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1

Economic Integration of Women in the Development Process of Burandi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the status of women in Burundi, with particular focus on rural women, and proposes a three-point strategy to incorporate women into the economic development process. The strategy involves: (1) legislative reform, including liberalizing ...

M. Fikry M. Ward

1992-01-01

2

Development of performance functions for economic performance assessment of process control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic performance assessment (EPA) remains important to predict and verify the benefits from process control systems. In the latest techniques of EPA, performance functions (PFs) have an essential function. However, to the extent of the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic approach to developing PFs. In this paper, a methodology for developing PFs is given and two case studies

Donghui Wei; Ian Craig

2009-01-01

3

Macrothesaurus for Information Processing in the Field of Economic and Social Development. New English Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This new edition has the same purpose as its predecessors; i.e., to provide language which can process information relating to all aspects of economic and social development, and, at the same time, give a common dimension to the more specific vocabularies...

J. Viet

1978-01-01

4

Economic Development Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Economic Development Academy established in 1978 was developed out of the need to provide broader economic development training to career professionals working in local place community economic development. The Academy objectives were one, to deliver ...

1981-01-01

5

Economic adaptive decision processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential adaptive economic decision process can generally be broken down into three interrelated sequential processes. The first is a stochastic environmental process; the second is a historical process which generates a record of the past environmental events; and the third is the decision process itself. Many different kinds of historical processes are possible. Heuristic processes are briefly considered but

R. E. Murphy

1965-01-01

6

Overall Economic Development Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Overall Economic Development Program for the Fourth Planning and Development District Commission is the documentation of proposals considered necessary for economic development. It provides rationale to support a request for official recognition as an...

1974-01-01

7

Women, Empowerment, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development policies and programs tend not to view women as integral to the economic development process. This is reflected in the higher investments in women's reproductive rather than their productive roles, mainly in population programs. Yet women throughout the developing world engage in economically productive work and earn incomes. They work primarily in agricul ture and in the informal sector

Rekha Mehra

1997-01-01

8

Curriculum Development in Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reproduces sixteen papers on recent developments in economics curriculum in Britain. The papers, presented and examined at a two-day conference at the University of Manchester in January, 1973, offer a comprehensive look at the current state of economic education and research. Directed to economics teachers and curriculum specialists,…

Whitehead, David, Ed.

9

Unauthorized Migration: An Economic Development Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The search for economic opportunity is the primary motivation for most unauthorized migration to the United States. While job-creating economic growth is the ultimate solution to reducing these migratory pressures, the economic development process itself ...

1990-01-01

10

Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

1984-01-01

11

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1991-12-01

12

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} has been achieved at 600 C with Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

2003-12-01

13

Overall Economic Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed background picture is presented of the Meramec region's physical geography, population, labor force, natural and manmade resources, as well as economic and social activities and problems that retard economic growth. The OEDP outlines economic d...

1973-01-01

14

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

2003-04-01

15

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the technical progress from April to September 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. Characteristics of doped lanthanum gallate (LSGMF) powder suitable for thin electrolyte fabrication have been defined. Bilayers with thin LSGMF electrolyte supported on an anode were fabricated and the fabrication process was improved. Preliminary performance was characterized. High performance cathode material Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} has been down-selected and is being optimized by modifying materials characteristics and processing parameters. The selected cathode exhibited excellent performance with cathode polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} at 600 C.

Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

2003-10-01

16

Economic Growth and Human Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the links between economic growth and human development, identifying two chains, one from economic growth to human development, the other, from human development to economic growth. The importance of various links in each chain are explored empirically with the help of cross-country statistics for the period 1970-92. Public expenditures on health and education, notably female, represent especially

Alejandro Ramirez; Gustav Ranis; Frances Stewart

1997-01-01

17

Economics, Social Science and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development economics nowadays is mainstream economics applied to poor countries. An examination of the core principles of mainstream economics reveals tremendous strengths, but also tremendous weaknesses. Other disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology and political science, have complementary strengths that suggest a role for them as equal partners in development studies and policy. The argument for a partnership of disciplines is

Ravi Kanbur

2002-01-01

18

Western Economic Developments: May 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FRB San Francisco's bi-monthly publication Western Economic Developments summarizes economic growth and development in the Twelfth District. The economy remained strong throughout the first quarter of 2000, with an employment growth rate of 2.5 percent annually. California's economic growth rate was especially high, due to "usually rapid growth of income and consumer spending."

19

Economics and Educational Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the difficulty of calculating an accurate rate of return for investment in education, focusing in particular on the methods and arguments used by Schultz in his 1961 article, "Education and Economic Growth," and argues that recent overinvestment in American education has lowered its economic efficiency. (JG)

Georgescu-Roegen, Nicholas

1976-01-01

20

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

21

President's Role in Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document focuses on the role of community college presidents in the varied activities entailed by economic development. Specifically, the paper addresses those activities that involve the political, financial, and economic aspects of regional or county planning, marketing and financing. First, definitions are provided of two types of economic

Kopecek, Robert J.

22

GOVERNANCE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: CHANGES AND CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the issue of governance in the process of economic development. The paper first provides a literature review on the various arguments regarding the role of government in promoting economic development and the major issues emphasized in recent government reform projects. The paper then focuses on three major policy changes and reforms that are related to the area

Kuotsai Tom Liou

2001-01-01

23

The Bologna Process and the Economic Impacts of Research and Development within the Context of Europeanization: The Case of Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education and public research play an important role in economic development, mainly in industrial research and development (R & D) and innovation through the manufacturing sector. Finland has taken great strides in this regard as it represents a Europeanization of a knowledge system in the European Union, being relevant at the…

Habti, Driss

2010-01-01

24

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the complex relationship between geography and macroeconomic growth. We investigate the ways in which geography may matter directly for growth, controlling for economic policies and institutions, as well as the effects of geography on policy choices and institutions. We find that location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth, through their effects on

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1998-01-01

25

Frontiers and sustainable economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting new resource “frontiers,” such as agricultural land and mineral reserves, is a fundamental feature of economic\\u000a development in poor economies. Yet frontier-based development is symptomatic of a pattern of economy-wide resource exploitation\\u000a in developing economies that: (a) generates little additional economic rents, and (b) what rents are generated are not being\\u000a reinvested in other sectors. Such development is inherently

Edward B. Barbier

2007-01-01

26

Bolivia: Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to identify the main relationship between economic development and geography at the province level in Bolivia. To achieve this, we study simultaneously the relationship between an index of basic needs insatisfaction (NBI), as a measure of human capital, and GDP per capita with geographical, demographical, institutional and structural economic variables. The estimation of GDP

Rolando Morales; Erwing Galopo; Luis Carlos Jemio; Carmen María Choque; Natacha Morales

2000-01-01

27

FE: Aspects of Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents national and international perspectives on the role of further education (FE) in economic development in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Throughout the papers, special attention is paid to the need to reassess FE and its role as service provider, stakeholder, and strategic partner in view of the following social and economic

James, Simon, Ed.

1998-01-01

28

Development, Geography, and Economic Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do certain ideas gain currency in economics while others fall by the wayside? Paul Krugman argues that the unwillingness of mainstream economists to think about what they could not formalize led them to ignore ideas that turn out, in retrospect, to have been very good ones. Krugman examines the course of economic geography and development theory to shed light

Paul Krugman

1996-01-01

29

Frontier Expansion and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although finding new frontiers or reserves of natural resources to exploit has been the basis of much of global economic development for the past 500 years, frontier-based development does not appear to be producing sustained high rates of growth in today's poorer economies. Through a two-sector model of frontier expansion and economic growth in a resource-dependent small open economy, this

Edward B. Barbier

2005-01-01

30

Health, Nutrition, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between economic development and health has received far less attention than the relationship between development and schooling. However, recent studies indicate that better health is associated with improved labor market outcomes, particularly in low-income settings. Difficulties in disentangling the causal mechanisms underlying these associations are discussed, highlighting the role of behaviors and measurement of health. The empirical literature

John Strauss; Duncan Thomas

1998-01-01

31

Women's Work and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a cross-country dataset and microdata from India and Thailand, we examine how women's work status changes with economic development. Several clear patterns emerge: women's labor force participation first declines and then rises with development; women move from work in family enterprises to work as paid employees; fertility declines; and gender gaps in education narrow. Women's education levels, and those

Kristen Mammen; Christina Paxson

2000-01-01

32

Strategies for Sustainable Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on "Our Common Future" reported by the World Commission on Environment and Development. Discussed are the conditions making development sustainable including reviving growth, equity, meeting needs and aspirations, population, productivity, economic and ecological systems, budgets, and military expenditures. Lists seven…

MacNeill, Jim

1989-01-01

33

Local Initiative for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1982, in an effort to address a rising unemployment rate in its service area, Pueblo Community College (PCC) joined with local community leaders and the Pueblo Economic Development Corporation to explore feasible, practical, and workable assistance models which would foster the retention and development of small businesses. Numerous…

Zeiss, P. Anthony

34

Human Development and Economic Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to integrate the concern for human development in the present with that in the future. In arguing for sustainable human development, it appeals to the notion of ethical “universalism”—an elementary demand for impartiality of claims—applied within and between generations. Economic sustainability is often seen as a matter of intergenerational equity, but the specification of what is to

Amartya Sen

2000-01-01

35

Backpacker tourism and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

International tourism is often perceived by LDC (Less Developed Country) government tourism planners as an engine of economic growth, but the focus is commonly upon mass tourism while ignoring the subsector of backpacker tourism. The case study of Gili Trawangan island in Lombok, eastern Indonesia, indicates that the encouragement of backpacker tourism may alleviate some of the excesses of international

Mark P Hampton

1998-01-01

36

Appalachian Culture and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost as long as commentators, reformers, and policy makers have worried about how to improve income, living conditions, and human welfare in the southern mountain region of the United States, a significant relationship is assumed to exist between the culture of those who live in Appalachia and the prospects for the region's economic development. Indeed, assumptions about the distinctiveness

Ronald L. Lewis; Dwight B. Billings

37

Economic Growth and Human Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connections between economic growth (EG) and human development (HD) form two chains. Crosscountry regressions show a significant relationship in both directions, with public expenditures on health and education, notably female, especially important in the chain from EG to HD; and the investment rate and income distribution significant in the HD to EG chain. This gives rise to virtuous or

Alejandro Ramirez; Frances Stewart

2000-01-01

38

Management Model for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An economic development model was formulated to foster and strengthen commerce and industry retention and expansion in the state of Illinois. The main thrust of the model was on increasing productivity, decreasing business failures, encouraging entrepreneurship, and creating a favorable business climate through community support. To meet these…

Harris, Edward

39

Techno-economic assessment of a carbothermic alumina reduction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthur D. Little, Inc., undertook an assessment of a process for the carbothermic reduction of alumina based on prior work and a flowsheet developed by a technical committee for the US Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the techno-economic assessment which identified potentially viable subprocess steps and their economic viability based on past research findings. Economic comparisons show the carbothermic

C. L. Kusik; A. Syska; J. Mullins; V. Vejins

1989-01-01

40

The Role of Education in Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study of educational contributors to economic development identified strategic partnerships, aimed at fostering a climate of collaboration, and operational partnerships, formed for specific projects. A three-stage process enables creation of a culture of learning and enterprise: identifying priority issues, assessing capabilities, and analyzing…

Woolhouse, John; Cramphorn, Jill

1999-01-01

41

Process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

Bickler, D. B.

1985-01-01

42

Economic Analysis of Low Temperature TNT Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An economic analysis of alternative TNT processes was performed to determine potential cost savings. Total costs of the nine alternatives (current and modified Canadian Industries Limited (CIL) processes and the Low Temperature Stanford Research Institute...

N. H. Trier

1975-01-01

43

Economics of Processing Tomatoes in Egypt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report in Arabic has an English summary. Consumption of processed tomato products has been rising dramatically, leading to sharply increased imports. Egypt processes only about 1 percent of its tomato production; the industry currently is not economic...

A. K. M. Ashry

1983-01-01

44

Privatisation and Economic Development Strategy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development in Russia has dominated discussions on economic strategies world wide. In the unipolar scenario, it has attracted a greater attention than the economic strategies formulated by the erstwhile Soviet Union. The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, led to the emergence of a new development paradigm consisting of new economic policy, collectivisation movement, electricity everywhere and electricity for all, resolving

Ram Kumar Mishra

45

Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy  

SciTech Connect

NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

2008-07-01

46

Alternative Economic Development Policies for Indian Communities. Economic Development and Navajo Social Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Underinvestment--a cause of underdevelopment; Social structure of Navajo Society; Economy in a traditional community; Economic development at the tribal level; Alternative economic development programs.

L. T. Ruffing

1974-01-01

47

Science and Technology and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dealing with science and technology and economic development, this paper describes the relationship between technological capability and the degree of economic development. It analyzes the structure of the Philippine economy and the structural changes that have taken place since the 1970. It also investigates the impact of economic developments and technological advances in other countries on the Philippine economy. A

Mario B. Lamberte

1988-01-01

48

Colorado Technology Transfer Plan for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of technology transfer to economic growth, the U.S. Economic Development Administration (EDA) provided the Colorado Advanced Technology Institute (CATI) with a grant to coordinate the development of a plan for using technology transfer in Colorado's economic development. The plan, outlined in this report, describes the…

Colorado Advanced Tech. Inst., Denver.

49

A Comprehensive Approach to Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kirkwood Community College's (KCC's) economic development efforts in Iowa provide a full-service, regional delivery system for customized job training, retraining, and economic development services and programs. The mission of Kirkwood Economic Development Services (KEDS) is to assist the region's business and industry in becoming more productive,…

Ovel, Steven J.; Olejniczak, Lon

50

Economic Comparison of Processes Using Spreadsheet Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive approach aids plant-design decisions. Commercially available electronic spreadsheet programs aid economic comparison of different processes for producing particular end products. Facilitates plantdesign decisions without requiring large expenditures for powerful mainframe computers.

Ferrall, J. F.; Pappano, A. W.; Jennings, C. N.

1986-01-01

51

Economics of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have the ability to produce high yields of sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. However, these systems have been plagued with yields, product concentrations, and reactions rates far below tho...

J. D. Wright

1988-01-01

52

Overall Economic Development Program, Clinton County, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains information and analyses of socio-economic characteristics in Clinton County, Illinois. An Overall Economic Development Program is presented as the product of this analysis, focusing upon methods for strengthening local employment oppo...

1972-01-01

53

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

54

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

1988-01-01

55

Process Engineering Economics of Bioethanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a review of studies on the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic\\u000a materials published since 1996. Our objective was to identify the most costly process steps and the impact\\u000a of various parameters on the final production cost, e.g. plant capacity, raw material cost, and overall\\u000a product yield, as well as process configuration. The variation in estimated ethanol

Mats Galbe; Per Sassner; Anders Wingren; Guido Zacchi

56

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic development information...

2010-01-01

57

DO WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS EFFECT ECONOMIC GROWTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practitioners, researchers, and policy makers have recognized the potential for national economic prosperity and economic development through the impact of entrepreneurial activity. Large amounts of money are spent on a range of initiatives designed to stimulate employment and innovative production. Many organizations and government institutions have long recognized the importance of women in the process of increased development in both

Amanda Bullough

2006-01-01

58

Mainstreaming Sustainability in Local Economic Development Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development objectives now form a central part of the local economic development practitioner's remit. So an understanding of the concepts used and the tools required to mainstream sustainability is vital. The paper reviews economic, environmental and social conceptualisations of sustainability as these relate to local development practice. It distinguishes between weak sustainability 'no-regrets' policy instruments (such as ecological modernisation,

Tony Jackson

2007-01-01

59

Economic Development and Social Capital.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that community colleges have recreated themselves over the last 100 years in response to the changing American economy. Explains that the new need for community colleges to fulfill the local communities' economic needs calls for renewed civic participation in the colleges. Describes Maricopa Community College District's Civic Participation…

Ronan, Bernie; Kur, Sally

2001-01-01

60

A Model for Rural Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers definitions and descriptions, and explores the dynamics, of "strategic grantseeking" as a means of supporting economic development programs. Strategic grantseeking is a natural and dynamic tool usable with any economic development program. It consists of a set of concepts, procedures, and tools which are integrated into a…

Rampp, Lary; Johnson, Deke

61

Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

2007-06-01

62

Rethinking federal policy for regional economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development policy is a major priority of the federal government. Over the past century, Congress has created a panoply of programs aimed at economic development in communities and regions. These programs have sprung up at different times, with different goals, and with different ways of meeting those goals. Yet taken together they add up to a big priority and

Mark Drabenstott

2006-01-01

63

Economic Development Grant Report, Fiscal Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile is provided of community college business centers and their activities conducted under economic development grants during fiscal year (FY) 1985. Following introductory remarks, section I provides a narrative description of the FY 1985 economic development grant activities, including industrial attraction, retention and expansion,…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

64

Salute to Imaginative Economic Development Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In communities across the nation, local leaders are discovering new ways to spur economic development. The handbook lists more than 45 examples of new businesses, development and innovative practices which have helped to create or retain jobs. Each has en...

1989-01-01

65

Development Aid to Agriculture and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe link between foreign aid and economic growth has been a controversial issue with no strong consensus so far. This paper argues that a possible reason why some studies may conclude that aid is ineffective in promoting economic growth might be that not all aid is given for development purposes (i.e. aid given for strategic considerations, humanitarian reasons or emergency

Ozgur Kaya; Ilker Kaya; Lewell Gunter

2012-01-01

66

India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents analysis of endemic deprivation in India and the role of public action in addressing the problem. The analysis is based on a broad view of economic development, focusing on human well-being and 'social opportunity' rather than the standard indicators of economic growth. India's success in reducing deprivation since Independence has been limited. Recent diagnoses of this failure

Jean Dreze; Amartya Sen

1995-01-01

67

Biological diversity, ecosystem stability and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear from the scale of anthropogenic resource use that economic systems should be brought within biophysical limits as soon as possible. One might assume that this task is difficult because it would involve identifying these limits, knowing when and where they are breached, and allocating responsibility. However, an intimate understanding of the natural limits to economic development may

Fraser Smith

1996-01-01

68

Economic Logistics for Competitiveness and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years a new interdisciplinary field of research has emerged: Economic Logistics. The new subject, pionereed by American scholars and currently being further developed by a group of Italian scholars, encompasses, inter alia, appraisal of specialized infrastructures, issues of regional planning, market regulation and economies\\/diseconomies of both transport and logistic outsourcing. Systems of economic logistics are investigated

69

National trade associations, economic development and globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the post communism regime, the responsibility of economic development has largely been shifted to private sector. The increasing role of private sector enterprises introduced the new concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), democratization in business and finance, corporate culture, fair trade, good governance and economic freedom and participation. The ‘wealth maximization concept’ under the ‘extreme capitalism’, limited liability, separate

Ayub Mehar

2008-01-01

70

An Economic analysis for Landscape Developement in\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about an economic investigation in order to analyze the existing situation of Lahanokipoi landscape developement and the possibilities that can come out when exploring it, starting by writing down the existing business companies and industries, the value of landscape by using economic ratios and the perspectives that can come out. The Lahanokipoi area covers a big part

Vasiliki BASDEKIDOU

71

Wind Energy and Economic Development in Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet summarizes a recent report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Economic Development Benefits from Wind Power in Nebraska: A Report for the Nebraska Energy Office, which focuses on the estimated economic development impacts in Nebraska from development and operation of wind power in the state as envisioned in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030.

Lantz, E.

2009-06-01

72

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

Cohen, L.R. [Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States); Hogsett, R.F. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Sinor, J.E. [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

1992-10-01

73

Process development and techno-economic analysis of a novel process for MeOH production from CO2 using solar-thermal energy.  

SciTech Connect

Mitigating and overcoming environmental problems brought about by the current worldwide fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure requires the creation of innovative alternatives. In particular, such alternatives must actively contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions via carbon recycling and a shift to the use of renewable sources of energy. Carbon neutral transformation of biomass to liquid fuels is one of such alternatives, but it is limited by the inherently low energy efficiency of photosynthesis with regard to the net production of biomass. Researchers have thus been looking for alternative, energy-efficient chemical routes inspired in the biological transformation of solar power, CO2 and H2O into useful chemicals; specifically, liquid fuels. Methanol has been the focus of a fair number of publications for its versatility as a fuel, and its use as an intermediate chemical in the synthesis of many compounds. In some of these studies, (e.g. Joo et al., (2004), Mignard and Pritchard (2006), Galindo and Badr (2007)) CO2 and renewable H2 (e.g. electrolytic H2) are considered as the raw materials for the production of methanol and other liquid fuels. Several basic PFD diagrams have been proposed. One of the most promising is the so called CAMERE process (Joo et al., 1999 ). In this process, carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen are fed to a first reactor and transformed according to: H2 + CO2 <=> H2O + CO Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) After eliminating the produced water the resulting H2/CO2/CO mixture is then feed to a second reactor where it is converted to methanol according to: CO2 + 3.H2 <=> CH3OH + H2O Methanol Synthesis (MS) CO + H2O <=> CO2 + H2 Water Gas Shift (WGS) The approach here is to produce enough CO to eliminate, via WGS, the water produced by MS. This is beneficial since water has been proven to block active sites in the MS catalyst. In this work a different process alternative is presented: One that combines the CO2 recycling of the CAMERE process and the use of solar energy implicit in some of the biomass-based process, but in this case with the potential high energy efficiency of thermo-chemical transformations.

Henao, Carlos (University of Wisconsin); Kim, Jiyong (University of Wisconsin); Johnson, Terry Alan; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin); Miller, James Edward

2010-11-01

74

Economic Development through the Welcome Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project objectives were to measure the impact of Pennsylvania's Welcome Centers on economic development in the Commonwealth and identify cost-effective changes that could be made to the centers to increase travel expenditures of tourists. The project ...

K. Y. Knoebel

1992-01-01

75

Subsea completions improve development economics  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief historical account of the development of the offshore drilling and production sector of the oil and gas industries. The paper provides data showing the growth of offshore drilling and completion on a world-wide basis. The author attributes this to the increased reliability of subsurface production equipment showing that the new control systems have lowered the failure rate to less than two percent. The paper traces the early offshore field development and equipment used to the current floating production platforms and how they came into existence. Finally, the paper discusses the development of offshore standards for drilling, production, and control equipment.

