions. (authors)

Kuhr, Reiner W. [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Inc., One Main Street, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States); Bolthrunis, Charles; Corbett, Michael [Shaw Stone and Webster Process, One Main Street, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States)

2006-07-01

71

Assessment of thermodynamic data and needs, including their economic impact, for development of new fossil fuel refining processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an assessment of the thermodynamic data available and data needs for the processing of heavy petroleum, shale oil, tar sands, and coal liquids. It has been produced in partial fulfillment of the plan for thermodynamics research outlined in the NIPER FY86 Annual Research Plan. The assessment contains two background chapters on Energy Outlook and Future Refinery Needs

W. V. Steele; R. D. Chirico; W. B. Collier; R. H. Harrison; B. E. Gammon

1986-01-01

72

Cheyenne-Laramie County Economic Development Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effective economic development strategy needs to be founded on an understanding of the economic base, an awareness of community concerns and attention to organizational and political frameworks. Part of this knowledge is derived from interviews with in...

E. A. Fischer T. D. Browne

1986-01-01

73

Economic Development: Problems and Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted for the Lower Pioneer Valley Regional Planning Commission to provide further insights into economic characteristics, problems and potential for growth within the region. (Author)

R. J. Plattner

1970-01-01

74

Economic and environmental strategies for process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first addresses the definition of various objectives involved in eco-efficient processes, taking simultaneously into account ecological and economic considerations. The environmental aspect at the preliminary design phase of chemical processes is quantified by using a set of metrics or indicators following the guidelines of sustainability concepts proposed by IChemE (2001). The resulting multiobjective problem is solved by a

Adama Ouattara; Luc Pibouleau; Catherine Azzaro-Pantel; Serge Domenech; Philippe Baudet; Benjamin Yao

75

Economic distribution as a social process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of extramarket and other noneconomic variables in the pricing of the factors of production or income distribution. The documented presence and salience of premarket variables in factor valuation makes economic distribution an eminently social process. In particular, even under a modern free-market economy, income and wealth distribution represents a process of institutionalization through the creation

Milan Z Zafirovski

2000-01-01

76

Energy planning for economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years San Francisco has conducted a number of major energy management programs. Many of these programs have in common the idea that efficiency improvements in energy use by the community will lead to wider economic benefits. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, examines this idea of economic benefit in greater

T. OSullivan; R. Engel; C. Broomhead

1989-01-01

77

Economic Development and Network Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many of the basic assumptions underlying macro-economic and financial theory are so simplistic that the models upon which they are built cannot be used to predict or explain economic events. The concept of homo economicus assumes that individuals make rat...

D. Evans M. Moten

2011-01-01

78

Chapter 13 Culture and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter begins by noting that culture as an element in economic development in the Third World has been largely neglected in traditional development economics, most writers either seeing culture as an obstacle to development or ignoring it altogether. Recently a shift in thinking has occurred whereby culture is now more widely seen as being more central to the development

Paul Streeten

2006-01-01

79

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

80

Weak Social Ties and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength of social ties is seen to correlate negatively with economic growth, in time-series and country cross-section. The objective of this paper is to account for these correlations, and understand the role of social ties in economic development. In particular, it poses the question: under what circumstances, strong social ties constrain economic growth? I propose a model, where the

Jose Anchorena

81

Development of a technical-economic model for dynamic calculation of COE, energy demand and CO2 emissions of an integrated UCG-CCS process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World-wide coal reserves can provide energy supply for several hundred years. Underground coal gasification (UCG) offers an economic and sustainable approach to convert these coal reserves into syngas. As combustion of fossil fuels releases CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the present study considers a coupling of UCG with CO2 capture and its subsequent storage (CCS) in the previously converted seams, thereby offering a low carbon solution to coal fired power generation. The aim of the present study is to develop a technical-economic model in order to evaluate costeffectiveness, energy demand and CO2 emissions for a coupled UCG-CCS process. The model consists of five dynamic submodels which take into account the processes of air separation (ASU), UCG, syngas processing, electricity production and CCS. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) of these process stages are combined to establish the overall levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). Therefore, the modeling approach developed within the present study allows for a comparison of the COE of the coupled processes with different technologies for electricity production. The influence of parameters relevant for COE (e.g. seam thickness and depth as well as syngas quality) and CO2 emissions (e.g. quality of coal, plant efficiency) were analysed in the context of a sensitivity analysis. Within the UCG&CO2STORAGE project, funded by the EU Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS), a theoretical UCG-CCS feasibility study is being performed for the Dobrudzha coal basin, the selected study area in northeast of Bulgaria. The concealed coalfield is of carboniferous age with high rank bituminous coals. The tectonic conditions in the area are complicated and some of the faults determine coal formation distribution. Explored are four coal formations, but only three of them (Krupen, Gurkovo, Makedonka) are of interest for the project. Investigated for the Dobrudzha coal deposit were 120 geological sections of deep coal wells (average depth 2,000m), 100 geological sections of shallow wells (average depth 500m), and well log data for 120 deep wells. The geological surveys show that the research area actually provides seven coal seams suitable for UCG. Their average seam depth counts 1,656 meters and the average thickness four meters. The perspective carboniferous section is covered by thick aquifer of mesozoic age. As the costs and energy demand of the coupled UCG-CCS processes can be strongly influenced by geological, technical and infrastructural boundary conditions, the developed model considers detailed data on the study area (seam thickness and depth, calorific value of coal). The results of the calculation show a possible technical and economical start-up scenario for a UCG-CCS pilot in the study area.

Nakaten, N.; Kempka, T.; Green, M.; Preshelkova, A.; Merachev, D.; Schlüter, R.; Azzam, R.

2012-04-01

82

Environmental Politics and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most economic textbooks, environmental problems are considered to be economic in origin. Industrial producers of product\\u000a X use the air or water system to dispose of noxious waste Z, which imposes costs on individuals who live downstream or downwind\\u000a from the site at which X is produced. The lower cost of this method of disposal implies that consumers benefit

Roger D. Congleton

83

Process engineering economics of bioethanol production.  

PubMed

This work presents a review of studies on the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials published since 1996. Our objective was to identify the most costly process steps and the impact of various parameters on the final production cost, e.g. plant capacity, raw material cost, and overall product yield, as well as process configuration. The variation in estimated ethanol production cost is considerable, ranging from about 0.13 to 0.81 US$ per liter ethanol. This can be explained to a large extent by actual process differences and variations in the assumptions underlying the techno-economic evaluations. The most important parameters for the economic outcome are the feedstock cost, which varied between 30 and 90 US$ per metric ton in the papers studied, and the plant capacity, which influences the capital cost. To reduce the ethanol production cost it is necessary to reach high ethanol yields, as well as a high ethanol concentration during fermentation, to be able to decrease the energy required for distillation and other downstream process steps. Improved pretreatment methods, enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis with cheaper and more effective enzymes, as well as improved fermentation systems present major research challenges if we are to make lignocellulose-based ethanol production competitive with sugar- and starch-based ethanol. Process integration, either internally or externally with other types of plants, e.g. heat and power plants, also offers a way of reducing the final ethanol production cost. PMID:17541520

Galbe, Mats; Sassner, Per; Wingren, Anders; Zacchi, Guido

2007-01-01

84

Austempered ductile iron process development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure from imports and material substitution has severly affected demand for domestic iron industry products. It is estimated that the potential market for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) is as large as the market for carburized and/or through hardened forgings. The primary interest in ADI is generated by the economics of process. Improved machinability and reduced processing costs as well as interesting physical properties has created an enormous interest in all metalworking industries towards ADI. The development of gas-fired austempering processes and resoluton of technical and economic uncertainities concerning the process will help improve the outlook for iron founderies.

Gupta, C. D.; Keough, J. R.; Pramstaller, D. M.

1986-11-01

85

Economic Development Grant Report, Fiscal Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile is provided of community college business centers and their activities conducted under economic development grants during fiscal year (FY) 1985. Following introductory remarks, section I provides a narrative description of the FY 1985 economic development grant activities, including industrial attraction, retention and expansion,…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

86

The Development of Children's Economic Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of economic reasoning in young children is examined from the theoretical perspective of Piaget's work on cognitive development. To determine a possible correlation between grade level and the type of reasoning children use to approach economic problems, 70 urban children, preschool through grade 3, answered questions which…

Schug, Mark C.; Birkey, C. Jean

87

Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

2007-06-01

88

The Role of Economic Development in Curriculum Development Process in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Call for New Approach to Socioeconomic Development in Africa with a Special Reference to Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main hypothesis here is that the notion of economic and social development has been misconceived by most stakeholders in matters of development. This misconception is the main cause of underdevelopment in Kenya, which leads to all the reasons most authors and commentators have given to explain Kenya's situation. Therefore, it is only possible…

Odiemo, Luke Okunya

2008-01-01

89

Land Administration for Economic Development - Experiences from Institutional Development Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The importance of institutional development for economic development and poverty alleviation has been stressed by several important researchers in economic development during many years. This paper makes an attempt to draw some conclusions about how land administration institutions can be developed. It is based on experiences from a number of institutional development projects where Swedesurvey, the overseas agency of

Tommy ÖSTERBERG

90

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

Cohen, L.R. [Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States); Hogsett, R.F. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Sinor, J.E. [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

1992-10-01

91

Exploring Gender and Economic Development in Appalachia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article highlights how dynamic gender relations affect the diverse experiences of men and women in Appalachia's economic development. The analysis draws from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census data to examine and compare the demographic, social, and economic conditions of women and men in Appalachia. The discussion focuses on geographical…

Latimer, Melissa; Oberhauser, Ann M.

2004-01-01

92

Natural resources, education, and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth since 1965 has varied inversely with the share of natural capital in national wealth across countries. Four main channels of transmission from abundant natural resources to stunted economic development are discussed: (a) the Dutch disease, (b) rent seeking, (c) overconfidence, and (d) neglect of education. Public expenditure on education relative to national income, expected years of schooling for

Thorvaldur Gylfason

2001-01-01

93

Culture and Economic Development in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of culture on economic development in South Asia has drawn scholarly interest since Max Weber argued that the rise of Protestantism abetted the origination of capitalism. Weber claimed that the spirituality and otherworldliness of Hinduism, along with its associated caste system, were not compatible with this new economic constellation. This sharp dichotomy posited by Weber and others has

John Adams

2001-01-01

94

An Economic Development Strategy for American Samoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1980, the Economic Development Administration awarded a Title IX grant to the American Samoa Government to deal with long-term economic deterioration. The Title IX program produces an overall strategy to identify the basic causes of long term...

1981-01-01

95

Shrimp aquaculture: economic perspectives for policy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of shrimp aquaculture from the perspectives of economics. It is offered as a contribution to the on-going policy debate on this globally important industry. The paper is organised into four sections: the benefits of shrimp aquaculture, the problems of shrimp aquaculture, economic development perspectives on shrimp aquaculture, and conclusions. Four

Arthur E. Neiland; Neill Soley; Joan Baron Varley; David J. Whitmarsh

2001-01-01

96

Wind Energy and Economic Development in Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet summarizes a recent report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Economic Development Benefits from Wind Power in Nebraska: A Report for the Nebraska Energy Office, which focuses on the estimated economic development impacts in Nebraska from development and operation of wind power in the state as envisioned in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030.

Lantz, E.

2009-06-01

97

Finance, institutions and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from 72 countries for the period 1978-2000, we find that financial development has larger effects on GDP per capita when the financial system is embedded within a sound institutional framework. Moreover, we find that financial development is most potent in middle-income countries, where its effects are particularly large when institutional quality is high. Importantly, we also find that

Panicos Demetriades; Siong Hook Law

2006-01-01

98

Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis  

PubMed Central

The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations.

Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

2010-01-01

99

Tourism and economic development: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the literature on tourism and economic development, identifying the contribution that tourism can make to development, including foreign currency, income and employment, and the costs that it entails. Single equation and system of equations models for estimating tourism demand are provided, indicating developing countries’ potential to benefit from increasing expenditure on tourism but their susceptibility to deterioration

M. Thea Sinclair

1998-01-01

100

Quantitative Aspects of Africa's Past Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative analysis of pre-modern economic condi- tions in sub-Saharan Africa. We find that large- and medium-sized cities, our proxy for pre-modern economic development, were less prevalent in Africa than in South and Central America, a comparable region. Empirical analyses of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS), which includes 186 pre-industrial so- cieties around the world, confirm and

Javier A. Birchenall

101

Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project  

SciTech Connect

Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

Not Available

1991-12-31

102

Higher selection processes in evolutionary economic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all models of economic change are based on a Darwinian picture of a world where change is gradual, smooth, and where economic survival depends on being more efficient. This paper, drawing from current controversies in evolutionary biology, presents a broader interpretation of evolutionary change in which competitive selection is only one possible reason for economic survival. Economic change is

J. M. Gowdy

1992-01-01

103

Performance Measurement and Evaluation of Economic Development Initiatives: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic development programs and initiatives are increasingly widespread in the United States. While the long-term objectives of these programs are similar, their processes and short-term impact vary considerably. As they have grown, economic development...

1997-01-01

104

Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators. PMID:17331640

Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

2007-02-03

105

Economics for true human development – future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show the limitations and inadequacies of the “Homo Economicus” model of human behaviour in terms of promoting human development and to outline directions for economics to promote “true human development”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper first discusses the concept of “Homo Economicus” and the criticisms of this model. It then explains the

N. Sivakumar

2007-01-01

106

Women's International Centre for Economic Development (WICED)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The gender gap in enterprise has been part of an ongoing debate on economic development for over 20 years. In an attempt to tackle this deficit Train 2000, the UK's largest dedicated women's enterprise support organisation supported by its partners Liverpool City Council, Liverpool Vision, and an international panel of leading experts are developing the Women's International Centre

Maggie OCarroll; Helen Millne

2010-01-01

107

New Potentials for Modern Indian Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently American Indians have experienced an unprecedented renaissance in community spirit. Capitalizing upon this spirit, Indian economic development should be directed toward particular community needs, utilizing Indian leadership to determine needed training and development programs. There is no question but that the majority of Indian…

Heath, Wallace G.

108

The environmental sciences and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with one aspect of the relationship between the environmental sciences and economic development, namely, the relationship between studies of natural resources and the appraisal of agricultural development projects. It reviews some such projects in which no real attention was paid to surveys of natural resources and passes on to consider the land systems approach to the appraisal

B. H. Farmer

1971-01-01

109

Economic Stabilization and Debt in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on preliminary results from a massive study conducted by the World Bank to probe the links between stabilization and growth, Cooper examines the experience of developing countries faced by the oil shocks of the 1970s and the debt crisis of the 1980s. He points out that a global slowdown in growth has shifted the main economic concern in developing

Richard N. Cooper

110

Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

111

New Potentials for Modern Indian Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently American Indians have experienced an unprecedented renaissance in community spirit. Capitalizing upon this spirit, Indian economic development should be directed toward particular community needs, utilizing Indian leadership to determine needed training and development programs. There is no question but that the majority of Indian…

Heath, Wallace G.

112

13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. ...Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.120 Economic development primary mission. ...mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development of one or more LI...

2012-01-01

113

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse...11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic development information...

2012-01-01

114

Credit Cooperatives in Locally Financed Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most transitional and many developing countries institutions capable of supporting economic development with localized saving-investment cycles have not developed. This crucial gap is in no way addressed by either country-level macro programmes dealing with 'development finance' or by donor-driven 'micro credit' schemes of Grameen and other types operating at a lower (local) level. The latter seldom evolve into financial

Robert J. McIntyre

2006-01-01

115

Oman: Economic, social and strategic developments  

SciTech Connect

Oman is an important country for the West, both as an oil exporter and as a key ally strategically placed at the entrance to the Arab Gulf. This book provides an overview of recent economic, social and political developments in Oman. It begins by outlining the historical and geographical background, emphasising in particular the problems of geography and tribalism and the impact of the war against Marxist insurgents in Dhofar. It considers economic developments, both in the oil and non-oil sectors, and Oman's contribution to economic co-operation and integration in the region. It examines strategic developments, particularly Oman's relations with the United States, addressing the key question of how close an alliance between Oman and the US is likely and showing how this is influenced by internal politics in Oman. It also explores educational and cultural issues.

Pridham, B.R.

1986-01-01

116

Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critique argues that the preponderance of theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence suggests a positive, first-order relationship between financial development and economic growth. The body of work would push even most skeptics toward the belief that the development of financial markets and institutions is a critical and inextricable part of the growth process and away from the view that the

Ross Levine

1997-01-01

117

Growth through greening: developing and assessing alternative economic development programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper articulates how communities can capitalize on the specific benefits of urban forestry and assesses the outcomes of urban forestry efforts. To accomplish this, the paper defines the context of local economic development and urban forestry; outlines the economic, aesthetic, and ecological benefits of a smart-growth agenda that includes urban forestry; and presents two brief case studies that empirically

J. D. Gatrell; R. R. Jensen

2002-01-01

118

Economic Development of British Colonial America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

Zabin, Serena

119

Economic Development Grant Report, Fiscal Year 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile is provided of Illinois community college business centers and the activities they conducted under the fiscal year 1986 $3.5 million economic development grant allocation. First, highlights of the year's accomplishments are presented, including: (1) community colleges provided training for 852 companies through 1,400 courses, serving…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

120

Protracted Conflict, Existential Threat and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that a protracted conflict, in general, has strengthened the state vis-à-vis the society in Egypt, Israel, South Korea, Syria and Taiwan. Yet, the existentially threatened states, namely, Israel, South Korea and Taiwan, have pursued economic development and industrialization as a strategic objective. While all three states have been strategically important for the hegemon, the United States, the

Yakub Halabi

2009-01-01

121

Airline Traffic and Urban Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This paper provides new evidence on the link between airline traffic and employ- ment in US metropolitan areas. The evidence confirms the common view that good airline service is an important factor in urban economic development. Frequent service to a variety of destinations, reflected in a high level of passenger enplanements, facilitates easy face-to-face contact with businesses in other

Jan K. Brueckner

2003-01-01

122

Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

2002-01-01

123

Rural Economic Development: Learning from Success.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the strategies used for successful rural economic development in twelve counties around the U.S. These counties had strong employment growth relative to other rural counties in the 1980s. The report is intended for the use of officials...

S. H. Leaman T. J. Cook L. S. Stewart A. B. Spruyt

1990-01-01

124

Education and Economic Development: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from thirty Chinese provinces indicates that education is crucial for economic development. Provinces with the higher average years of schooling in the intial year have higher growth rates of real per capita GDP in the subsequent year. Provinces with higher literacy rates and higher average years of schooling in the initial year experienced a faster decline of the employment

Shuanglin Lin

1997-01-01

125

Education and Economic Development: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from thirty Chinese provinces indicates that education is crucial for economic development. Provinces with the higher average years of schooling in the intial year have higher growth rates of real per capita GDP in the subsequent year. Provinces with higher literacy rates and higher average years of schooling in the initial year experienced a faster decline of the employment

Shuanglin Lin

126

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, January 19, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries discuss, develop and analyze economic and social policy. While all of the member countries are considered to be...

J. K. Jackson

2007-01-01

127

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Updated February 4, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries1 discuss, develop and analyze economic and social policy. While all of the member countries are considered to b...

J. K. Jackson

2008-01-01

128

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Updated May 27, 2005).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries1 discuss, develop and analyze economic and social policy. While all of the member countries are considered to b...

J. K. Jackson

2005-01-01

129

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Updated February 8, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries discuss, develop, and analyze economic and social policy and share expertise and exchanges with more than 70 de...

J. K. Jackson

2010-01-01

130

Global health funding and economic development.  