Booth, D. (Subsea Data Services, Wimberly, TX (United States))

1993-10-01

76

DSM as an economic development strategy  

SciTech Connect

Models capable of reflecting price adjustments and capital flows can estimate the longer-term impacts of energy choices on the net gain and distribution of employment. But without a common basis in the types of models used, research on the employment effects of energy efficiency cannot be integrated in a way that is useful. A sluggish economic recovery, lagging consumer confidence and concerns about the U.S.`s international competitiveness have pushed the jobs issue to the forefront of almost all economic policies. Energy efficiency and demand-side management (DSM) advocates are actively raising the issue in energy policy and regulatory forums around the country. Recent policy level discussions within the Department of Energy have strengthened this momentum. At the heart of the DOE work is an emphasis on the use of `Quality Metrics` to guide the development of its programs and budgets. Employment and income benefits are part of this new calculus. Several new studies have elevated this issue to new levels of policy consideration. Even municipal utilities have begun to explore this issue, with the release of a software package called the OPTIONS model. But with all this activity a good deal of confusion remains about how to understand the job creation process. To help clear some of the confusion, this article explains the basic tools used to measure employment gains or losses. It also reviews some of the basic lessons learned in the application of these tools.

Laitner, S.; Goodman, I.; Krier, B.

1994-05-01

77

Aid, trade and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lord Bauer understood that the human freedom of movement plays a vital role in development. Today, internal and cross-border migration generates hard-currency remittances that raise living standards and capital investment in the country of origin, promotes greater trade and investment ties between destination and origin countries, and raises a country's stock of human and physical capital when migrants return with

Daniel T. Griswold

2003-01-01

78

Advanced MED process for most economical sea water desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low temperature horizontal tube multi-effect desalination (MED) process is thermodynamically the most efficient of all thermal distillation processes.A comprehensive multi-disciplinary development and design approach resulted in prevention of corrosion and scale formation on the plant’s heat transfer surfaces. It also allows the successful and most economical use of aluminum alloys for heat transfer tubes, as well as carbon steel

A. Ophir; F. Lokiec

2005-01-01

79

Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

Hanrahan, Colleen F; Shah, Maunank

2014-08-01

80

Technology Application: The Role of the Economic Developer in Improving the Competitiveness of Existing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AEDC Educational Foundation handbook has presented for the economic developer insights into the decision-making processes of business as a basis for determining appropriate roles for the economic developer to assist business in applying technology. Th...

1987-01-01

81

Language Policy and Economic and Social Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of language policy making and its place in a nation's economic and social development uses Australia's experience as a case study. In particular, it reviews the factors such as multiculturalism and international relations that have led to the development of a national language policy, and examines the interim documents and the…

Ingram, D. E.

82

Environmentalizing economic development: a South Asian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Asia's pursuit of economic development has entailed considerable damage to and exposed the fragility of the physical environment of the region. This paper provides an analytical overview of the of the environmental problems that manifest themselves in South Asia in a comparative perspective with East and Southeast Asian countries as well as selected developed market economies. To date, South

Mohammad Alauddin

2004-01-01

83

Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

84

Economic Growth, Agricultural Trade, and Development Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developing countries are the most likely growth markets for U.S. agricultural exports. The best U.S. strategy for increasing the potential of agricultural exports to developing countries is to encourage economic growth in these markets, which will lead to...

G. Vocke

1987-01-01

85

Economic Incentive Programs: Performance Evaluation and the Iowa Department of Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Iowa Department of Economic Development (IDED) oversees a broad range of economic development programs and services designed to meet the needs of individuals, companies and communities. Evaluating economic incentive programs can help determine what wo...

D. A. Keele

1999-01-01

86

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other economic development objectives. 120.862 Section...Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. A Project that...

2010-01-01

87

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Other economic development objectives. 120.862 Section...Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. A Project that...

2009-01-01

88

Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critique argues that the preponderance of theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence suggests a positive, first-order relationship between financial development and economic growth. The body of work would push even most skeptics toward the belief that the development of financial markets and institutions is a critical and inextricable part of the growth process and away from the view that the

Ross Levine

1997-01-01

89

The Role of Livestock in Economic Development and Poverty Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the diverse and changing roles of livestock as they relate to the process of economic development and poverty reduction, departing from the premise that livestock production plays an important role in contributing to the livelihoods of most of the world's poor and in meeting the fast growing demand for livestock products in the developing countries. It is

Martin Upton

2004-01-01

90

Economically oriented process optimization in waste management.  

PubMed

A brief report on the development of novel apparatus is presented. It was verified in a commercial scale that a new concept of anaerobic fermentation followed by continuous pyrolysis is technically and economically feasible to manage previously enzymatically hydrolyzed waste haylage in huge volumes. The design of the concept is thoroughly described, documented in figures, and biochemically analyzed in detail. Assessment of the concept shows that subsequent pyrolysis of the anaerobically fermented residue allows among biogas to produce also high-quality biochar. This significantly improves the overall economy. In addition, it may be assumed that this applied research is consistent with previous theoretical assumptions stating that any kind of aerobic or anaerobic fermentation increases the microporosity of the biochar obtained. PMID:24584590

Maroušek, Josef

2014-06-01

91

Emerald Cities: Urban Sustainability and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here is a refreshing look at how American cities are leading the way toward greener, cleaner, and more sustainable forms of economic development. In Emerald Cities, Joan Fitzgerald shows how in the absence of a comprehensive national policy, cities like Chicago, New York, Portland, San Francisco, and Seattle have taken the lead in addressing the interrelated environmental problems of global

Joan Fitzgerald

92

The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

Dinan, Desmond

1993-01-01

93

MICE, ICT and Local Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how information and communication technologies (ICT), and particularly the World Wide Web (Web), can enhance the role that Meetings, Incentives, Conventions, and Exhibitions (MICE) properties play in local economic development (LED). The complex linkages between MICE, ICT and LED are explored through a literature review, a website audit, in-depth interviews, and a case study of Te Kahurangi

Chloe K. H. Lau; Simon Milne; Charles S. Johnston

2005-01-01

94

Leveraged Buyouts: Implications for Economic Development Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the number of leveraged buyouts (LBOs) that have occurred during the past 10 years, economic development planners should think about the potential impact on the employment base of their communities from these debt-heavy transactions. This article summarizes briefly the background of LBOs, pointing out that today in excess of probably $300 billion is outstanding in bank loans and junk

Lloyd W. W. Bell

1990-01-01

95

Migration, Human Capital Accumulation and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we contribute to the debate on the brain drain by focussing on the role played by the composition of human capital in fostering productivity growth and economic development. We present a model in which productivity increases either through imitation or innovation, and both activities use the same types of human capital as inputs, albeit with difierent intensities.

Corrado Di Maria; Piotr Stryszowskiy

2006-01-01

96

Economic Development Program, Aquidneck Island, Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the study was to inventory land and buildings available for economic development, and to discover employment problems and opportunities within the city of Newport. The project has assisted a wide range of employers, from a mussels growing busi...

1978-01-01

97

Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

Kelly, John

2011-01-01

98

Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

2002-01-01

99

Economic Development Grant Report, Fiscal Year 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile is provided of Illinois community college business centers and the activities they conducted under the fiscal year 1986 $3.5 million economic development grant allocation. First, highlights of the year's accomplishments are presented, including: (1) community colleges provided training for 852 companies through 1,400 courses, serving…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

100

Fiscal Year 1987 Economic Development Grant Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile is provided of Illinois community college business centers and the activities they conducted under fiscal year 1987's $3,730,376 economic development allocation. First, highlights of the year's accomplishments are presented, indicating that: (1) community colleges provided customized job training for 1,395 companies through 1,954…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

101

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Updated January 30, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries discuss, develop and analyze economic and social policy and shares expertise and exchanges with more than 70 de...

J. K. Jackson

2009-01-01

102

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Updated February 8, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries discuss, develop, and analyze economic and social policy and share expertise and exchanges with more than 70 de...

J. K. Jackson

2010-01-01

103

Growth through greening: developing and assessing alternative economic development programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper articulates how communities can capitalize on the specific benefits of urban forestry and assesses the outcomes of urban forestry efforts. To accomplish this, the paper defines the context of local economic development and urban forestry; outlines the economic, aesthetic, and ecological benefits of a smart-growth agenda that includes urban forestry; and presents two brief case studies that empirically

J. D. Gatrell; R. R. Jensen

2002-01-01

104

Global health funding and economic development  

PubMed Central

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

2012-01-01

105

Urban Development Resources: Economic Development Programs Around the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic development program components are discussed and illustrated with descriptions of programs operating in communities around the Nation. These components include organizational options, subsidy devices, loan mechanisms, land assembly tools, and Fed...

1980-01-01

106

Telecommunications infrastructure investment and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-way causal relationship between telecommunications infrastructure investment and economic development, established for the US economy in previous analysis, is tested at the more localized state and sub-state level and for two specific sub-categories of telecommunications infrastructure investment - central office equipment, and cable and wire. For time series of these two sub-categories of telecommunications investment compiled for the Commonwealth

Francis J. Cronin; Edwin B. Parker; Elisabeth K. Colleran; Mark A. Gold

1993-01-01

107

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, October 30, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2011, a time when the global economy was struggling to recover from the financial crisis and slow economic growth. The OECD is an intergovernmental economic or...

J. K. Jackson

2013-01-01

108

An economic perspective on land abandonment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Land abandonment,is the ultimate evidence of a modified economic,profit- ability in land ,use and land ownership. ,The paper first analyses how ,this phenomenon,can be assessed,using census survey,data and shows,the path ofland,use changes that occurred in Italy during the last thirty years. Sec- ond, it lists the main economic and social factors which can affect agricul- tural abandonment at macro,

Adele Coppola

109

Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries. Methods: Data used in this paper were obtained from different information sources: international and national journal articles and reports, web-based statistics, and fact sheets. We used both online search and hand search methods to gather the information. Results: Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the economic cost associated with poor sanitation is substantial. At the global level, failure to meet the MDG water and sanitation target would have ramifications in the area of US$38 billion, and sanitation accounts for 92% of this amount. In developing countries, the spending required to provide new coverage to meet the MDG sanitation target (not including program costs) is US$142 billion (US$ year 2005). This translates to a per capita spending of US$28 for sanitation. Annually, this translates to roughly US$14 million. The evidence complied in this paper demonstrates that investing in sanitation is socially and economically worthwhile. For every US$1 invested, achieving the sanitation MDG target and universal sanitation access in the non-OECD countries would result in a global return of US$9.1 and US$11.2, respectively. Conclusion: Given the current state of knowledge, sanitation is undeniably a profitable investment. It is clear that achieving the MDG sanitation target not only saves lives but also provides a foundation for economic growth.

Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

2011-01-01

110

The urban-rural dimension in national economic development.  

PubMed

Urban growth should be evaluated less as good or bad in itself than in terms of whether it promotes the efficient and equitable performance of vital economic functions within a nation. Much urban growth in developing nations both reflects national growth and promotes it. Cities are sources of economic growth, which is their dominant characteristic. There is a strong tendency for large cities and their surrounding core regions to be the most active, rapidly growing areas of developing nations. Certain economic functions tend to be found only in cities and tend to cluster into certain cities because it is economically efficient. 3 mechanisms which make cities economically efficient are 1) internal economies of scale, 2) localization economies, and 3) agglomeration economies. Urban areas can provide support functions for rural areas and, in turn, their growth depends on the support of an agricultural base. Urban areas also provide alternative employment and income opportunities for the rural surplus population. There are 4 prominent questions often raised about possible negative effects of urbanization on national growth and development. One question is urban growth and urban bias, which the authors argue is overemphasized. Another question is diseconomies of scale in large cities; this, the authors suggest, is not a matter of size as much as operating efficiently. Third is urbanization and regional dualism, which the authors argue can be maintained through a strategy of changing a nation's mix and location of urban activity. Fourth is the question of cities and rural outmigration. The authors argue that although most people who leave rural areas are younger, more motivated, and better educated than those left behind, their departures are economically favorable. Getting economic activity located correctly along an urban-rural spectrum is important to the growth of developing countries. 6 rules that illustrate how to do this are 1) be guided by local circumstances, not theoretical models; 2) promote better management of major urban areas; 3) avoid direct controls on migration and location; 4) understand the reluctance of industry to locate outside core regions; 5) develop secondary cities with an eye to economic eficiency; and 6) be cautious about "new town" developments. The authors conclude that 1) both host governments and those involved in development assistance should realize that urban growth is a natural process; and 2) when they do intervene in the process, they should do so in ways designed to build upon economic forces already at work. PMID:12314419

Egan, M L; Bendick M

1986-01-01

111

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Other economic development objectives. 120.862 Section 120...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other...

2014-01-01

112

Economic Development in American Indian Reservations. Development Series No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of 13 scholarly articles and essays, this book makes available hard-to-find information and theories about American Indian economic development. Part I, "The Land and the People", emphasizes cultural traditions and beliefs of Indian people and traces the development of the concept of sovereignty and its applicability to Indian self…

Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar, Ed.

113

Exemplary Project Handbook: Participating in Economic Development. CETA and Reservation Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to assist Native American reservation program planners, this handbook highlights a number of exemplary uses of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) funds in reservation economic development, presents a discussion of the problems reservations may face in meeting the new funding directions of the federal government, and…

Fazio, Ernest J., Jr.; And Others

114

Economic and energy audit of textile foam processing  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wet processing of textiles - dyeing, or application of such surface finishes as soil and water repellents, antistatic agents, fire retardants, permanent press agents, and starch - consumes about 0.19 quadrillion Btu's of energy per year, the equivalent of 30 million barrels of oil. Because wet processing involves immersion of the fabric in a water bath, most of the energy used is in the form of heat for drying. In the newer foam finishing approach, the chemicals for surface finishes are dispersed in a mixture of water and air. The chemicals are concentrated in a relatively small amount of water, and air is injected to form a thick, stable foam. Because little water is involved, drying time and temperature may be drastically reduced. Authur D. Little, Inc., conducted an economic and energy audit of foam processing that considered the technical feasibility, reliability, energy savings, and economic incentives for using foam finishing. We monitored four plants that finish textiles (carpets, broad-woven fabrics, and tubular knits). The plants were selected by the developer of the foaming process (United Merchants and Manufacturers, Inc.) to represent a wide range of textile finishing applications.

Machacek, R.

1983-06-01

115

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1993-01-01

116

Early Childhood Development: Economic Development with a High Public Return  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, the future of Minnesota's economy has been called into question. The resulting debate illustrates how little is understood about the fundamentals that underlie economic development. While many recognize the success of the Minnesota economy in the past, they see a weakening in the foundations of that success. Some point to the decline in corporate headquarters

Art Rolnick; Rob Grunewald

117

Economic Studies of the Economic Development Administration. An Annotated Bibliography 1995-2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annotated bibliography is the fifth in the 36-year history of the Economic Development Administration (EDA). It describes 132 economic research, evaluation, and technical assistance reports funded by EDA's Research and Technical Assistance programs. ...

J. B. Fieser

2001-01-01

118

Economics of the K-T process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average gas cost of intermediate and high Btu gas produced in the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process (for the production of a clean gaseous fuel and synthesis products such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol) was calculated. The coal preparation and gasification process is described, along with the processes of gas cooling and cleaning and sulfur removal. Costs associated with the

D. M. Mitsak; J. F. Farnsworth; R. Wintrell

1975-01-01

119

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...assistance meets the economic development standard only if the EZ's...plan demonstrates that such education will be provided to persons...with respect to economic development projects expected to be...a conference on economic development. The use of HUD EZ...

2013-04-01

120

Powder towpreg process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

1991-01-01

121

Physics And Its Roles In Economic Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics plays a variety of roles in economic development. These are explored and ways of increasing the importance of physics to world economies are discussed. Surveys by the Institute of Physics have shown that over 40% of employment in manufacturing in the UK is based on physics, and that this sector continues to expand. Physics provides techniques and equipment for advances in the life sciences. An education in physics gives an ability to tackle a diverse range of subjects from first principles and to find innovative solutions to problems where conventional approaches fail. Physicists in many countries readily find employment in a wide range of areas. However, because of the range of opportunities available, there is a reluctance of physics graduates to enter teaching and prepare the next generation of physicists. Sharing experience between countries is vital. The World Year of Physics has played an important role in this.

Melville, Peter

2007-04-01

122

Africa Recovery: Tracking the Continent's Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library and Publications Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information has recently begun providing major excerpts of its quarterly periodical Africa Recovery via the web. The publication tracks economic and social development issues in Africa. The latest issue (July 1997) contains articles on Congolese reconstruction, the 33rd Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the recent G-7 Summit, and the recent Africa Governance Forum in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (UN Special Initiative). Articles are mostly concise news summaries. There are also sections on upcoming and recent conferences and pertinent books, as well as the features Africa in Brief and Under the Baobob Tree, which highlights a single African issue.

1997-01-01

123

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Updated October 30, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2011, a time when the global economy was struggling to recover from the financial crisis and slow economic growth. The OECD is an intergovernmental economi...

J. K. Jackson

2013-01-01

124

Is biomass fractionation by Organosolv-like processes economically viable? A conceptual design study.  

PubMed

In this work, the conceptual designs of the established Organosolv process and a novel biphasic, so-called Organocat process are developed and analyzed. Solvent recycling and energy integration are emphasized to properly assess economic viability. Both processes show a similar energy consumption (approximately 5 MJ/kg(dry biomass)). However, they still show a lack of economic attractiveness even at larger scale. The Organocat process is more favorable due to more efficient lignin separation. The analysis uncovers the remaining challenges toward an economically viable design. They largely originate from by-products formation, product isolation, and solvent recycling. Necessary improvements in process chemistry, equipment design, energy efficiency and process design are discussed to establish economically attractive Organosolv-like processes of moderate capacity as a building block of a future biorefinery. PMID:24157680

Viell, Jörn; Harwardt, Andreas; Seiler, Jan; Marquardt, Wolfgang

2013-12-01

125

Teaching and Learning Development Economics: Retrospect and Prospect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has chosen three major topics in development economics for a discussion on how to teach the subject: the concepts and measurement of development, models of growth and development, and the international aspects of economic development. For the concepts of development, it is important to emphasize the coherence of the topics to be…

Chen, Edward K. Y.

2005-01-01

126

Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

Zhang, Yu Aimee

2012-01-01

127

Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

2010-01-01

128

Toward the Development of a Cultural Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which various economic specialties have incorporated or avoided cultural analyses is reviewed; problem areas where such studies might be most fruitful are suggested. It is indicated there now exists in embryo form an orientation deserving the name cultural economics''; its furture is speculated. (JB)

Boulding, Kenneth E.

1972-01-01

129

Economics of on-farm sunflower processing  

SciTech Connect

Sunflower oil is being researched as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel. Sunflower seed as a high oil content and an acre will produce about 60 gallons. Each Btu used to produce the seed and process sunflower oil will return about 5.78 Btu's. The price relationship per Btu of diesel to sunflower oil was 1:4.00 in 1979. This ratio declined to 1:1.80 in 1981. The on-farm processing cost for 4800 gallons varied from $2.82 to $4.33 per gallon for three press sizes analyzed. Operating these presses 300 days annually the cost per gallon varied from $1.74 to $2.99. 1 figure, 8 tables.

Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.

1982-01-01

130

Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro  

SciTech Connect

Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

Not Available

1980-05-01

131

Essays in Development Economics and the Economics of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is a powerful tool to improve lives and enhance the prospect of innovation and development of nations. While primary school enrollment has increased considerably over the past few decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, learning and the retention rate have remained low. The first two chapters of this dissertation analyze two dimensions in a bid…

Blimpo, Moussa Pouguinimpo

2010-01-01

132

Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

1994-11-01

133

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

2009-04-01

134

The Development of Economic Thinking in Children and Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jean Piaget's cognitive theory was used to investigate the economic reasoning of children and adolescents. Findings indicate student reasoning becomes more abstract, other directed, and flexible with increasing age; five concepts are prerequisites to understanding other economic concepts; and the rate at which economic reasoning develops varies by…

Schug, Mark C.

1983-01-01

135

New Strategies for Inner-City Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revitalizing America's inner cities requires an economic strategy to build viable businesses that can provide sorely needed, nearby employment opportunities. Economic development in inner cities will come only from recognizing the potential advantages of an inner-city location and building on the base of existing companies, while dealing frontally with the present disadvantages of inner cities as business locations. The economic

Michael E. Porter

1997-01-01

136

Development of metallization process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non lead frit paste is evaluated. A two step process is discussed where the bulk of the metallization is Mo/Sn but a small ohmic pad is silver. A new matrix of paste formulations is developed. A variety of tests are performed on paste samples to determine electrical, thermal and structural properties.

Garcia, A., III

1983-01-01

137

Suggestions for Incorporating Economic Development Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research project examines the role of TxDOT projects in promoting economic diversification in Texas. The authors conclude that while good access is a necessary condition for diversification, it is not sufficient to assure diversification. The role of ...

C. A. Weatherby

1998-01-01

138

Highway Investment and Rural Economic Development: An Annotated Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Dennis M. Brown, Food and Rural Economics Division, US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) (described in the July 2, 1999 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this annotated bibliography summarizes studies on the rural economic development implications of highway investment. The bibliography includes some urban studies in addition to rural and covers the effects of highway investment on different industries, local and regional spatial effects, and highway effects over time, among other issues.

Brown, Dennis M.

1999-01-01

139

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J. B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H. V.; Guegan, J. -F.; Hochberg, M. E.

2007-01-01

140

Economic production quantity and process quality: a multivariate approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the interaction of economics of production with process quality, when multiple key quality characteristics are present. Specifically, the paper aims to analyse the possibility of investing in a production process to reduce its variances and the impact on a multivariate quality loss function. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A bivariate inventory-planning model is

Weng M. Chan; Raafat N. Ibrahim; Paul B. Lochert

2005-01-01

141

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

142

Economic analysis for the Hilo Coast Processing Company's solar industrial process heat system  

SciTech Connect

Levelized required revenues per total investment dollar for a variety of investment rates were developed for the project. These values were used in turn to develop the following economic characteristics: internal rate of return assuming the entire component represents an investment by the contractor; internal rate of return assuming the solar investment consists only of the equity portion of total projected project costs; the levelized price of the solar thermal process heat energy produced under varying discount rates; the levelized price of the alternative conventional energy under varying discount rates; expected annual fossil fuel savings; and payback period. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01

143

South Asian Network for Environmental Development and Economics (SANDEE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics' (SANDEE) mission is to strengthen the capacity of individuals and institutions in South Asia to undertake research on the inter-linkages among economic development, poverty, and environmental change and to disseminate practical information that can be applied to development policies.