PubMed

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

2012-04-10

131

Thailand's Economic Cooperation with Neighboring Countries and Its Effects on Economic Development within Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand's economic cooperation with neighboring countries, including not only trade and investment but also economic assistance, is tied inseparably to regional development within Thailand. Assistance to develop infrastructure along economic corridors, for example, promotes Thai regional development. This study examines the trade and investment relationships between Thailand and its neighboring countries, as well as related economic policies of Thailand. The

Takao Tsuneishi

2007-01-01

132

Issues in the Economic Development of Nonmetropolitan United States. Economic Development Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing issues relative to economic development in nonmetropolitan areas, this document presents narrative and tabular data re: (1) the causal forces behind economic decline in rural America (technology, shifting patterns of demand for goods and services, and changes in life styles and residential preferences); (2) the incidence and indicators…

Ledebur, Larry C.

133

Conceptualizing Local and Regional Economic Development in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valler D. and Wood A. Conceptualizing local and regional economic development in the USA, Regional Studies. Contemporary literature on local and regional economic development (LRED) in the USA is predominantly empirical and pragmatic, focusing on the conduct and efficacy of economic development policy. While this work is valuable in evaluating the detailed operation of local and regional economic development activity,

Dave Valler; Andrew Wood

2010-01-01

134

77 FR 19178 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA),...

2012-03-30

135

Telecommunications infrastructure investment and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-way causal relationship between telecommunications infrastructure investment and economic development, established for the US economy in previous analysis, is tested at the more localized state and sub-state level and for two specific sub-categories of telecommunications infrastructure investment - central office equipment, and cable and wire. For time series of these two sub-categories of telecommunications investment compiled for the Commonwealth

Francis J. Cronin; Edwin B. Parker; Elisabeth K. Colleran; Mark A. Gold

1993-01-01

136

Utilities and economic development: new partnerships for growth. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To enlist new partners in local economic-development programs, the Economic Development Administration funded a project aimed at enlisting utility companies in business and job-growth efforts in rural communities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute selected two communities -- Osage, Iowa and Somerset County, Pennsylvania to demonstrate innovative pilot programs of interest-subsidized loans by utilities to help retain and expand existing firms. The programs demonstrated how to integrate energy efficiency and related financial incentives into a sound economic development strategy. This report describes the pilot programs' design and start-up phases, key program components (including subsidy mechanisms and the energy-efficiency audit process), business outreach and publicity strategies, and problems and opportunities. It also describes initial program results.

Bartsch, C.; DeVaul, D.

1989-01-01

137

Economic evaluation of the MIT process for manufacture of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an economic evaluation of the MIT process for the manufacture of ethanol from cellulosic residues. Conceptual process designs were developed for two cases, Case A which is based on the experimental data obtained to date, and Case B which hypothesizes the suppression of acid byproducts. Manufacturing costs, including profit, were estimated at $12.20/million Btu for Case A and $9.40/million Btu for Case B. These are equivalent to about $1.05 and $0.80/gal ethanol respectively. These economic estimates may be slightly on the low side since they do not consider feedstock storage nor working capital requirements. Nevertheless, the manufacturing costs for Case A appear to be comparable to those of the manufacture of ethanol from corn. The plant size used for this analysis was 1500 ton/day corn stover. This is considered to be a realistic size. The conceptual plants make about 27 million gal/yr ethanol in Case A and 41 million gal/yr in Case B. The MIT process appears to be one of the more promising programs being developed under contract for DOE. It is recommended that the process research be continued. Three areas of concern were identified which must be investigated before the process can be commercialized. First, a satisfactory means of storage of corn stover and other agricultural residues must be developed. Second, a method to sterilize corn stover must be developed or it must be demonstrated that the MIT process can run continuously for extended periods with stover that has been sterilized. Third, research must be done to demonstrate the recycle and reuse of process water.

Jenkins, D.M.; Reddy, T.S.

1979-06-28

138

Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries. Methods: Data used in this paper were obtained from different information sources: international and national journal articles and reports, web-based statistics, and fact sheets. We used both online search and hand search methods to gather the information. Results: Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the economic cost associated with poor sanitation is substantial. At the global level, failure to meet the MDG water and sanitation target would have ramifications in the area of US$38 billion, and sanitation accounts for 92% of this amount. In developing countries, the spending required to provide new coverage to meet the MDG sanitation target (not including program costs) is US$142 billion (US$ year 2005). This translates to a per capita spending of US$28 for sanitation. Annually, this translates to roughly US$14 million. The evidence complied in this paper demonstrates that investing in sanitation is socially and economically worthwhile. For every US$1 invested, achieving the sanitation MDG target and universal sanitation access in the non-OECD countries would result in a global return of US$9.1 and US$11.2, respectively. Conclusion: Given the current state of knowledge, sanitation is undeniably a profitable investment. It is clear that achieving the MDG sanitation target not only saves lives but also provides a foundation for economic growth.

Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

2011-01-01

139

A review of techno-economic modeling methodology for a wood-to-ethanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techno-economic modeling has been a valuable tool in directing and assessing the research and development efforts for biomass-to-ethanol processes. In developing a techno-economic model of a {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} wood-to-ethanol process, we decided to follow a three-pronged design approach. This initially consisted of a detailed review of the current definition and technical maturity of the process, which concluded that the process remains

David J. Gregg; John N. Saddler

1997-01-01

140

Economic evaluation for the retrofit of chemical processes through waste minimization and process integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research involves the development of an economic-based methodology for waste minimization and reduction of energy consumption in the chemical industry by modifying existing processes. The methodology consists of identifying waste minimization options through a sensitivity analysis and flowsheet configurations through a hierarchical procedure. The alternatives identified together with the heat-exchanger network were used to construct a superstructure that was

Mauricio M. Dantus; Karen A. High

1996-01-01

141

Educational Reform and Economic Development in Cuba: Recent Developments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the overall change in Cuban education came about because of the revolution, expansion took place in several stages, each largely a function of the economic development policy being followed at the time. In the period up to 1964 when Cuba thought it could industrialize under the Soviet model it concentrated on developing basic education for…

Carnoy, Martin

142

Economic Development in American Indian Reservations. Development Series No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of 13 scholarly articles and essays, this book makes available hard-to-find information and theories about American Indian economic development. Part I, "The Land and the People", emphasizes cultural traditions and beliefs of Indian people and traces the development of the concept of sovereignty and its applicability to Indian self…

Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar, Ed.

143

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 ...COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Eligible Activities § 570.203 Special economic development activities. A recipient may use CDBG funds...

2013-04-01

144

Spatial Linkages and Urban Economic Development. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the project Spatial Linkages and Urban Economic Development funded by the Economic Development Administration. The project consisted of five components: 1. Development of a time consistent set of spatial boundaries for neighborhoods...

L. Anselin S. J. Rey

2010-01-01

145

Incorporating an Applied Economic Development Component into a Geography Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how applied economic development has been integrated into the economic geography curriculum at Oregon State University (Corvallis). States that coursework in applied economic development should lead to greater understanding of the causes of economic change, the problems associated with growth or decline, and methods for achieving…

Kale, Steven R.

1989-01-01

146

Economic justification of intelligent system: a process approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several methods for economic justification of general information system and office automation system are well documented, research on the feasibility of using these methods in justifying intelligent systems and on particular methods for intelligent system justification are very limited. This paper proposes a process approach to economic justification of intelligent system. As examples of that process approach, a method

X. Liang; Y. Chen

1993-01-01

147

Summary report: Economic feasibility studies of alcohol fuel production processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983 SERI awarded six subcontracts to four engineering firms to conduct technical and economic feasibility studies of processes to convert lignocellulosic feedstocks into premium fuels (methanol and ethanol). In this report general conclusions are drawn about the status of alcohol fuels production from cellulosic feedstocks and detailed conclusions about the status, economics, research needs, and process steps. Stone and

J. D. Wright; T. Milne; M. E. Karpuk; S. Isaacs; W. Hoagland

1986-01-01

148

Economics of Linux Adoption in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software globalization affects build-versus-buy decisions at every level and phase of the software development process. One of the most interesting and controversial issues is the expansion of Linux, an open source operating system, into software development efforts in developing countries. Linux is an interesting example of a globally available software product that has nontrivial choice and productivity implications for software

Nir Kshetri

2004-01-01

149

Exemplary Project Handbook: Participating in Economic Development. CETA and Reservation Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to assist Native American reservation program planners, this handbook highlights a number of exemplary uses of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) funds in reservation economic development, presents a discussion of the problems reservations may face in meeting the new funding directions of the federal government, and…

Fazio, Ernest J., Jr.; And Others

150

Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

Hanson, Mark

2011-01-01

151

Exemplary Project Handbook: Participating in Economic Development. CETA and Reservation Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed to assist Native American reservation program planners, this handbook highlights a number of exemplary uses of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) funds in reservation economic development, presents a discussion of the problems reservations may face in meeting the new funding directions of the federal government, and…

Fazio, Ernest J., Jr.; And Others

152

Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

Hanson, Mark

2011-01-01

153

Economic and energy audit of textile foam processing  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wet processing of textiles - dyeing, or application of such surface finishes as soil and water repellents, antistatic agents, fire retardants, permanent press agents, and starch - consumes about 0.19 quadrillion Btu's of energy per year, the equivalent of 30 million barrels of oil. Because wet processing involves immersion of the fabric in a water bath, most of the energy used is in the form of heat for drying. In the newer foam finishing approach, the chemicals for surface finishes are dispersed in a mixture of water and air. The chemicals are concentrated in a relatively small amount of water, and air is injected to form a thick, stable foam. Because little water is involved, drying time and temperature may be drastically reduced. Authur D. Little, Inc., conducted an economic and energy audit of foam processing that considered the technical feasibility, reliability, energy savings, and economic incentives for using foam finishing. We monitored four plants that finish textiles (carpets, broad-woven fabrics, and tubular knits). The plants were selected by the developer of the foaming process (United Merchants and Manufacturers, Inc.) to represent a wide range of textile finishing applications.

Machacek, R.

1983-06-01

154

Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

1999-03-01

155

Logistics Support Program for Rural Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objecitve of this project was to develop a program that provides short-term analyses and education in an effort to enhance the viability of rural manufacturing and processing firms through a better understanding of transportation and logistics managem...

J. Honeyman M. Titus J. Barber

1996-01-01

156

Essays on Imperfect Information Processing in Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic agents generally operate in uncertain environments and, prior to \\u000amaking decisions, invest time and resources to collect useful information. \\u000aConsumers compare the prices charged by di..erent firms before purchasing \\u000aa product. Politicians gather information from di..erent sources before \\u000aimplementing a policy. Doctors conduct several tests on patients before subscribing \\u000aa treatment. Since having access to valuable information requires \\u000atime,

S. S. Ficco

2007-01-01

157

The Role of the Telephone in Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is concerned with the role which telecommunications, and more specifically the telephone, plays in economic development. The study tests whether the telephone contributes to economic development, and how it makes this contribution. Indicators of...

A. P. Hardy

1980-01-01

158

Economic Development Administration Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EDA's (Economic Development Administration's) mission is to lead the federal economic development agenda by promoting innovation and competitiveness, preparing American regions for growth and success in the worldwide economy. This report documents EDAs ef...

2007-01-01

159

Early Childhood Development: Economic Development with a High Public Return  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, the future of Minnesota's economy has been called into question. The resulting debate illustrates how little is understood about the fundamentals that underlie economic development. While many recognize the success of the Minnesota economy in the past, they see a weakening in the foundations of that success. Some point to the decline in corporate headquarters

Art Rolnick; Rob Grunewald

160

South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

2005-01-01

161

Globalization and Economic Development: The Nigerian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Globalization; market; competition; development; marginalization; indebtedness ABSTRACT The world has witnessed increased interdependence in the last two decades, thanks to globalization. The main driving forces of this process are technology, policy and competition and it subordinates domestic economies to global market conditions and practices. Developed nations are the beneficiaries of globalization as their share of world trade and finance

Emmanuel Chike Onwuka; Agatha Eguavoen

2007-01-01

162

Unplanned Terminology Development: A Synchronic and Diachronic Study on Economic Terms in Turkish Newspapers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with unplanned terminology development in the subject field of economics within media discourse. It examines how economic terms in Turkish newspapers emerge, are used, and cease. This developmental process is also analyzed through productivity of economic terms and the factors affect them. The subject terms are also analyzed as a…

Karabacak, Erkan

2009-01-01

163

The long term impact of economic development in developed countries on developing countries since 1820  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linkages between the economic development of developed and developing countries are analyzed historically. The analysis is divided into epochs, distinguished by global trade regimes and by common characteristics of long term economic growth. The break throughs in long distance transport technology which occured during the industrial revolution created a global economy in which the rythm of economic activity in

Irma Adelman

1995-01-01

164

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that increases the capacity of governance...respect to economic development projects expected...conference on economic development. The use of HUD EZ Grant Funds for capacity building under...water or sewer capacity, or street widening...meets the economic development standard...

2009-04-01

165

The role of the telephone in economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author investigates the telephone's role as a contributory agent in economic development. Cross-sectional time series data for 60 nations over 13 years were used to determine how the telephone might make its contribution to economic development. Path analysis and cross-lagged correlation techniques indicate that the telephone does contribute to economic development. This contribution appears to come from the telephone's

Andrew P. Hardy

1980-01-01

166

Business development process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A business development process utilizing a business development database comprises collecting data for ideas from a plurality of sources. One type of collected idea data from said step of collecting is filtered in order to identify potential business opportunities. An opportunity analysis is then performed on said identified potential business opportunities to determine valid business opportunities. Resources are committed to the valid business opportunities, a business proposal is developed. This developed business proposal to a potential buyers. Success of the submission is determined and the business opportunity is executed if the submission is a success.

2008-08-19

167

Economics of the H-Coal Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies reported herein start from two basic overall plant integration schemes and then examine the sensitivity of the required fuel oil price to some of the more probable expected variations in process and financial parameters. In the H-Coal process, crushed and dried coal is slurried with recycle oils, mixed with hydrogen and liquefied in direct contact with catalyst in

J. G. Kunesh; M. Calderon; G. A. Popper; M. S. Rakow

1978-01-01

168

Africa Recovery: Tracking the Continent's Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library and Publications Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information has recently begun providing major excerpts of its quarterly periodical Africa Recovery via the web. The publication tracks economic and social development issues in Africa. The latest issue (July 1997) contains articles on Congolese reconstruction, the 33rd Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the recent G-7 Summit, and the recent Africa Governance Forum in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (UN Special Initiative). Articles are mostly concise news summaries. There are also sections on upcoming and recent conferences and pertinent books, as well as the features Africa in Brief and Under the Baobob Tree, which highlights a single African issue.

1997-01-01

169

EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

170

Summary Report: Economic Feasibility Studies of Alcohol Fuel Production Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1983 SERI awarded six subcontracts to four engineering firms to conduct technical and economic feasibility studies of processes to convert lignocellulosic feedstocks into premium fuels (methanol and ethanol). In this report general conclusions are draw...

J. D. Wright T. Milne M. E. Karpuk S. Isaacs W. Hoagland

1986-01-01

171

Generalized barriers to entry and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their catching-up processes, less developed countries face inter-country barriers which hamper their efforts to imitate\\u000a the technologies of advanced countries. These international barriers to entry can be traced back to differences in the institutions\\u000a supporting technological advancement and to the physical and intangible resources necessary for the creation of new competences.\\u000a In less developed countries, these international barriers aggravate

Pier Paolo Saviotti; Andreas Pyka

2011-01-01

172

A Relational Approach to the Theory and Practices of Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments and evidence from the social sciences, natural sciences and development practice are used to frame a broader discussion of the role of social relations in the process of economic development. We trace the intellectual history of social relations within theories of economic development and situate the rise of ‘social capital’ as idea and practice in the late twentieth century.

Michael Woolcock; Elizabeth Radin

2007-01-01

173

Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Modelling for Regional Economic Development Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partridge M. D. and Rickman D. S. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelling for regional economic development analysis, Regional Studies. Despite their long-standing use in economic policy analysis generally, and increasing popularity in regional policy analysis, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have yet to become the dominant approach for analysis of regional economic development policies. This review discusses the likely reasons

Mark D. Partridge; Dan S. Rickman

2010-01-01

174

Economic development of pakistan_a brief review  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHAT IS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ? Economic development means sustainable qualitative changes in the living conditions of general public in a country over a long period of time. Living condition means economic wellbeing not only in material sense but also in social sense. Conventionally per capita income has been used to measure standards of living. Some other measures such as per

shazia kazmi

2004-01-01

175

Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200mio. kg biodiesel\\/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be

Lene Fjerbaek Sotoft; Ben-Guang Rong; Knud V. Christensen; Birgir Norddahl

2010-01-01

176

An Analysis of the Patterns of Argentine Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper analyzes the pattern of Argentine economic development from the mid-nineteenth century until the present day. Initially, an overview of the Argentine developmental experience is given, emphasizing the three general phases of Argentine economic d...

R. J. Beckman

1972-01-01

177

Economic Development Policies and Programs for the Muskegon County Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report outlines a broad economic development program for Muskegon County, Michigan, and the surrounding area. It encompasses a theoretical and empirical analysis of the present economic status and future opportunities, an overall three-staged developm...

J. R. Sheaffer H. Bonus K. Cypra

1970-01-01

178

Some adaptive economic processes in social interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the human brain activities in social interaction, there may be asso- ciated with some kind of reinforcement mechanism like crowd psychology or mimicking drive, or sometimes, creating a social mechanism like punish- ments. Some of such reinforcement mechanisms can be interpreted with a nonlinear Polya urn process of which W. Brian Arthur(1994) is fond. He called structure as emergence

Yuji Aruka

2003-01-01

179

Economics of natural gas conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry and academia have been pursuing the conversion of natural gas to higher valued products. Potential process routes include the manufacture of olefins and chemical intermediates, gasoline, and distillate fuels. All indirect manufacturing routes start with a synthesis gas step, which requires expensive steam reforming or partial oxidation of the natural gas feed. The direct routes to conversion seek to

Michael J. Gradassi; N. Wayne Green

1995-01-01

180

Africa's Past Economic Development and its Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the colonial era to the present, economic progress in sub-Saharan Africa has been slow. This paper argues that Africa's stagnation started be- fore the European expansion and that modern influences are not able to fully account for Africa's growth tragedy. The paper uses measures of urbanization to proxy for economic progress in pre-modern times and shows that before the

Javier A. Birchenall

181

BIOGAS Process development  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate and commercialize the IGT two-phase BIOGAS Process for optimized methane production from, and simultaneous stabilization of, municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objective of the current program is to conduct a laboratory-scale investigation of simple, cost-effective feed pretreatment techniques and selected digestion reactor designs to optimize methane production from MSW-sludge blends, and to select the best pretreatment and digestion conditions for testing during the subsequent program for process development unit (PDU) operation. A significant portion of the program efforts to date has been directed at evaluating and/or developing feeding, mixing and discharging systems for handling high concentration, large particle size RDF slurries for anaerobic digestion processes. The performance of such processes depends significantly on the operational success of these subsystems. The results of the subsystem testing have been implemented in the design and operation of the 10-L, 20-L, and 125-L digesters. These results will also be utilized to design the CSTR and the upflow digesters of a large two-phase system. Data collected during the initial phase of this research showed in general that methane production from RDF decreased as the loading rate was increased. Thermophilic digestion did not appear to be significantly better than mesophlic digestion. 9 figures, 3 tables.

Ghosh, S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Sajjad, A.; Henry, M.P.