2008-10-27

144

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF LITHUANIAN REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many European countries are faced with the problem of regional disparities when the level of social and economic development of particular regions is dramatically different. This causes social conflicts. In developing the effective regional policy one of the most important conditions is the identification of the actual level of development of a region. This problem may be solved if economic,

R. Ginevičius; V. Podvezko; D. Mikelis

2004-01-01

145

Local economic development in Africa: Global context and research directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper locates local economic development research and practice in Africa in a global context. It provides an overview of the international development of local economic development (LED), of its contested definitions and theoretical status, and of existing scholarship on the topic of LED policy and practice specifically across sub-Saharan Africa. Currently there is much more LED research available for

Christian M Rogerson; Jayne M Rogerson

2010-01-01

146

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

2010-04-01

147

24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203 Section 1003.203 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...

2013-04-01

148

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

2013-04-01

149

Economic Development, Land Use Modeling, and Transportation Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 14 papers in the record deal with the following areas: estimating economic and development impacts of transit investments; highway investment as a regional development policy tool; transportation planning for enterprise development areas; transportati...

W. T. Watterson F. R. Wilson G. M. Graham M. Aboul-Ela R. J. Roggenburk

1985-01-01

150

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

151

Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

Lee, Alice

152

Sustainable Economic Development. A Paradigm Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the turn of the last decade a paradigm change in environmental policies became apparent. At the end of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 1980s, during the first environmental revolution, environmental problems were seen as a potential conflict between economic growth and the quality of the environment; since the end of the 1980s, however, the new concept

Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl

1995-01-01

153

Strategies for Economic Development, Lexington, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to determine the capacity of the Town of Lexington. There are many public needs for which the citizens look to the municipality, and there are considerable changes occurring in the local economic scene. To meet the traditiona...

1981-01-01

154

Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

Ball, Nicole

1983-01-01

155

Bluegrass Area Economic and Industrial Development Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was conceived due to the fact that the seventeen county region of Central Kentucky has experienced unprecedented economic growth during the previous seven years. The growth in this area has been magnified by the announcement in late 1985 that ...

1992-01-01

156

Special Section: Approaches to Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four articles: "Estimating Economic Impacts of Programming: A Case Study of Forestry" (Marcouiller et al.); "Aquaculture Opportunities" (Snyder); "Starting a County Agricultural Marketing Program" (Vossen); and "A Multidisciplinary Model for Industry Support: Program Redirection Creates Missouri Textile Center" (Dillard et al.). (SK)

Marcouiller, David W.; And Others

1992-01-01

157

Population change and some aspects of socio-economic development.  

PubMed

Some of the major dimensions of the interrelationship of population dynamics and socioeconomic development are examined in the context of Asia and the Pacific. Most of the countries in the region are developing, and population growth is viewed more as an obstacle to development rather than as a stimulant to economic progress. There are at least 10 countries in the region whose per capita income is less than US$300, namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 1979 these countries had an estimated combined population of 1,867,103,000 or about 77% of the population of the region. Per capita gross national product (GNP) masks the real economic condition of the people as it fails to show the actual distribution of income and wealth. In most nonsocialist countries there is maldistribution of income and wealth. The International Labor Organization (ILO) report points out that during 1963-73 in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, the richest 20% of households receive about half the income. In contrast, the poorest 40% receive between 12-18% of total income. In short, there could be economic development but not social development, such as equitable distribution of wealth and income. Studies have shown that equitable income distribution exerts a far greater influence on fertility than the GNP. In many countries of the region poverty is reality. The World Bank estimates that half of the people in absolute poverty live in South Asia, mainly India and Bangladesh. It is most unfortunate that among the very poor, poverty is frequently regarded as the cause rather than the effect of high fertility. Among the very poor, mortality, particularly infant mortality, tends to be high. China is among the countries which have recognized that rapid population growth is not beneficial to the accelerated speed of capital accumulation. It has been observed that in most countries as the GNP per capita increases the birthrate decreases. This is the case in the developed countries of the region, i.e., Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and Singapore. It appears to be that wealth begets wealth, and that development is one of the better contraceptives. The processes and conditions which lead to and result from an increase in per capita income usually cause a number of social and attitudinal changes which in turn bring about an eventual decrease in the birthrate. In sum, population growth and economic development are complementary, interdependent, and act as constraints on each other. PMID:12265663

1982-06-01

158

Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

2005-01-01

159

Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.

2004-01-01

160

Sustainable economic development and environmental auditing: a local authority perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper appraises the concept of environmental auditing in respect of the principles of sustainable economic development, and the options available to local authorities for positive action. Humberside County Council's various environmental initiatives are reviewed as a case study. Particular attention is given to progress with implementation, and the integration of economic development and environmental issues.

L. Richards; I. Biddick

1994-01-01

161

Economics: Opportunity and Challenges for Human Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. Given the many organizational problems human resource development is expected to help solve and the many tools offered by economics, foundational direction for action can have high utility. This article concludes this issue by discussing the opportunity and challenges facing human resource development scholars and practitioners in integrating economics foundations into its theory building, research,

W. Clayton Allen; Mary Fischer; Richard A. Swanson

2008-01-01

162

Empirical Analysis of Relationship Between Accessibility and Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of accessibility changes on the level of economic development in a given region. In this paper, we introduce several types of accessibility measures while economic development is quantified in terms...

D. O. Ertekin J. Berechman K. Ozbay

2003-01-01

163

Community Colleges and Economic Development: Models of Institutional Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is provided of the nontraditional, direct involvement of community colleges in economic development activities. While a review of the literature and a discussion of the factors leading to community colleges' participation in economic development are included, the primary focus of the monograph is on seven models of nontraditional…

Katsinas, Stephen G.; Lacey, Vincent A.

164

The Missing Link in Navajo Indian Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although off-reservation economic development programs have been emphasized in the past, the Navajo Tribe also needs to emphasize on-reservation economic development in order to prevent the loss of well-educated Indian youth who leave frustrating on-reservation Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) jobs to aid outside enterprises in the mining of natural…

Billy, Bahe

165

Recouple: Natural Resource Strategies for Rural Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This source book provides guidance and technical assistance material on utilizing forest, agricultural, and scenic and wildlife resources for rural economic development. The document focuses on the uniqueness of existing rural resources for new enterprise opportunities. Natural resource-based economic development strategies are a means to…

Thomas, Margaret G.

166

Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

167

Economic development lessons from and for North American Indian economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on economic development as it relates to indigenous people in the United States and Canada, and focuses on how institutions affect economic development of reservation and reserve economies. Evidence shows that strong property rights to reservation and reserve land and natural resources, whether communal or individual, are and always have been important determinants of productivity.

Terry L. Anderson; Dominic P. Parker

2009-01-01

168

Science Education and Economic Development: Trends, Relationships, and Research Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the links between science education and economic development from a comparative perspective and examines current global trends in science education expansion. Reviews empirical research assessing the effects of science education on economic development from a comparative or cross-national perspective. (Contains 72 references.) (ASK)

Drori, Gili S.

2000-01-01

169

Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross E. Levine

2002-01-01

170

Tropics, germs, and crops: how endowments influence economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross Levine

2003-01-01

171

Targeting Occupations in Regional and Community Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper analyzes why and how economic and community,development planners might target occupations as well as industries in shaping an economic development strategy. Key occupations can be identified on the basis of capturability, high relative employment growth rates, connectivity across industries, fit with underemployed workforce groups and potential for self-employment and entrepreneurship. I demonstrate the potential for an occupational

Ann Markusen; J. W. Harrington; Jim Heilbrun; Brian Holly; Matt Kane; Michael Lahr; Leslie Mccall; Eric Parker; Bruce Seaman; Michael Teitz; Heike Meyer; Maria Hanratty; Norma Rantisi; Ragui Assaad; Ned Hill

2004-01-01

172

Small Business and Economic Development in Macomb County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the economic development role of small businesses in Macomb County, Michigan, in order to identify those businesses which are most significant in terms of their contribution to economic development and, which therefore, would warrant public support for their retention and growth. Using these criteria, the study isolated the…

Jacobs, James

173

Legal institution building and economic development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of legal institution building during the process of China's economic miracle of past three decades. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To engage with the issue, the paper builds on historical research and comparable approaches which explore the interactions of legal institution building and economic reforms in China. Findings – Legal institution

Weigang Li; Jixiang Chen; Dongying Wu

2010-01-01

174

Economics of Beaver-Herter extraction process revealed  

SciTech Connect

The Herter process is a surface-mined solvent extraction process which utilizes fatty acids as the solvent. The uniqueness of the Herter process if that it provides a low energy method of separating the fatty acids from the recovered oil for subsequent recycling. The Herter process recovers the fatty acid by saponification, followed by migration of the soap to the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the resulting soap phase again followed by phase separation. The formation of a hydrocarbon-soap-water emulsion limits the process unless carefully controlled by the addition of an alcohol cosolvent. Addition of the short-chain alcohol limits emulsification and allows a meaningful separation to be accomplished. The modified process is known as the Beaver-Herter process. A bench-scale model of the process has recently been completed and has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the process. A computer model has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the process on a site specific basis. This paper summarizes the process, the site selection (Oklahoma), and the economic analysis.

Not Available

1986-09-01

175

Guide to Conducting State Recycling Economic Development Finance Workshops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate a two-pronged program for educating economic development and recycling officials about recycling business development opportunities. The project consisted of conducting a stat recycling finance workshop in ...

1996-01-01

176

The Mississippi Delta Poverty, Politics and Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Equal Opportunity (OEO) and the Economic Development Administration (EDA) of the Department of Commerce had begun programs which attempted to allow the poor people of the depressed areas to represent themselves on the development councils of...

G. P. Noble

1969-01-01

177

Towards the comparison of competence of typical Chinese economic development zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewing the history and background of 4 typical Chinese economic development zone (new area), this paper reveals the 4 new areas' differences in the regional economic growth and its driving factors based on Shift-Share model, as well compares the competitive advantages and disadvantages of the 4 cities' new area. Moreover, based on the processed data, we have offer corresponding conclusions

Yonghong Zhan; Yanchao Xiong

2011-01-01

178

Development of the selective coagulation process  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this project is to develop an economical method for producing low-sulfur and low-ash coals using the selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process. This work has been divided into three tasks: (1) project planning and sample acquisition; (2) studies of the fundamental mechanism(s) of the selective coagulation process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur; and (3) bench-scale process development test work to establish the best possible method(s) of separating the hydrophobic and coagula from the dispersed mineral matter.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

1991-01-01

179

A non-linear model of economic production processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

2003-06-01

180

Social economic development in the prevention of global blindness  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo assess the relation between a country's economic developmental status and its prevalence of blindness.METHODSAvailable epidemiological data on worldwide visual loss and its causes compiled by the World Health Organization were reviewed. Findings were compared with economic development data from the involved countries and regions. Analysis was completed in view of the socioeconomic status of each country and region.RESULTSAnalysis of

Viet H Ho; Ivan R Schwab

2001-01-01

181

Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

2011-01-01

182

The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America is attracting increasing interest due to the strong economic performance of the last decade and to the political changes that are taking place. This book gives a unique, comprehensive, and up to date view of Latin America economic development over the two centuries since Independence. It considers Latin American economies within the wider context of the international economy,

Luis Bertola; Jose Antonio Ocampo

183

Roles of airships in economic development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed that airships of known and tested technology could, in some cases, perform routine transport missions more economically than conventional transport modes. If infrastructure for direct surface transport is already in place or if such infrastructure can be justified by the size of the market and there are no unusual impediments to constructing it, then the airships of tested technology cannot normally compete. If, however, the surface routes would be unusually expensive or circuitous, or if they involve several transhipments, or if the market size is too small to spread infrastructure costs of conventional transport, the airships of tested technology present a workable alternative. A series of special cases are considered. The cases, though unusual, are not unique; there are several similar possible applications which, in total, would provide a reasonably large market for airships.

Beier, G. J.; Hidalgo, G. C.

1975-01-01

184

Policy Frontiers of Urban Development. Final Project Report for EDA (Economic Development Administration).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Conference of Mayors held a series of policy forums on selected current urban economic development topics: (1) development finance, (2) industrial policy, (3) economic adjustment with a special emphasis on the auto industry, (4) foreign ...

1982-01-01

185

Economic Analysis for the Hilo Coast Processing Company's Solar Industrial Process Heat System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Levelized required revenues per total investment dollar for a variety of investment rates were developed for the project. These values were used in turn to develop the following economic characteristics: internal rate of return assuming the entire compone...

1980-01-01

186

[Immigration and economic development in Eastern Asia].  

PubMed

This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from the employee's viewpoint or the employer's. The consequences of importing manpower must be studied in relation to possible alternatives. PMID:12346374

Lim, L L

1994-01-01

187

[The impact of the social economic conditions on the reproduction processes].  

PubMed

The social economic conditions of population reproduction in the Trans-Dniester Region with the emphasis on its specifics are analyzed. The natural dynamics of population is estimated including gender and age peculiarities, marriage and divorces statistics, migration processes and population health in the region. It is shown that the population reproduction dynamics follows the natural laws and processes. The role of the post-Soviet period social economic conditions harmful to health are considered. The interdependencies between the social economic development and population reproduction are revealed. The recommendations related to the means of the further enhancement of social economic conditions as related to population reproduction in the Trans-Dniester Region are proposed. PMID:17402571

Leonova, N G

2007-01-01

188

Guidance Available for Landfilling Waste in Economically Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, eng...

G. M. Savage L. F. Diaz S. A. Thorneloe C. G. Golueke R. K. Ham

1999-01-01

189

Guidance for Landfilling Waste in Economically Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 cha...

C. Martone C. G. Golueke G. M. Savage L. F. Diaz

1998-01-01

190

An Economic Development Study of the Rockbridge Area of Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the economic problems of the community, analyzes the area's economy. A program for the long-term orderly growth and development of the community was established. The report also projects future employment requirements of the Rockbridge ...

1979-01-01

191

Global Food Demand Patterns Over Changing Levels of Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global food demand is analyzed for three U.S. export commodity groups: coarse grains, wheat and rice, and meat. The analysis provides insight into potential export markets by anticipating changes in countries' food demand as economic development proceeds....

S. M. Marks M. J. Yetley

1987-01-01

192

Talent Development in Economically Disadvantaged Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to summarize what is generally known about talent development and schooling by stating some propositions about the way such programs are structured. This article sets the stage for a series of stories of programs that attempt to address the challenge of talent development in diverse low-income populations. The…

Coleman, Laurence

2006-01-01

193

Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.  

PubMed

The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Hĺkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa

2005-03-01

194

After the exit: Acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

MASON C. M. and HARRISON R. T. (2006) After the exit: acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development, Regional Studies40, 55–73. Most studies of the impact of mergers and acquisitions suggest they have a detrimental impact on economic development in peripheral regions over the longer-term. However, such assessments fail to consider the post-acquisition behaviour of the cashed-out entrepreneurs. It is

Colin M. Mason; Richard T. Harrison

2006-01-01

195

The Role of Eastern Europe in Development Economics' History1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the 1980s, development economics was dominated by analytical approaches formulated during the 1930s and 1940s in response to international instability. The relative backwardness of Eastern Europe had stimulated early thinking that carried over to the post-World War II agenda of reconstruction and nation-building. This paper examines the influence such analysis had on the history of development economics. Explanations for

James M. Warner; Kenneth P. Jameson

196

Animal biotechnology: applications and economic implications in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In most developing countries, biotechnological applications relating to livestock need to be suitable for animal owners who are resource-poor small-scale operators who own little or no land and few animals. Livestock is becoming increasingly important to economic growth in developing countries and the application of biotechnology is largely dictated by commercial considerations and socio-economic goals. Using technology to support

M. L. Madan

2005-01-01

197

Ontology Development for Designing and Managing Dynamic Business Process Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in flexible process design and deployment technologies, such as web services and flexible workflow systems, promise the development of flexible intra- and inter-organizational business process networks with potential economic benefits. However, exploiting this potential requires the development of scalable process-management technologies that provide a consistent viewpoint and common language (for describing properties of the process network) to all

Therani Madhusudan

2007-01-01

198

Nature's role in sustaining economic development  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's comprehensive wealth per capita can decline even while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increases and the UN Human Development Index records an improvement. I then use some rough and ready data from the world's poorest countries and regions to show that during the period 1970–2000 wealth per capita declined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, even though the Human Development Index (HDI) showed an improvement everywhere and GDP per capita increased in all places (except in sub-Saharan Africa, where there was a slight decline). I conclude that, as none of the development indicators currently in use is able to reveal whether development has been, or is expected to be, sustainable, national statistical offices and international organizations should now routinely estimate the (comprehensive) wealth of nations.

Dasgupta, Partha

2010-01-01

199

An empirical analysis of the effects of consanguineous marriages on economic development.  

PubMed

In this study, development experiences toward economic development are investigated to provide an alternative analysis of economic development, human capital, and genetic inheritance in the light of consanguineous marriages. The countries analyzed in the study are discussed in accordance with consanguineous marriage practices and classified by their per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. A broad range of countries are analyzed in the study. Arab countries that experienced high rates of growth in their gross national income during the twentieth century but failed to fulfill adequate development measures as reflected in the growth in national income, countries undergoing transition from tight government regulation to free market democracy, and African nations that have experienced complications in the process of development show important differences in the process of economic development. It is shown that the countries that have reached high average development within the context of per capita GDP have overcome problems integral to consanguineous marriage. PMID:21105495

Bildirici, Melike; Kökdener, Meltem; Ersin, Oezgür ömer

2010-01-01

200

LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

201

Human capital accumulation, fertility and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the development paths of an economy by incorporating the trade-off between the quality and quantity of children\\u000a and the substitutability between the educational effect within the family and the education paid for by the parent. There\\u000a is a threshold wage rate, above which individuals begin to invest in the human capital of their children, while reducing the\\u000a number

Akira Yakita

2010-01-01

202

Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

Barbara Louise Endemańo Walker; Michael A. Robinson

2009-01-01

203

World Development Report 1985. International Capital and Economic Development. World Development Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

204

Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions.

Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

2007-01-01

205

Economic Development Web Site: State and Local Policy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Development Web Site is maintained by the State and Local Policy Program, in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, at the University of Minnesota. The site provides various resources related to economic development at the regional level. Visitors may want to start with Understanding Your Industries -- A Framework for Industry Analysis, which will examine several different analytical tools (both quantitative and qualitative) that help to describe how key industries cluster in a particular area. Several examples of areas that include industry cluster in their development strategies are available. There are also "ten key principles for developing a cutting edge economic development strategy for your area" and links to both national and state data coupled with a description of the data.

1997-01-01

206

The Product Development Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Product development has emerged very recently as an area of specialization within the field of education, having received its greatest impetus with the establishment of the federally funded educational research and development centers in 1964 and the regional educational laboratories in 1965. The first part of this three-part document defines…

Bowman, Harry L.

207

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1981-01-01

208

Economic Development, Rural livelihoods, and Ecological Restoration: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a case study in Southeast China to demonstrate how the substantial changes in rural livelihoods have been\\u000a driven by a combination of “pull” forces from external economic development, and “push” forces from local areas, leading to\\u000a a shift in rural household economic activities: household outmigration and de-population of the countryside, changes in energy\\u000a consumption, and most importantly,

Chengchao Wang; Yusheng Yang; Yaoqi Zhang

2011-01-01

209

Phenmedipham process development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to investigate the process for the production of an organic herbicide, phenmedipham, utilising isobutylacetate as solvent and to scale up the reaction to one litre. This was carried out according to a technical bulletin received from Barclay Plant Protection Ltd. Difficulties were encountered in isolating the product, methyl N-(3-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate, from stage 1 with

Maura Byrne

1998-01-01

210

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Santhirasegaram, Selvarathinam

211

Sponge iron: economic, ecological, technical and process-specific aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process cycle sponge iron/hydrogen/iron oxide offers a simple possibility to store the energy of synthesis gases in the form of sponge iron, and at the same time to reform and to condition these synthesis gases. As 'product' of this energy storage one receives pure hydrogen which is intended for the running of fuel cells. The process cycle is investigated on two levels: (i) on a general level, economic, ecological and technical conditions are investigated and established, and (ii) on the process-specific level industrially produced iron ore pellets are tested for their suitability for employment in cyclic operation with synthesis gases. Mechanical strength, porosity, speed of reaction, additives and attendant materials (gangue) determine the properties of the pellets. The reaction degree of the iron contained in the pellets should be large and will remain constant. Negative influences such as sintering and carbonization should be avoided as far as possible in order to achieve a high number of cycles.

Selan, M.; Lehrhofer, J.; Friedrich, K.; Kordesch, K.; Simader, G.

212

Resilience Processes in Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do children and adolescents “make it“ when their development is threatened by poverty, neglect, maltreatment, war, violence,\\u000a or exposure to oppression, racism, and discrimination? What protects them when their parents are disabled by substance abuse,\\u000a mental illness, or serious physical illness? How do we explain the phenomenon of resilience-children succeeding in spite of\\u000a serious challenges to their development-and put

Margaret O’Dougherty Wright; Ann S. Masten

213

Rural and urban population changes and the stages of economic development: a unified approach.  

PubMed

The long-term aspects of the process of economic development and urbanization are examined. A model is presented that shows the dynamics of economic development from the earliest to the more advanced stages. "The model is able to explain not only the occurrence of a downturn in the rural population after the initial phase of population growth both in rural and urban areas, but also the delayed occurrence of such a downturn in many present-day developing countries. The author then focuses [on] the later stages of economic development and explains two alternative courses of urbanization, namely, the reversal process and the continual-growth process, as special cases of the general model; which of the courses occurs depends on the value of the elasticity of urban agglomeration-economies." PMID:12339077

Miyao, T

1983-09-01

214

Economic Transition of Distressed Communities - An Analytical Study. Volume 2. The Transition Process: Illustrative Applications of Selected Methods of Regional Economic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The transition process illustrative applications of selected methods of regional economic analysis; The transition process and methods of regional economic analysis; Exposition and illustrative application of economic analysis; Exposition and il...

1974-01-01

215

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

1977-01-01

216

Development of metallization process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells were produced using a Mo/Sn/TiH screen printed paste with a lead/borosilicate frit that are electrically comparable to control silver cells. The process is currently unsuccessful because the soldering of interconnects to these cells has proved difficult. Future work will investigate using CO instead of H2 as the reducing gas and putting an ITO coating on the cell prior to metallization.

Garcia, A., III

1983-01-01

217

Economic competitiveness through cluster integration: The development of innovation capabilities in the mexican software industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different studies relate innovation with the economic dynamism of localities, regions and countries, but developing innovative capabilities is not a quick or easy process. Innovative companies must learn to cooperate with others in order to maintain their leadership and to share the costs and risks involved. Even so, alliances, networks and clusters also enhance competitiveness by accelerating the learning processes

Claudia Díaz-Pérez; Ricardo Arechavala-Vargas; Alejandro Alarcón-Ozuna; América Ayala-Arriaga

2009-01-01

218

Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.

219

Women's Education for Economic Development in Cross Section of Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International organizations and researchers in the field of education and development have emphasized the importance of women's education for the social and economic development of Third World countries. However, women's educational levels are lower than men's in most countries throughout the world. This paper presents findings of a study that…

Kuroda, Kazuo

220

Public Finance and Economic Development: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major works in the field of public finance in developing countries are discussed in the annotated bibliography, which was prepared to support A.I.D.'s efforts to use public finance as a tool for economic development. The bibliography is organized into fou...

R. L. Curry

1985-01-01

221

Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

1978-01-01

222

Abu Dhabi and Dubai: Economic development as in Arabian Nights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Abu Dhabi and Dubai during past years seems breathtaking. Both emirates pursue a strategy of diversifying their economic structure and thus of becoming less dependent on oil and gas. The obvious goal is to secure their prosperity for an era beyond oil. Diversification is a relevant strategic imperative for other resource-rich developing countries, too. In view of

Maximilian Benner

2011-01-01

223

Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in

Yemane Wolde-Rufael; Kojo Menyah

2010-01-01

224

Rural out-migration and economic development at origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labour migration is a pervasive feature of economic development. People mobility for temporary or permanent labour purposes is a routine part of agricultural activity. There are very significant migration flows in some developing areas, with considerable impacts on individuals, households and regions at origin. Despite the growing debate about motivations and impacts of recent migration flows, costs and returns of

Mariapia Mendola

225

Helping the Discarded Generation: Youth Employment and Community Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains and illustrates features of community economic development (CDC) organizations using two Canadian examples (Learnxs Foundation, Inc., and Learning Enrichment Foundation). Proposes CDCs as a way to improve youth employment and community development. Discusses youth employment programs in Germany, Austria, Britain, and the United States and…

Shuttleworth, Dale

1984-01-01

226

California Workforce Development: A Policy Framework for Economic Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides public and system policy recommendations to state and local elected officials, governing bodies, and administrators responsible for the changes needed to create an integrated, comprehensive workforce development system that will sustain California's economic growth. Public policy recommendations include: workforce development services…

Eastin, Delaine; Hatamiya, Lon; Johnson, Grantland; Nussbaum, Thomas J.

227

Study on promoting Liaoning county economic development by industrial cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the theoretical analysis of internal relationship between industrial cluster and county economy, combining with the present developing status of Liaoning county economy, the thesis finds out the main problems and puts forward the strategies to further improve Liaoning county economic development relying on industrial cluster, in order to realize the rapid increase of Liaoning county economy and the upgrading

Hua Yang; Lin Sun

2010-01-01

228

Course Development Model; Manpower Report. Economic Analysis Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Man-hours by task and by manpower function are presented for phase I of the development of the multimedia, individualized course in economic analysis prepared for the United States Naval Academy. Related Documents are EM 010 787 through EM 010 823. The final evaluation report is ED 043 790, and the model developed for designing systems of…

Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

229

The University, the Information Superhighway and Regional Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new information economy and the information superhighway provide opportunities for universities to play a central role in the economic development of their regions. Smart Isles, a partnership of 20 international companies, universities, and research organizations, is an example of a development initiative. (SK)

Barden, Laing

1995-01-01

230

7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15... LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs...Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding....

2009-01-01

231

31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma. 537... Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma. ...third-country company that is engaged in the economic development of resources located...

2013-07-01

232

31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma. 537... § 537.411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma. ...including an equity interest, in the economic development of resources located in...

2013-07-01

233

31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma... Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma...performance of a contract that includes the economic development of resources located...

2013-07-01

234

41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes? 102-75.900...102-75.900 What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means that...

2013-07-01

235

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2014-01-01

236

Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

1982-01-01

237

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

1978-01-01

238

Silicon Web Process Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

1978-01-01

239

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1980-01-01

240

Signal processing development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This electron microscope has been applied to the study of the growth of thin epitaxial films on silicon substrates. The study of the nature of platinum-silicide films formed by heating evaporated platinum films on these substrates is discussed. The use of ultra high vacuum systems together with a residual gas analyzer (RGA) is discussed as they relate to the preparation of silicides, a dielectric layer of silicon monoxide is evaporated and an ion beam implanter is used to form a special buried layer as a step toward silicon devices. Synthesis and single crystal growth of indium phosphide in a one-step in-situ process at high ambient pressures is discussed. Analysis of heat transfer by convection, conduction, and radiation in a closed pressure vessel is given. A set of source modules and NOS procedures have been prepared to permit easy access to a 3-dimensional, non-isotrophic ray-tracing program (the Jones - Stephenson program). This system is designed to be run on a CDC CYBER computer system or equivalent using the operating system.

Barrett, T. B.; Marshall, R.; Bloom, J.; Comer, C.; Caulfield, J.; Warde, C.; Salour, M.

1989-11-01

241

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

242

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

243

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's annual report on the economic prospects for developing countries focuses on international trade and the policies needed to help these nations benefit from global integration. The news is good for many developing countries, whose economic growth is expected to register "5.3 percent this year, 5 percent next year, and ease to 4.8 percent by 2002." However, the world's poorest nations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have not kept pace. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release and summary are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main page also provides a slide show of the primary points and issues of the report and a video interview with the Director of the Bank's Economy Policy and Prospects program, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

244

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01

245

Social-Economic Aspects of the Regional Development Within Transform Economics - Regional Development in CR After Year 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beginning of the transformation CR i.e. after year 1990, with started always expressive display in plant regional differences resulting from transformation process and transition Czech economies on market conditions. It was been and still is endeavour these disparities measurably equalize by regional policy state supports structurally depressed and economic weak regions. Regional disparity solving, and with it closely

Iva Ritschelova; Jan Capek

2006-01-01

246

Activated carbon from pecan shell: process description and economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbons derived from pecan shells have been shown to adsorb a variety of metal and organic species in various processing wastewaters. Their effectiveness is equivalent to or exceeds comparable commercial carbons in this regard. The objectives of this study were to develop process flow diagrams for the large-scale production of pecan shell-based carbons derived from steam or phosphoric

Chilton Ng; Wayne E Marshall; Ramu M Rao; Rishipal R Bansode; Jacques N Losso

2003-01-01

247

Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas  

SciTech Connect

Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

Kao, C.S.

1985-01-01

248

Path to Smarter Economic Development: Reassessing the Federal Role.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report of a panel of experts recommends a rethinking of the basic premises for federal economic development at the local, state, and regioanl levels. It offers a coherent and practical view of how our national government could organize and carry out ...

R. L. Thornburth J. DeWitt

1996-01-01

249

International Outreach: Auburn University's Role in Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights Auburn University's (Alabama) human-resource and economic-development programs in other countries, including an exchange of agricultural leaders with Germany and Hungary, a faculty exchange program with Haiti, student and faculty agricultural and aquacultural exchanges with China, and a number of programs in other countries. (MSE)

Guthrie, Richard L.

1998-01-01

250

The Superintendent; Vital Link between Education and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 1988, at the request of State Superintendent for Instruction John Folks, about 50 Oklahoma school superintendents, legislators, association executives, and state department staff met to discuss education and economic development linkages. Participants heard numerous speakers, including superintendents, business representatives, economists,…

Pollard, Joyce S.

1988-01-01

251

Economic development and the impacts of natural disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use disaster impact data over time to examine the degree to which the human and economic losses from natural disasters are reduced as economies develop. We find that countries with higher income, higher educational attainment, greater openness, more complete financial systems and smaller government experience fewer losses.

Hideki Toya; Mark Skidmore

2007-01-01

252

Regional financial development and bank competition: effects on economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have analysed the effect of financial development and bank competition on economic growth from a cross-country perspective. However, to our knowledge, no paper has analysed the effect of these two financial variables on growth at regional level. This paper examines the case of the Spanish regions in an attempt to fill this gap. Our results show that firms

Juan Fernandez de Guevara; Joaquin Maudos

2007-01-01

253

Regional Financial Development and Bank Competition. Effects on Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have analysed the effect of financial development and bank competition on economic growth from a cross-country perspective. However, to our knowledge, no paper has analysed the effect of these two financial variables on growth at regional level. This working paper examines the case of the Spanish regions in an attempt to fill this gap. Our results show that

Fernández de Guevara Radoselovics Juan; Maudos Villarroya Joaquín

2007-01-01

254

AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

255

Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between economic development and environmental quality is analyzed econometrically for a large sample of countries over time. The results indicate that some indicators improve with rising incomes (like water and sanitation), others worsen and then improve (particulates and sulfur oxides), and others worsen steadily (dissolved oxygen in rivers, municipal solid wastes, and carbon emissions). Growth tends to be

Nemat Shafik

1994-01-01

256

Evaluating Results of Economic and Work Force Development Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses issues related to the evaluation of community colleges' economic development efforts, describing the context for evaluation in terms of the external environment and college management/governance; practical realities guiding evaluation; steps in designing an evaluation programs; and the application of results to decision making. (DMM)

Alfred, Richard L.

1991-01-01

257

DEVELOPMENTS IN PRECAST CONCRETE FOR CONSTRUCTING ECONOMICALLY OPTIMISED SUPERSTRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for innovative developments in pre-cast concrete, which uses a combination of probabilistic analysis and case-based reasoning, is presented. The prob- ability distributions beneficial for independent uses of construction of economically op- timised superstructures as well as relationships between variables are constructed through an analysis of industrialized building methods. Emphasis is given to the plan- ning, design, manufacturing and

Ahmed ABDALLAH

2006-01-01

258

Mississippi State Development Program. Volume II. Economic Goals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 2 of a two volume study gives goals for Mississippi's economic growth to the year 2000. Population forecasts are presented for the state, each planning and development district (PDD), and each major city. Employment by type and per capita income tr...

1972-01-01

259

International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

2009-01-01

260

Community Economic Development: Building Capacity through Stronger Partnerships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Information Service Report is part of a technical assistance grant from the Department of Commerce, the purpose of which was to conduct state workshops on economic development issues germane to that state or region. The report is based primarily on a ...

L. Gillen J. Murphy B. Rivers

1988-01-01

261

India's missing girls: biology, customs, and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the evidence on the sex ratio among children below the age of six. International evidence shows that the sex ratio at birth is slightly biased towards boys, but boys suffer greater mortality, a pattern consistent with Darwinian evolution. With economic development, the male bias in the child sex ratio increases. South and East India show levels and trends

V. Bhaskar; Bishnupriya Gupta

2007-01-01

262

Women, Insurance Capital, and Economic Development in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, longitudinal data from a national probability sample of rural households in India are used to assess how the traditional migration of women across households via marriage, by contributing to consumption smoothing, augments the returns to women as human capital and how these returns are affected by economic development propelled by agricultural technical progress. The estimates confirm earlier

Mark R. Rosenzweig

1993-01-01

263

Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

264

The Economic Development Effects of Early Childhood Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project provided estimates of the economic development effects (the creation of jobs and earnings) of early childhood programs other than pre-K programs. At the state level, the effects involve the jobs created and earnings created for state residents by investments in early childhood programs. The project also provided estimates of the jobs and earnings for state residents created per

Bartik Timothy J

2007-01-01

265

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CURRENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT SCHOOL AND HOME ENVIRONMENTS STRONGLY INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL'S INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, ALTHOUGH CERTAIN VERY BROAD HEREDITARY LIMITATIONS MAY ALSO AFFECT IT. THE ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH EXPERIENCES AN ENVIRONMENT WHICH LACKS STIMULI ESSENTIAL TO POSITIVE INTELLECTUAL GROWTH AND…

GREEN, ROBERT L.

266

Recruitment of rural teachers in developing countries: an economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monetary and non-monetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are a prominent feature of developing-country education systems. Despite the widespread use of incentives, there is little theoretical or empirical evidence on their effectiveness. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials. The discussion clarifies the implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing

Patrick J. McEwan

1999-01-01

267

Industrialization and Economic Development in Advanced Placement Human Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the industrialization and economic development section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, addressing four specific aspects: (1) the character of industrialization; (2) spatial aspects of the rise of industrial economies; (3) contemporary global patterns of industrialization and resource extraction; and (4) impacts of…

Bailey, Adrian J.

2000-01-01

268

The Economic Development of South Africa in Its Political Context.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper was originally intended to contain a general survey of the economic development of the Republic of South Africa, with emphasis on its industrialization, for use in a graduate seminar discussion. However, in the course of assembling data, much of...

V. J. Croizat

1967-01-01

269

Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

Ferguson, W. Ker

2011-01-01

270

A Portfolio of Community College Initiatives in Rural Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges across the United States have initiated programs that are making an impact on the productivity of rural America and its residents. Profiles of 20 community and technical college initiatives in rural economic development are contained in this report intended for use by community and technical college administrators. The programs…

Thomas, Margaret G.

271

Motor Development: A Lifelong Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of articles on the lifelong process of motor development focuses on: (1) neural changes in lifespan motor development; (2) the effects of developmental memory differences on learning motor skills; (3) physical growth and motor performance; (4) motor development in children with learning disabilities; (5) a motor development program…

Roberton, Mary Ann; And Others

1982-01-01

272

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance...Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303.7 Business Credit and Assistance...ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7 Requirements...2) An in-depth analysis of economic and...

2010-01-01

273

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

13 Business Credit and Assistance...Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303.7 Business Credit and Assistance...ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7 Requirements...2) An in-depth analysis of economic and...

2009-01-01

274

75 FR 49016 - County of Greenville, S.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Greenville County Economic Development Corporation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exemption--Greenville County Economic Development Corporation The County of...acquire from Greenville County Economic Development Corporation (GCEDC) approximately...See Greenville County Economic Development...

2010-08-12

275

New developments of process technologies for microfabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic success of microsystems technology requires cost- effective fabrication in large series as well as a great diversity of materials processing technologies. The different techniques of micro molding meet all these requirements. An important economic factor is the reduction of cycle time by process and tool optimization with simulation techniques. Actually, minimal cycle times are about two minutes in certain cases. Evolution of thermoplastics processing technologies is demonstrated by application of technical or even high- performance polymers like PEEK, PMMA or PSU. For manufacturing of metal microstructures, we develop three possibilities: microstructures like stepped LIGA gear wheels are obtained from galvanization on lost molds, which have been injection molded using conductively filled polymers. Additionally, electroless plating is used to replicate nonconducting plastic microstructures and the metal injection molding (MIM) process is under development. A quite different approach uses polymer precursors containing monomer/polymer mixtures in reaction injection molding. We chose photoinduced polymerization without any preheating step using photopolymerizable resins. Avoiding the time consuming thermal cycle, molding takes place at ambient temperature. Due to the low viscosity, the microcavities should be filled completely. The process is characterized by the integration of a powerful UV-source and a partially glass made molding tool.

Piotter, Volker; Hanemann, Thomas; Ruprecht, Robert; Thies, Andreas; Hausselt, Juergen H.

1997-09-01

276

An overview of some of the policy implications of the eco-economic development market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent economic\\/environmental discourse on development issues has led to a new paradigm of development, called here the “eco-economic development model”, but usually known as sustainable development (including both ecological and economic concerns), which has successfully substituted the traditional model of economic development in general acceptance. However, new models usually imply new rules and perhaps a new type of market,

Lucio Munoz

2000-01-01

277

The Political Economy of Energy Based Green Economic Development: Policy Tools and their Use for Local Energy Based Green Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local economic development is in transition to “green economic development.” Local governments in the U.S. and other countries have adopted a variety of policy tools to promote green economic development and are appying them to to their local economies. The success of these efforts may depend on whether local officials have a systematic understanding of green development and how it

Hyunsang Ha

2011-01-01

278

Attributional Processes in Adult Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses adaptive cognitive changes in adulthood from perspectives of adult cognitive development and social cognition theory. Proposes interface between the two disciplines. Applies post-formal literature on cognitive development to area of attributional processes. Discusses implications changes in attributional processes may have for cognitive…

Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

1986-01-01

279

Modeling the economics of landfilling organic processing waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector are many examples of various liquid, sludge, and solid biological and organic waste streams that require remediation. Alternative disposal methods for food and other bio-organic manufacturing waste streams are increasingly being investigated. Direct shipping, blending, extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human food, animal feed, industrial products, and components ready for further manufacture. Landfilling, the traditional approach to waste remediation, however, should not be dismissed entirely. It does provide a baseline to which all other recycling and reprocessing options should be compared. This paper discusses the implementation of a computer model designed to examine the economics of landfilling bio-organic processing waste streams. Not only are these results applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm would benefit from examining the trends discussed here.

Rosentrater, Kurt A.

2005-11-01

280

Neoclassical theory versus new economic geography: competing explanations of cross-regional variation in economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data for 255 NUTS-2 European regions over the period 1995–2003 to test the relative explanatory performance\\u000a of two important rival theories seeking to explain variations in the level of economic development across regions, namely\\u000a the neoclassical model originating from the work of Solow (Q J Econ 70:65–94, 1956) and the so-called Wage equation, which\\u000a is one of

Bernard Fingleton; Manfred M. Fischer

2010-01-01

281

Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.  

PubMed

To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480

Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

2006-08-01

282

Scaleup of IGT MILDGAS Process to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The MILDGAS process is capable of processing both eastern caking and western non-caking coals to yield a slate of liquid and solid products. The liquids can be processed to produce: feedstocks for chemicals; pitch for use as a binder for electrodes in the aluminum industry; and fuels. Depending on the feed coal characteristics and the operating conditions, the char can be used as an improved fuel for power generation or can be used to make form coke for steel-making blast furnaces or for foundry cupola operations. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. In this paper, the authors present the process design of the PDU facility, a description of the expected product distribution and the project test plan to be implemented in the program.

Campbell, J.A.L. [Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Longanbach, J.; Johnson, R. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Underwood, K. [Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States); Mead, J. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

283

Processed food trade and developing countries: protection and trade liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exports of processed foods from developing countries have expanded rapidly in recent times, contributing to their economic development. Recent published research has shown that the export policies and agricultural resource endowment of the developing country offer significant explanations for this export growth. But what if developing countries further lowered their tariff barriers against imports? What impact would such policy changes

A. Rae; T. Josling

2003-01-01

284

Population Growth and Economic Development: Lessons from Selected Asian Countries. Policy Development Studies, Number 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major findings of a research project on the relationship between population growth and economic development are summarized in this monograph. The study compares recent demographic and economic trends in Japan, Korea, Thailand, and Indonesia to worldwide experience as described by an econometric model of population and development. The study…

Mason, Andrew; And Others

285

Research and Development and the Role of the Urban University in Strategic Economic Development Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban universities have a definite role to play within the context of strategic economic development. Coordination between state and local government, the private sector, and the academic community can lead to effective partnerships to formulate and implement economic development plans. Declining university enrollments and fewer dollars available…

Sheppard, Ronald J.

286

Multi-Market Industrial Organizational Economic Models for the Internationalization Process by Small and Medium Enterprise Construction Design Service Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are critical to strategic initiatives in an economy; however, their contribution to foreign trade is not as significant. SMEs are one of the principal driving forces in economic development. One of the greatest challenges is the internationalization process for longevity rather than seeing the process as initial market entry. The internationalization process research has typically

Kerry London

2010-01-01

287

Ecological modernisation, regional economic development and regional development agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite widespread recognition that human impacts are having a detrimental impact upon the environment and the incorporation of sustainable development into policy at a variety of spatial scales, the actual implementation of sustainability remains problematic. By contrast with the rather vague and all-encompassing concept of sustainable development, some authors have argued that ecological modernization is a much more rigorous approach

David Gibbs

2000-01-01

288

Modeling the economics of blending organic processing waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable coproducts. Within the food and biological processing sector are many examples of various liquid, sludge, and solid waste streams that require remediation. Alternative disposal methods for these organic manufacturing waste streams are increasingly being investigated. Even though high-value extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human foods, animal feeds, industrial products, and components ready for further manufacture, blending and shipping is a commonly used approach to waste utilization, especially when these materials are used as animal feeds. This paper discusses the implementation of a computer model that examines the economics of blending organic waste streams with other carrier materials, to improve nutrient content as well as augment storage and handling properties. Not only are these results applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm could benefit from examining the trends discussed here.

Rosentrater, Kurt A.

2006-11-01

289

China's coastal population and economic development: summary of the symposium.  

PubMed

China's coastal areas have led the rest of China in economic development and low fertility rates; migration from inland areas and urbanization are well advanced. A symposium on China's coastal population and economic development was conducted in 1990 by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Liaoning Population Institute, and the Dalian Population Institute at the request of the China Population Institute. There were 50 people in attendance representing major research institutes and family planning associations and media organizations. 26 papers were submitted. The opening speaker addressed developing the economy as a positive cycle of population and development, and accelerating change. Discussion focused on the following topics: the relationship between fertility rate changes and coastal economic development, population mobility and migration to coast areas, population urbanization, and related problems. In the summation by Professor Tian Xueyuan, 7 trends were identified: continued coastal population growth, a two-directional change in natural population growth, an increase in the rate of coastal population migration, rapid urban population growth, productive age population growth and changes in the employment structure, improvements in economic and technological progess and quality of life, and rapid population aging. The symposium was considered particularly timely in highlighting the current problems and strengths, integrating theorists with field workers, and maintaining an open exchange of ideas and information. Problems were identified as regional open areas in Heihai in Guangxi, Heihe in Heilongjiang, and Dalian in Liaoning Province. Although the population is considered professionally better qualified than in other regions, there is still a lack of technicians and skilled workers and an excess of untrained workers. Development is being slowed and mismanaged due to deficiencies in the job allocation and personnel selection systems; as a consequence, there has been a "slump" in the demand for qualified personnel; skilled persons are unable to make good use of their abilities. PMID:12317925

Song, R

1992-01-01

290

Comparing two life cycle assessment approaches: a process model vs. economic input-output-based assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare two tools for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The software GaBi (Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung Integrated Assessment) from Germany is based on a process model approach, as recommended by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). These results are contrasted to those from the method developed by Carnegie Mellon University's Green Design Initiative, Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis (EIO-LCA). The

Chris T. Hendrickson; Arpad Horvath; Satish Joshi; M. Klausner; L. B. Lave; F. C. McMichael

1997-01-01

291

Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people. PMID:1508934

Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

1992-05-01

292

A Fourth Stage in National Development: An Assessment of Research Issues Relevant to Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report identifies economic development adjustment problems of the nation, its regions and communities, as well as their implications for federal development policies. It inventories research questions that need to be answered and assesses the appropri...