1984-01-01

182

Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

1994-11-01

183

The environmental and economic consequences of the developments of lead stocks in the Dutch economic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the developments of lead stocks in the Dutch economy and the consequences of such developments for the environment and the economy. The analysis is based on a dynamic substance stock model that combines physical and socio-economic elements. The model estimates lead demand in different applications as a result of the developments in the socio-economic variables. In addition,

Ayman Elshkaki; Ester Van der Voet; Mirja Van Holderbeke; Veerle Timmermans

2004-01-01

184

Essays in Development Economics and the Economics of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is a powerful tool to improve lives and enhance the prospect of innovation and development of nations. While primary school enrollment has increased considerably over the past few decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, learning and the retention rate have remained low. The first two chapters of this dissertation analyze two dimensions in a bid…

Blimpo, Moussa Pouguinimpo

2010-01-01

185

Essays in Development Economics and the Economics of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Education is a powerful tool to improve lives and enhance the prospect of innovation and development of nations. While primary school enrollment has increased considerably over the past few decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, learning and the retention rate have remained low. The first two chapters of this dissertation analyze two dimensions in a bid…

Blimpo, Moussa Pouguinimpo

2010-01-01

186

Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

187

The Effects of External Debt Management on Sustainable Economic Growth and Development: Lessons from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviewed the roles of debt management practices on sustainable economic growth and development with particular emphasis on Nigeria. Information was generated extensively from literature, the Nigeria Central Bank and National Bureau of Statistic reports. The analyses of the data collected with descriptive statistics shows that, availability of access to external finance strongly influences the economic development process of

Adenike Adebusola Adepoju; Adekunle Sheu Salau; Abiodun Elijah Obayelu

2007-01-01

188

Suggestions for Incorporating Economic Development Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research project examines the role of TxDOT projects in promoting economic diversification in Texas. The authors conclude that while good access is a necessary condition for diversification, it is not sufficient to assure diversification. The role of ...

C. A. Weatherby

1998-01-01

189

Global economic developments: A view from Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a free market world economy now characterized by a strong trend towards integrated economic areas dominated by North America,\\u000a Western Europe and the Pacific, effective cooperation is the key to sustained success.

Alexis P. Lautenberg

1989-01-01

190

Natural resources and economic development in Central America  

SciTech Connect

This study published with the Internal Institute for Environment and Development, identifies problems in resources management that must be addressed if social and economic programs are going to meet with long-term success and bring enduring change to the landscape of Central America. Focusing on the development assistance policies of the U.S. Agency for International Development, the author argues that current development strategy and investments, which are based on increasing the rate of resource exploitation, must be changed. He offers specific policy recommendations for increasing the efficiency of resource-based industries, including raising the productivity of small-scale farmers, reducing subsidies to inefficient industries, and stimulating local development of resource-processing industries.

Leonard, H.J.

1987-01-01

191

Highway Investment and Rural Economic Development: An Annotated Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Dennis M. Brown, Food and Rural Economics Division, US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) (described in the July 2, 1999 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this annotated bibliography summarizes studies on the rural economic development implications of highway investment. The bibliography includes some urban studies in addition to rural and covers the effects of highway investment on different industries, local and regional spatial effects, and highway effects over time, among other issues.

Brown, Dennis M.

1999-01-01

192

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303.7 ...COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7 Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. (a) General....

2011-01-01

193

77 FR 6517 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts...Docket No. 120202093-2093-01] Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration...

2012-02-08

194

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J. B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H. V.; Guegan, J. -F.; Hochberg, M. E.

2007-01-01

195

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

196

Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries  

SciTech Connect

Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs.

El-Ashry, M.T. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

197

Distributional coalitions, state strength, and economic growth: Toward a comprehensive theory of economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performing economies in the Asia-Pacific region together with only mediocre economic development in Latin America prompts the question of what explains differential economic growth rates among developing countries. Combining a statist perspective with Olson's theory of interest group formation, this research hypothesizes that nations with weak distributional coalitions will more likely experience high growth and state intervention will be effective.

Eddie Wing Yin Tang; R. Alan Hedley

1998-01-01

198

South Asian Network for Environmental Development and Economics (SANDEE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics' (SANDEE) mission is to strengthen the capacity of individuals and institutions in South Asia to undertake research on the inter-linkages among economic development, poverty, and environmental change and to disseminate practical information that can be applied to development policies.

2008-10-27

199

Local economic development in Africa: Global context and research directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper locates local economic development research and practice in Africa in a global context. It provides an overview of the international development of local economic development (LED), of its contested definitions and theoretical status, and of existing scholarship on the topic of LED policy and practice specifically across sub-Saharan Africa. Currently there is much more LED research available for

Christian M Rogerson; Jayne M Rogerson

2010-01-01

200

Stalking Local Economic Development Benefits: A Review of Evaluation Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread civic concern about the gap between local economic development promises and outcomes, particularly for business incentives made available by local jurisdictions. This article examines how this problem results from the design limitations of local economic development policy, the typical result being vaguely designed programs with multiple goals. A case study of Industrial Development Bonds (JDBs) in Chicago

Robert P. Giloth

1992-01-01

201

Economic Development Policy: Explaining Policy Preferences among Competing Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on political and bureaucratic factors that retard the reform of U.S. economic development policy. Several models for economic development are examined, as are the policy preferences among them. A typology is presented of different development policies integrating the various political, bureaucratic, and environmental factors. (GLR)

Spindler, Charles J.; Forrester, John P.

1993-01-01

202

Social and institutional factors of economic development: evidence from Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social and institutional determinants of economic development are attracting increasing attention among development economists. The present paper analyses the impact of macro-level social capital and related social factors on economic development in 34 European countries. Macro-level social capital comprises different aspects of institutional quality and is closely related to income distribution and social cohesion. We used principal component analysis to

Helje Kaldaru; Eve Parts

2008-01-01

203

Commercializing plant tissue culture processes: economics, problems and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Novel tissue culture techniques and a range of process schemes may be considered for commercial production of plant derived drugs, chemicals, flavors and cosmetics. Plant cell immobilization, in conjunction with strain selection and product leakage, represents a major technological advancement, with significant economic implications. Conventional batch processes produce high value products at low production capacities, whereas continuous biocatalytic processes can potentially enable production of plant derived chemicals in the $20-$25/kg price range.

Sahai, O.; Knuth, M.

1985-03-01

204

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

2010-04-01

205

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards: (1) Business development assistance. An activity...including efforts to stimulate the development or expansion of microenterprises...training; (ii) Provision of child care; (iii) Transportation...assistance meets the economic development standard only if the...

2013-04-01

206

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

207

Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.  

PubMed

The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth. PMID:21094300

Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

2010-08-21

208

Oil overcharge funds and economic development: State and utility initiatives. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The guidebook will provide officials from diverse backgrounds with ideas for working together to promote economic development and energy efficiency. Such joint efforts will benefit all involved; they could be especially advantageous in distressed small towns and rural areas. The guidebook includes the following: (1) background information on the genesis of the oil-overcharge funds given to states since 1986, eligible uses of these monies, and how the states distributed these funds, (2) summaries of the oil-overcharge allocation process in each of the 50 states and descriptions of economic development initiatives supported by these funds, (3) examination of several innovative economic development-oriented projects financed with oil-overcharge funds, (4) an assessment of the emerging role of utilities in the economic development process, and (5) an exploration of the potential and advantages of utility participation in economic development partnerships in the post-settlement years, once oil-overcharge funds are gone.

Bartsch, C.; DeVaul, D.; Myers, M.

1991-01-01

209

Development of the selective coagulation process  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to develop an economical method for producing low-sulfur and low-ash coals using the selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process. This work has been divided into three tasks: (1) project planning and sample acquisition; (2) studies of the fundamental mechanism(s) of the selective coagulation process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur; and (3) bench-scale process development test work to establish the best possible method(s) of separating the hydrophobic and coagula from the dispersed mineral matter.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

1991-01-01

210

The New Economic Development Role of the Community College  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Community,colleges have long been involved in workforce preparation and economic,development—in,the form of the occupational education of students. But in the last two decades, community colleges have greatly broadened their economic development role to include contract training, small-business incubation and assistance, and local economic planning. Contract training.Over 90 percent of community colleges offer contract training. Unlike traditional occupational education, contract

Kevin J. Dougherty; Marianne F. Bakia

211

Special Section: Approaches to Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes four articles: "Estimating Economic Impacts of Programming: A Case Study of Forestry" (Marcouiller et al.); "Aquaculture Opportunities" (Snyder); "Starting a County Agricultural Marketing Program" (Vossen); and "A Multidisciplinary Model for Industry Support: Program Redirection Creates Missouri Textile Center" (Dillard et al.). (SK)|

Marcouiller, David W.; And Others

1992-01-01

212

DSM as an economic development strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models capable of reflecting price adjustments and capital flows can estimate the longer-term impacts of energy choices on the net gain and distribution of employment. But without a common basis in the types of models used, research on the employment effects of energy efficiency cannot be integrated in a way that is useful. A sluggish economic recovery, lagging consumer confidence

Skip Laitner; Betty Krier; Ian Goodman

1994-01-01

213

Wind Energy for Rural Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wind industry contributes to the economies of 46 states, and the outlook for regional economic growth from wind energy is heartening. Wind energy projects provide new jobs, a new source of revenue to farmers and ranchers, and an increased local tax ba...

2004-01-01

214

Energy Efficiency and Economic Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is now the world's second largest economy, and it is expected to overtake the United States to become the largest by 2020. What are the implications for the global environment and climate change if China surpasses the United States? There are major concerns with China's rapid rise because its economic and industrial structure is increasingly dependent on the consumption

Shujie Yao; Dan Luo; Tyler Rooker

2012-01-01

215

DO ELECTIONS SLOW DOWN ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION PROCESS IN INDIA? IT’S POLITICS STUPID !  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigate whether timing of the elections impact economic globalization process or not in India. In other words, do elections slowdown economic globalization process? The theoretical underpinning is that, policies of economic globalization lead to economic and social hardships in short run but benefit the economy in the long run. The motto behind slowing down the economic globalization process before

Krishna Chaitanya Vadlamannati

2008-01-01

216

Pollution prevention and its role in sustainable economic development  

SciTech Connect

The recent United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was the largest gathering of governments and heads of states to date. This paper describes the preparatory process for this meeting as well as the recommendations of UNCED. This Conference was essentially about changing behavior -- specifically economic behavior. The implications of sustainable development was among the subjects explored during the 9th World Clean Air Congress in Montreal in September 1992. At a plenary session on the topic, Professor de Lemos, President of Brazil's UNEP Institute, reported on the 1992 UNCED Conference and what it revealed about the impact of business, poverty, and population on the goals of sustainable development. His remarks are included in the article. 8 refs.

Mattos, de Lemos, H. (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1992-12-01

217

Sexual Minorities, Earnings, and Career Development: Insights From Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. The purpose of this article is to (a) present insights from economics on earnings of sexual minorities and (b) discuss the implications for human resource development in terms of career development. In economic research, the focus has been on finding earnings differentials between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. One issue with this approach is whether the

Jasper B. van Loo; Tonette S. Rocco

2009-01-01

218

Discriminant analysis in the study of romanian regional economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose using the discriminant analysis for the identification of a typology for the Romanian counties by the economic development level. In this purpose, we used a set of variables that characterize the economic and social development. The treatment of the data is done with the SPSS software. The results obtained in this paper can be used

Elisabeta Jaba; Danut Vasile Jemna; Daniela Viorica; Christiana Brigitte Balan

2007-01-01

219

Economic Development and Energy: From Fad to a Sustainable Discipline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-based economic development (EBED) can provide economic, social, and environmental benefits, such as job creation, industry development, and alternative energy deployment. The United States has recently devoted substantial financial support to EBED efforts. Although early assessments of these efforts are promising, the discipline is at risk of becoming compromised or discredited. It lacks a basic framework, common definitions, and clear

Sanya Carley; Adrienne Brown; Sara Lawrence

2012-01-01

220

Gender and Job Chains in Local Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the welfare evaluation of local economic development activities has become increasingly sophisticated. Projected or realized gains have been broken down by wage levels, household income levels, and race. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the distribution of gains by gender. In parallel, the gender literature has recognized the distribution of economic development activity by

Daniel Felsenstein; Joseph Persky

2011-01-01

221

Consumer & Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mt. San Antonio Community College District's Consumer/Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development Project was designed to provide activities to meet staff development and program improvement needs. The choice of activities was based on evaluation data from previous home economics projects, and priorities identified by the Consumer/Home…

McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

222

Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

2005-01-01

223

Economic development lessons from and for North American Indian economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on economic development as it relates to indigenous people in the United States and Canada, and focuses on how institutions affect economic development of reservation and reserve economies. Evidence shows that strong property rights to reservation and reserve land and natural resources, whether communal or individual, are and always have been important determinants of productivity.

Terry L. Anderson; Dominic P. Parker

2009-01-01

224

Targeting Occupations in Regional and Community Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper analyzes why and how economic and community,development planners might target occupations as well as industries in shaping an economic development strategy. Key occupations can be identified on the basis of capturability, high relative employment growth rates, connectivity across industries, fit with underemployed workforce groups and potential for self-employment and entrepreneurship. I demonstrate the potential for an occupational

Ann Markusen; J. W. Harrington; Jim Heilbrun; Brian Holly; Matt Kane; Michael Lahr; Leslie Mccall; Eric Parker; Bruce Seaman; Michael Teitz; Heike Meyer; Maria Hanratty; Norma Rantisi; Ragui Assaad; Ned Hill

2004-01-01

225

Tropics, germs, and crops: how endowments influence economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross Levine

2003-01-01

226

Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

227

Natural resources and economic policy in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues for the need to design broad economic policy instruments to reverse the trend in many developing countries toward increasing degradation and destruction of natural resources. The natural resource base, often critical for economic development, is in many cases threatened by a rapid population growth, the effect of which is compounded by inadequately controlled land and water use.

Jeremy J. Warford

1987-01-01

228

Empirical Analysis of Relationship Between Accessibility and Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of accessibility changes on the level of economic development in a given region. In this paper, we introduce several types of accessibility measures while economic development is quantified in terms...

D. O. Ertekin J. Berechman K. Ozbay

2003-01-01

229

Technological and Economic Aspects of Red Crab Harvesting and Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive study was made on the technological and economic aspects of harvesting and processing of the red crab - a deep-sea resource. The study suggests that an efficiently operated vessel could deliver whole vessel loads of crabs for an estimated ...

A. A. Holmsen H. McAllister

1974-01-01

230

Economic Feasibility of Vegetable Processing in Ravalli County, Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study attempted to delineate a size of processing plant and product mix economically feasible in the area. It appears that a 5,000 pound-per-hour green pea freezing plant operating over a 1,000 hour season should be capable of modestly successful oper...

C. T. Hash J. R. Davidson

1966-01-01

231

Economics of Beaver-Herter extraction process revealed  

SciTech Connect

The Herter process is a surface-mined solvent extraction process which utilizes fatty acids as the solvent. The uniqueness of the Herter process if that it provides a low energy method of separating the fatty acids from the recovered oil for subsequent recycling. The Herter process recovers the fatty acid by saponification, followed by migration of the soap to the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the resulting soap phase again followed by phase separation. The formation of a hydrocarbon-soap-water emulsion limits the process unless carefully controlled by the addition of an alcohol cosolvent. Addition of the short-chain alcohol limits emulsification and allows a meaningful separation to be accomplished. The modified process is known as the Beaver-Herter process. A bench-scale model of the process has recently been completed and has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the process. A computer model has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the process on a site specific basis. This paper summarizes the process, the site selection (Oklahoma), and the economic analysis.

Not Available

1986-09-01

232

The Economic Role of Political Institutions: Market-Preserving Federalism and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thriving markets require not only an appropriately designed economic system, but a secure political foundation that limits the ability of the state to confiscate wealth. This requires a form of limited government, that is, political institutions that credibly commit the state to honor economic and political rights. This article studies how limited government arose in the developed West, focusing on

Barry R. Weingast

1995-01-01

233

Economic developments of GCC countries: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The six countries of the Gulf Co-operation Council-GCC (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE) are enjoying a spectacular economic boom-one that we expect to continue over the medium term. The GCC economy was set to surge past $1 trillion in nominal terms in 2008, marking a three-fold increase in only five years. This will push the GCC economy

G. M. Bhat; Kastoori Srinivas

2010-01-01

234

Agroindustrialization of the global agrifood economy: bridging development economics and agribusiness research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the agroindustrialization process from two supposedly disparate views: development economics and agribusiness research. The evolution of conceptual and methodological approaches emanating from these fields is explored and general observations are made concerning farm economic interdependence, institutional and organizational change, differing scopes of interest, the causes of agroindustrialization, orientation, and the choice of microanalytic tools, terminology, and unit

Michael L. Cook; Fabio R. Chaddad

2000-01-01

235

Employing Human Capital to Achieve Priority Economic Development Objectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resource report was prepared for a project to strengthen the link between job training and placement and economic development conducted by the National Alliance of Business and the National Association of State Development Agencies. The research was f...

1986-01-01

236

Economic development and dependency: the case of oil-exporting developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The reliance of oil-exporting developing countries on oil-revenues has certain implications for both their domestic economic structures and foreign trade relations. The purposes of this research were to study and analyze: (1) the extent of the dependence of oil-exporting developing countries on the exportation of a single exhaustible resource, (2) the impact of this dependence on domestic economic structures, and (3) the nature of the multifaceted links that were developed between oil producers, as the exporters of a raw material, and developed countries, as the exporters of manufactured goods and advanced technology (To show whether dependency relations have developed). After the review of literature, several hypotheses were advanced for the purpose of examining the above issues. The data, covering basically 1973 to 1980 period and concentrating on members of OPEC, were obtained from the secondary sources. Based on a critical analysis of data, the following conclusions were drawn: (a) The characteristics of the oil-based economies most resemble those of dependent economic systems, as opposed to self-sustaining and self-expanding economies. (b) Public expenditures and development projects are geared to position of balance of payments which in turn is conditioned by oil revenues. Thus, major fluctuations in the world demand for oil can have serious implications for the process of economic development in oil-nations. (c) Most oil-revenues are being recycled back into the developed market economies through a variety of channels. Based on the problems faced by oil-producing nations, it was recommended that a partial self-reliance strategy be followed in these nations to reduce over-dependence on foreign economic systems and to promote development. In the context of the above, diversification of the economy has to be pursued, aiming at expansion of non-oil industrial and agricultural sectors.

Shahrokhi, S.

1982-01-01

237

A non-linear model of economic production processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

2003-06-01

238

Process/economic strategy for upgrading shale oil  

SciTech Connect

A prime difficulty with the production of transportation fuels from Western US shale oil is the high heteroatom content, especially nitrogen. Nitrogen containing molecules are known to have high market value for non-fuel uses. Selective extraction of nitrogen-containing molecules from shale oil recovers these potentially valuable components while upgrading the remaining shale oil for refining to transportation fuels. A thermodynamically logical separation process sequence consisting of primarily distillation and liquid-liquid extraction has been shown effective in selective isolation of polar heteroatom-containing molecules. The polar fraction may be processed for the production of chemical intermediates and specialty chemicals of high value. Projected material balances show an overall product split of 80% refinery feed and 20% polar products. Based on product values and composition, a preliminary economic analysis yields 30% internal rate of return. A summary of the economic strategy, process results and promising products will be presented.

Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Devineni, P.A.V.; Cogswell, D.E.; Wiser, J.W.

1994-12-31

239

Population Growth and Economic and Social Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All evidence shows that fast population growth slows development in the developing countries. It is the combination of social development and family planning that is so powerful in reducing fertility. Governments must act now. (RM)

Clausen, A. W.