1978-01-01

293

Integrating developed and developing world knowledge into global discussions and strategies for sustainability. 2. Economics and governance.  

PubMed

Knowledge transfer from the developing to the developed world is described in the domain of economics and governance for sustainable development. Three system areas are explored: the structure of commons governance institutions, the process of community-based participatory action research, and the role of microfinance and microenterprise for the development, adoption, and diffusion of sustainable technologies. Case studies from both the developed and developing world demonstrate the effectiveness of social networks and community cooperative strategies in a wide range of sectors. Developing world experiences are shown to be particularly rich in the application of local knowledge and social capital toward sustainable development. PMID:17547158

Ramaswami, Anu; Zimmerman, Julie B; Mihelcic, James R

2007-05-15

294

Indigenous Innovation and Economic Development: Lessons from China's Leap into the Information Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to furthering our understanding of the process of indigenous innovation and its impact on economic development, this paper summarizes case studies of the evolution, from their origins to the late 1990s, of four of China's leading computer electronics companies: Stone, Legend, Great Wall, and Founder. The original case studies constitute the body of the late Qiwen Lu's

William Lazonick

2004-01-01

295

Compact Process Development at Babcock and Wilcox.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable...

E. Shaber J. Phillips

2012-01-01

296

Langevin processes, agent models and socio-economic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some approaches to the understanding of fluctuations of financial asset prices. Our approach builds on the development of a simple Langevin equation that characterises stochastic processes. This provides a unifying approach that allows first a straightforward description of the early approaches of Bachelier. We generalize the approach to stochastic equations that model interacting agents. The agent models recently

Peter Richmond; Lorenzo Sabatelli

2004-01-01

297

Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.  

PubMed

Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine. PMID:24706569

Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

2014-06-01

298

Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development  

SciTech Connect

The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

2006-05-01

299

The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development was started in 1987 by Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt. The Project's primary goal is "to understand and foster the conditions under which sustained, self-determined social and economic development is achieved among American Indian nations." To accomplish this goal, the Project has sponsored a number of conferences and events, and as also offered advisory services to interested persons and tribal leaders. The "Publications" area is a good way to take a look at the fruits of their labors, as it includes the archives of the Joint Occasional Papers on Native Affairs and a variety of field reports, such as "Renewing Beauty: Options for Navajo Land Management and Decision Making".

300

Development of Chemical Exchange Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is concerned with the development of a process to achieve low enrichment of uranium (3-4% exp 235 U) by a chemical exchange method. In our experiment, we chose the ion exchange process among the solid-liquid contacting operations first. In 1981...

H. J. Lee W. Y. Kim J. W. Park Y. M. Park D. S. Kang

1982-01-01

301

Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

1981-04-01

302

Rural People and Rural Economic Development. IIEP Seminar Paper: 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming development is a process that involves the generation, diffusion, and realization of new opportunities, this paper discusses the following: (1) The Development Process: Facts and Issues (re: visible unemployment; rural to urban migration; the dualism of labor markets in the less developed countries; population growth; and the…

Bowman, M. J.

303

Recent developments in decision-analytic modelling for economic evaluation.  

PubMed

The past few years have seen rapid changes in the methods of decision-analytic modelling of healthcare programmes for the purposes of economic evaluation. This paper focuses on four developments in modelling that have emerged over the past few years or have become more widely used. First, no one optimal method for extrapolating outcomes from clinical trials has yet been established. Modellers may draw from a set of varied assumptions about survival extrapolation that encompass a range of possibilities from highly optimistic to extremely cautious. Secondly, the practicality and appeal of microsimulation as a method for analysing healthcare decision problems has increased dramatically with the speed of computing technology. Individual instantiations of a system are generated by using a random process to draw from probability distributions a large number of times (also known as Monte Carlo or probabilistic simulation). Microsimulation is moving in new directions, such as discrete-event simulations that simulate sequences of events by drawing directly from probability distributions of event times; this approach is now being broadly applied to model situations where populations of patients interact with healthcare delivery systems. Microsimulation modelling of transmission systems at the population level is also rapidly developing. Thirdly, model calibration is emerging as a new tool that may offer health scientists a means of generating important fundamental knowledge about disease processes. Model calibration allows evidence synthesis in which observations on observable quantities are used to draw inferences about unobservable quantities. The methodology of model calibration has advanced considerably, drawing on theories of numerical analysis and mathematical programming such as gradient methods, intelligent grid search algorithms, and many more. As a fourth issue, an area of extraordinary activity is in the use of transmission models to analyse interventions for infectious diseases, including population-wide effects of vaccination. Transmission models use differential equations to simulate, deterministically for the most part, transitions among infection-related health states. Only recently have modelling methodologies been combined so that cost-effectiveness analyses can consider explicitly not only the patient-level benefits of interventions but also the secondary benefits through transmission dynamics. Advances in technology allow more realistic and complex healthcare models to be simulated more rapidly. However, decision makers will not readily accept results from models unless they can understand them intuitively and explain them to others in relatively simple terms. The challenge for the next generation of modellers is not only to harness the power available from these newly accessible methods, but also to extract from the new generation of models the insights that will have the power to influence decision makers. PMID:17067190

Weinstein, Milton C

2006-01-01

304

Can Health Planning Be a Viable Component of the Development Process -- The Korean Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic development in connection with health planning in Korea is explored. The health planning process in Korea, the establishment of target objectives, and criteria used to appraise programs are influenced by economic considerations to a greater exten...

H. C. Choo, J. R. Jeffers, M. J. Reardon

1976-01-01

305

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Skamania County, Washington.  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

306

Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

307

Preliminary economic analysis of NO\\/sub x\\/ flue gas treatment processes using TVA and EPRI economic premises. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary-level economic evaluation is made using Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) design premises with each of TVA and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) economic premises to compare seven flue gas treatment (FGT) processes for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO\\/sub x\\/) from power plant flue gas. The case examined is a new, 500-MW unit burning 3.5% sulfur coal and emitting

J. D. Maxwell; T. W. Tarkington; T. A. Burnett

1981-01-01

308

Automating the training development process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Training Development System (ATDS) was developed as a training tool for the JPL training environment. ATDS is based on the standard for military training programs and is designed to develop training from a system perspective, focusing on components in terms of the whole process. The principal feature of ATDS is data base maintainability. Everything is contained and maintained within the data base, and, if properly developed, it could be a training component of a software delivery and provided to CM as a controlled item. The analysis, development, design, presentation, and reporting phases in the ATDS instructional design method are illustrated.

Scott, Carol J.

1993-01-01

309

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

310

The Economics of Nonformal Education: Resources, Costs and Benefits. Praeger Special Studies in International Economics and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is part of a series of studies dealing with educational economics and the efficiency of various forms of education. This volume is concerned with the topic of nonformal education, particularly as it might be applied in developing nations that are still largely rural. The author does not attempt to develop a definitive economic analysis…

Ahmed, Manzoor

311

The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries  

PubMed Central

The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricultural land must be weighed against the decision to abandon this land and migrate to environmentally fragile areas. Economic factors play a critical role in determining these relationships. Poverty, imperfect capital markets and insecure land tenure may reinforce the tendency towards short-term time horizons in production decisions, and may bias land use decisions against long-term land management strategies. In periods of commodity booms and land speculation, wealthier households generally take advantage of their superior political and market power to ensure initial access to better quality resources, in order to capture a larger share of the resource rents. Poorer households are confined either to marginal environmental areas where resource rents are limited, or only have access to resources once they are degraded and rents dissipated.
Overall trends in land degradation and deforestation are examined, followed by an overview of rural households' resource management decisions with respect to land management, frontier agricultural expansion, and migration from existing agricultural land to frontiers. Finally, the discussion focuses on the scope for policy improvements to reduce economic constraints to effective land management.

Barbier, E. B.

1997-01-01

312

A new market instrument for sustainable economic and environmental development.  

PubMed

The regenerative capacity of ecosystems provides a regulatory basis for sustainable economic growth and development. A natural valuation of an ecosystem's services will arise in a market for developmental rights in the ecosystem using a unit of tradable 'right': E-Scrip. The amount of e-scrip needed for a development may be set by Environmental Assessment. The capacity of the ecosystem to regenerate with developmental pressure may be represented by an independent trader or Factor Proxy for the Environment who provides e-scrip to the market. PMID:12859007

Hansell, Roger I C; Hansell, Timothy M; Fenech, Adam

2003-01-01

313

Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production processes for the hydrogen economy for the short and medium term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is expected to play a significant role in the future energy system. A key enabler to a hydrogen-including economy will be the development and deployment of processes that can produce hydrogen whilst satisfying the criteria for sustainability, i.e. economic competitiveness, environmental protection and security of energy supply. This paper evaluates selected hydrogen production processes based on natural gas steam

F. Mueller-Langer; E. Tzimas; M. Kaltschmitt; S. Peteves

2007-01-01

314

Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.  

PubMed

This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another. PMID:22403910

Bunge, Mario

2012-01-01

315

Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts  

SciTech Connect

This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

None

1981-12-22

316

The economics of petroleum exploration and development west of Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the economics of oil and gas exploration and development in the West of Scotland region. A considerable exploration effort has resulted in some discoveries but the overall success rate has been quite low. The region is comprised of several distinct geological basins. To date the Judd Basin has experienced the best discovery rate. Expected returns as measured by expected monetary values are generally low, confirming the high-risk nature of the region. The most economical field development concept depends to a large extent on a combination of field size and water depth which vary markedly from basin to basin. In typical cost conditions at an 18 price returns to investors in medium and large-sized fields at the development phase are positive, but at 14 only when costs are relatively low are positive returns in prospect. Stand-alone gas developments are very unlikely to be viable in current market conditions. The fuller exploitation of the whole region requires higher oil and gas prices and /or significant innovation and technological progress.

Kemp, Alexander G.; Stephen, Linda

2001-05-01

317

Rehabilitation outlooks for rural Louisiana: educational developments, economic trends, and global perspectives.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to examine current medical, economic, and social trends affecting the provision of rehabilitation services for rural citizens with disabilities. While the population of interest is citizens of Louisiana, the concepts are applicable across all geographic boundaries. The article is a review of clinical practice, job placement alternatives, economic trends, and assessment of process applications. It is concluded numerous steps may be taken to enhance the availability and quality of services provided for rural citizens with disabilities: greater statistical inquiry into rural disability trends, increased incorporation of the Internet into all aspects of rural economic and educational developments, further development of distance learning, promotion of sensitivities towards rural cultures, and continued recruitment of rural allied and vocational rehabilitation professionals. PMID:12441415

Smith, T. Scott

1999-01-01

318

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

319

Incorporating Understanding of Informal Economic Activity in Natural Resource and Economic Development Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report synthesizes the literature on the role of informal economic activity in the United States postindustrial economy. Informal economic activity is expanding in the United States and is likely to continue in the foreseeable future. The formal and ...

E. T. Jones R. J. McLain S. J. Alexander

2008-01-01

320

Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

1997-01-21

321

Economic restoration process after natural disasters under mutual relationships between industrial sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the supply chain among industrial sectors, reduction in the production capacity of a firm can lead to a decrease in the production of its customer firms. Such an effect is known as the ldquocascade effectrdquo and is one of the factors that expand total economic loss. This paper develops a two-sector economic growth model and investigates the economic restoration

Kazuyoshi Nakano; Hirokazu Tatano

2008-01-01

322

Thoria powder process development (LWBR Development Program)  

SciTech Connect

The development program to identify the critical parameters for the process of converting thorium nitrate solution into thoria powder is described. Thorium oxalate hexahydrate is precipitated from the reaction of thorium nitrate solution with oxalic acid. The resulting thorium oxalate hexahydrate slurry is filter pressed into a cake which is air calcined to form thoria powder. Changes in the critical processing parameters such as free nitric acid content of the thorium nitrate solution, precipitation temperature, and calcining temperature altered the thoria powder characteristics, and thus its capability for being fabricated into fuel pellets. The objective of the powder preparation effort was to obtain thoria powders which could be formed by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques into thoria and thoria-urania pellets of high density and high integrity having a nearly uniform large grain structure.

Hutchison, C.R.; Lloyd, R.

1979-10-01

323

Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox  

SciTech Connect

Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

2012-03-01

324

Evidence development and publication planning: strategic process.  

PubMed

A number of decisions in the health care field rely heavily on published clinical evidence. A systematic approach to evidence development and publication planning is required to develop a portfolio of evidence that includes at minimum information on efficacy, safety, durability of effect, quality of life, and economic outcomes. The approach requires a critical assessment of available literature, identification of gaps in the literature, and a strategic plan to fill the gaps to ensure the availability of evidence demanded for clinical decisions, coverage/payment decisions and health technology assessments. The purpose of this manuscript is to offer a six-step strategic process leading to a portfolio of evidence that meets the informational needs of providers, payers, and governmental agencies concerning patient access to a therapy. PMID:19778166

Wittek, Michael R; Jo Williams, Mary; Carlson, Angeline M

2009-11-01

325

The state-of-the-art in modelling anticipatory economic behavior of complex production processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important aspect of any industrial application of models has to be considered to consist of its ability to predict as accurately as possible the resource or economic behavior of the process under investigation (Fogelholm, 1998 p.1). This means that the anticipatory aspect of its actual use represents the main yardstick of its concrete usefulness. Contemplating the actual models in industrial use until now, one can discern an evident increase in the accuracy of the anticipatory information supplied by the models. But as the production processes to be modelled have increased even more in technical complexity, the anticipatory capacity of models has not been able to keep pace with the technical aspect of the processes under scrutiny. In most cases, particularly those involving the economic aspect, as exemplified by the costing or other economy-capturing aspect requirements of the model, the final result has mostly been a fairly low-variety model of the actual process. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of recent developments in this management area, and particularly to scrutinize the gap between the state-of-the art in the already traditional, and recent new theory and its practical applications. Also, the present computer applications of these models will be dealt with. The paper will basically focus on the variety-capturing capabilities of the theories developed, and on the corresponding systems implemented. .

Fogelholm, John

2000-05-01

326

Sustainable Design of Geopolymers - Integration of Economic and Environmental Aspects in the Early Stages of Material Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of novel products is a complex, multi-level process. It may be divided into the two main phases of material and product development. Up to now, economic and ecological assessments have been carried out mainly after the development of materials. At that point of time, however, there is only a small degree of freedom to change the composition or process

Marcel Weil; Edgar Gasafi

327

Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

1992-01-01

328

Child Development Is Economic Development. A Conversation with Economist Art Rolnick. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public dollars spent to stimulate economic development would be more wisely invested in child development programs, according to two different streams of research. Brain research shows the impact of experiences and environments on the developing brain architecture, with weaker architecture leading to increased vulnerability to later problems…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

2006-01-01

329

Development impact fees: Modeling future growth and economic development in a south Carolina community  

Microsoft Academic Search

User fees are an attractive alternative to general taxes, especially property taxes, insofar as they are stable and appropriate. The development impact fee is sometimes used in growing communities, and can relieve the service cost burden of new development to existing residents in the short term. Their proper use demands forecasting development trends, population growth and economic conditions. The city

Janet M. Kelly

1997-01-01

330

National Use of Asbestos in Relation to Economic Development  

PubMed Central

Background National disparities in asbestos use will likely lead to an unequal burden of asbestos diseases. Objectives As economic status may be linked to asbestos use, we assessed, globally, the relationship between indicators of national economic development and asbestos use. Methods For the 135 countries that have ever used asbestos, per capita asbestos use (kilograms per capita per year) was compared with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 1990 Geary–Khamis dollars (GKD) for the period 1920–2003. Countries were grouped into three income levels (high, middle, and low) that were adapted from the 2003 World Bank categories. Results The historical pattern of asbestos use followed the environmental Kuznets curve in which use by high-income countries peaked when incomes attained 10,000–15,000 GKD and essentially ceased at income levels over 20,000 GKD. Currently, middle- and low-income countries are increasing their use of asbestos, closely following the paths once traced by higher income countries. Conclusions Developing countries have the opportunity to eliminate asbestos use sooner than high-income countries and thus reduce the future burden of asbestos diseases.

Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken; Karjalainen, Antti; Delgermaa, Vanya; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Miyamura, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Sugio; Higashi, Toshiaki; Pan, Guowei; Wagner, Gregory

2010-01-01

331

Low Cost Silicon Process Development. Phase III: Process Optimization and Evaluation. Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the Low Cost Silicon Process Development project is to determine technical and economic feasibility of a tribromosilane-based process for the production of Solar Cell Grade Silicon. To accomplish this project goal, three principal tasks have b...

E. Moore C. Newman L. Messina

1980-01-01

332

The Economic Feasibility of Establishing Oil Sunflower Processing Plants in North Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report was to explore the economic feasibility of establishing processing facilities for oil-type sunflowers in North Dakota. A broad set of topics was covered because production, processing and marketing of sunflowers and sunflower pr...

D. L. Helgeson D. W. Cobia R. C. Coon W. C. Hardie L. W. Schaffner

1977-01-01

333

Provenance of Software Development Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a ”Why does the build fail currently?” - This and similar questions arise on a daily basis in software development processes\\u000a (SDP). There is no easy way to answer these questions, the required information is stored throughout different tools, the\\u000a version control and continuous integration systems in this example. The tools mainly live in isolated worlds and no direct\\u000a connection between

Heinrich Wendel; Markus Kunde; Andreas Schreiber

2010-01-01

334

Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

2011-01-01

335

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01

336

Environment, health, and sustainable development: the role of economic instruments and policies.  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen considerable progress in integrating environmental concerns into the mainstream of development policy and planning. Economic instruments designed explicitly for environmental purposes may help to achieve cost-effective solutions, and generate public revenues. Macroeconomic and sectoral policies may impact heavily upon the environment, and there is much scope for policy reforms that are justified in both economic and environmental terms. Progress in this area has been much more rapid than in the case of health objectives, even though the rationale for environmental improvement is often ultimately related to human health and well-being. It is proposed that lessons from recent experience in the use of economic instruments and policies to achieve environmental objectives are highly relevant for the health sector, which should seek and encourage support for measures that requires consumer and producers of environmentally degrading products to pay for the economic and social costs of the damage resulting from their use. Policy reform at the macroeconomic or sectoral level may yield cost-effective solutions to some health problems, and may even bring about improvements in health status that involve no net cost at all. The countrywide impact of such policies indicate that health agencies, including WHO, should develop the capacity to understand how economic policies and the adjustment process impact upon human health, not only direct through the effect on incomes, but also indirectly, via changes in the natural environment. Ability to conduct rigorous health impact assessment of economic policy reform, which requires a multidisciplinary effort, is a necessary condition if health ministries are to maximize their effectiveness in influencing overall government economic policy.

Warford, J. J.

1995-01-01

337

Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic and Policy Issues in Natural Habitats and Protected Areas; Conservation, Protected Areas, and the Global Economic System: How Debt, Trade, Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Macroeconomic Policy Affect Biological Diversity; Conservation in ...

M. Munasinghe J. A. McNeely

1994-01-01

338

Economic Systems, Child Rearing Practices and Personality Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on the relationship of a society's economic system to other aspects of the social structure, including socialization practices. Concludes that the relationship between personal values and the economic institution becomes reciprocal as society becomes more complex. (JG)

Kozak, Conrad M.

1978-01-01

339

Tunisia, Urban Implications of Export-Oriented Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses Tunisia's capacity to take advantage of the new economic opportunities provided by the transition to an export-oriented economy on the basis of available institutional capacity, human resources, and economic infrastructure in the affec...

D. Kissick J. Dalton J. Carol M. B. Romdhane J. Abdelkaf

1990-01-01

340

Process Development of Thermal Hydrodechlorination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties that make chlorinated compounds so attractive during their economic lifetime are closely related to, if not similar to, the properties causing the environmental problems. A very promising method for proper chlorinated waste treatment is the...

A. J. B. ten Kate

1993-01-01

341

Increasing the Economic Development Benefits of Higher Education in Michigan. Working Paper No. 04-106  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how a state such as Michigan can increase the economic development benefits of higher education. Research evidence suggests that higher education increases local economic development principally by increasing the quality of the local workforce, and secondarily by increasing local innovative ideas. These economic development

Bartik, Timothy J.

2004-01-01

342

Shoot Anything that Flies; Claim Anything that Falls: Conversations with Economic Development Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development practitioners face an uncertain environment in which their ability to bring about economic development is dependent upon factors over which they have little, if any, control. Using extended excerpts from open-ended interviews, the author explores how the economic development practitioners attempt to cope with uncertainty. The interviews illustrate both the frustrations practitioners feel about their work and the

Herbert J. Rubin

1988-01-01

343

The Development Data Book: A Guide to Social and Economic Statistics. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book presents satistics on countries with populations of more than one million. The statistics relate to economic development and the changes it is bringing about in the world. These statistics are measures of social and economic conditions in developing and industrial countries. Five indicators of economic development are presented,…

Sheram, Katherine

344

Langevin processes, agent models and socio-economic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review some approaches to the understanding of fluctuations of financial asset prices. Our approach builds on the development of a simple Langevin equation that characterises stochastic processes. This provides a unifying approach that allows first a straightforward description of the early approaches of Bachelier. We generalize the approach to stochastic equations that model interacting agents. The agent models recently advocated by Marsilli and Solomon are motivated. Using a simple change of variable, we show that the peer pressure model of Marsilli and the wealth dynamics model of Solomon are essentially equivalent. The methods are further shown to be consistent with a global free energy functional that invokes an entropy term based on the Boltzmann formula. There follows a brief digression on the Heston model that extends the simple model to one that, in the language of physics, exhibits a temperature this is subject to stochastic fluctuations. Mathematically the model corresponds to a Feller process. Dragulescu and Yakovenko have shown how the model yields some of the stylised features of asset prices. A more recent approach by Michael and Johnson maximised a Tsallis entropy function subject to simple constraints. They obtain a distribution function for financial returns that exhibits power law tails and which can describe the distribution of returns not only over low but also high frequencies (minute by minute) data for the Dow Jones index. We show how this approach can be developed from an agent model, where the simple Langevin process is now conditioned by local rather than global noise. Such local noise may of course be the origin of speculative frenzy or herding in the market place. The approach yields a BBGKY type hierarchy of equations for the system correlation functions. Of especial interest is that the results can be obtained from a new free energy functional similar to that mentioned above except that a Tsallis like entropy term replaces the Boltzmann entropy term. A mean field approximation yields the results of Michael and Johnson. We show how personal income data for Brazil, the US, Germany and the UK, analyzed recently by Borgas can be qualitatively understood by this approach.

Richmond, Peter; Sabatelli, Lorenzo

2004-05-01

345

DEVELOPMENT OF ATOM-ECONOMICAL CATALYTIC PATHWAYS FOR CONVERSIONS OF SYNGAS TO ENERGY LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The subject of catalytic syngas conversions to fuels and chemicals is well studied (1--3). But globally, the recent focus is on development of technologies that offer an economical route to desired products (4). Economical transport of natural gas from remote locations and within clathrate hydrates is of continuing interest at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Under this project, a Liquid Phase Low Temperature (LPLT) concept is being applied to attain highly efficient transformations of natural-gas derived syngas to specific products. Furthermore, a more precise term ``Atom Economy'' has been recently introduced by Trost to describe development of highly efficient homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of organic molecules (5). Taken from reference 5, the term ``Atom Economy'' is defined as maximizing the number of atoms of all raw materials that end up in the product with any other reactant required on in catalytic amount. For application to methane transformations that may involve one or more steps, atom economy of each of these steps is critical. The authors, therefore, consider atom-economy synonymous with overall energy efficiency of a process. This paper describes potential liquid products from catalytic syngas conversions, i.e. gas to liquids (GTL) technologies and process considerations that are necessary for economical transport of natural gas. As such, the present study defines an atom-economical standard to directly compare competing GTL technologies.

MAHAJAN,D.; WEGRZYN,J.E.; LEE,T.; GUREVICH,M.

1999-03-01

346

Energy consumption and economic development in West Africa  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the commercial energy sector of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Presently, an economic union exists between the 16 countries of West Africa that are members of ECOWAS. Although the ECOWAS region has plentiful resources of commercial energy, it faces problems in this sector for two reasons. First is the problem resulting from the diminishing traditional energy resources such as wood fuel and charcoal. Second, most ECOWAS members, except Nigeria, are net importers of commercial energy, and hence face a high import burden for oil. Liquid petroleum is the dominant form of commercial energy used in the ECOWAS despite the availability of other resources. This author basically argues that the best policy and strategy solution for dealing with energy problems is through a combination of regional cooperative effort, and a more-intensive country level. The intensity-of-use hypothesis is tested with case studies of Ghana, the Ivory Coast, and Nigeria. The results indicate that newly developing countries can deviate from the expectations of the hypothesis.

Chima, C.M.

1987-01-01

347

Tourism development and economic growth a nonlinear approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use cross sectional data (1995-2005 yearly averages) for 88 countries to investigate the nonlinear relationship between tourism development and economic growth when a threshold variable is used. The degree of tourism specialization ( qi, defined as receipts from international tourism as a percentage of GDP) is used as the threshold variable. The results of the tests for nonlinearity indicate that the 88 countries’ data should be separated into three different groups or regimes to analyze the tourism-growth nexus. The results of the threshold regression show that when the qi is below 4.0488% (regime 1, 57 countries) or above 4.7337% (regime 3, 23 countries), there exists a significantly positive relationship between tourism growth and economic growth. However, when the qi is above 4.0488% and below 4.7337% (regime 2, 8 countries), we are unable to find evidence of such a significant relationship. Further in-depth analysis reveals that relatively low ratios of the value added of the service industry to GDP, and the forested area per country area are able to explain why we are unable to find a significant relationship between these two variables in regime 2’s countries.

Po, Wan-Chen; Huang, Bwo-Nung

2008-09-01

348

State economic Development efforts during extreme Fiscal Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

As states prepared for their 2009 legislative ses- sions, policymakers faced a series of grave, multi- faceted economic crises not experienced in many decades. The crux of the nation's economic woes may be traced to a crisis in the housing sector, which in turn, has metastasized to create a crisis in economic output with the vastly diminished production in the

Sujit M. CanagaRetna

349

Democracy and Economic ReformsDeveloping Underdeveloped Political Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early 1980s many African countries were compelled by bad economic circumstances and poor economic prospects to adopt structural adjustment programs dictated by their external creditors. By the late 1980s, it had become clear that these economic reform programs were failing to achieve their objectives. This factor as well as the effective disintegration of the Soviet empire enabled the

Ufo Okeke Uzodike

1996-01-01

350

Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sketches a theory of the secular decline in morbidity and mortality that takes account of changes in human physiology since 1700. The synergism between technological and physiological improvements has produced a form of human evolution, much more rapid than natural selection, which is still ongoing in both OECD and developing countries. Thermodynamic and physiological aspects of economic growth

ROBERT WILLIAM FOGEL

1994-01-01

351

Overview of processing activities aimed at higher efficiencies and economical production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of processing activities aimed at higher efficiencies and economical production were presented. Present focus is on low-cost process technology for higher-efficiency cells of up to 18% or higher. Process development concerns center on the use of less than optimum silicon sheet, the control of production yields, and making uniformly efficient large-area cells. High-efficiency cell factors that require process development are bulk material perfection, very shallow junction formation, front-surface passivation, and finely detailed metallization. Better bulk properties of the silicon sheet and the keeping of those qualities throughout large areas during cell processing are required so that minority carrier lifetimes are maintained and cell performance is not degraded by high doping levels. When very shallow junctions are formed, the process must be sensitive to metallizatin punch-through, series resisitance in the cell, and control of dopant leaching during surface passivation. There is a need to determine the sensitivity to processing by mathematical modeling and experimental activities.

Bickler, D. B.

1985-01-01

352

Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological innovations to achieve economic oil sands productivity, the oil companies have responded successfully to declining rates of American conventional oil production. With respect to North American hinterlands, implications for development theory center on connections among established and changing political coalitions, capacities for technological innovations, and responses to dynamic world conditions.

Steinmann, Michael

353

Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) has developed a spreadsheet-based wind model (Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI)) that incorporates economic multipliers for jobs, income, and output. Originally developed with state-specific parameters, it can also be used to conduct county and regional analyses. NREL has enlisted the Wind Powering America (WPA) State Wind Working Groups (SWWGs) to conduct county-specific economic impact analyses and has encouraged them to use JEDI if they do not have their own economic model. The objective of the analyses is to identify counties within WPA target states, and preferably counties with a significant agricultural sector, that could economically benefit from wind development. These counties could then explore opportunities to tap into the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Bill Section 9006 grants and loans to stimulate wind development. This paper describes the JEDI model and how i t can be used. We will also summarize a series of analyses that were completed to fulfill a General Accounting Office (GAO) request to provide estimates of the economic development benefits of wind power.

Sinclair, K.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

2004-03-01

354

Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges" is a compilation of best practice examples, which illustrate what it takes for community colleges to achieve their goal of helping people acquire education and skills, helping employers, supporting communities, and building the nation. The book is written…

Rothwell, William J., Ed.; Gerity, Patrick E., Ed.

2008-01-01

355

Private Capital Flows, Financial Development, and Economic Growth in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important issue in the debate over the desirability of freer capital mobility for developing countries is whether capital flows have significant effects on economic growth. Proponents of capital account liberalization cite the growth-promoting attributes of capital inflows as a key benefit of financial integration for developing countries. Unfortunately, there is little empirical evidence to confirm or refute this claim,

Jeannine N. Bailliu

2000-01-01

356

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual publication from the World Bank predicts growth patterns in developing countries. It reports that "recovery from the financial crisis is 'fragile and uneven,' with some regions recovering much faster than others." According to this year's report, growth in Asia will be strong through 2000, as the countries slowly pull themselves out of recession. The average per capita income of Third World countries outside of Asia, however, will decline. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release, summary, and the forward by Joseph Stiglitz are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main site also provides a slide show of the main points and issues of the report, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

357

SME development, economic growth, and government intervention in a developing country: The Indonesian story  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ongoing debate in the literature on the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in less developed countries\\u000a (LDCs) on two issues: the survival of SMEs in the course of economic development and the importance of government promotion\\u000a programs for SME development. This research paper aims to examine those issues empirically with Indonesian data. For this\\u000a purpose,

Tulus Tambunan

2008-01-01

358

Economic effects of higher oil prices on the terms of trade and growth in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The process of economic growth and development through international trade has been jeopardized in a number of developing countries (DC's) during the decade of the 1970's. Particularly hard hit were the non-oil developing countries (NODC's). This study examines the effect of oil prices during the 1960 to 1979 period on the terms of trade and economic growth for a sample of NODC's. The empirical results of the terms of trade for the sample of NODC's show a general fluctuation in the 1960's, but a steady decline in the 1970's. The most-significant cause for the deterioration in the 1970's was the higher oil prices. The empirical results of the two-gap model show a majority of the NODC's have the savings constraint as binding in their economic growth. The contribution of the terms of trade to this constraint is found to vary from country to country. The impact of changes in the terms of trade on overall growth of the NODC's varies between the two decades. The results show that changes in the terms of trade in the 1960's increased growth. However, in the 1970's the impact of changes in the terms of trade on overall growth of NODC's was found to be substantially negative primarily due to higher oil prices. Thus, these countries in their quest for increased economic growth must look both to expanding their own energy resources and making more efficient use of the energy they import.

Demissie, E.

1982-01-01

359

Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development  

PubMed Central

The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

2014-01-01

360

Decentralized Tomato Processing: Plant Design, Costs, and Economic Feasibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decentralized tomato processing merits consideration as an alternative to the conventional centralized operation, which processes fresh tomatoes into a finished product in a single factory. A study was made to determine savings that would be made if the c...

E. V. Jesse W. G. Schultz J. L. Bomben

1975-01-01

361

Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-10-01

362

New highways as economic development tools: An evaluation using quasi-experimental matching methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulating economic growth and development in rural and economically lagging regions is the goal of several federal and state highway programs. This paper examines the effectiveness of highway investment as an economic development tool. A quasi-experimental matching method is used to examine the effects of interstate highways on counties which obtained links during the period 1963-75 or are in close

Terance Rephann; Andrew Isserman

1994-01-01

363

Economic "Growth" vs. "Development" of Rural Communities: It Means the Difference between Local and Outside Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic growth increases the amount of money in a community but does not increase the community's capacity to steer its own direction as economic development can. The accomplishments of Rio Arriba County (New Mexico) offer a rare example of successful economic development. Sustainable environmentalism, instead of conservation, considers people as…

Varela, Maria

1994-01-01

364

Rural Job Creation--A Study of CETA Linkage with Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how jobs are created in rural areas by or with the help of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs involved with local economic development activities. It consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 reviews literature pertinent to the historical perspective and key elements of economic development, economic

Bruno, A. Lee; Wright, L. M., Jr.

365

Thermo-economic process model for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed thermo-economic model considering different technological alternatives for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. First, candidate technology for processes based on biomass gasification and subsequent methanation is discussed and assembled in a general superstructure. Both energetic and economic models for biomass drying with air or steam, thermal pretreatment by torrefaction or pyrolysis, indirectly

Martin Gassner; François Maréchal

2009-01-01

366

RIDGE Project Summaries, 2006. Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Innovation and Development Grants in Economics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes research findings from the Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Innovation and Development Grants in Economics Program (RIDGE), formerly known as the Small Grants Program. The Economic Research Service created the program in 1998 ...

T. A. Majchrowicz

2007-01-01

367

Tourism as a Rural Economic Development Tool: An Exploration of the Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tourism is a popular rural economic development tool. The annotated bibliography presents studies from economics and other social sciences that explore tourism. Topics covered include the tourism industry, measuring and forecasting tourism demand, valuati...

M. Frederick

1992-01-01

368

Economic Analysis for Final Action for Effluent Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Category.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This economic analysis (EA) presents the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) evaluation of the incremental compliance costs and economic impacts of four options for controlling discharges of stormwater during construction and development (C&D) ...

2004-01-01

369

Transportation and Economic Development: The Geographical Literature. Final Report - Appendix 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the work carried out by economic and transportation geographers into the question of the relationship between investments in transportation and geographical patterns of economic development. The report is structured as follows. First th...

E. S. Sheppard

1989-01-01

370

St. Vincent and the Grenadines: Economic Situation and Selected Development Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Recent economic performance and prospects (Background, Recent economic developments, Public sector investment program, Medium and long-term growth prospects); Policy issues in the main sectors (Agriculture and fishing, Tourism, Manufacturing); S...

1985-01-01

371

On the interpretation of local economic development in the lagging areas: The case of the Southern Great Plain region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing localisation represents one of the most spectacular processes of the economies that develop and transform as a result of globalisation processes: while the (relative) importance of national economies is decreasing, the economic role of regions and cities seems to grow. Global competition has intensified also in space, especially with the growing importance of the knowledge-based economy. Territorial com- petition,

Imre LENGYEL

2008-01-01

372

Evaluation of indirect loss from hypothetical catastrophes in two regions with different economic development levels in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates and compares the indirect economic loss (IEL) resulting from two hypothetical catastrophes occurring in China - in developed Shanghai and in less-developed Sichuan - to provide new measures of disaster reduction. IEL was divided into indirect economic loss due to the disruption of production process (IEL I) and indirect economic loss induced by the disturbance of industrial lines (IEL II). An input-output model was used to assess these two types of IEL. The study showed that (1) developed regions may be more vulnerable with respect to IEL; (2) IEL II is the primary factor contributing to total IEL; (3) decision makers need to focus on IEL II beside IEL I which is usually the main disaster-reduction target after a disaster; and (4) tradeoff between economic growth and disaster prevention is needed to achieve regional sustainable development.

Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Liu, X.-Q.

2012-11-01

373

Spatial forest plan development with ecological and economic goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest planning goals are becoming increasingly complex, as both spatial and temporal characteristics of desired future conditions are becoming important measures of forest plan success to decision makers. The objective of this research was to develop a process where the amount of habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) could be maintained within a certain radius of an owl

Pete Bettinger; Debora L. Johnson; K. Norman Johnson

2003-01-01

374

The economic impact of EUV lithography on critical process modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, semiconductor density scaling has been supported by optical lithography. The ability of the exposure tools to provide shorter exposure wavelengths or higher numerical apertures have allowed optical lithography be on the forefront of dimensional scaling for the semiconductor industry. Unfortunately, the roadmap for lithography is currently at a juncture of a major paradigm shift. EUV Lithography is steadily maturing but not fully ready to be inserted into HVM. Unfortunately, there are no alternative litho candidates on the horizon that can take over from 193nm. As a result, it is important to look into the insertion point of EUV that would be ideal for the industry from an economical perspective. This paper details the benefit observed by such a transition. Furthermore, it looks into such detail with an EUV throughput sensitivity study.

Mallik, Arindam; Horiguchi, Naoto; Bömmels, Jürgen; Thean, Aaron; Barla, Kathy; Vandenberghe, Geert; Ronse, Kurt; Ryckaert, Julien; Mercha, Abdelkarim; Altimime, Laith; Verkest, Diederik; Steegen, An

2014-04-01

375

Thermodynamic-Economic Analysis of the Synthane Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an exhaustive Second-Law analysis of the SYNTHANE process, including an efficiency and a costing study, both based on the available energy concept. The analysis shows an overall process efficiency of 46%. For 100 kwhr of useful energy...

R. Gaggioli L. Rodriguez W. Wepfer

1978-01-01

376

Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein) respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for significant ethanol cost reductions exist in increasing pentose fermentation efficiency and reducing biomass and enzyme costs. The results demonstrated the importance of addressing the tradeoffs in capital costs, pretreatment and downstream processing technologies.

2011-01-01

377

Environmental Policy Issues for Sustainable Economic Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central pillar of the sustainability movement is the call to include environmental accounting in standard measures of economic performance. This increased transparency would, in principle, mitigate the temptation of economic managers and policy makers to increase growth in material consumption at the expense of the environment. Moreover, as Repetto (1989) and others have argued, deducting depreciation of produced capital

Kimberly M. Burnett; James A. Roumasset

2006-01-01

378

Tourism policy in Morocco: a great effort for economic development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent political transformations in Arab countries suggest that solutions have to be found for the problem of lacking economic prospects and particularly of high youth unemployment. Such solutions have to consist of economic growth that unfolds widespread employment effects. A tourism policy that opens up perspectives for employment to people in many parts of a country can contribute to such

Maximilian Benner

2011-01-01

379

Results from a Faculty Development Program in Teaching Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teaching Innovations Program (TIP) was a six-year project funded by the National Science Foundation that gave economics instructors the opportunity to learn interactive teaching strategies for use in undergraduate economics courses. TIP participants first attended a teaching workshop that presented various teaching strategies. They then could…

Walstad, William B.; Salemi, Michael K.

2011-01-01

380

Development of Food-Processing Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper has analysed development and financial, with special reference to working capital management, performance of the selected food-processing industries. It prioritizes these industries for their development based on these performance criteria. It also discusses strategy for accelerated development of these industries. Food-processing industries selected for the study are foodgrains milling, edible oilseeds processing, sugarcane processing, and milk processing. The

Desai B M; Nambudiri C N S

381

Family Living, Personal Culture, Child Development, [and] Careers in Home Economics. Career Development Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four instructional units or mini-courses in the area of home economics are designed for the seventh through ninth grade levels. In the first two units (parts A and B), both six-week courses, provide seven learning activities in family living and 10 activities in personal culture focusing on: self and personality development, goals and values,…

Ferguson, Gloria E.; And Others

382

A scheme to promote the world's economic development with migration.  

PubMed

Migration's social value is generally assessed from the perspective of the receiving country. At this time the policies of rich countries allow fewer immigrants to enter than would enter under a laissez faire policy, but this may be a suboptimal policy for the world population as a whole. Those who now migrate from poor to rich countries and those who are prevented from doing so by restrictive laws certainly believe that their economic situation would be improved by such migration. A scheme for improving the worldwide welfare while making appropriate allowance for the preferences of those in the rich countries is discussed. The scheme deals with the migration of poorly schooled and semiskilled people and not the well educated. As the rich countries will not voluntarily open their borders to such immigration, a change in the international system is suggested, giving some power of taxation to an international body. This body would then pay the rich countries to take in immigrants by holding an auction among the rich countries for the immigration contracts. The scheme is analyzed, and it is argued that in the long run this approach is not as politically impossible as it initially seems. The discussion reviews the problem, the system, and the possibilities (the power of migration, the mechanisms in migration's power to raise productivity, earning patterns of immigrant cohorts, and additional possible tests) and the relative effectiveness of migration verses education in the less developed countries. It seems reasonable to send the migrants to countries that want them or can be made to want them, and an auction is a device to determine who wants something relative to someone else. A Supranational Planning Authority (SPA) could hold an auction at which countries would submit the price (per migrant or per migratory family) at which they will undertake the task of relocating migrants. The conditions of the contract would be specified, including the kind and location of housing and amenities for the migrants and the kind of occupational training they would receive. Such a contract could be a profitable means of earning foreign currency for a country. Another side benefit of the scheme is its possible use as an anticyclical device. A difficult question is the lenght (or permanence) of migratory residents. Clearly, a migration scheme will be adopted in the near future, and if it can be implemented it might work wonders for the economic development of the world. PMID:12264900

Simon, J L

1982-01-01

383

EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of process designs and retrofits to provide simple and quick economic and environmental evaluations simultaneously. The method focuses attention onto those streams and components that have the largest monetary values and...

384

Optimal biorefinery product allocation by combining process and economic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated biorefinery has the opportunity to provide a strong, self-dependent, sustainable alternative for the production of bulk and fine chemicals, e.g. polymers, fiber composites and pharmaceuticals as well as energy, liquid fuels and hydrogen. Although most of the fundamental processing steps involved in biorefining are well-known, there is a need for a methodology capable of evaluating the integrated processes

N. E. Sammons Jr; W. Yuana; M. R. Eden; B. Aksoy; H. T. Cullinan

2008-01-01

385

Universities and Colleges as Economic Drivers: Measuring Higher Education's Role in Economic Development. Critical Issues in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local, state, and national economies are facing unprecedented levels of international competition. The current fiscal crisis has hampered the ability of many governments in the developed world to directly facilitate economic growth. At the same time, many governments in the developing world are investing significant new resources into local…

Lane, Jason E., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

2012-01-01

386

Economical cutting with the CO2 gas-Laser. A report on the practical experience with a new cutting process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful and economical application of the laser process for commercial cutting in production shops is addressed. The questions of what kind of industry, what materials, and what economical advantages can be derived from this process are covered.

Podhradsky, H. S.

1980-11-01

387

Technology application: the role of the economic developer in improving the competitiveness of existing industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This AEDC Educational Foundation handbook presents for the economic developer insights into the decision-making processes of business as a basis for determining appropriate roles for the economic developer to assist business in applying technology. The focus of assistance from the economic developer to existing business is on technology application as a means to improve the competitive market position of a business. The multiple facets of technology include (but are not necessarily limited to): expertise and knowledge (including that embedded in qualified, experienced staff), hardware and software; application in manufacturing processes, in products, themselves, in marketing, management, distribution and virtually all aspects of a business; and the most-sophisticated, state-of-the-art, or pacing developments as well as the apparently more-mundane, proven technology.

Not Available

1987-10-01

388

Production of activated carbons from waste tire – process design and economical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire – pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal – pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main

Danny C. K. Ko; Edward L. K. Mui; Ken S. T. Lau; Gordon McKay

2004-01-01

389

The jobs connection: Energy use and local economic development  

SciTech Connect

Investments in energy efficiency and alternative energy technologies can imporve the economic health of American communities. This article uses examples of US communities to illustrate such investments. Among the topic areas covered are the following: the flow of energy dollars; the lost potential of energy dollars; the economic multiplier: what your dollars do; how energy dollars impact the local economy; new soar venture addressing multiple local needs; how local economic growth occurs: direct, indirect, and induced effects; the potential of energy dollars: business and job growth.