1985-01-01

240

Ideology, modernization and politico-economic development in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors state that social and political processes are continuously interrelated and modify each other in a circular fashion.\\u000a The economic variable seems to be the most independent and strategic one in the complex and circular causal process of contemporary\\u000a history. Its importance is due to the fact that economic forces have become the means that contribute the most to

Antonio Jorge; Jorge Salazar Carrillo

1993-01-01

241

The Importance of Child Care in Economic Development: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Economic Linkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional economic developers typically use input-output modeling to compare the linkage effects of different targets for economic development policy. Using input-output models for all 50 states in the United States, the authors compare child care linkage effects to economy-wide averages and median multiplier values for agriculture, manufacturing, and services. Multiplier analysis shows that child care linkage effects are similar to

Mildred Warner; Zhilin Liu

2006-01-01

242

Animal Spirits: Affective and Deliberative Processes in Economic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic conception of human behavior assumes that a person has a single set of well-defined goals, and that the person's behavior is chosen to best achieve those goals. We develop a model in which a person's behavior is the outcome of an interaction between two systems: a deliberative system that assesses options with a broad, goal-based perspective, and an

George Loewenstein; Ted ODonoghue

2004-01-01

243

[Coupling coordinated development of ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

Based on system theory, a coupling coordinated development model of ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau was established, and the evaluation criteria and basic types of the coordinated development of the ecological-economic system were proposed. The county-level coupling coordinated development of the ecological-economic system was also discussed, based on the local characteristics. The interactions between the ecological and economic systems in Loess Plateau could be divided into four stages, i.e., seriously disordered development stage, mild-disordered development stage, low-level coordinated development stage, and high level well-coordinated development stage. At each stage, there existed a cyclic process of profit and loss-antagonist-running-dominant-synchronous development. The coupling development degree of the ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau was overall at a lower level, being about 62.7% of the counties at serious disorder, 30.1% of the counties at mild disorder, and 7.1% of the counties at low but coordinated level. The coupling development degree based on the model established in this study could better reflect the current social-economic and ecological environment situations, especially the status of coordination. To fully understand the coupling of ecological-economic system and to adopt appropriate development mode would be of significance to promote the county-level coordinated development in Loess Plateau. PMID:21941755

Zhang, Qing-Feng; Wu, Fa-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Jian

2011-06-01

244

The HASS development process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of HASS into the marketplace has enabled scores of manufacturers to dramatically reduce the number of production related failures from being shipped into their customer's hands. HASS is a screening process that uses accelerated techniques to uncover manufactured product weaknesses and flaws. The process requires the use of the HALT results, and other product specific information to design

David Rahe

1999-01-01

245

Economic aspects of mastitis: new developments.  

PubMed

Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to mastitis) and expenditure (additional inputs to reduce the level of mastitis). Worldwide, published estimates of the economic losses of clinical mastitis range from €61 to €97 per cow on a farm, with large differences between farms, e.g. in The Netherlands, losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis varied between €17 and €198 per cow per year. Moreover, farmers tended to underestimate these costs. This indicates that for a large proportion of farms there are many avoidable losses. In order to provide good support to farmers' decision-making, it is important to describe the mastitis setting not only in terms of disease, e.g. incidence of clinical mastitis, but also in monetary terms; and to make good decisions, it is necessary to provide the dairy farmer with information on the additional expenditure and reduced losses associated with alternative decisions. Six out of 18 preventive measures were shown to have a positive nett benefit, viz blanket use of dry-cow therapy, keeping cows standing after milking, back-flushing of the milk cluster after milking a cow with clinical mastitis, application of a treatment protocol, washing dirty udders, and the use of milkers' gloves. For those measures that included a large amount of routine labour or investment, the reduced losses did not outweigh the additional expenditure. The advisor cannot expect that measures that are cost-effective are always implemented. Reasons for this are the objectives of the dairy farmer can be other than maximisation of profit, resources to improve the mastitis situation compete with other fields of management, risk involved with the decision, economic behaviour of the dairy farmer, and valuation of the cost factors by the dairy farmer. For all decision-makers this means that, although financial incentives do have an effect on the management of mastitis, it is not always sufficient to show the economic benefits of improved management to induce an improvement of management of mastitis. PMID:21328153

Hogeveen, H; Huijps, K; Lam, T J G M

2011-01-01

246

Multiple Forces Driving China's Economic Development: A New Analytic Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractBased on economic growth theory and the World Bank's analytical framework relating to the quality of growth, the present paper constructs a framework that encompasses physical, international, human, natural and knowledge capital to synthetically interpret economic development. After defining the five types of capital and total capital, we analyze the dynamic changes of these types of capital in China and

Yahua Wang; Angang Hu

2007-01-01

247

Economic Development, the Community College, and Technology Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the economic conditions mandating a strong role for community colleges in economic development. Describes Belmont Technical College's (OH) efforts to revitalize the local economy by expanding its mining technology program, redeveloping abandoned land, and retraining displaced steel workers. Urges colleges to explore nontraditional…

Maradian, Steve

1989-01-01

248

Economic Development Strategies to Promote Quality Child Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the country as state and local teams have conducted economic analyses of the child care sector, they have faced the challenge of how to take the next step and build linkages between economic development and child care policy. The intent of this doc...

B. Markeson J. Hallas M. Warner N. Barai S. Adriance

2004-01-01

249

The Role of Natural Resources in Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economists now recognize that, along with physical and human capital, environmental resources should be viewed as important economic assets, which can be called natural capital. Three recent debates have emerged over the role of natural capital in economic development. First, as many ecological services are unique, does the environment have an “essential” role in sustaining human welfare, and if so,

Edward B. Barbier

2003-01-01

250

Economic Development, Population Ageing and Sustainability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most populous country in the world, China is enjoying unprecedented economic growth. However this growth is accompanied with population ageing and serious environmental degradation which has attracted global attention. The impact of China's environmental problems on the rest of world in the future will be as important as that of the country's rapid economic growth. Without a balanced development

Xiumei Guo; Dora Marinova

251

Economic development, demographics, and renewable resources: a dynamical systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developing economies are faced with growing populations and deteriorating natural resources. It is often argued that economic growth will arrest these trends via cleaner technology and social change accompanied by reduced birth rates. Two questions arise: (1) What general economic, demographic, and ecological conditions favor this scenario? and (2) What adjustments, technological, demographic, or ecological, are more important in

John M. Anderies

2003-01-01

252

Profitable Partnerships: Public-Private Partners in Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four case studies are presented to demonstrate the economic development potential of partnerships between community colleges and public and private sectors, focusing on programs that targeted a specific area of need in Oregon's economic base and raised significant funds for program implementation. Introductory comments provide background…

Edge, Barbara; MacDonald, William J.

253

Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

2011-01-01

254

The Role of Cognitive Skills in Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of improved schooling, a central part of most development strategies, has become controversial because expansion of school attainment has not guaranteed improved economic conditions. This paper reviews the role of cognitive skills in promoting economic well-being, with a particular focus on the role of school quality and quantity. It concludes that there is strong evidence that the cognitive

Eric A. Hanushek; Ludger Woessmann

2008-01-01

255

Rooted in Poverty?: Terrorism, Poor Economic Development, and Social Cleavages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the popular hypothesis that poverty, inequality, and poor economic development are root causes of terrorism. Employing a series of multiple regression analyses on terrorist incidents and casualties in ninety-six countries from 1986 to 2002, the study considers the significance of poverty, malnutrition, inequality, unemployment, inflation, and poor economic growth as predictors of terrorism, along with a variety

James A. Piazza

2006-01-01

256

Education and Economic Development. ERIC Digest Series Number 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, educational leaders have joined forces with businesses and community members to prepare students for a new, challenging labor market and, in so doing, are making major contributions to economic development. As the transition to the information age continues, the adaptable, creative student may provide the force to direct economic

Haynes, Chloe J.

257

Regional Economic Development and Mexican Out-Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows evidence of positive effects in the economic development of sending communitiesin Mexico due to migration. The principal hypothesis of this study is that remittances, knowledge and experience acquired by migrants during their migratory cycle, can be translated into larger economic growth in the out migration municipalities. This result presupposes that Government could create complementary incentives to take

Kurt Unger

2005-01-01

258

Sustainable socio-economic development in Tonga: challenges and responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving good progress towards sustainable socio-economic development is a major issue for all developing countries, but it presents special challenges for small island economies. Tonga, a small island kingdom in the Pacific, is no exception. While Tonga is blessed with many human and physical resources, its remoteness, small size, and uneven progress have hampered sustainable socio-economic development.\\u000aThere are also

Fotukaehiko Valeli Fisiiahi

2006-01-01

259

Process and economic evaluation for monoclonal antibody purification using a membrane-only process.  

PubMed

In recent years, the market for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) has grown exponentially, and with this there has been a desire to reduce the costs associated with production and purification of these high-value biological products. A typical mAb purification process involves three adsorption/chromatography steps [protein A, ion exchange (IEX), and hydrophobic interaction (HIC)], along with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and microfiltration. With the development of membrane adsorption/chromatography as a viable alternative to traditional pack bed systems, the opportunity exists to complete the entire downstream purification process using only membrane operations. In this study, the process simulation tool SuperPro Designer was used to evaluate the application of recently developed ultra-high capacity electrospun nanofibrous adsorption membranes as a replacement for conventional chromatographic media in the downstream mAb production process. The simulation showed that nanofibrous adsorption membranes in place of the three packed bed chromatography steps reduced the required volume of protein A, IEX, and HIC adsorptive medium by 25, 80, and 80%, respectively. In addition, the membrane-only process reduced the downstream processing time by 50%, decreased the number of labor hours associated with the purification steps by 40%, generated 40% less aqueous waste, and reduced the overall downstream process operating expenses per unit product by 23%. There were also significant savings in facility construction costs and the price of fixed equipment required for separations. With these savings not only is the membrane-only process economically competitive with the traditional packed bed operations, but it offers the possibility of moving toward more disposable process. PMID:21618725

Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Schneiderman, Steven; Zhang, Lifeng; Fong, Hao; Menkhaus, Todd J

2011-05-26

260

Simulation models of ecological economics developed with energy language methods  

SciTech Connect

The energy-systems language method of modelling and simulation, because of its energy constrained rules, is a means for transferring homologous concepts between levels of the hierarchies of nature. Mathematics of self-organization may justify emulation as the simulation of systems overview without details. Here, these methods are applied to the new fields of ecological economics and ecological engineering . Since the vitality of national economics depends on the symbiotic coupling of environmental resources and human economic behavior, the energy language is adapted to develop overview models of nations relevant to public policies. An overview model of a developing nation is given as an example with simulations for alternative policies. Maximum economic vitality was obtained with trade for external resources, but ultimate economic carrying capacity and standard of living was determined by indigenous resources, optimum utilization and absence of foreign debt.

Odum, H.T. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences)

1989-08-01

261

Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.  

PubMed

Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process. PMID:20171880

Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

2010-02-19

262

Monitoring the Quality and Outcomes of Economic Development Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Urban Institute and the States of Maryland and Minnesota undertook the task of designing a performance monitoring system for selected, major economic development programs. The performance monitoring procedures presented in the report are aimed at help...

H. P. Hatry M. Fall T. O. Singer E. B. Liner

1989-01-01

263

GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

264

USACERL's Technical Reviews of Economic Development Conveyances. Lessons Learned.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new property transfer method called an Economic Development Conveyance (EDC) has been implemented by the Secretary of Defense for installations scheduled for closure. This new method gives greater flexibility to military departments and affected communi...

D. L. McConaha

1996-01-01

265

World without End: Economics, Environment, and Sustainable Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed free...

D. W. Pearce J. J. Warford

1993-01-01

266

Economically Appropriate Technologies for Developing Countries; an Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography provides information on the economic aspects of intermediate technologies for developing countries. This volume is basically concerned with hardware. The material has been divided into six sections. The first four sections cover technolog...

M. Carr

1976-01-01

267

Chemical waterflood process development  

SciTech Connect

A waterflood process is claimed wherein a slug of biopolymer is injected into a formation, followed by a slug of synthetic polymer. The biopolymer slug protects the synthetic polymer from degradation due to presence of salts or surfactants in the formation.

Chang, H.L.

1980-04-01

268

LMFBR: state of development and economic outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

From international nuclear industries fair; Basel, Switzerland (16 Oct ; 1972). The status of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor development in the ; Unites States is reviewed by examining the progress in design and construction of ; the Fast Flux Test Facility and the breeder demonstration power plant, by ; reviewing overall progress in the supporting technological development, ;

J. J. Taylor; R. G. Hobson

1972-01-01

269

Preliminary Economic Feasibility Analysis of High Fructose Corn Syrup Processing in the United States with Emphasis on North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prefeasibility analysis directed at the HFCS industry was carried out under a short-term turnaround basis with the intent of accomplishing two objectives. First, provide a current economic overview of the United States HFCS industry; secondly, to develop some major HFCS processing plant operating benchmarks in an effort to provide a timely informational base for state economic development interests.

Scott M. Wulff; Delmer L. Helgeson

1987-01-01

270

Resilience Processes in Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do children and adolescents “make it“ when their development is threatened by poverty, neglect, maltreatment, war, violence,\\u000a or exposure to oppression, racism, and discrimination? What protects them when their parents are disabled by substance abuse,\\u000a mental illness, or serious physical illness? How do we explain the phenomenon of resilience-children succeeding in spite of\\u000a serious challenges to their development-and put

Margaret O’Dougherty Wright; Ann S. Masten

271

After the exit: Acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

MASON C. M. and HARRISON R. T. (2006) After the exit: acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development, Regional Studies40, 55–73. Most studies of the impact of mergers and acquisitions suggest they have a detrimental impact on economic development in peripheral regions over the longer-term. However, such assessments fail to consider the post-acquisition behaviour of the cashed-out entrepreneurs. It is

Colin M. Mason; Richard T. Harrison

2006-01-01

272

Process-Based Quality (PBQ) Tools Development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort is to benchmark the development of process-based quality tools for application in CAD (computer-aided design) model-based applications. The processes of interest are design, manufacturing, and quality process applications. A study was commissioned addressing the impact, current technologies, and known problem areas in application of 3D MCAD (3-dimensional mechanical computer-aided design) models and model integrity on downstream manufacturing and quality processes. The downstream manufacturing and product quality processes are profoundly influenced and dependent on model quality and modeling process integrity. The goal is to illustrate and expedite the modeling and downstream model-based technologies for available or conceptual methods and tools to achieve maximum economic advantage and advance process-based quality concepts.

Cummins, J.L.

2001-12-03

273

BIOGAS Process development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate and commercialize the IGT two-phase BIOGAS Process for optimized methane production from, and simultaneous stabilization of, municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objective of the current program is to conduct a laboratory-scale investigation of simple, cost-effective feed pretreatment techniques and selected digestion reactor designs to optimize methane production from MSW-sludge blends,

S. Ghosh; M. C. Mensinger; A. Sajjad; M. P. Henry

1984-01-01

274

Enhancing Women's Participation in Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: An Overview (Gender Gaps in Education, Gender Gaps in Health, Gender Gaps in Employment); The Payoffs to Investing in Women (Promoting Growth, Promoting Efficiency, Reducing Poverty, Helping Future Generations, Promoting Sustainable Development)...

K. Subbarao J. Jalan K. Newland C. Winter

1994-01-01

275

Nature's role in sustaining economic development  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's comprehensive wealth per capita can decline even while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increases and the UN Human Development Index records an improvement. I then use some rough and ready data from the world's poorest countries and regions to show that during the period 1970–2000 wealth per capita declined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, even though the Human Development Index (HDI) showed an improvement everywhere and GDP per capita increased in all places (except in sub-Saharan Africa, where there was a slight decline). I conclude that, as none of the development indicators currently in use is able to reveal whether development has been, or is expected to be, sustainable, national statistical offices and international organizations should now routinely estimate the (comprehensive) wealth of nations.

Dasgupta, Partha

2010-01-01

276

Process integration and economic analysis of bio-oil platform for the production of methanol and combined heat and power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process to process material and heat integration strategies for bio-oil integrated gasification and methanol synthesis (BOIG-MeOH) systems were developed to assess their technological and economic feasibility. Distributed bio-oil generations and centralised processing enhance resource flexibility and technological feasibility. Economic performance depends on the integration of centralised BOIG-MeOH processes, investigated for cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and water electrolyser configurations. Design

Kok Siew Ng; Jhuma Sadhukhan

2011-01-01

277

Process Development Studies of the Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol. Semi Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment proce...

C. R. Wilke H. W. Blanch

1981-01-01

278

CHAPTER 4 Urbanization, Agglomeration, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007 the United Nations Population Fund released a report forecasting rapidly rising levels of urbanization over the next two decades, especially in the developing world. It noted that for the fi rst time in history, more than half the world's population resides in urban areas. The same year UN- HABITAT issued a report highlighting the slums and deplorable living

John M. Quigley

279

Feminist Economics of Inequality, Development, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines connections between intergroup inequality and macroeconomic outcomes, considering various channels through which gender, growth, and development interact. It upholds the salience not only of equality in opportunities but also equality in outcomes. The contribution argues that inequalities based on gender, race, ethnicity, and class undermine the ability to provision and expand capabilities, and it examines the macroeconomic

Günseli Berik; Yana van der Meulen Rodgers; Stephanie Seguino

2009-01-01

280

Technology Transfer and Economic Development in Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status of Arizona's effort to encourage the creation and expansion of high technology based on the discoveries and new knowledge developed at its research universities is discussed. The study of the University of Arizona and Arizona State University was recommended by the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and…

Brophy, James

281

Culture, economic development, and national ethical attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the influence of culture on ethical attitudes, a variety of countries must be compared simultaneously to avoid confounding of cultural dimensions. This study uses data from the World Values Survey to develop a measure of ethical attitudes that shows partial measurement invariance across 44 countries. Regressing the resulting latent means on four cultural dimensions [Hofstede G. Culture's Consequences:

George R. Franke; S. Scott Nadler

2008-01-01

282

Development Economics: From the Poverty to the Wealth of Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatise on development economics, combining classical political economy, modern institutional theory, and current development issues. Grown out of twenty years' experience of teaching in the United States and Japan, its treatment is global, although the organizing principle is the East Asian development experience. Taking a comparative institutional analysis approach, it also outlines quantitative characteristics

Yujiro Hayami; Yoshihisa Godo

1997-01-01

283

75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Christiansen, Division of Economic Development, Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development, U.S...219-0739. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract DED established...to prepare studies of economic development opportunities...tourism, energy, resource development and...

2010-11-30

284

Globalization, Literacy Levels, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimated models for GDP growth rates, poverty levels, and inequality measures for the period 1990?2000 using data on 54 developing countries at five-yearly intervals. Issues of globalization were investigated by analysing the differential effects of the countries? exports and imports and by postulating trans-logarithmic models that allow for non-linear effects of literacy levels and measures of openness. The

Alok Bhargava

2008-01-01

285

Economical development of small isolated fields  

SciTech Connect

U.K. offshore oil supplies could be in decline in 10 years unless new methods and technology are developed to open fields that are uncommercial by conventional methods. Such technology is being developed, and much of it is aimed at pressure boosting subsea stepout fields to improve production rate and recovery over increasing distances to a host platform. This paper is concerned with the development of small isolated fields for which a new platform facility is not justified or where no suitable existing host platform is available. The isolated-field production system described here comprises a two-stage subsea separator near the subsea well(s) from which production is tied in by flexible flowlines. Oil/water/gas separation is achieved at near atmosphere pressure, allowing safe loading of the ``dead`` crude into a tanker. The gas is flared at a surface buoy (directly above the separator unit) that also contains power generation and chemical injection facilities. Liquids are pumped to an offshore tanker-loading catenary anchor leg mooring (CALM) buoy, and then to the connected shuttle tanker. Control of the separator system is autonomous based on a programmable logic controller in the subsea control module, with commands and monitoring by an umbilical from a production center on the tanker.

Edwards, W.G.

1995-11-01

286

Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions.

Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

2007-01-01

287

Economic Development Web Site: State and Local Policy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Development Web Site is maintained by the State and Local Policy Program, in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, at the University of Minnesota. The site provides various resources related to economic development at the regional level. Visitors may want to start with Understanding Your Industries -- A Framework for Industry Analysis, which will examine several different analytical tools (both quantitative and qualitative) that help to describe how key industries cluster in a particular area. Several examples of areas that include industry cluster in their development strategies are available. There are also "ten key principles for developing a cutting edge economic development strategy for your area" and links to both national and state data coupled with a description of the data.

1997-01-01

288

Economic, organizational, and institutional impact of the survivability validation process  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses some of the key economic, organizational, and institutional issues associated with the development and use of survivability validation protocols. It discusses factors affecting protocols, considerations for protocol selection, test- bed/simulator/analysis tool availability, organizational issues affecting protocol use, deviations precluding adherence to validated protocols, and protocol advantages. Knowledge of these factors will assist developers of survivability validation protocols in designing more flexible protocols that can be tailored for differing circumstances without losing the fidelity or assurance that the protocol will produce the desired survivability level.

Brock, G. [Kaman Sciences Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

1993-08-01

289

Economic Development, Rural livelihoods, and Ecological Restoration: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a case study in Southeast China to demonstrate how the substantial changes in rural livelihoods have been\\u000a driven by a combination of “pull” forces from external economic development, and “push” forces from local areas, leading to\\u000a a shift in rural household economic activities: household outmigration and de-population of the countryside, changes in energy\\u000a consumption, and most importantly,

Chengchao Wang; Yusheng Yang; Yaoqi Zhang

2011-01-01

290

Other energy crisis and economic development: the role of noncommercial fuels in Indian subsistence agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neglected aspect in the study of energy and economic development in LDCs is the role of noncommercial fuels, such as fuelwood, dung, and crop wastes, in the subsistence household's decision-making process. This dissertation attempts to redress this deficiency and in the process fill the gap between studies on discussing and evaluating the impact of oil crises on LDCs and

Kotamraju

1985-01-01

291

Methanol Production from Indigenous Resources in New York State. Volume 2. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Conversion Process Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes the following: Introduction and summary; Status of methanol production technology; Process development and design; Cost estimates of methanol production plants; Methanol production economics and financial analysis.

E. I. Wan J. D. Price J. A. Simmons

1983-01-01

292

Methanol production from indigenous resources in New York State. Volume 2. Technical and economic evaluation of conversion process plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report includes the following: Introduction and summary; Status of methanol production technology; Process development and design; Cost estimates of methanol production plants; and Methanol production economics and financial analysis.

E. I. Wan; J. D. Price; J. A. Simmons

1983-01-01

293

Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.

294

Democracy and Economic Development: a Fuzzy Classification Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to (1) analyse whether countries differ on political indicators (democracy, rule of law, government effectiveness and corruption) and (2) study whether countries with different political profiles are associated with different levels of economic, human development and gender-related development indicators. Using a fuzzy classification approach (fuzzy k-means algorithm), we propose a typology of 124 countries

Ana Margarida Oliveira Brochado; Francisco Vitorino Martins

2005-01-01

295

Recent trends in local economic development in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades issues of local economic development (LED) have come to dominate urban politics and planning in many cities in the United States, and local governments have increasingly adopted entrepreneurial development strategies. More recently, LED strategies are being adopted in the third world (Mitchell-Weaver and Manning 1991; Rondinelli 1990;1991; Zank 1991; Fergusen 1992; Linfield 1993; Zaaijer and

Brij Maharaj; Kemraj Rambali

1996-01-01

296

Economic growth and financial development in Turkey: new evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the link between financial development and economic growth in Turkey for the period 1991 to 2005 using quarterly data. We use relatively new time series techniques that are less prone to bias to examine this relationship. We also construct a comprehensive financial development index using principal component analysis. When we control for the possible effects of inflation and

U?ur Soyta?; Engin Küçükkaya

2011-01-01

297

Local economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been argued that Africa in general, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in particular, is ‘different’ and that it therefore requires ‘exceptional’ solutions to its development problems. In contrast, in this paper we argue that strong internal heterogeneity combined with general trends similar to those experienced elsewhere in the world make local economic development (LED) as likely to succeed

Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Sylvia A R Tijmstra

2007-01-01

298

Public Finance and Economic Development: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major works in the field of public finance in developing countries are discussed in the annotated bibliography, which was prepared to support A.I.D.'s efforts to use public finance as a tool for economic development. The bibliography is organized into fou...

R. L. Curry

1985-01-01

299

Abu Dhabi and Dubai: Economic development as in Arabian Nights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Abu Dhabi and Dubai during past years seems breathtaking. Both emirates pursue a strategy of diversifying their economic structure and thus of becoming less dependent on oil and gas. The obvious goal is to secure their prosperity for an era beyond oil. Diversification is a relevant strategic imperative for other resource-rich developing countries, too. In view of

Maximilian Benner

2011-01-01

300

A Critique of SME-led Approaches to Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have had a privileged treatment in the development literature, particularly over the last two decades. Hardly any arguments are put forward against SMEs, even if development policies do not necessarily favour them and economic programs, voluntarily or not, often continue to result in large capital investment. Arguments for SMEs come from almost all corners of

Carlos Nuno Castel-Branco

2003-01-01

301

Financial Markets, Development and Economic Growth: Tales of Informational Asymmetries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?The development of financial systems is very often characterised by the development of innovative financial contracts which allow a more efficient allocation of resources and a higher level of capital productivity and economic growth. By exploiting the microeconomic theory of the optimal financial contract under asymmetric information, economists have recently managed to shed new light on the well studied issue

Salvatore Capasso

2004-01-01

302

A Regional Economic Development Partnership for Community-Based Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Florence-Darlington Technical College (FDTC) in Florence, South Carolina, has implemented the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling (ACCLAIM) community-based programming (C-BP) model for developing a regional economic development strategic plan. FDTC offers 27 associate degrees, 10 diplomas, and 9…

Garrett, Rick L.; Parker, Walter A.

303

Rural out-migration and economic development at origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labour migration is a pervasive feature of economic development. People mobility for temporary or permanent labour purposes is a routine part of agricultural activity. There are very significant migration flows in some developing areas, with considerable impacts on individuals, households and regions at origin. Despite the growing debate about motivations and impacts of recent migration flows, costs and returns of

Mariapia Mendola

304

31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma...OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations...Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma...company that is engaged in the economic development of...

2013-07-01

305

31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma...OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations...411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma...an equity interest, in the economic development of resources...

2013-07-01

306

31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in...OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations...and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in...contract that includes the economic development of...

2013-07-01

307

31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Economic development of resources...THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources...Burma. (a) The term economic development of...

2013-07-01

308

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...1 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2012-01-01

309

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...1 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2009-01-01

310

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 ...7 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2010-01-01

311

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 ...7 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2009-01-01

312

Financial Development and Economic Growth: Experiences of Selected Developing Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades of the twentieth century witnessed a series of financial reforms in emerging economics of Asia, Africa and Latin America. The seminal works of R.I. McKinnon and E.S. Shaw, which attribute the slow growth of these economies to financial repression, inspired many of these reforms. The McKinnon-Shaw thesis demonstrates how government regulations cause low savings and investment,

Syed Ahmed; James Horner; Rafiqul Bhuyan Rafiq

2008-01-01

313

New developments of process technologies for microfabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic success of microsystems technology requires cost- effective fabrication in large series as well as a great diversity of materials processing technologies. The different techniques of micro molding meet all these requirements. An important economic factor is the reduction of cycle time by process and tool optimization with simulation techniques. Actually, minimal cycle times are about two minutes in certain cases. Evolution of thermoplastics processing technologies is demonstrated by application of technical or even high- performance polymers like PEEK, PMMA or PSU. For manufacturing of metal microstructures, we develop three possibilities: microstructures like stepped LIGA gear wheels are obtained from galvanization on lost molds, which have been injection molded using conductively filled polymers. Additionally, electroless plating is used to replicate nonconducting plastic microstructures and the metal injection molding (MIM) process is under development. A quite different approach uses polymer precursors containing monomer/polymer mixtures in reaction injection molding. We chose photoinduced polymerization without any preheating step using photopolymerizable resins. Avoiding the time consuming thermal cycle, molding takes place at ambient temperature. Due to the low viscosity, the microcavities should be filled completely. The process is characterized by the integration of a powerful UV-source and a partially glass made molding tool.

Piotter, Volker; Hanemann, Thomas; Ruprecht, Robert; Thies, Andreas; Hausselt, Juergen H.

1997-09-01

314

The ambiguous role of alcohol in economic and social development.  

PubMed

An increased and industrialized alcohol supply in a developing society is usually assumed to have positive effects on economic development, although it may be recognized that the effects on public health and order will be negative. There has been little attention to the potential for negative effects on the economic side. This paper directs attention to such factors as unemployment for cottage producers (often female heads of household) and reduced industrial employment as highly-automated "turnkey" brewers are installed. On the other hand, changes in the mode of production of alcoholic beverages may have little impact on the much larger work-force involved in serving or selling alcohol in retail trade. The net contribution of an increased and industrialized alcohol supply in terms of economic development is unclear, but industrialization and development bring with them increased demands for attention and sobriety, e.g. in motorized traffic and on the production line, which increased drinking may undercut. Decisions by international development agencies on investment in alcohol production and distribution should take account of both the positive and negative impacts on economic development as well as on public health. In line with this, the World Bank has recently decided to invest in alcohol industry projects only when there is a strong positive development impact and the project is "consistent with public health issues and social policy concerns". PMID:11218349

Room, R; Jernigan, D

2000-12-01

315

Beyond Economic Growth: Meeting the Challenges of Global Development. WBI Learning Resources Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed primarily to help readers broaden their knowledge of global issues, gain insight into their country's situation in a global context, and understand the problems of sustainable development nationally and globally. Because development is a comprehensive process involving economic as well as social and environmental changes,…

Soubbotina, Tatyana P.

316

A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. By John Majewski  

Microsoft Academic Search

A House Dividing serves as much-appreciated example of how narrative political economy remains a persuasive format for historical research. John Majewski addresses the topic of divergence in economic development between antebellum North and South by looking inside the highly political process of infrastructure development. Using case studies of Albemarle County, Virginia, and Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, Majewski shows how competition between

Mary Eschelbach Hansen

2001-01-01

317

AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LATIN AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This annotated bibliography on agricultural marketing and economic development has been compiled with two objectives in mind. First, to contribute to the understanding of the role that agricultural marketing can play in the process of developing countries. As the reader will see many authors agree that marketing is \\

Mario Carvajalino-Arevalo

1966-01-01

318

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

319

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

320

Scaleup of IGT MILDGAS Process to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The MILDGAS process is capable of processing both eastern caking and western non-caking coals to yield a slate of liquid and solid products. The liquids can be processed to produce: feedstocks for chemicals; pitch for use as a binder for electrodes in the aluminum industry; and fuels. Depending on the feed coal characteristics and the operating conditions, the char can be used as an improved fuel for power generation or can be used to make form coke for steel-making blast furnaces or for foundry cupola operations. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. In this paper, the authors present the process design of the PDU facility, a description of the expected product distribution and the project test plan to be implemented in the program.

Campbell, J.A.L. [Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Longanbach, J.; Johnson, R. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Underwood, K. [Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States); Mead, J. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

321

Processed food trade and developing countries: protection and trade liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exports of processed foods from developing countries have expanded rapidly in recent times, contributing to their economic development. Recent published research has shown that the export policies and agricultural resource endowment of the developing country offer significant explanations for this export growth. But what if developing countries further lowered their tariff barriers against imports? What impact would such policy changes

A. Rae; T. Josling

2003-01-01

322

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's annual report on the economic prospects for developing countries focuses on international trade and the policies needed to help these nations benefit from global integration. The news is good for many developing countries, whose economic growth is expected to register "5.3 percent this year, 5 percent next year, and ease to 4.8 percent by 2002." However, the world's poorest nations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have not kept pace. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release and summary are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main page also provides a slide show of the primary points and issues of the report and a video interview with the Director of the Bank's Economy Policy and Prospects program, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

323

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01

324

International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

2009-01-01

325

Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

Ferguson, W. Ker

2011-01-01

326

Home Economics Teachers' Intentions and Engagement in Teaching Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home Economics (HE) teachers can have a central role in teaching sustainable development (SD) to young adolescents through everyday household management and the promotion of personally and globally sustainable well-being. How well the teachers cope with this task is not well known. The objective of this study was to survey Finnish HE teachers' perceptions of their current practice, coping, and

Irja Haapala; Simon Biggs; Riitta Cederberg; Anna-Liisa Kosonen

2012-01-01

327

Realising the diversity dividend: population diversity and urban economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically examines the increasing use of population diversity as a source of competitive advantage and distinctiveness within policies promoting urban economic development. Rising levels of population diversity are a characteristic feature of many urban areas and this has led to increased policy attempts to realise a so-called ‘diversity dividend’. Yet much of this policy thinking demonstrates a restricted

Stephen Syrett; Leandro Sepulveda

2011-01-01

328

Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…

Ng, Ying Chu

2004-01-01

329

Cultural Tourism as an Economic Development Strategy for Ethnic Neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ethnic inner city neighborhoods in US cities are rich in traditions, history, art, and cuisine but are also suffering from disinvestment, high poverty rates, and deterioration. In the face of a growing popularity of cultural tourism, an opportunity exists to explore how neighborhood cultural assets can be used to promote economic development in such neighborhoods. In this study we

Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris; Konstantina Soureli

2012-01-01

330

The relationship between economic development and business ownership revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits the two-equation model of Carree, van Stel, Thurik and Wennekers (2002) where deviations from the ‘equilibrium’ rate of business ownership play a central role in determining both the growth of business ownership and that of economic development. Two extensions of the original set-up are addressed: using longer time series of averaged data of 23 OECD countries (up

Martin Carree; André Van Stel; Roy Thurik; Sander Wennekers

2007-01-01

331

DEVELOPMENTS IN PRECAST CONCRETE FOR CONSTRUCTING ECONOMICALLY OPTIMISED SUPERSTRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for innovative developments in pre-cast concrete, which uses a combination of probabilistic analysis and case-based reasoning, is presented. The prob- ability distributions beneficial for independent uses of construction of economically op- timised superstructures as well as relationships between variables are constructed through an analysis of industrialized building methods. Emphasis is given to the plan- ning, design, manufacturing and

Ahmed ABDALLAH

2006-01-01

332

The Economic Development of South Africa in Its Political Context.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper was originally intended to contain a general survey of the economic development of the Republic of South Africa, with emphasis on its industrialization, for use in a graduate seminar discussion. However, in the course of assembling data, much of...

V. J. Croizat

1967-01-01

333

Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between economic development and environmental quality is analyzed econometrically for a large sample of countries over time. The results indicate that some indicators improve with rising incomes (like water and sanitation), others worsen and then improve (particulates and sulfur oxides), and others worsen steadily (dissolved oxygen in rivers, municipal solid wastes, and carbon emissions). Growth tends to be

Nemat Shafik

1994-01-01

334

Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and behavior problems during middle childhood. Early childhood income

Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal

2006-01-01

335

RETRAINING AND MIGRATION AS FACTORS IN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS REPORT, PREPARED FOR THE OFFICE OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, FEATURES A REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH ON RETRAINING AND MIGRATION AS INDEPENDENT AND INTERACTING FACTORS IN REGIONAL ECONOMIES. FINDINGS ARE ALSO RELATED TO CURRENT UNITED STATES MANPOWER POLICY AND TO RETRAINING AND RELOCATION SCHEMES IN WESTERN EUROPE. IN THE UNITED STATES,…

SOMERS, GERALD G.

336

Alternative Economic Development Policies for Indian Communities. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The summary of an eight-volume study presents the point of view of the concept of 'economic development' and of efforts to improve conditions in Indian reservations and communities, as well as to pinpoint factors detracting from the success of such effort...

S. Stanley

1974-01-01

337

Differentiating emissions targets for individual developed countries: economics and equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key challenge for a future climate change agreement is allocating emissions targets for individual developed countries that are perceived as equitable given differing national circumstances. Many economics-based frameworks for evaluating future targets use as a key criterion for individual country targets the notion that mitigation measures should result in similar costs (specifically, that the required mitigation actions relative to

Andy Reisinger

2009-01-01

338

Innovation Capacity and Economic Development: China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both China and India, the emerging giants in Asia, have achieved significant economic development in recent years. China has enjoyed a high annual GDP growth rate of 10 per cent and India has achieved an annual GDP growth rate of 6 per cent since 1981. Decomposing China and India?s GDP growth from 1981 to 2004 into the three factors? contribution

Peilei Fan

2008-01-01

339

Economic development and the impacts of natural disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use disaster impact data over time to examine the degree to which the human and economic losses from natural disasters are reduced as economies develop. We find that countries with higher income, higher educational attainment, greater openness, more complete financial systems and smaller government experience fewer losses.

Hideki Toya; Mark Skidmore

2007-01-01

340

The New Economic Development Role of the Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the broadened role of the community college in workforce preparation and economic development over the last 20 years, describing its main contours, explaining why and how it arose, and assessing its impact on students, firms, and community colleges. As part of the study, questions were raised about the costs, as well as…

Dougherty, Kevin, J.; Bakia, Marianne, F.

341

Institutional development, financial deepening and economic growth: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been profound changes in both political and economic institutions in China over the last 20 years. Moreover, the pace of transition has led to variation across the country in the level of development. In this paper, we use panel data for the Chinese provinces to study the role of legal institutions, financial deepening and political pluralism on growth

Iftekhar Hasan; Paul Wachtel; Mingming Zhou

2009-01-01

342

Cultural Transmission and Economic Development: A Critique of Educational Positivism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both formal and nonformal schooling have failed to bring about economic change in developing countries. Assumptions guiding both types of education are shaped by capitalist or socialist myths that are deeply rooted in Western culture. Underdeveloped countries must invent their own myths to effect change through education. (PP)|

Alexander, Chanan

1981-01-01

343

Telecommunications Infrastructure and Economic Development: A Simultaneous Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate how telecommunications infrastructure affects economic growth. We use evidence from 21 OECD countries over a 20-year period to examine the impacts that telecommunications developments may have had. We jointly estimate a micromodel for telecommunication investment with a macro production function. We find evidence of a significant positive causal link, especially when a critical mass of

Lars-Hendrik Roller; Leonard Waverman

2001-01-01

344

The planning – policy connection in US and Canadian economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence regarding the extent of planning for local economic development decisions is mixed, and there is a general dearth of studies that examine whether rational planning is tied to policy choices in any systematic way. The research reported here rests on two premises. The first is the simple assumption that for planning to play an integral part in the

Laura A Reese

2006-01-01

345

Recruitment of Rural Teachers in Developing Countries: An Economic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…

McEwan, Patrick J.

1999-01-01

346

Culture and Institutions: Economic Development in the Regions of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does culture have a causal effect on economic development? The data on European regions suggest that it does. Culture is measured by indicators of individual values and beliefs, such as trust and respect for others, and confidence in individual self determination. To isolate the exogenous variation in culture, we rely on two historical variables used as instruments: the literacy rate

Guido Tabellini

2010-01-01

347

Heterogeneity Happens: How Rights Matter in Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines how much governance matters for long run economic development in poor countries. Answering this question confronts four methodological challenges. First, since growth equations are likely to be underspecified, unobserved effects are likely to render standard estimators biased and inconsistent. Second, measurement error, time-varying unobserved effects, and possible feedback from growth into governance will violate the exogeneity assumptions

Johannes Fedderke; Robert Klitgaard; Kamil Akramov

2011-01-01

348

Defense Expenditures and Economic Growth in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the effect that defense spending has had on economic growth in less-developed countries have produced rather mixed results. We contend that this is because these studies have failed to take into account the relative financial constraints faced ...