Green, B.

1995-05-01

390

Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process  

SciTech Connect

It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums today over the apparent decline in global competitiveness of U.S. industry. The question is why does U.S. industry not succeed in the development and marketing of competitive products when they lead in the generation of new technology.

Mock, John E.

1989-03-21

391

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

392

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-06-01

393

Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

Not Available

1990-07-31

394

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

395

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

396

Oil in the economic development of Nigeria (optimum utilization of oil revenues in economic growth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's economy experienced stunted growth in 1973-84 period in spite of the huge inflow of oil revenues. This dissertation addresses the issue of optimal utilization of oil revenues to promote Nigeria's economic growth. The study begins by reviewing the behavior of the oil market and the experiences of some industrialized oil-exporting countries (Netherlands, Britain and Norway), focusing on the general

Nnaji

1987-01-01

397

Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design.

Christian Schneider; Andreas Priebe; Rainer Brueck; Kai Hahn

1999-01-01

398

The role of economic strain on adolescent delinquency: a microsocial process model.  

PubMed

The current study examines the role of economic strain as a moderator of the microsocial processes influencing younger siblings' delinquency (externalizing behavior and substance use) in a longitudinal design. The younger siblings (122 younger brothers and 122 younger sisters) were from 244 families with same-sex biological siblings. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine a process model whereby mothers' harsh/inconsistent parenting and older sibling delinquency influence younger siblings' delinquent behavior via sibling aggression and delinquent peer affiliation. Findings suggest that indirect mechanisms vary as a function of economic strain, with sibling aggression having a stronger, more detrimental effect on adolescent delinquency in economically strained families. Data suggest that familial economic conditions contextualize the relative roles of parenting, sibling, and peer processes in the transmission of risk to adolescent delinquency. PMID:22709262

Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Shortt, Joann Wu

2012-08-01

399

Economic Analysis of Roadside Beautification and Recreational Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highway users attitudes as to what is considered aesthetically pleasing was determined by scaling techniques. The results indicate they prefer trees, plantings and a neat park-like appearance. They also have favorable attitudes toward farmland. Economic f...

M. Baker A. P. Reiners L. M. Hammer

1973-01-01

400

Novel anaerobic digestion process with sludge ozonation for economically feasible power production from biogas.  

PubMed

A novel process scheme was developed to achieve economically feasible energy recovery from anaerobic digestion. The new process scheme employs a hybrid configuration of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion with sludge ozonation: the ozonated sludge is first degraded in a thermophilic digester and then further degraded in a mesophilic digester. In small-scale pilot experiments of the new process scheme, degradation of VSS improved by 3.5% over the control (mesophilic-only configuration) with 20% less ozone consumption. Moreover, biogas conversion also improved by 7.1% over the control. Selective enrichment of inorganic compounds during centrifugation produced a dewatered sludge cake with very low water content (59.4%). This low water content in the sludge cake improved its auto-thermal combustion potential during incineration and added to the overall energy savings. We conducted a case study to evaluate power generation from biogas for a municipal wastewater treatment plant with an average dry weather flow of 43,000 m3/d. Electricity production cost was 5.2 ˘/kWh for the advanced process with power generation, which is lower than the current market price of 7.2 ˘/kWh. The new anaerobic digestion scheme with power generation may reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 1,000 t-CO(2)/year compared with the conventional process without power generation. PMID:21508552

Komatsu, K; Yasui, H; Goel, R; Li, Y Y; Noike, T

2011-01-01

401

The economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases in developing countries: new roles, new demands for economics and epidemiology.  

PubMed

Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of "bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior. PMID:20828844

Rich, Karl M; Perry, Brian D

2011-09-01

402

Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a 1-year program to develop the processes required for low-energy ion implantation for the automated production of silicon solar cells are described. The program included: (1) demonstrating state-of-the-art ion implantation equipment and designing an automated ion implanter, (2) making efforts to improve the performance of ion-implanted solar cells to 16.5 percent AM1, (3) developing a model of the pulse annealing process used in solar cell production, and (4) preparing an economic analysis of the process costs of ion implantation.

Minnucci, J. A.

1978-01-01

403

Quality Ensuring Development of Software Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software development is a complex process where many organizational units, persons, systems and artifacts are involved. In companies that exceed a certain size the business processes become difficult to handle and the quality of the product can decrease. A process-oriented view on software development is increasingly popular witnessed by current publications on the software development process and the application of

Alexander Förster; Gregor Engels

2003-01-01

404

Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts\\/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to

Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

2012-01-01

405

The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

2013-02-11

406

Economic Foundation of Human Resource Development: Advancing the Theory and Practice of the Discipline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the Solution . Economics theory, together with systems and psychological theories, is considered the core theories integrated to create the foundation for the human resource development discipline. Few human resource development scholars have explored the full potential of the economics and its implications for human resource development theory, research, and practice.This article presents a rationale for focusing

Richard A. Swanson

2008-01-01

407

Spatial analysis of regional economic development based on GIS in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences in development elements lead to spatial disparities of regional economic development. The study, using principal component analysis and spatial autocorrelation method, has found that the economic development in Chongqing was featured with strong positive spatial autocorrelation. The positive spatial autocorrelation appears in two forms named \\

Jinglong Liu; Gang Xu

2011-01-01

408

Research on computer graduates culture project and development programming in Financial and Economical Colleges  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the current conditions and advantages in Jilin University of Finance and Economics, and research and explore on computer graduates student culture project and development programming, a new effectively culture project and development programming for computer graduates in Financial and Economical Colleges is established in this paper. In addition, guidance ideas, development approaches, general objective, major contents of construction

Limin Wang; Ming Lil; Xuming Han; Huimin Zhang

2010-01-01

409

Analysis of Economical Benefit of Low Permeability Oil Reservoir Development under Different Well Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of low permeability oil reservoir is a very important in the petroleum engineering, especially for China. Adopting different well pattern, the economic benefit is different. What is the relationship between well pattern and development result? In this paper, the author described the characteristic of low permeability reservoir development, given the economic benefit calculation method. Through a sample study, the

Guihong Pei; Jianjun Liu

2010-01-01

410

Method for technical, economic and environmental assessment of advanced sludge processing routes.  

PubMed

The legislative framework in force in Europe entails restrictive effluent standards for sensitive areas, and quite severe restrictions on the properties of residual sewage sludge, both for landfill disposal and for agricultural use. Several technologies and management strategies have been proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants to minimise sludge production and contamination. However, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. The ROUTES project, funded within the EU Seventh Framework programme, aims to find new routes for wastewater treatment and sludge management and thereby guide EU members in their future choices. Within this project, the authors have developed and applied a procedure for techno-economic-environmental assessment of new wastewater and sludge processing lines in comparison to reference plants. The reference plants are model conventional plants that experience different types of problems and the new plants are modified plants in which different innovative technologies have been added to solve these problems. The procedure involves a rating of selected technical issues, estimates of operating costs and an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. This paper reports on the procedure and shows examples of results. PMID:24960001

Svanström, Magdalena; Bertanza, Giorgio; Bolzonella, David; Canato, Matteo; Collivignarelli, Carlo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Mininni, Giuseppe; Peters, Greg; Tomei, Maria Concetta

2014-01-01

411

Focus on Tourism-Recreation in the Northwest Arkansas Economic Development District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the present status of tourism-recreation development, current trends, and proposals to capitalize on unmet markets in a nine-county area organized for regional development as the Northwest Arkansas Economic Development District. The a...

1971-01-01

412

78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5684-N-07...Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual Reporting AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION:...

2013-11-29

413

24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 598.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2013-04-01

414

24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 597.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2013-04-01

415

24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

2013-04-01

416

Rural Economic Development: Collaboration Between SBA and USDA Could Be Improved.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Small Business Administration (SBA) and the Rural Development offices of the U.S. Department of Agriculture both work in rural areas to foster economic development by promoting entrepreneurship and community development. This report discusses (1) the ...

2008-01-01

417

7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED...of Certain Rural Development Programs...economic development review panels...designated rural development loan or grant...rent, improve, or renovate...Department of Agriculture...

2010-01-01

418

7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED...of Certain Rural Development Programs...economic development review panels...designated rural development loan or grant...rent, improve, or renovate...Department of Agriculture...

2009-01-01

419

Parallel processing for large-scale nonlinear control experiments in economics  

SciTech Connect

In general, the econometric models relevant for purposes of evaluating economic policy contain a large number of nonlinear equations. Therefore, in applying optimal control techniques, computational difficulties are encountered. This paper presents the most common algorithm for computing nonlinear control problems and investigates the degree to which vector processing and parallel processing can facilitate optimal control experiments.

Amman, H.M. (Dept. of Macroeconomics, Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (NL)); Kendrick, D.A. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Economics)

1991-01-01

420

EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1646 Smith*, R.L. Evaluating the Economics and Environmental Friendliness of Newly Designed or Retrofitted Chemical Processes. Clean Products and Processes (Springer-Verlag) 3:383-391 (2002). 10/22/2001 This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of ...

421

Economics of Spray-Dryer FGD System: The Two-Stage Open-Loop Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary economics of the Rockwell International Corporation - Wheelabrator Frye, Inc., (RI/WF) two-stage open-loop flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process were determined for both lime and soda ash absorbents. This two-stage open-loop process is a thro...

T. A. Burnett W. E. O'Brien

1981-01-01

422

Economic Evaluation of an Electrolytic Process To Recover Lead from Scrap Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is an economic evaluation of the Bureau of Mines electrolytic process for recovering lead from scrap lead-acid batteries. In this process, scrap batteries are crushed and separated into metal and sludge fractions. The metal fraction is cas...

T. A. Phillips

1986-01-01

423

Integrated Trusted System Development Environment - Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrated Trusted System Development Environment (ITSDE) Process project has further extended and refined the Integrated Development Process (IDP) defined previously by the authors. The result is a set of integrated Data Item Descriptions (DIDs) for ...

T. C. Benzel D. W. Rothnie S. D. Crocker

1993-01-01

424

The Development of Analogical Reasoning Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to test the generalizability to children of a theory of analogical reasoning processes, originally proposed for adults, and to examine the development of analogical reasoning processes in terms of five proposed sources of cognitive development. (MP)

Sternberg, Robert J.; Rifkin, Bathsheva

1979-01-01

425

Development of CO2 Laser Processing Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basic concept that laser processing will be one of the most important processing methods, the authors have studied various technologies for laser processing and resonators. The laser cutting machine has been recently developed by synthesyzing these...

M. Sueda K. Tanaka H. Yamamoto A. Watanabe K. Fukui

1989-01-01

426

Economics of spray-dryer FGD system: the two-stage open-loop processes  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary economics of the Rockwell International Corporation - Wheelabrator Frye, Inc., (RI/WF) two-stage open-loop flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process were determined for both lime and soda ash absorbents. This two-stage open-loop process is a throwaway system in which the alkali raw material (as a solution or slurry) is sprayed into the flue gas stream, dried by the latent heat in the hot flue gas, and collected as dry particulate matter in a baghouse. The fly ash is also collected in the baghouse as an inherent part of the process. An economic evaluation of a limestone slurry FGD process with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for particulate matter removal was included for comparison. The basis was a 500-MW power plant burning 3.5% sulfur, 16% ash coal with 90% SO/sub 2/ removal and 0.1 lb/MBtu particulate matter emission. The economic evaluations were made using both TVA and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) economic premises. Cost differences between the two-stage open-loop lime and soda ash versions are largely the result of different waste disposal and raw material costs. Both RI/WF versions are more economical than limestone in most process elements except raw material costs. Cost differences between the TVA- and EPRI-based estimates are the result of different methods of estimating indirect costs, levelizing operating costs, and different raw material costs.

Burnett, T.A.; O'Brien, W.E.

1981-06-01

427

The Need Is Now: University Engagement in Regional Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a time when many regions are grappling with economic challenges and universities are struggling to demonstrate their public value, the question of how regions and universities might partner effectively begs to be addressed. This qualitative case study examines the engagement of six land-grant institutions in regions not proximate to their…

Franklin, Nancy E.

2009-01-01

428

Preschool and Economic Development. Employment Research. Volume 13, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Employment Research" is published quarterly by the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment and Research. Issues appear in January, April, July, and October. This issue of "Employment Research" presents an article that summarizes the author's study of the effects of high-quality universal preschool education when it is treated as an economic

Bartik, Timothy J.

2006-01-01

429

Unpacking social capital in Economic Development: How social relations matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social capital is a contested concept, embraced by the mainstream as “the missing link” in economic analysis. This article suggests a way to turn it into a more meaningful understanding of how social relations matter in the economy. It will do so by unpacking the concept into various elements, distinguishing what social relations are from what they do, and by

Irene van Staveren; Peter Knorringa

2007-01-01

430

Developing Latent Mathematics Abilities in Economically Disadvantaged Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was undertaken as an effort to attend to the potential giftedness of economically disadvantaged students, to give opportunities for mathematics acceleration, and to provide a sequential, individualized mathematics program for students of high mobility. The authors evaluated the Project SAIL (Students' Active Interdisciplinary…

McKenna, Michele A.; Hollingsworth, Patricia L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

2005-01-01

431

Economic Development: A Rural Perspective. Issues in Training and Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue paper, meant to stimulate discussion within the employment and training community, offers three different perspectives on improving conditions in rural areas. However, all of these perspectives share common themes: a belief in the ability of rural areas to recover economically, a commitment to ensuring that this occurs, and the use of…

Kuhlman, Judy; And Others

432

A Strategy for Program Development and Evaluation in Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The failure of classroom practices to alter to accommodate concepts and concept learning prompted this attempt to identify a strategy for selecting and organizing content and instruction for learning home economics concepts and generalizations. Basic elements of the strategy are: (1) a statement of rationale including the broad goals of the…

Kreutz, Shirley

433

Rural Vocational Education and Economic Development in the Western States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western United States (characterized by low population density with small, scattered urban centers) underwent tremendous economic and population growth in the 1970's. The impact on small towns and rural areas included ecological damage and fewer permanent jobs than had been anticipated available to local persons. In spite of area growth, most…

Smith, Kathryn Baker

434

Education and Rural Economic Development: Strategies for the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1980s found the U.S. economy vulnerable in the global marketplace. Many observers have argued that workforce education and skill levels are too low, particularly in rural areas. In this book, four studies examine the education crisis, the relationship between the education shortfall and rural economic stagnation, the importance of local…

Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Agriculture and Rural Economy Div.

435

The Lummi Indians - Economic Development and Social Continuity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing upon the developmental changes that have taken place among the Lummis of Washington between 1966 and the present, this case study of an American Indian tribe experiencing an economic renaissance emphasizes the fact that success can and does bring unintended risks. Specifically, this study presents information re: (1) the present (emphasis…

Stein, Barry

436

Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

437

Economic Development in West Virginia. Information Series 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excessive unemployment, serious deficiencies in education, housing, welfare, transportation, and government systems are major problems in West Virginia. A historical contributor to the present condition is the decline of the coal industry. Also a contributor is the general apathy of the citizens toward change and economic progress. The state's…

Zeller, Frederick A.; Smith, Wil J.

438

GLOBALIZATION'S IMPACT ON STATE-LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing exposure of the U.S. economy to international competition, popularly termed globalization, over the past two decades has brought some momentous changes affecting the American economy, society, and life styles. Not surprisingly, these changes have been reflected in growing political turbulence and shifts in policy paradigms as well. This symposium explores the effects that globalization has had on economic

Cal Clark; Robert S. Montjoy

2001-01-01

439

The Economics of Software Development by Pair Programmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that pair programmers–two programmers working collaboratively on the same design, algorithm, code, or test–perform substantially better than the two would working alone. Improved quality, teamwork, communication, knowledge management, and morale have been among the reported benefits of pair programming. This paper presents a comparative economic evaluation that strengthens the case for pair programming. The evaluation builds on the

Hakan Erdogmus; Laurie Williams

2003-01-01

440

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for

A. Aden; M. Ruth; K. Ibsen; J. Jechura; K. Neeves; J. Sheehan; B. Wallace; L. Montague; A. Slayton; J. Lukas

2002-01-01

441

Agricultural trade networks and patterns of economic development.  

PubMed

International trade networks are manifestations of a complex combination of diverse underlying factors, both natural and social. Here we apply social network analytics to the international trade network of agricultural products to better understand the nature of this network and its relation to patterns of international development. Using a network tool known as triadic analysis we develop triad significance profiles for a series of agricultural commodities traded among countries. Results reveal a novel network "superfamily" combining properties of biological information processing networks and human social networks. To better understand this unique network signature, we examine in more detail the degree and triadic distributions within the trade network by country and commodity. Our results show that countries fall into two very distinct classes based on their triadic frequencies. Roughly 165 countries fall into one class while 18, all highly isolated with respect to international agricultural trade, fall into the other. Only Vietnam stands out as a unique case. Finally, we show that as a country becomes less isolated with respect to number of trading partners, the country's triadic signature follows a predictable trajectory that may correspond to a trajectory of development. PMID:22768310

Shutters, Shade T; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

2012-01-01

442

Improving the Quality of Continuing Higher Educators' Leadership Role in Economic and Community Development Planning. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a 1991 call issued by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, eight institutions were selected to participate in a model process designed to involve higher education in the economics of community development. They were: Bloomsburg University, Chadron State College, Kean College of New Jersey, Murray State…

Ferro, Trenton R.

443

ECOS Process for Curriculum Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet details a methodology for infusing almost any subject into a school district's ongoing curriculum. The process involved three interrelated parts: infusion, community, and stewardship. The infusion component makes it possible to upgrade teacher's skills, improve classroom management, strengthen community-school cooperation, and diffuse…

Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

444

Social Capital and Economic Development in Regional Australia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of a case study of social capital and economic development conducted in two towns in regional Australia between 2001 and 2002. The hypothesis driving the research states that a town displaying a high level of social capital will also display a high level of economic development, while a town with a low level of…

Woodhouse, Andrew

2006-01-01

445

Deploying Community Colleges to Strengthen State Economic Development: A National Study. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State governments across the nation are engaging community colleges as cornerstones of their comprehensive economic development strategies. This executive summary summarizes the efforts of 10 states, recommended by national experts, to deploy community colleges in support of state economic development priorities. The 10 states are: Florida,…

Cleary, Jennifer; Fichtner, Aaron

2005-01-01

446

Deploying Community Colleges to Strengthen State Economic Development: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State governments across the nation are engaging community colleges as cornerstones of their comprehensive economic development strategies. This report summarizes the efforts of 10 states, recommended by national experts, to deploy community colleges in support of state economic development priorities. The 10 states are: Florida, Mississippi,…

Cleary, Jennifer; Fichtner, Aaron

2005-01-01

447

Pathway to Self-Sufficiency: Social and Economic Development Strategies of Native American Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…

Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

448

Federal Policy Towards State and Local Economic Development in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests new federal policies towards state and local economic development assistance to business. I argue that there is some evidence that these programs can be effective in encouraging business growth and helping the unemployed. But state and local governments do not have the right incentives to adequately pursue national goals through economic development programs. State and local governments

Timothy J. Bartik

1993-01-01

449

LEARNING ABOUT WOMEN. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a recent semester-long stay in India, students from Xavier University (Cincinnati, Ohio) learned about a variety of social and economic development issues, with an emphasis on the role and status of women. This study describes and assesses the impact and effectiveness of their learning with a particular focus on their exposure to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), one economic development

NANCY BERTAUX; ELAINE CRABLE

2007-01-01

450

Bringing Culture Back In: Overcoming the Economic-Cultural Split in Development Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that economic geography, by itself, does not completely explain the geography of world economic development. Argues that development must also be viewed in terms of the cultural peculiarities which influence it. Cites as examples the early United States economy, consisting of a capitalist North and an agricultural South, and the Apartheid…

Agnew, John A.

1987-01-01

451

Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth after Liberalisation : An Analysis of Indian States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth does not necessarily ensure environmental sustainability for a country. The relationship between the two is far more complicated for developing countries like India, given the dependence of a large section of the population on natural resources for livelihood. Under this backdrop, the current study attempts to analyze the relationships among Environmental Quality (EQ), Human Development (HD) and Economic

Sacchidananda Mukherjee; Debashis Chakraborty

2007-01-01

452

Social and Economic Wellbeing in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: Building an Enlarged Human Development Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper calculates a human Wellbeing Composite Index (WCI) for 42 countries, belonging to the European Economic Space, North Africa and the Middle East, as an alternative to the shortcomings of other well-known measures of socio-economic development (i.e. Gross Domestic Product per head and Human Development Index). To attain this goal,…

Reig-Martinez, Ernest

2013-01-01

453

Partners or Competitors? Perceptions of Regional Economic Development Cooperation in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the perceptions of economic development decision makers regarding regional economic development competition and cooperation. This research contributes to an understanding of the interlocal cooperative interactions that exist between and among local governments and to an understanding of what the obstacles are to cooperative efforts. The author uses a qualitative approach utilizing in-depth interviews of participants within a

Victoria Gordon

2007-01-01

454

Tapping State College Research and Development Capacity in Support of State Economic Development. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied research and development activities at regional state colleges and universities bolster their primary mission of undergraduate education as well as contribute to local and statewide economic growth. As states boost efforts to fund and stimulate research as part of an integrated economic development strategy, they should seek to fully…

Hurley, Daniel

2008-01-01

455

Technical assistance and the transfer of remote sensing technology. [for economic development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transfer of technology from industrialized countries to the third world is a very complicated process and one that requires a great deal of research and development. The political and social obstacles to this transfer are generally greater than the technical obstacles, but technical assistance programs have neither the competence nor the inclination to deal with these factors adequately. Funding for technical assistance in remote sensing is now expanding rapidly, and there is a growing need for institutions to study and promote the effective use of this technology for economic development. The United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development and the Canadian technical assistance agencies take different approaches to the problem and deal with the political pressures in different ways.

Chipman, R.

1977-01-01

456

Development of design and economic parameters for passive solar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reach the energy consumption goals established by executive Order 12003 and Public Law 95-356, the Air Force must integrate conservation measures with present technology. This analysis generates target design and economic parameters for one such technology - passive solar systems. This thesis provides the Air Force design manager with a three phase method of determining the economic feasibility of passive solar heating for a given Military Construction Project. In the first phase, guidelines are presented for preliminary sizing insulation levels and solar collection (glazing) area based on the building location and size. Next, the second phase presented a quantitative energy analysis to achieve an accurate estimate of the energy savings of a passive solar building using the guidelines from the first phase. Finally, the third phase presented a method for economic analysis of passive solar systems using life-cycle costing. This method determines whether the energy savings justifies the incremental increase in construction cost based on a 25 year payback period.

Woods, R. A.; Harrison, M. P.

1984-09-01

457

Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338

Chang, K S

1991-07-01

458

Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other.

Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

2008-01-01

459

Developer concentration influence on DUV process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, TMAH 2.38 percent concentration developer is popular to run photo process form g-line, I-line to DUV. For next generation photo process, the PR thickness will be thinner, CD and PR profile control are more important, so developer process will be more critical. The influence of developer concentration on DUV process performance has been investigated in this paper. We have

Tsu-Yu Chu; Kun-Pi Cheng

1999-01-01

460

Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

1988-09-01

461

An economic analysis of the Jim Bridger Power Plant carbon dioxide mineralization process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns for rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have lead to a myriad of schemes to reduce emissions. Many of these are complicated, expensive, and untried. Coal-fired electrical generation accounts for about 49 percent of U.S. electricity generation. Shifting generation capacity away from coal is the goal of many, yet as this statistic shows, the U.S. has a heavy dependency on coal-fired base-load generation. What is needed is a way to retrofit existing coal fired power plants to mitigate at least some of the giga-tonnes of CO2 released annually. Carbon Capture and Storage in association with greenhouse gases are a major concern in the world today. This thesis is an outgrowth of a research partnership between the University of Wyoming and the Jim Bridger Power Plant (Rocky Mountain Power) to develop a process for capture and mineralization of flue gas carbon dioxide (CO 2) using an accelerated mineral carbonization process with fly ash particles as the absorbent. This process may have several advantages over other approaches because it is an environmentally acceptable, single step process occurring at near ambient pressures and temperatures that can compliment conventional CCS processes. In addition the use of fly ash particles as an absorbent avoids the costs of processing or engineering an absorbent. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the mineralization process. Two models were used to estimate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the Jim Bridger Power Plant CO2 Mineralization Project (JBP). The first was a cost of capture model which was used to estimate CO2 capture costs and how changes in the CO2 to ash capture ratio and quantities of CO2 captured affect capture costs. The second was a financial feasibility model which considered the time value of money. This second model considered the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) for the process using different pricing scenarios and processing parameters. The analysis was based on a full size reactor system capable of capturing 90 percent of the CO2 emitted by Unit 2 of the Jim Bridger Power Plant. Unit 2 is a 530 megawatt pulverized coal-fired generator which emits 4.9 million tones of CO2 annually. The cost estimates for the full size reactor system were developed by scaling up from a pilot project currently being conducted at the plant. The results show estimates that range from 7.37 to 27.30 per metric tonne of CO2 captured. This range compares favorably with other estimates in the literature. Furthermore, since this system could be retrofitted to an existing power plant, added costs would be considerably less per installed kilowatt-hour. Our preliminary estimates place this cost at $94 per installed kilowatt hour. This thesis will introduce the process, give an update on the project and present our preliminary findings.

Christensen, Mikol Hans

462

Rural Development Research: A Foundation for Policy. Contributions in Economics and Economic History, Number 170.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses the need for research information that can be used as a foundation for rural development policy. Part I deals with the four components of rural development: education (human capital), entrepreneurship, physical infrastructure, and social infrastructure. Part II examines analytic methods of measuring rural development efforts,…

Rowley, Thomas D., Ed.; And Others

463

MINOR ACTINIDE SEPARATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Flowsheet studies for the separation of minor actinides, predominantly americium and curium, from lanthanide fission products have been in progress in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past two years. This very difficult separations step has been carried out successfully at the REDC for ~35 years by

E. D. Collins; D. E. Benker; L. K. Felker; R. D. Taylor; G. D. Del Cul; B. B. Spencer; W. D. Bond; D. O. Campbell

464

Economic Development from Gigawatt-Scale Wind Deployment in Wyoming (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation provides an overview of economic development in Wyoming from gigawatt-scale wind development and includes a discussion of project context, definitions and caveats, a deployment scenario, modeling inputs, results, and conclusions.

Lantz, E.

2011-05-23

465

Military expenditures and economic growth in less developed countries: an augmented model and further evidence  

SciTech Connect

A study of the impact of military expenditures on economic growth and development examines the differences in the results of previous studies which led to contradictory conclusions. The authors find that these differences are due to sample variations, specificational choices, and the different time periods examined. The data indicate that there is no consistent, statistically significant connection between military spending and economic growth. Augmentation of the models suggests that military expenditures neither help nor hurt economic growth to any significant extent. 2 tables.

Biswas, B.; Ram, R.

1986-01-01

466

Sustainable consumption, the new economics and community currencies: Developing new institutions for environmental governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seyfang G. (2006) Sustainable consumption, the new economics and community currencies: developing new institutions for environmental governance, Regional Studies40, 781–791. Sustainable consumption is gaining currency as a new environmental policy objective, but there is a limit to the changes in consumption behaviour that individuals can make within current socio-economic frameworks. The ‘new economics’ literature argues that sustainable consumption is characterized

Gill Seyfang

2006-01-01

467

Solid waste from aluminum recycling process: characterization and reuse of its economically valuable constituents.  

PubMed

Due to economic advantages, many companies in Brazil recover Al from the process of crushing and water-leaching of secondary aluminum dross. Wastes from this process (non-metallic products and salts) are usually landfilled or disposed without treatment, causing many environmental damages. The purpose of this work is to investigate, in a recycling company sited in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil), the potential use of the non-metallic product (NMP) in the production of concrete blocks and to evaluate the presence of important chemical compounds that may be useful for other applications. Chemical and mineralogical analyses revealed that NMP is composed of refractory and abrasive oxides (alpha-Al2O3, MgAl2O4, SiO2) and an important source of transition alumina: alpha-Al(OH)3. Concrete blocks were made by adding two parts of NMP to one part of cement and four parts of sand. The blocks were tested according to the Brazilian standard (NBR7173/1982) and they passed dimension, humidity and absorption tests but not compressive strength tests. However, particular NMP constituents have accelerated the strength rate development of the blocks, thus decreasing working time. The commercial use of NMP can reduce the amount of discarded wastes contributing to environmental preservation. PMID:15681177

Shinzato, M C; Hypolito, R

2005-01-01

468

Economics\\/reliability trade-offs in materials for various coal conversion and utilization processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics and reliability in materials for coal conversion and utilization processes with emphasis on the conventional coal-burning system, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and open cycle coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics power generation are examined. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking are the most important problems in conventional systems, which are discussed relative to steam turbines, high pressure feed water heaters, and scrubbers. In

M. K. Guha

1979-01-01

469

An Economic Paradigm for Query Processing and Data Migration in Mariposa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore query execution and storage management issues for Mariposa, a distributed data base system under construction at Berkeley. Because of the extreme complexity of both issues, we have adopted an underlying economic paradigm for both problems. Hence, queries receive a budget which they spend to obtain their answers, and each processing site attempts to maximize income

Michael Stonebraker; Robert Devinet; Marcel Kornacker; Witold Litwin; Avi Pfeffer; Adam Sah; Carl Staelin

1994-01-01

470

Decision processes of a suicide bomber—the economics and psychology of attacking and defecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a theoretical analysis of suicide attacks and defection. First, decision processes of potential attackers are examined from an economist’s perspective. The results are then applied to insights from behavioural economics and psychology. We derive conditions under which agents decide to become suicide bombers—or to announce an attack and defect later. Taking account of hyperbolic discounting we show

Karen Pittel; Dirk T. G. Rübbelke

2011-01-01

471

Decision processes of a suicide bomber—the economics and psychology of attacking and defecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a theoretical analysis of suicide attacks and defection. First, decision processes of potential attackers are examined from an economist’s perspective. The results are then applied to insights from behavioural economics and psychology. We derive conditions under which agents decide to become suicide bombers—or to announce an attack and defect later. Taking account of hyperbolic discounting we show

Karen Pittel; Dirk T. G. Rübbelke

2012-01-01

472

Seawater desalination (RO) as a wind powered industrial process — Technical and economical specifics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Already today wind power offers low and long-term stable costs of energy and therefore is able to compete with large scale conventional power generation. Using wind power directly for energy intensive industrial processes requires an optimized hybrid configuration as well as a balanced load and\\/or energy management. The technical and economical specifics for wind powered seawater desalination with reverse osmosis

Joachim Käufler; Robert Pohl; Hadi Sader

2011-01-01

473

Free Cooling Using Walter–side Economizer: Process Cooling Application At a Plastic Extrusion Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a detailed feasibility study conducted in 2007 for the installation of a free cooling system for process cooling at a plastic extrusion plant in the greater Toronto area utilizing a water economizer circuit. The energy consumption of the cooling system, which had a 130-ton chiller capacity, comprised 20 percent of the total electrical energy consumption

Mohammad H. Wathaifi

2009-01-01

474

An Economic Order Quantity Model with Demand-Dependent Unit Production Cost and Imperfect Production Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical economic order quantity (EOQ) model assumes that items produced are of perfect quality and that die unit cost of production is independent of demand. Product quality is not always perfect but directly affected by the reliability of the production process used to produce the products. In addition, a relationship between unit production cost and demand may exist under

T. C. E. CHENG

1991-01-01

475

Post-disaster economic development in Aceh: Neoliberalization and other economic-geographical imaginaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 and a subsequent Memorandum of Understanding ending three decades of armed conflict has opened up Aceh to international aid, trade, ideas and potential investment. For Naomi Klein in her (2008) book The Shock Doctrine, such disasters have been exploited systematically in processes of neoliberalization. Based on fieldwork in Aceh and Jakarta, this paper

Nicholas A. Phelps; Tim Bunnell; Michelle Ann Miller

2011-01-01

476

Technical and economic evaluation of the Kureha acetate process. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical assessment of the process was based primarily on proprietary information supplied by Kureha through its process licensee in the Untied States, General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI). The economic evaluation was based on a GEESI conceptual system design for a two-unit, high-sulfur (4 percent), coal-fired plant producing 1000 MW (net) and meeting the latest Federal New Source Performance

Rabb

1983-01-01

477

Economics of spray-dryer FGD system: the two-stage open-loop processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary economics of the Rockwell International Corporation - Wheelabrator Frye, Inc., (RI\\/WF) two-stage open-loop flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process were determined for both lime and soda ash absorbents. This two-stage open-loop process is a throwaway system in which the alkali raw material (as a solution or slurry) is sprayed into the flue gas stream, dried by the latent heat in

T. A. Burnett; W. E. OBrien

1981-01-01

478

The Role of Natural Heritage in Rural Development: An Analysis of Economic Linkages in Scotland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing recognition of the important role played by natural heritage in rural economic development, but limited empirical work as yet to inform this debate. This paper examines the nature and strength of local economic linkages associated with the natural heritage in four case study areas in Scotland, differentiated in terms of their…

Courtney, Paul; Hill, Gary; Roberts, Deborah

2006-01-01

479

Closing the implementation gap: a framework for incorporating the context of place in economic development planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, rural and small-town Canada has experienced considerable transformation from social, economic, and political restructuring. These changes put pressure on communities and regions to assume increasing levels of responsibility for economic planning and development. The record to date, however, reveals implementation gaps between plans and the results on the ground. This paper explores this implementation gap using

Sean Markey; Greg Halseth; Don Manson

2008-01-01

480

Guidelines for Development and Use of Selected Types of Audiovisual Materials in Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to encourage home economics teachers to use audiovisual materials for more effective classroom communication, and to provide information which would assist them in developing selected types of audiovisual materials. Seventy-eight vocational home economics teachers were questioned to determine audiovisual practices, equipment…

Gould, Grovalynn Foreman

481

The Difficult Transition: Economic Development and Gender Relations in Arunachal Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationship between economic development and gender relations has been found to be multidimensional and complex. This article attempts to analyse the changing gender relations in Arunachal Pradesh, a state that has seen rapid economic transformation in the past few decades, on the basis of women’s relative position in a few socioeconomic spheres. Although Arunachal Pradesh, like other north- eastern

Deepak K. Mishra; Vandana Upadhyay

2012-01-01

482

Allocation of CO 2 emission permits—Economic incentives for emission reductions in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impacts on developing regions following a global cap and trade system for carbon dioxide are assessed through the use of an energy-economy systems model. Both an equal per capita allocation and a contraction and convergence allocation with convergence of the per capita emissions by 2050 are shown to offer economic incentive for Africa, India and probably also Latin

Tobias A. Persson; Christian Azar; Kristian Lindgren

2006-01-01

483

The Use of Economic Incentives in Developing Countries: Lessons from International Experience with Industrial Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent should developing countries eschew conventional command and control regulation that is increasingly seen as inefficient and rely instead on economic incentives to control industrial air pollution? The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various economic incentive instruments; presents in-depth case studies of their application in Sweden, the United States, China, and Poland; and proposes policy guidelines.

Allen Blackman; Winston Harrington

2000-01-01

484

Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

485

Material Culture: Embedded Firms, Organizational Networks and the Local Economic Development of a Fashion Quarter  

Microsoft Academic Search

CREWE L. (1996) Material culture: embedded firms, organizational networks and the local economic development of a fashion quarter, Reg. Studies30, 257–272. This paper explores the economic and cultural geographies of one localized agglomeration, in order to understand how territorially defined networks of firms can offer the basis for enhanced competitiveness. The focus is on the evolution and dynamics of the

Louise Crewe

1996-01-01

486

The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic

Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

487

State Economic Development Policy and Practice in the United States: A Survey Article  

Microsoft Academic Search

The states have taken an increasingly active role in economic development policy during the past two decades. This article presents both a comprehensive overview of the state strategies and a statistical overview of the changing economic conditions from which they arise. The strategies can be grouped into three distinct orientations. Chasing and acquisition focuses on bringing into the state businesses,

Andrew M. Isserman

1993-01-01

488

Collaboration Among Governmental Organizations: Economic Development Policy Networks Among Local Governments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragmented jurisdictions in a metropolitan area have pursued individual economic benefits through competition with others. Intense development competition has produced negative economic externalities. Therefore, local governments have strategically considered collaborating with other jurisdictions in order to maximize benefits and minimize costs through collective actions. However, collaboration among individual communities potentially involves collective action dilemmas endemic to the fragmented metropolitan area.

Youngmi Lee

2011-01-01

489

The Role and Spread of Mass Media and Its Impact on Economic Development of Underdeveloped Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study delineates the role and spread of mass media and its impact on economic development of underdeveloped countries. Some definitions about mass communication are given, followed by a brief description of how the mass media in the countries of the world operate under four major theories. An examination is made of the economic

Gavitt, Alexander R., Jr.

490

Development of novel microencapsulation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is for encapsulating additives into polymer particles using different techniques including emulsification/solvent evaporation, compressed carbon dioxide based microencapsulation, and encapsulation with porous polymer particles. Such microencapsulations can be applied to a vast range of areas, for example bio-labeling, controlled release, drug delivery, and printing. Fluorescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were incorporated into polyisoprene (PI) particles by emulsification/solvent evaporation. The simple method results in QDs encapsulated into the particle core without requiring chemical modification of the QDs. The fluorescence spectra of mixtures of two different-sized QDs change in PI as compared to their solution spectra, suggesting energy transfer between QDs due to their aggregation during the encapsulation. However, different emission peaks were clearly resolved, indicating that the particles are suitable for multicolor coding. The polyisoprene is easily cross-linked, and the cross-linking was shown to greatly enhance the fluorescence stability of the encapsulated QDs. Ionic dyes were successfully encapsulated in polystyrene (PS) particles by CO2-based microencapsulation. The water-soluble dyes were made hydrophobic by forming ion pairs with alkyl quaternary ammonium cations. The hydrophobic ion pairs were then encapsulated in preexisting size monodisperse PS particles dispersed in water. High-pressure carbon dioxide swelled and plasticized PS and thus facilitated mass transport of the dye into the particles. The results show that the particles maintain their size and morphology after exposure to CO2, and that ion-paired dyes have significantly higher loading in the polymer particles than the original dyes. Addition of water-miscible cosolvents was shown to further enhance the incorporation of the hydrophobic ion pairs into the polymer colloids. To encapsulate water-soluble additives, porous polymer particles were made by freeze-drying droplets of polymer solution suspended in water or from a spray. Hollow PS particles were obtained by swelling PS latex with solvent, freezing in liquid nitrogen, and drying in vacuum. It is shown that the particle morphology is due to phase separation in the polymer emulsion droplets upon freezing in liquid nitrogen, and that morphological changes are driven largely by lowering interfacial free energy. The dried hollow particles were resuspended in a dispersing media and exposed to a plasticizer, which imparts mobility to polymer chains, to close the surface opening and form microcapsules surrounding an aqueous core. The interfacial free energy difference between the hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside surfaces is the major driving force for closing the hole on the surface. A controlled release biodegradable vehicle for drug was made by encapsulating procaine hydrochloride, a water-soluble drug, into the core of poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) microcapsules, which were made by the freeze-drying and subsequent closing process. The encapsulation efficiency is affected by the hollow particle morphology, amount of closing agent, exposure time, surfactant, and method of dispersing the hollow particles in water. Controlled release of procaine hydrochloride from the microcapsules into phosphate buffer was observed. The use of benign solvents dimethyl carbonate in spray/freeze-drying and CO2 for closing would eliminate concerns of residual harmful solvent in the product. The ease of separation of CO2 from the drug solution may also enable recycling of the drug solution to increase the overall encapsulation efficiency using these novel hollow particles.

Yin, Weisi

491

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-06-01

492

Hydrogasifier development commercial design of single-stage commercial scale and process development scale hydrogasifiers  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the process requirements resulting from changing the Hydrane process from a two-stage hydrogenation to a single-stage hydrogasification process was undertaken by the Dravo Corporation for the Morgantown Energy Research Center, US Department of Energy, Morgantown, and West Virginia. Hydrogenation is the reaction of coal with hydrogen to produce gaseous and/or liquid products. Hydrogasifiation is the gasification of coal by direct reaction with hydrogen to produce gaseous products only. The present single-stage process scheme has further developed hydrogasification to incorporate rapid heating of fine coal particles (70%, -200 mesh) to the reaction temperature (1600 to 2000/sup 0/F). The heating rate has been estimated to be in excess of 1 x 10/sup 60/K per second. The combination of the two foregoing operations, i.e., rapid heating of the particle in an atmosphere of hydrogen, results in devolatilization of the coal particles and rapid reaction of devolatilized hydrocarbons with hydrogen. This process has also been termed flash hydropyrolysis. The advantages which accrue to this process are described. A conceptual plant design study wherein the economics of the Rocketdyne hydrogasification process can be evaluated is needed. Should the economics of the system prove to be competitive with other processes, then an integrated PDU should be designed and built for further experimentation. The process chemistry having been proven, it remains to accentuate process design and hardware development.

Hobday, J.M.

1980-05-01

493

Diffusion of an economic development policy innovation: explaining the international spread of casino gambling.  

PubMed

This study uses an event history analysis to examine the factors that lead to the adoption of casino gambling among 13 nations around the world. Specifically, measures of fiscal stress, economic development, tourism, religiosity, and income levels are tested for their relationship to national decisions to legalize casino gambling. This study found that economic development needs, as measured by general unemployment rates, were associated with the casino legalization decisions of national governments. Higher unemployment rates were more likely in the years that nations legalized casino gambling. Religiosity, measured by frequency of church attendance, was also found to be a significant barrier in legalization decisions. Measures of fiscal stress, tourism, and income levels were not found to have significant relationships with the legalization decisions. This is interesting because these factors are often cited in case studies, media reports, and the statements of politicians during legalization processes. This study points to the need for further research in several areas. Further exploration of potential explanatory variables and more appropriate measures of currently theorized factors is warranted. Another area for further research is the seeming contradictory findings of multiple statistical analyses and multiple anecdotal findings of the impacts of fiscal stress on the casino legalization decision. PMID:20012887

Richard, Brian

2010-06-01

494

Economic growth and competitiveness of Hungarian regions (Economic development strategies for different types of regions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitiveness has become one of the key concept in regional policy in the last two decades in the EU. It had be come the received view by the 1990s that in an age of globalization t he previous one- sided approach could no longer be relied on to expl ain what development factors are responsible for success in the interregional

IMRE LENGYEL

495

Sex Differences in Mediating and Moderating Processes Linking Economic Stressors, Psychological Distress, and Drinking  

PubMed Central

Objective: Given the recent downturn in the U.S. economy, we considered in this study the processes linking economic stressors, psychological distress, and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Method: Data were drawn from a mail survey of a national sample of 663 respondents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether psychological distress mediates the associations between economic stressors and the alcohol-related outcomes considered and whether these associations varied by gender. Results: Controlling for correlations among the outcomes and the effects of the sociodemographic control variables, psychological distress was found to partly explain the association between economic stressors and problematic drinking. The mediating effects on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than women. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the utility of considering interrelationships among alcohol-related outcomes and, in this context, reveal the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding the associations among economy-related stressors, psychological distress, and drinking.

Brown, Robyn Lewis; Richman, Judith A.

2012-01-01

496

Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4  

SciTech Connect

Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

DeLong, M.M.

1995-10-01

497

Consumer Economic Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the concept of consumer economic socialization as it has developed in the literature. Specifically,\\u000a it covers the context in which the following have been studied: economic socialization; children and adolescents’ developmental\\u000a competencies in understanding and participating in economic and consumer processes; and major agents of economic socialization,\\u000a including culture, media, schools, peers, and families. Needs for further

Beutler Ivan; Lori Dickson

498

Course Development: Industrial or Social Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of course materials at the Open Learning Institute, British Columbia, Canada, is examined from two perspectives: as an industrial process and as a social process. The public institute provides distance education through paced home-study courses. The course team model used at the Institute is a system approach. Course development

Kaufman, David

499

ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

1992-01-01

500

Open Source Software Development Process Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter draws attention to software process modeling for open source software development. It proposes a three-layered open source software development process model. Its ‘definitional’ and ‘generic’ levels specify the common features of all fully-fledged open source projects. Its’ specific’ level allows to describe fine-grained process model fragments characteristics of different open source projects. In this chapter, the specific level

Jacques Lonchamp