P. C. Frederiksen R. E. Looney

1983-01-01

349

Role of the university in high-technology economic development: Pittsburgh as a case study  

SciTech Connect

What influence will the universities - which have been described as the engines in the high-technology economic development process - have beyond their obvious role as a source of technologies and talented people. This dissertation's goal is to address this question and develop an understanding of the high-technology economic development process on two levels. Part I is a study of historical and theoretical patterns of three key topics: technological innovation and the emergency of the high-technology economic sector, university roles, and the experiences of existing high-technology agglomerations. This exploration is designed to provide historical and contemporary perspective and context. A framework of historical patterns synthesizes the lessons of the past and present into a guide for the analysis of a regional high-technology economic development effort. Part II is the case study of the role of Pittsburgh's universities in this region's development effort. This analysis is guided by the framework established in Part I. The conclusions assess the ongoing high-technology economic development actions of Pittsburgh's universities and policy organizations, and identify policy recommendations to further promote the growth of an advanced technology cluster.

Giovengo, A.L.

1986-01-01

350

Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development  

SciTech Connect

The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

2006-05-01

351

Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

1981-04-01

352

The recent economic development of China’s ‘million’ cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980’s, two new trends have been emerging in the economic development of the Chinese ‘million’ cities. One is the\\u000a development disparity, and the other is the industrial restructuring. Firstly, in terms of per capita GDP (Gross Domestic\\u000a Product), 32 ‘million’ cities are classified into 4 types. The paper thinks there are 3 main causes which bring about the

Yuemin Ning

1995-01-01

353

UOP develops new oxygenates process  

SciTech Connect

UOP, Des Plaines, Ill., has developed a process it claims is new state of the art for making methyl or ethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE or ETBE) or tertiary amyl methyl ester (TAME) from olefin feedstocks. UOP the the process, carrying the trademark Ethermax, achieves higher conversion rates than fixed bed processes: more than 99% isobutylene conversion in MTBE units and more than 91% isoamylene conversion in TAME units, compared with 96-98% and 70% respectively, with conventional etherification technology. UOP, Huels AG of Marl, Germany, and Koch Engineering Co. Inc., Wichita, Kan., developed the Ethermax process by combining principles of conventional fixed bed MTBE processing with Koch's proprietary reaction with distillation (RWD) technology.

Not Available

1991-06-03

354

Ecologically and economically conscious design of the injected pultrusion process via multi-objective optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injected pultrusion (IP) is an environmentally benign continuous process for low-cost manufacture of prismatic polymer composites. IP has been of recent regulatory interest as an option to achieve significant vapour emissions reduction. This work describes the design of the IP process with multiple design objectives. In our previous work (Srinivasagupta D et al 2003 J. Compos. Mater. at press), an algorithm for economic design using a validated three-dimensional physical model of the IP process was developed, subject to controllability considerations. In this work, this algorithm was used in a multi-objective optimization approach to simultaneously meet economic, quality related, and environmental objectives. The retrofit design of a bench-scale set-up was considered, and the concept of exergy loss in the process, as well as in vapour emission, was introduced. The multi-objective approach was able to determine the optimal values of the processing parameters such as heating zone temperatures and resin injection pressure, as well as the equipment specifications (die dimensions, heater, puller and pump ratings) that satisfy the various objectives in a weighted sense, and result in enhanced throughput rates. The economic objective did not coincide with the environmental objective, and a compromise became necessary. It was seen that most of the exergy loss is in the conversion of electric power into process heating. Vapour exergy loss was observed to be negligible for the most part.

Srinivasagupta, Deepak; Kardos, John L.

2004-05-01

355

Attracting, Developing, and Maintaining Human Capital: A New Model for Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development," a 2011 book by Timothy Bartik, Senior Economist at the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, provides a new evidence-based approach for effective economic development. This approach is designed to support business growth and job creation by improving worker…

America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

356

Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

357

Modeling the economics of blending organic processing waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable coproducts. Within the food and biological processing sector are many examples of various liquid, sludge, and solid waste streams that require remediation. Alternative disposal methods for these organic manufacturing waste streams are increasingly being investigated. Even though high-value extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human foods, animal feeds, industrial products, and components ready for further manufacture, blending and shipping is a commonly used approach to waste utilization, especially when these materials are used as animal feeds. This paper discusses the implementation of a computer model that examines the economics of blending organic waste streams with other carrier materials, to improve nutrient content as well as augment storage and handling properties. Not only are these results applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm could benefit from examining the trends discussed here.

Rosentrater, Kurt A.

2006-11-01

358

Research on Effect of Beijing Post-Olympic Sports Industry to China's Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Methods: Using the literature information, discuss research on effect of Beijing post -Olympic sports industry to China's economic development on basis of analyzing the impacts of Olympic Games on host countrys economic development, from the angle of the theory of Olympic economic development. Purpose of research: Hope to offer theoretical basis for reference to China's post-Olympic economic development through

Liuqian Huang

2011-01-01

359

Reemploying UI. Unemployment Insurance, Training, and Job Creation. Education-Economic Development Series 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is part of a series designed to promote stronger ties between the educational resources in the Northeast and Midwest and the economic development process. It focuses on the question that public officials face in addressing structural dislocation and long-term unemployment: whether to continue only to support those unemployed or to…

Duggan, Paula; Bartsch, Charles

360

Health and Economic Development: Evidence from the Introduction of Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the causal effect of changes in health on economic development using a long panel of European countries. Identification is based on the particular timing of the introduction of public health care systems in different countries, which is the random outcome of a political process. We document that the introduction of public health care systems had a significant

Anthony Strittmatter; Uwe Sunde

2011-01-01

361

Structural change: The dominant feature in the economic development of the German textile and clothing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The textile and clothing industries are good examples to analyse emerging industrial trends in international co-operation and to map the globalisation effects on outward processing, jobs and technology. The research focuses on the development of economic indicators and is based on the results from consulting and research projects, as well from enquiries in the German textile and clothing industries, which

Ulrich Adler

2004-01-01

362

Economic Partnership Agreements Between Sub-Saharan Africa and the EU: A Development Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on Hinkle and Schiff (2003). It analyses the planned Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the EU and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from a development perspective. It does not take a position on whether SSA should enter into EPAs with the EU. Rather, it starts from the notion that the process of forming EPAs is unlikely to be reversed

Lawrence E. Hinkle; Maurice Schiff

2004-01-01

363

Scientific and technological fundamentals for the development of the controlled short-circuiting MIG\\/MAG welding process: a review of the literature. Part 2 of 3. Metal droplet formation, shield gases, penetration mechanisms, heat input and economical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second part of this series deals with the metal transfer modes of most interest to the MIG\\/MAG process, regarding the development of the controlled short-circuiting MIG\\/MAG welding process (CCC). The primary intention is to study pulsed arc and short-circuiting arc welding, both of which are the basis for the CCC. Also in relation to the metal transfer dynamics, the

Régis Henrique Gonçalves Silva; Jair Carlos Dutra; Raul Gohr Jr

2009-01-01

364

Microfiltration of thin stillage: Process simulation and economic analyses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant scale operations, multistage membrane systems have been adopted for cost minimization. We considered design optimization and operation of a continuous microfiltration (MF) system for the corn dry grind process. The objectives were to develop a model to simulate a multistage MF system, optim...

365

Economic Development Administration Craft Development Demonstration Project, State of Vermont.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vermont Interagency Crafts Council formed in January, 1973, seeks to explore ways in which the state could aid development of crafts in Vermont and to act as the coordinating body for craft activities in state government. The institutions and organiza...

1978-01-01

366

Enterprise Scale, Economic Policy and Development: A Synthesis of USAID's Employment and Enterprise Policy Analysis (EEPA) Project's Research (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the dynamics of small enterprises in the development process, analyzes the impact of economic policies on small enterprises, and identifies priorities for policy reform. The section on enterprise dynamics covers the life cycle of firm...

R. C. Young

1992-01-01

367

Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes  

PubMed Central

Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process.

Dobos, Laszlo; Kiraly, Andras; Abonyi, Janos

2012-01-01

368

Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

Adams, Alan M.

1995-06-01

369

The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development was started in 1987 by Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt. The Project's primary goal is "to understand and foster the conditions under which sustained, self-determined social and economic development is achieved among American Indian nations." To accomplish this goal, the Project has sponsored a number of conferences and events, and as also offered advisory services to interested persons and tribal leaders. The "Publications" area is a good way to take a look at the fruits of their labors, as it includes the archives of the Joint Occasional Papers on Native Affairs and a variety of field reports, such as "Renewing Beauty: Options for Navajo Land Management and Decision Making".

370

CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies and Economic Development of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the consequences of alternative CO2 emission reduction strategies on economic development and, in particular, the implications for the poor by empirically implementing an economy-wide model for India over a 35-year time horizon. A multi-sectoral, inter-temporal model in the activity analysis framework is used for this purpose. The model with specific technological alternatives, endogenous income distribution, truly dynamic

N. Satyanarayana Murthy; Manoj Panda; Kirit Parikh

2007-01-01

371

USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

2005-05-01

372

Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1\\/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions

Andrew B. Bernard; Meghan R. Busse

2000-01-01

373

China’s Economic and Trade Development: Imbalance to Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe rapid pace of China’s economic and trade development has been considered as a great success since the entry of WTO in 2001. Most recently, China has succeeded in coping with the global financial crisis and achieved a rapid V?shaped recovery which rebounded to two digit growth rate and lead to strengthening its international status. Nevertheless, China has exposed many

Xianguo Yao; Minghai Zhou

2011-01-01

374

The Important Role of Physics in Industry and Economic Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good Physics requires good education. Good education translates into good Physics professionals. The process starts early with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education programs for Middle and High-School students. Then it continues with competitive higher education programs (2 years and 4 years) at colleges and universities designed to satisfy the needs of industry and academia. The research work conducted by graduate students in Physics (and Engineering Physics) frequently translates into new discoveries and innovations that have direct impact in society (e.g. Proton Cancer Therapy). Some of the major and largest scientific experiments in the world today are physics-centered (e.g. Large Hadron Collider-LHC) that generate employment and business opportunities for thousands of scientists, academic research groups and companies from around the world. New superconducting magnets and advanced materials that have resulted from previous research in physics are commonly used in these extreme experiments. But not all physicists will end up working at these large high-energy physics experiments, universities or National Laboratories (e.g. Fermilab); industry requires new generations of (industrial) physicists in such sectors as semiconductor, energy, space, life sciences, defense and advanced manufacturing. This work presents an industry perspective about the role of Physics in economic development and the need for a collaborative Academic-Industry approach for a more effective translational research. A series of examples will be presented with emphasis in the measurement, control, diagnostics and computing capabilities needed to translate the science (physics) into innovations and practical solutions that can benefit society as a whole.

Alvarado, Igor

2012-10-01

375

Strategic Planning for Economic Development. Moving Beyond the Overall Economic Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the outcome of an extensive collaborative process, and, as such, many people have helped shape the findings and recommendations. Besides the seven members of the grantee's project team, the study depended upon the crucial input of an adviso...

B. Dabson H. P. Watt W. Schweke B. Anderson B. Bosworth D. Broun B. McDowell

1998-01-01

376

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

377

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Skamania County, Washington.  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

378

Fuzzy processing in transitivity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the literature on the development of transitive reasoning, and note three historical stages. Stage 1 was dominated by the Piagetian idea that transitive inference is logical reasoning in which relationships between adjacent terms figure as premises. Stage 2 was dominated by the information-processing view that memory for relationships between adjacent terms is determinative in transitivity performance. Stage 3

Valerie F. Reyna; Charles J. Brainerd

1990-01-01

379

Multi-Stage Mental Process for Economic Choice in Capuchins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied economic choice behavior in capuchin monkeys by offering them to choose between two different foods available in variable amounts. When monkeys selected between familiar foods, their choice patterns were well-described in terms of relative value of the two foods. A leading view in economics and biology is that such behavior results from…

Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Jandolo, Lucia; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

2006-01-01

380

Economic development: poverty solution for the rural South  

SciTech Connect

The 1970 census showed the South to have 41.3% of the US rural population and 44% of the poor with only 31% of the population. Economic development in the rural South has been limited by a lack of financial and physical capital and by a tradition of discriminatory and conservative institutional practices that restrict development. An experimental Federal program of low-interest loans recognized these problems in the Area Redevelopment Act (ARA) of 1961, later replaced by the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 and the Rural Development Act of 1972. Each of these assumed an infrastructure for job creation and failed to provide for human resource development. The search for an acceptable policy alternative to this approach may find an answer in community and development corporations (CDCs), which transcend political boundaries and allow local people to own and control the businesses they organize or attract, but which are bound by the local financial capability. The authors feel that, until policies recognize the need to have a national balance of urban and rural life, Federal intervention should be confined to a supportive role. 23 references. (DCK)

Briggs, V.M. Jr. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Rungeling, B.

1980-10-01

381

Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox  

SciTech Connect

Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

2012-03-01

382

Strait crossings and economic development : Developing economic impact assessment by means of ex post analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread scepticism among politicians and authorities concerning CBA as a main instrument for decision-making. This may cause possible bias towards non-quantitative factors as decisive. The challenge is to improve the methological approach, carefully examining the real benefits for road users. One way of doing this is to develop ex post CBA to test how critical assumptions fit to

Svein Bråthen; Arild Hervik

1997-01-01

383

The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries  

PubMed Central

The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricultural land must be weighed against the decision to abandon this land and migrate to environmentally fragile areas. Economic factors play a critical role in determining these relationships. Poverty, imperfect capital markets and insecure land tenure may reinforce the tendency towards short-term time horizons in production decisions, and may bias land use decisions against long-term land management strategies. In periods of commodity booms and land speculation, wealthier households generally take advantage of their superior political and market power to ensure initial access to better quality resources, in order to capture a larger share of the resource rents. Poorer households are confined either to marginal environmental areas where resource rents are limited, or only have access to resources once they are degraded and rents dissipated.
Overall trends in land degradation and deforestation are examined, followed by an overview of rural households' resource management decisions with respect to land management, frontier agricultural expansion, and migration from existing agricultural land to frontiers. Finally, the discussion focuses on the scope for policy improvements to reduce economic constraints to effective land management.

Barbier, E. B.

1997-01-01

384

Confucian ethics and economic development: A study of the adaptation of Confucian values to modern Japanese economic ideology and institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between Confucian values and odern Japanese economic development, especially in terms of the adaptation of selected Confucian values by pre- and post- World War II Japanese industrialists and government officials toward the formation of a modern Japanese ideology of capitalist economic development. The use of such Confucian values is examined in terms of their appearance

Gregory K. Ornatowski

1996-01-01

385

Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production processes for the hydrogen economy for the short and medium term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is expected to play a significant role in the future energy system. A key enabler to a hydrogen-including economy will be the development and deployment of processes that can produce hydrogen whilst satisfying the criteria for sustainability, i.e. economic competitiveness, environmental protection and security of energy supply. This paper evaluates selected hydrogen production processes based on natural gas steam

F. Mueller-Langer; E. Tzimas; M. Kaltschmitt; S. Peteves

2007-01-01

386

Economic Evaluation of Gasification-Combined-Cycle Power Plants Based on the Air-Blown KILNGAS Process. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is an engineering and economic evaluation of the KILnGAS process aimed at: development of overall plant process designs based on a design philosophy consistent with other studies under EPRI RP No. 239-2; preparation of necessary flowsheets, cos...

W. W. Hsu R. E. McFarland G. P. McNamee V. Ramanathan S. J. Siddoway

1981-01-01

387

An Agenda PaperPolitical Business Cycles and the Process of Economic Policymaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political business cycle models of economic policymaking have been welcomed by both political scientists and economists. They improve on economic approaches by explicitly modeling a political component (the electoral incentive) in the economic policymaking process. And they improve on previous political science work by supplanting the case study-dominated institutional literature with a highly abstract, quantitative method. More than a decade's

M. Stephen Weatherford; Henry James

1988-01-01

388

Economic Census 2002: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Meat Processed from Carcasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2004-01-01

389

Economic Census 1997: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Meat Processed From Carcasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1997 Economic Census - Manufacturing covers all manufacturing establishments with one or more paid employees. Manufacturing is defined as the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials or substances into new products. The assembly o...

1999-01-01

390

Economic Census 2002: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Poultry Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2004-01-01

391

A new process for organizing assessments of social, economic, and ...  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... Source: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6(3):469-483 ... assessments that evaluate ecosystem management alternatives in terms of their ecological, economic, and social consequences.

392

Economic Census 2002: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Soybean Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 1...

2004-01-01

393

The Perils of Social Development without Economic Growth: The Development Debacle of Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of influential experts in the field of international development regard Kerala as a unique model of development because it has been able to achieve exceptional social development in such areas as health, education, and even the demographic transition, despite low economic development and low per capita income. Inverting the model, however, we find that in sharp contrast to

Joseph Tharamangalam

394

Terrorism & Development. Using Social and Economic Development to Inhibit a Resurgence of Terrorism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines social and economic development policies enacted by three countries-Israel, the Philippines, and the United Kingdom-to inhibit a resurgence of terrorist violence within their territorial jurisdictions. The analysis focuses on developm...

K. Cragin P. Chalk

2003-01-01

395

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

396

Statistical and econometric analysis of the impact of China's energy, environment on the economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through statistical description and analysis of econometric models of energy consumption, environmental conditions, and their impact on economic development, we draw conclusions that present China's economic growth is at the cost of the huge energy consumption and environmental pollution. To maintain long-term sustainable economic development, and achieve intensive economic growth, it is necessary to take industrial ecology and green GDP

NAN Yingzi; GAO Yuying

2011-01-01

397

Read All About It! Understanding the Role of Media in Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis paper explores the role of media in economic development. In particular, we seek to outline the conditions under which the media contributes to the successful adoption of policies aimed at economic progress. Our core thesis is that successful economic development requires the coordination of efforts by politicians with the interests of the populace on policies that bring about economic

Christopher J. Coyne; Peter T. Leeson

2004-01-01

398

Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

1997-01-21

399

From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation  

SciTech Connect

This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

Koester, S.K.

1986-01-01

400

An engineering and economic evaluation of wet and dry pre-fractionation processes for dry-grind ethanol facilities.  

PubMed

An engineering-economic model was developed to compare the profitability of the wet fractionation process, a generic dry fractionation process, and the conventional dry grind process. Under market conditions as of January 2011, only fractionation processes generated a positive cash flow. Reduced unit manufacturing costs and increased ethanol production capacity were two major contributions. Corn and ethanol price sensitivity analysis showed that the wet fractionation process always outperformed a generic dry fractionation process at any scenario considered in this research. A generic dry fractionation process would provide better economic performance than the conventional dry grind process if corn price was low and ethanol price was high. All three processes would perform more resiliently if the DDGS price was determined by its composition. PMID:21778050

Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Li, Changying; Eckhoff, Steven R

2011-06-16

401

Economic development and dependency: the case of oil-exporting developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliance of oil-exporting developing countries on oil-revenues has certain implications for both their domestic economic structures and foreign trade relations. The purposes of this research were to study and analyze: (1) the extent of the dependence of oil-exporting developing countries on the exportation of a single exhaustible resource, (2) the impact of this dependence on domestic economic structures, and

Shahrokhi

1982-01-01

402

Culturally appropriate vegetables and economic development. A contextual analysis.  

PubMed

This paper examines the implications of the demand for ethno-cultural vegetables (ECV) by South-Asians, the largest cultural group in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), on their potential for Ontario agricultural economic development and significant consumer health benefits. A conceptual framework is presented to explain the relationship among factors such as change in demographics, demand for locally produced ECV and both the potential agricultural and health benefits. Analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 2009 also indicates that the respondents have certain characteristics that are pertinent to understanding why they shop in particular stores and their perceptions about what constitutes quality. In sum, household size and percentage spent on vegetables predict their expenditure on ECV, an indication that South-Asians resident in the GTA will continue to demand their ECV. It is thus a niche market that farmers can explore if its potential economic value to them is clarified and the government can provide sufficient support by increasing awareness and creating appropriate economic incentives for farmers willing to grow these vegetables. PMID:22516843

Adekunle, Bamidele; Filson, Glen; Sethuratnam, Sridharan

2012-04-16

403

A novel process for recovery of fermentation-derived succinic acid: process design and economic analysis.  

PubMed

Recovery and purification of organic acids produced in fermentation constitutes a significant fraction of total production cost. In this paper, the design and economic analysis of a process to recover succinic acid (SA) via dissolution and acidification of succinate salts in ethanol, followed by reactive distillation to form succinate esters, is presented. Process simulation was performed for a range of plant capacities (13-55 million kg/yr SA) and SA fermentation titers (50-100 kg/m(3)). Economics were evaluated for a recovery system installed within an existing fermentation facility producing succinate salts at a cost of $0.66/kg SA. For a SA processing capacity of 54.9 million kg/yr and a titer of 100 kg/m(3) SA, the model predicts a capital investment of $75 million and a net processing cost of $1.85 per kg SA. Required selling price of diethyl succinate for a 30% annual return on investment is $1.57 per kg. PMID:23665683

Orjuela, Alvaro; Orjuela, Andrea; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

2013-04-04

404

[Political ecology, ecological economics, and public health: interfaces for the sustainability of development and health promotion].  

PubMed

This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them. PMID:18038032

Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan

2007-01-01

405

Sustainable Design of Geopolymers - Integration of Economic and Environmental Aspects in the Early Stages of Material Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of novel products is a complex, multi-level process. It may be divided into the two main phases of material and product development. Up to now, economic and ecological assessments have been carried out mainly after the development of materials. At that point of time, however, there is only a small degree of freedom to change the composition or process

Marcel Weil; Edgar Gasafi

406

The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development*  

PubMed Central

Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of capabilities. Both cognitive and noncognitive capabilities determine success in life but to varying degrees for different outcomes. An empirically determined technology of capability formation reveals that capabilities are self-productive and cross-fertilizing and can be enhanced by investment. Investments in capabilities are relatively more productive at some stages of a child’s life cycle than others. Optimal child investment strategies differ depending on target outcomes of interest and on the nature of adversity in a child’s early years. For some configurations of early disadvantage and for some desired outcomes, it is efficient to invest relatively more in the later years of childhood than in the early years.

Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

2009-01-01

407

Pervaporation-based hybrid process: a review of process design, applications and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation is one of the developing membrane technologies that can be used for various industrial applications but for a predefined task, the optimal process design is unlikely to consist solely of pervaporation. Often the optimised solution becomes a hybrid process combining pervaporation with one or more other separation technologies. A distinction will be made between hybrid and integrated processes. Hybrid

Frank Lipnizki; Robert W Field; Po-Kiong Ten

1999-01-01

408

Joint IDA Selected as National Finalist for Excellence in Rural Economic Development Award  

Microsoft Academic Search

WYTHEVILLE—The Economic Development Administration of the U. S. Department of Commerce has announced its finalists for the 2004 EDA Excellence in Economic Development Awards. The Joint Industrial Development Authority of Wythe County, Wytheville, and Rural Retreat is one of three finalists in the Rural Economic Develop- ment category. Nominations in this category were evaluated to determine how effective- ly they

Steven D. Irvin; Joseph W. Freeman; Robert J. Ayers; Alan Hawthorne; Gerald L. Brewer; Michael Webb; Danny B. Gordon; Linda D. Lester; William F. Snyder

409

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

410

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

411

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

412

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

413

Child Development Is Economic Development. A Conversation with Economist Art Rolnick. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public dollars spent to stimulate economic development would be more wisely invested in child development programs, according to two different streams of research. Brain research shows the impact of experiences and environments on the developing brain architecture, with weaker architecture leading to increased vulnerability to later problems…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

2006-01-01

414

Child Development Is Economic Development. A Conversation with Economist Art Rolnick. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The public dollars spent to stimulate economic development would be more wisely invested in child development programs, according to two different streams of research. Brain research shows the impact of experiences and environments on the developing brain architecture, with weaker architecture leading to increased vulnerability to later problems…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

2006-01-01

415

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)|

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

416

Developing a scoring system to quality assess economic evaluations.  

PubMed

The number of economic evaluations is constantly increasing. The need to establish a framework with which to assess the validity of the studies has led to the development of checklists and scoring systems to compare the quality of different studies and ensure that decisions made by decision makers and researchers are based on solid evidence. The most prominent of these checklists is that produced by Drummond et al. Their checklist aims to answer two important questions: is the methodology employed in the study appropriate and are the results valid? In this paper three methods using the checklist of Drummond et al. are developed to assess the quality of a random sample of 50 papers selected from the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Method 1, a direct application of the checklist calculates an average score with each of the ten items weighted equally, this method proves to be good at identifying low quality studies but is a rather a blunt tool for differentiating between high-quality studies. Method 2, also using an additive score, introduces a hierarchy of the effectiveness data and also adds a new item with respect to the transferability of the results. With this method the number of papers scoring top marks decreases dramatically in comparison to method 1. Method 3 involves a multiplicative rather than additive scoring system, which is better at distinguishing between good quality studies but appears to reduce discrimination between poor-quality studies. Overall, the ten-point checklist of Drummond et al. is a useful and quick tool with which to assess the quality of economic evaluations and to enable decision makers and researchers to focus upon the most relevant studies. PMID:15609137

Gonzalez-Perez, J G

2002-01-01

417

Economic Geography with Spatial Econometrics: a 'Third Way' to Analyse Economic Development and 'Equilibrium', with Application to the EU Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main item of agreement between the 'new' and 'old' economic geography is the role of increasing returns in regional economic development. This provides a focal point for the model of this paper, which aims to highlight the existence of a 'third way' somewhere between the analysis provided by these two competing modes of explanation.

B. Fingleton

1999-01-01

418

The Economics of Developing Countries Component of GCE "A" Level Economics--A Review of Examination Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of the summer examination papers in 'A' level economics set by the eight boards of England and Wales during the period 1979-1983 show that, with two notable exceptions, the boards have not devoted much space to questions relating to the economics of developing countries. (Author/RM)|

Wood, Keith

1984-01-01

419

Modelling of small countries in economic integration processes: an extension of the Armington approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is a process of 'deep' economic integration. Economic integration is not merely a removal of trade barriers but also increased competition because goods become more homogeneous due to, for example, harmonization of standards. To accommodate this 'deep' integration process we changed the preference structure for consumers in such a way that products from EU regions

C. A. Herok; H. van Meijl; F. van Tongeren

420

Energy, security and economic development in East Asia  

SciTech Connect

Politics plays a supremely important role in the energy supply of the countries of East Asia. The USSR and the People's Republic of China (PRC) are the two greatest suppliers of energy in the region-whilst the strong industrial economies of Japan, Taiwan and Korea are energy-deficient. These simple facts give rise to extraordinarily complex and often delicate political situations. China, for example supplies oil to Japan and imports Japanese technology and thereby manipulates Japan's relationship with the USSR. The Chinese capacity to generate energy surplus to its own developing domestic economic needs may also have a significant impact on the availability of new options for the energy supply of the Taiwanese and Korean economies. Taking the energy politics of the USSR and the PRC as its starting point this book goes on to consider the economic and political dilemmas of each of the major industrialised nations in the region. The authors also address wider issues such as the zoning of the South China Sea and the United States' perspective on the development of this region.

Keith, R.

1986-01-01

421

31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma....

2013-07-01

422

7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administrative costs associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective...costs associated with the State rural economic development review panels meeting requirements...action taken or planned to resolve the situation; and (4) Objectives and...

2013-01-01

423

The economics of environmental degradation from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises in less developed countries  

SciTech Connect

The economic productivity of ecological systems constitutes imperfectly known resources for many developing countries and, as a result, national incentives for their preservation are hampered. Scarcity of capital and foreign exchange, on the other hand, creates for these countries an economic pressure to reduce environmental quality standards in return for foreign exchange from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises. For a bargaining outcome to be considered successful, the host country`s marginal cost of environmental protection should be equal to the social scarcity cost of foreign exchange for capital accumulation. However, imperfections in the international capital markets and in he information processing of private and government institutions as well as government failure may upgrade the value of foreign exchange relative to environmental protection. As a result, many developing countries may prefer to have more direct investment gains derived from an inflow of foreign exchange by allowing pollution-intensive multinationals an excessive amount of pollution, than the strategically optimal one, if these enterprises are prepared to shift operations to their country. Strategic bargaining by pollution-intensive multinationals can turn the economic pressures of developing countries into an exploitable dependence. This paper investigates the socio-economic outcome from strategic bargaining opportunities between developing countries and pollution-intensive multinationals in an effort to provide a better understanding of what is negotiable in the presence of exploitable dependencies.

Grivoyannis, E.C. [Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ (United States)

1997-06-01

424

Rural women and local economic development in south-west Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990s, the appearance of women in leadership roles in local economic development organisations in small south-west Victorian towns heralded a change in gender relations in rural Australia. This paper contributes to an understanding of this process by investigating the actions and motives of women in leadership roles in small rural towns in south-west Victoria. The paper begins by

Kevin O’Toole; Anna Macgarvey

2003-01-01

425

Doctoral Education and Economic Development: The Flow of New Ph.D.s to Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doctoral education in science and engineering is critical to the university’s role in fostering economic development. One aspect of this is the placement of recent graduates with firms. Despite the role Ph.D.s play in this process, little work has documented and analyzed these firm placements. This article takes a first step at rectifying this deficiency, using data from the 1997-1999

Paula E. Stephan; Albert J. Sumell; Grant C. Black; James D. Adams

2004-01-01

426

Langevin processes, agent models and socio-economic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review some approaches to the understanding of fluctuations of financial asset prices. Our approach builds on the development of a simple Langevin equation that characterises stochastic processes. This provides a unifying approach that allows first a straightforward description of the early approaches of Bachelier. We generalize the approach to stochastic equations that model interacting agents. The agent models recently advocated by Marsilli and Solomon are motivated. Using a simple change of variable, we show that the peer pressure model of Marsilli and the wealth dynamics model of Solomon are essentially equivalent. The methods are further shown to be consistent with a global free energy functional that invokes an entropy term based on the Boltzmann formula. There follows a brief digression on the Heston model that extends the simple model to one that, in the language of physics, exhibits a temperature this is subject to stochastic fluctuations. Mathematically the model corresponds to a Feller process. Dragulescu and Yakovenko have shown how the model yields some of the stylised features of asset prices. A more recent approach by Michael and Johnson maximised a Tsallis entropy function subject to simple constraints. They obtain a distribution function for financial returns that exhibits power law tails and which can describe the distribution of returns not only over low but also high frequencies (minute by minute) data for the Dow Jones index. We show how this approach can be developed from an agent model, where the simple Langevin process is now conditioned by local rather than global noise. Such local noise may of course be the origin of speculative frenzy or herding in the market place. The approach yields a BBGKY type hierarchy of equations for the system correlation functions. Of especial interest is that the results can be obtained from a new free energy functional similar to that mentioned above except that a Tsallis like entropy term replaces the Boltzmann entropy term. A mean field approximation yields the results of Michael and Johnson. We show how personal income data for Brazil, the US, Germany and the UK, analyzed recently by Borgas can be qualitatively understood by this approach.

Richmond, Peter; Sabatelli, Lorenzo

2004-05-01

427

Increasing the Economic Development Benefits of Higher Education in Michigan. Working Paper No. 04-106  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how a state such as Michigan can increase the economic development benefits of higher education. Research evidence suggests that higher education increases local economic development principally by increasing the quality of the local workforce, and secondarily by increasing local innovative ideas. These economic development

Bartik, Timothy J.

2004-01-01

428

Regional performance and inequality: linking economic and social development through a capabilities approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite European Union objectives for economic and social cohesion, current measures of regional development are defined economically, reflecting the separation in policy and academia between economic issues, concerned with growth, and social issues, concerned with redistribution. Drawing on the capabilities perspective and a similar methodology to the UNDP's Human Development Index, this paper calculates a measure of regional development for

Diane Perrons

2011-01-01

429

Economic Development Strategies for Nonmetropolitan Areas. Occasional Papers Series No. 85-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural economic development presents a paradox of growth in population and jobs without corresponding improvement in local economic well-being. Four forces may impede nonmetropolitan development efforts. Growth of multiestablishment corporations makes traditional regional economic development models unrealistic. Rural industrialization is…

Smith, Russell L.

430

Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic and Policy Issues in Natural Habitats and Protected Areas; Conservation, Protected Areas, and the Global Economic System: How Debt, Trade, Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Macroeconomic Policy Affect Biological Diversity; Conservation in ...

M. Munasinghe J. A. McNeely

1994-01-01

431

Can Community Economic Development Meet the Fiscal Needs of Municipalities. Economic Growth and Fiscal Stress in Three Northeast Cities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between municipal fiscal condition and economic resurgence is examined in Boston, Mass., Hartford, Conn., and Portland, Maine. All three cities have, to some degree, experienced downtown revitalization, neighborhood development, and indus...

W. Montrone

1980-01-01

432

Tourism development and economic growth a nonlinear approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use cross sectional data (1995 2005 yearly averages) for 88 countries to investigate the nonlinear relationship between tourism development and economic growth when a threshold variable is used. The degree of tourism specialization (qi, defined as receipts from international tourism as a percentage of GDP) is used as the threshold variable. The results of the tests for nonlinearity indicate that the 88 countries’ data should be separated into three different groups or regimes to analyze the tourism-growth nexus. The results of the threshold regression show that when the qi is below 4.0488% (regime 1, 57 countries) or above 4.7337% (regime 3, 23 countries), there exists a significantly positive relationship between tourism growth and economic growth. However, when the qi is above 4.0488% and below 4.7337% (regime 2, 8 countries), we are unable to find evidence of such a significant relationship. Further in-depth analysis reveals that relatively low ratios of the value added of the service industry to GDP, and the forested area per country area are able to explain why we are unable to find a significant relationship between these two variables in regime 2’s countries.

Po, Wan-Chen; Huang, Bwo-Nung

2008-09-01

433

Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological innovations to achieve economic oil sands productivity, the oil companies have responded successfully to declining rates of American conventional oil production. With respect to North American hinterlands, implications for development theory center on connections among established and changing political coalitions, capacities for technological innovations, and responses to dynamic world conditions.

Steinmann, Michael

434

Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges" is a compilation of best practice examples, which illustrate what it takes for community colleges to achieve their goal of helping people acquire education and skills, helping employers, supporting communities, and building the nation. The book is written…

Rothwell, William J., Ed.; Gerity, Patrick E., Ed.

2008-01-01

435

Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university…

Shin, Jung Cheol

2012-01-01

436

Urban planning, housing and the socio-economic development of women in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper identifies aspects of housing and urban development legislation that inhibit the socio-economic progress of women in Cameroon. Three components of the legislation, namely the urban master plan, the land use decree and the building control ordinance are shown to imbibe elements that are overtly biased against women. Measures deemed capable of making housing and urban development policy outcomes

Ambe J. Njoh

1998-01-01

437

Effects of Population Growth on the Economic Development of Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing state of knowledge does not warrant any clear-cut generalization as to the effect of population growth on economic development in today's less developed areas. Some theoretical analyses argue that high population growth creates pressures on limited natural resources, reduces private and public capital formation, and diverts additions to capital resources to maintaining rather than increasing the stock of

Richard A. Easterlin

1967-01-01

438

Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sketches a theory of the secular decline in morbidity and mortality that takes account of changes in human physiology since 1700. The synergism between technological and physiological improvements has produced a form of human evolution, much more rapid than natural selection, which is still ongoing in both OECD and developing countries. Thermodynamic and physiological aspects of economic growth

ROBERT WILLIAM FOGEL

1994-01-01

439

World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

1993-01-01

440

Impacts of Mexican oil policy on economic and political development  

SciTech Connect

A Mexican perspective conditions this analysis of the role of oil policy in Mexico's economic and political development. The author examines the linkages between external pressures of trade and the oil market and the internal pressures of the Mexican economy and institutions. He emphasizes the need for a strategy to confront the whole if Mexico is to seek a better future through self-reliance and an independent policy. The author examines the major political and institutional threads of demography, administrative policies, oil production and Mexico's status among world producers, and the changing US-Mexican relationship. He concludes that mutual respect and cooperation can enhance the futures of both the US and Mexico. 154 references, 7 figures, 37 tables.

Velasco-S., J.A.

1983-01-01

441

Effects of Corruption and Economic Reforms on Economic Growth and Development: Lessons from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of the Nigeria's recent experience on corruption in the context of economic reforms programme. It discusses the possible causes and effects of corruption, which are seen to be rooted in socio-cultural practices and the political and economic situation of the country. Data were drawn chiefly from news stories, reports of tribunals and commissions of enquiry,

Abiodun Elijah OBAYELU

442

Economic assessment of batch biodiesel production processes using homogeneous and heterogeneous alkali catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic feasibility study on four batch processes for the production of biodiesel ranging from 1452tonnes\\/year (5000l\\/day) to 14,520tonnes\\/year (50,000l\\/day) is conducted. The four processes assessed are the (1) KOH-W process, characterized by a homogeneous KOH catalyst and hot water purification process; (2) KOH-D process, characterized by a homogeneous KOH catalyst and vacuum FAME distillation process; (3) CaO-W process, characterized

Tsutomu Sakai; Ayato Kawashima; Tetsuya Koshikawa

2009-01-01

443

PROCESS OF ECONOMIC REFORMS IN VIETNAM: WHAT LESSONS WE HAVE LEARNT FROM?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the reunification in 1975, Vietnam shifted its focus on reconstruction and socio- economic development. The failure of the economic development followed closely the centrally planned model forced Vietnam to undertake the microeconomic reforms in the early 1980s. However, only the Doimoi (Renovation) in 1986 and especially the radical market-oriented reform of 1989 marked a turning point in the history

Vo Tri Thanh

444

Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-10-01

445

Enhancing the Capacity of Four-Year Postsecondary Educational Institutions to Promote Economic Development. A Report by the Task Force on Education and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses efforts undertaken by the Southern Education Foundation's (SEF) Task Force on Education and Economic Development and summarizes case-study reports of activities at four-year, postsecondary educational institutions in the South to promote economic development. The activities of six institutions were reviewed: Jackson State…

Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

446

Development of a methodology for a comparative techno-economic analysis of coal liquefaction, coprocessing and resid upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an outline of the methodology that has been developed to allow a comparative technical and economic analysis of coal liquefaction using the HRI CTSL process, coprocessing using the HRI technology, and resid upgrading using the H-OIL process. These three similar technologies have been evaluated on as comparable a basis as possible so that their relative technical and

D. Gray; G. C. Tomlinson; A. Elsawy

1989-01-01

447

The economic context for the development of "blind flight".  

PubMed

On 24 September 1929, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, NY, Jimmy Doolittle performed the first so-called "blind flight." He executed a flight plan and landed using only cockpit instruments, a feat that culminated a research program supported by the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics. Contemporary aviation medicine, with its understanding of the challenges of spatial (dis)orientation, has a special understanding and appreciation of the complex human performance, medical and technical problems that had to be overcome to make instrument flight possible. It is likely that the problems would not have been solved unless a socioeconomic context provoked a sufficient motivation to address them. This paper outlines some of the economic factors that motivated the research and development necessary for instrument flight. These factors were the direct consequence of the sudden, huge explosion of the aviation industry caused by World War I, and with the Armistice, the equally sudden loss of the industry's primary customer, the military. Finding a civilian role for aviation awaited the development of air mail, which, in turn, depended on the ability to fly according to a reliable schedule. The need to reliably adhere to a schedule forced the scientific and technological research needed to develop all-weather, blind flight. PMID:12862335

Temme, Leonard A; Rupert, Angus

2003-07-01

448

Economic "Growth" vs. "Development" of Rural Communities: It Means the Difference between Local and Outside Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Economic growth increases the amount of money in a community but does not increase the community's capacity to steer its own direction as economic development can. The accomplishments of Rio Arriba County (New Mexico) offer a rare example of successful economic development. Sustainable environmentalism, instead of conservation, considers people…

Varela, Maria

1994-01-01

449

Comparing the effects of mass media and telecommunications on economic development: A pooled time series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to test the causal relationship between communication and economic development and compare the magnitude of the economic contributions of mass media and telecommunications. 17 year's data from 23 countries were collected and subjected to pooled time series analysis. It is found that while both mass media and telecommuni cations contribute to economic development, telecommunications tends to contribute

Jianguo Zhu

1996-01-01

450

Allocation of Talent in Society and Its Effect on Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several studies in psychology and economics have demonstrated that the average cognitive ability (talent) of people living in a society affects the economic development of the society. There is, however, reason to expect that the economic development of societies depends not just on the average level of talent but also on the allocation of talent…

Strenze, Tarmo

2013-01-01

451

Social Rights and Economics: Claims to Health Care and Education in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes rights-based and economic approaches to the provision of health care and education in developing countries. It assesses the foundations and uses of social rights in development, outlines the economic approach to health care and education, highlights differences and similarities, and assesses the hard questions that the economic critique poses for rights. The paper argues that the policy

Varun Gauri; N. W. MSN

2004-01-01

452

Economic evaluation of optional recycling processes for waste electronic home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an economic evaluation of three typical recycling processes for the five main types of waste electronic home appliances (EHA) (TV set, refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner and personal computer) in Beijing, the capital of China. The main purpose is to identify the formal management framework with economic feasibility for the waste EHA generated in large municipalities of

Xianbing Liu; Masaru Tanaka; Yasuhiro Matsui

2009-01-01

453

Thermo-economic process model for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed thermo-economic model considering different technological alternatives for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. First, candidate technology for processes based on biomass gasification and subsequent methanation is discussed and assembled in a general superstructure. Both energetic and economic models for biomass drying with air or steam, thermal pretreatment by torrefaction or pyrolysis, indirectly

Martin Gassner; François Maréchal

2009-01-01

454

Enacting local economic development – theoretical and methodological challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim is to provide a conceptual framework that from a local perspective positions alternative ways to cope with the challenges of a globalising world. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The notion of “organising context” is introduced as an ideal setting for business and community development processes as collective entrepreneurial efforts. A 3D model proposes means of structuring contemporary public discourses

Bengt Johannisson

2007-01-01

455

Developing a model for assessing biomass processing technologies within a local biomass processing depot.  

PubMed

One solution to the supply chain challenges of cellulosic biofuels is a network of local biomass processing depots (LBPDs) that can produce stable, dense, intermediate commodities and valuable co-products prior to shipping to a refinery. A techno-economic model of an LBPD facility that could incorporate multiple technologies and products was developed in Microsoft Excel to be used to economically and environmentally evaluate potential LBPD systems. In this study, three technologies (ammonia fiber expansion or AFEX™ pretreatment, fast pyrolysis, and leaf protein processing) were assessed for profitability. Pyrolysis was slightly profitable under the base conditions, leaf protein processing was highly unprofitable, and AFEX was profitable if biomass drying was not required. This model can be adapted to multiple feedstocks and end uses, including both economic and environmental modeling. PMID:22209136

Bals, Bryan D; Dale, Bruce E

2011-12-13

456

Primer on Social Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An elaboration of the author's booklet entitled "First Steps Toward Economic Understanding," this primer is designed to help the reader develop a functional understanding of the economic process so that he can make wiser decisions on issues of social policy and on matters affecting his economic well-being. The document is not "economics in one…

Darcy, Robert L.

457

Primer on Social Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elaboration of the author's booklet entitled "First Steps Toward Economic Understanding," this primer is designed to help the reader develop a functional understanding of the economic process so that he can make wiser decisions on issues of social policy and on matters affecting his economic well-being. The document is not "economics in one…

Darcy, Robert L.

458

Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein) respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for significant ethanol cost reductions exist in increasing pentose fermentation efficiency and reducing biomass and enzyme costs. The results demonstrated the importance of addressing the tradeoffs in capital costs, pretreatment and downstream processing technologies.

2011-01-01

459

Tourism as a Rural Economic Development Tool: An Exploration of the Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tourism is a popular rural economic development tool. The annotated bibliography presents studies from economics and other social sciences that explore tourism. Topics covered include the tourism industry, measuring and forecasting tourism demand, valuati...

M. Frederick

1992-01-01

460

Discussion of Relevance of BEA Areas to the Economic Development Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will introduce the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) area framework and discuss the ways in which it contributes to the analysis of subnational economic development and will further show that BEA areas provide a desirable spatial unit suitable ...

C. E. Snead

1976-01-01

461

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

Tegen, S.

2012-06-01

462

China report, economic affairs, energy: Status and development -- 55  

SciTech Connect

This document contains translated articles from foreign language periodicals concerning China, economic affairs, national policy, technology, hydropower, thermal power, coal, oil, gas, nuclear power, and conservation.

NONE

1987-02-04

463

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at... TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...

2013-01-01

464

Lawyers in Agencies: Economics, Social Psychology, and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underlying the discussion of the role of the government lawyer that follows lies the premise that lawyers within agencies are fundamentally different than other regulators. A particular regulatory process-and indeed the administrative state in general-would look quite different if we decided to exclude lawyers from the process. Moreover, our explicit or implicit decision about the contours of the role played

Jonathan R Macey

1998-01-01

465

Economic considerations in membrane gas separation process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane processes are difficult to optimize without the appropriate computer programs. This has made it difficult to fully appreciate the inherent advantages of membrane process design. Membrane suppliers such as Grace Membrane Systems have these design capabilities and are always willing to assist customers with specific requests. The analysis presented in this paper provides useful guidelines for the engineer to

R. W. Spillman; T. E. Cooley

1987-01-01

466

Study to Develop Statewide and County-Level Economic Projections. Volume 1. California County Economic Forecasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume I provides a description of forecasts of economic growth for California and its large metropolitan areas. The California economy will continue to lag the national economy until 1996. In the longer term, California will surpass the nation in growth ...

J. Kloepfer

1994-01-01

467

Sharing the gains of local economic growth: race-to-the-top versus race-to-the-bottom economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In attempting to promote economic development, states often pursue either a race-to-the-bottom approach focused on lowering business costs or a more investment-based, race-to-the-top approach that aims to increase productivity, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Whether either approach promotes growth and produces broad-based economic gains across the population is the subject of this paper. The novelty of our approach is that an extensive

Stephan J Goetz; Mark D Partridge; Dan S Rickman; Shibalee Majumdar

2011-01-01

468

Happiness in the Midst of Change: A Human Development Approach to Studying GNH in the Context of Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary theories of economic development have concentrated on socioeconomic and epidemiological indices of development to the exclusion of issues of psychological and spiritual development. Yet, economic development without attention to individual human development may produce increasing wealth but decreasing happiness. The construct of Gross National Happiness (GNH), as the real measure of success in a developmental endeavor, is intended to

MICHAEL R. LEVENSON; PATRICIA A. JENNINGS; CAROLYN M. ALDWIN

469

Schools, Skills and Economic Development: Education Policies, Student Learning and Socioeconomic Outcomes in Developing Countries. Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of educational outcomes and the impact of those outcomes on other socioeconomic phenomena. It investigates the relationship between education and economic growth and development in emerging countries. The paper addresses school policies that are most cost-effective in producing students with…

Glewwe, Paul

470

Economic Impact of Water Pollution Control Regulations on the Tomato Processing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic impact of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 on the tomato processing industry is examined. The 1972 Act calls for uniform effluent limitations, and requires that municipalities establish pretreatment standards for was...

P. M. Emerson

1976-01-01

471

Optimal biorefinery product allocation by combining process and economic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated biorefinery has the opportunity to provide a strong, self-dependent, sustainable alternative for the production of bulk and fine chemicals, e.g. polymers, fiber composites and pharmaceuticals as well as energy, liquid fuels and hydrogen. Although most of the fundamental processing steps involved in biorefining are well-known, there is a need for a methodology capable of evaluating the integrated processes

N. E. Sammons Jr; W. Yuana; M. R. Eden; B. Aksoy; H. T. Cullinan

2008-01-01

472

Developing Economic Literacy: A Challenge for Business Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the framework and the methodology necessary to instill sound principles of economic understanding in business education students. Basic economic concepts are listed and discussed, as well as effective educational delivery systems such as games and simulations (examples are included). (CT)

Ristau, Robert A.

1985-01-01

473

Tourism policy in Morocco: a great effort for economic development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent political transformations in Arab countries suggest that solutions have to be found for the problem of lacking economic prospects and particularly of high youth unemployment. Such solutions have to consist of economic growth that unfolds widespread employment effects. A tourism policy that opens up perspectives for employment to people in many parts of a country can contribute to such

Maximilian Benner

2011-01-01

474

Results from a Faculty Development Program in Teaching Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teaching Innovations Program (TIP) was a six-year project funded by the National Science Foundation that gave economics instructors the opportunity to learn interactive teaching strategies for use in undergraduate economics courses. TIP participants first attended a teaching workshop that presented various teaching strategies. They then could…

Walstad, William B.; Salemi, Michael K.

2011-01-01

475

Environmental Policy Issues for Sustainable Economic Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central pillar of the sustainability movement is the call to include environmental accounting in standard measures of economic performance. This increased transparency would, in principle, mitigate the temptation of economic managers and policy makers to increase growth in material consumption at the expense of the environment. Moreover, as Repetto (1989) and others have argued, deducting depreciation of produced capital

Kimberly M. Burnett; James A. Roumasset

2006-01-01

476

Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints, and short term objectives) as well. In the models operating rules represent different models of human behavior, and the objective of the modeling is to find rules for human behavior that perform well in terms of long term human objectives. The conceptual model used to represent human behavior incorporates economic multi-objective optimization for surrogate objectives, and rules that set those objectives based on current conditions and accounting for uncertainty, at least implicitly. The author asserts that real world operating rules follow this form and have evolved because they have been perceived as successful in the past. Thus, the modeling efforts focus on human behavior in much the same way that economic models focus on human behavior. This paper illustrates the above concepts with real world examples.

Sheer, D. P.

2008-12-01

477

Universities and Colleges as Economic Drivers: Measuring Higher Education's Role in Economic Development. Critical Issues in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Local, state, and national economies are facing unprecedented levels of international competition. The current fiscal crisis has hampered the ability of many governments in the developed world to directly facilitate economic growth. At the same time, many governments in the developing world are investing significant new resources into local…

Lane, Jason E., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

2012-01-01

478

Production of activated carbons from waste tire – process design and economical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire – pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal – pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main

Danny C. K. Ko; Edward L. K. Mui; Ken S. T. Lau; Gordon McKay

2004-01-01

479

Separation Process Developed at Rmc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description is given of an extractive distillation process which employs a dissolved salt to modify vapor-liquid relationships in the column. An example of such a process is the rectification of ethanol-water systems with the aid of added potassiu...

R. A. Cook W. F. Furter

1968-01-01

480

Tubeless Evaporation Process Development: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caus...

1987-01-01

481

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-06-01

482

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

483

Novel anaerobic digestion process with sludge ozonation for economically feasible power production from biogas.  

PubMed

A novel process scheme was developed to achieve economically feasible energy recovery from anaerobic digestion. The new process scheme employs a hybrid configuration of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion with sludge ozonation: the ozonated sludge is first degraded in a thermophilic digester and then further degraded in a mesophilic digester. In small-scale pilot experiments of the new process scheme, degradation of VSS improved by 3.5% over the control (mesophilic-only configuration) with 20% less ozone consumption. Moreover, biogas conversion also improved by 7.1% over the control. Selective enrichment of inorganic compounds during centrifugation produced a dewatered sludge cake with very low water content (59.4%). This low water content in the sludge cake improved its auto-thermal combustion potential during incineration and added to the overall energy savings. We conducted a case study to evaluate power generation from biogas for a municipal wastewater treatment plant with an average dry weather flow of 43,000 m3/d. Electricity production cost was 5.2 ¢/kWh for the advanced process with power generation, which is lower than the current market price of 7.2 ¢/kWh. The new anaerobic digestion scheme with power generation may reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 1,000 t-CO(2)/year compared with the conventional process without power generation. PMID:21508552

Komatsu, K; Yasui, H; Goel, R; Li, Y Y; Noike, T

2011-01-01

484

Patterns of economic development and patterns of rural-urban migration in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines three distinctive patterns of economic development in terms of their economic and migration outcomes in Zhejiang province, China. At the prefecture level, “trickle down” development works best in promoting rural development while reducing out-migration; but it requires a strong urban economy and sufficient investment. Rural household enterprise requires little government investment while boosting rural development; but it

Xiushi Yang

1996-01-01

485

Alternative Pathways to Community and Economic Development: The Latrobe Valley Community Partnering Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Conventional approaches to development in areas that are experiencing economic decline invariably focus on business growth through interventions such as incentives, infrastructure development,and job readiness training. This paper reports on a pilot project aimed at developing an alternative approach to community and economic development in the context of the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, a resource region that has experienced downsizing

JENNY CAMERON; KATHERINE GIBSON

2005-01-01

486

Stock and credit market expansion and economic development in emerging markets: further evidence utilizing cointegration analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the relationship between equity and credit market development and economic growth, in a sample of five very important 'emerging' markets. In particular, employing a multivariate time-series methodology to test for long-run trends and causality between variables that proxy for stock market development, credit market development and economic development. The results seem to suggest that equity markets

Konstantinos Kassimatis; Spyros I. Spyrou

2001-01-01

487

The Role of Economic Strain on Adolescent Delinquency: A Microsocial Process Model  

PubMed Central

The current study examines the role of economic strain as a moderator of the microsocial processes influencing younger siblings’ delinquency (externalizing behavior and substance use) in a longitudinal design. The younger siblings (122 younger brothers and 122 younger sisters) were from 244 families with same-sex biological siblings. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine a process model whereby mothers’ harsh/inconsistent parenting and older sibling delinquency influence younger siblings’ delinquent behavior via sibling aggression and delinquent peer affiliation. Findings suggest that indirect mechanisms vary as a function of economic strain, with sibling aggression having a stronger, more detrimental effect on adolescent delinquency in economically strained families. Data suggest that familial economic conditions contextualize the relative roles of parenting, sibling, and peer processes in the transmission of risk to adolescent delinquency.

Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Shortt, Joann Wu

2013-01-01

488

Fermentation Kinetics and Process Economics for the Production of Ethanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to develop and optimize fermentation technology for the production of ethanol. Using glucose as the fermentable substrate, optimal fermentation parameters of pH, temperature, oxygen tension, and sugar concentration were determine...

C. R. Wilke G. R. Cysewski

1976-01-01

489

Materials Processing Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research reported herein covers the period 23 November 2004 to 23 August 2010. The report covers research on texture, cavitation, and variant selection in titanium alloys, as well as thermomechanical processing of superalloys, in addition to operating...

C. M. Carney D. R. Barker E. E. Boakye M. V. Braginsky Y. S. Choi

2010-01-01

490

Cold War Racial Politics and Global Impression Management: North Carolina Economic Development as a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USA emerged from the Second World War as the dominant economic and political power in a world-system undergoing vast political and economic reorganization. US government efforts to expand the nation's role in international affairs paralleled Southern states' economic development attempts. This article employs the methodology of historical sociology and offers a new historical narrative on US segregation policy decisions

Wanda Rushing

2000-01-01

491

Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

1992-11-01

492

Urban Places in Nonmetro Areas: Historic Preservation and Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Urban places during the 20th century faced economic forces causing the decline of their downtowns. Historic preservation, as part of a broader framework, is used for the redevelopment of the urban places' central business districts in nonmetro areas. Whil...

P. L. Stenberg

1995-01-01

493

Developing Qualitative Career Assessment Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an overview of qualitative career assessment and its theoretical underpinnings and proposes suggestions that could guide the development of qualitative career assessment instruments. (Contains 34 references.) (GCP)|

McMahon, Mary; Patton, Wendy; Watson, Mark

2003-01-01

494

The Economics of Inequality in Education. Studies in Economic Development and Planning, No. 44.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the various economic facets of inequality in education in India. The specific focus is on inter-group inequalities, such as inequality between males and females and between backward and advanced castes. It is hypothesized that returns to education accrue differently to different groups of population and…

Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

495

The Development of Trade Union theory and Mainstream Economic Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre-war approaches to trade unions were mainly based on the theoretical and methodological viewpoints of early institutional economics. Trade unions were conceived of as politico-economic organizations whose members were motivated by relative comparisons and also were concerned with issues of equity and justice. In the post-war period, there was a major theoretical and methodological shift towards the idea of

Stavros A. Drakopoulos; Ioannis Katselidis

2012-01-01

496

An Ecologic and Economic Process for Transition Metal Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimentally derived method and equipment capable of removing heavy metals from solutions to below EPA maximum discharge limits as of July 1, 1984. This equipment consists of an electrowinning cell with its cathode replaced by a carbon fiber assembly having an actual surface area about 13,000 times greater than the apparent one. This cathode assembly is a three-dimensional flow-through, substantially reducing the concentration polarization layer and thus enhancing the mass transfer rates. This process is capable of depleting metal bearing solutions to a low enough concentration that is EPA compatible. Also, it is applicable to all platable metals.

Farkas, Joe

1985-02-01

497

Northeast Municipal Economic Development. A National League of Cities Study of Municipal Economic Development Needs, Capacities and Perceptions in the Northeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Findings are reported from a National League of Cities survey of the organizational, programmatic, and budgetary capacities and perceptions regarding economic development of 40 Northeast municipal governments. Cities and towns in eight of the nine Northea...

H. Wallace

1979-01-01

498

Fifty-Years' Development of Cryogenic Liquefaction Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 50th year of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, the present review covers the development of cryogenic processes for oxygen, nitrogen, liquid hydrogen, and liquefied natural gas over that past period. It is confined to those processes of commercial interest, as applied to large-scale production. In all three sectors included in the present review, very significant advances have been made as the result of market forces. The developments that have contributed to the improvement in efficiency, scale of application, and economics are described.

Castle, W. F.

499

Development process of automotive microsensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phased product development approach can be applied advantageously to develop and manufacture automotive microsensors. The phased approach involves a multifunctional team from innovation to development to eventual production and maintenance phases. The key advantage of this approach is the shortened development cycle and fast product introduction, while minimizing waste of resources and lowering risk of product failure. When applied to the product cycles of automotive sensors based on micromachining technology, this approach elucidates several critical considerations. In particular, since industrial application of micromachining technology is still at the infant stage, standards and design rules are not firmly established. Therefore, several important activities must be initiated simultaneously from the start of the innovation phase, which proves to be crucial to the prudent decision of technology alternatives and sensor system configuration. The use of a multifunctional team, as mandated in the phased approach, enables coherent development and optimization of the sense element, the fabrication technology, the packaging approach, the interface circuit configuration, and design features that allow efficient test and assembly flow. Also, with intermediate milestones within each phase, risk assessment and necessary midcourse adjustment to technology trade- offs can be both timely and accurate. Accelerometers, one of the most developed micromachined sensors, serve as representative examples that illustrate how the phased approach can benefits the commercialization of the newly established and rapidly expanding field of micromechanics.

Tang, William C.

1995-05-01

500

Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.  

PubMed

Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations. PMID:23865192

Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

2013-06-01