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1

A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…

Walter, G. R.

2003-01-01

2

Improving Software Development Process through Economic Mechanism Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the novel concept of applying economic mechanism design to software development process, and aim to find ways to adjust the incentives and disincentives of the software organization to align them with the motivations of the participants in order to maximize the delivered value of a software project. We envision a set of principles to design processes that allow people to be self motivated but constantly working toward project goals. The resulting economic mechanism will rely on game theoretic principles (i.e. Stackelberg games) for leveraging the incentives, goals and motivation of the participants in the service of project and organizational goals.

Yilmaz, Murat; O'Connor, Rory V.; Collins, John

3

Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development

Kim, Ki Su

2012-01-01

4

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777  

E-print Network

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

Almor, Amit

5

Space processing economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of space processing operations may be considered economically justified; they are manufacturing operations that make profits and experiment operations that provide needed applied research results at lower costs than those of alternative methods. Some examples from the Skylab experiments suggest that applied research should become cost effective soon after the space shuttle and Spacelab become operational. In space manufacturing, the total cost of space operations required to process materials must be repaid by the value added to the materials by the processing. Accurate estimates of profitability are not yet possible because shuttle operational costs are not firmly established and the markets for future products are difficult to estimate. However, approximate calculations show that semiconductor products and biological preparations may be processed on a scale consistent with market requirements and at costs that are at least compatible with profitability using the Shuttle/Spacelab system.

Bredt, J. H.

1974-01-01

6

Competition and the regulation of economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the idea that the competitive process is central to a process of economic development and that it underpins the self-transformation of economic systems and thus structural change. Innovation plays a key role in the competitive process and links economic development to enterprise and the growth of knowledge in general. In this view, competition is an evolutionary process,

J. S. Metcalfe; R. Ramlogan

2005-01-01

7

Essays on development economics  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three independent papers in empirical development economics. The first chapter studies the effect of a family planning program in Bangladesh, which successfully reduced fertility, on ...

Ruthbah, Ummul Hasanath

2007-01-01

8

Separation Process Economics  

E-print Network

separate (secondary) material, and whether the crystals formed are of the pure substances or are clathrates. Indirect Freeze Process Systems of this type have the longest development history, with the first successful batch units being used for ice... of vapors need to be removed in order to freeze the process fluid. On the other hand, early systems were plagued by the difficulties of separating the brine fr m the relatively small ice crystals that formed, and of removing the quantities f...

Barron, T. S.; Wrobel, P. J.

9

Software for Managing the Process of Manpower Training for Economic and Industrial Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the training capabilities, software, and related products of GTE Sylvania Training Operations (STO). With the rapid emergence and development of the Third World, the technical knowhow of large manufacturing industries has become a marketable commodity in the international transfer of technology. Manpower training and human…

Catoline, James E.

10

Minnesota's Transportation Economic Development (TED)  

E-print Network

and sustainability #12;· "Transportation is critical in supporting economic vitality and quality of life in MinnesotaMinnesota's Transportation Economic Development (TED) Pilot Program Center for Transportation Studies Transportation Research Conference May 24-25, 2011 #12;Transportation Role in Economic Development

Minnesota, University of

11

Central Energy Systems - Applications to Economic Development  

E-print Network

The City of San Antonio's Office of Public Utilities has developed an innovative process to assess predesign energy conservation strategies for new buildings. This assessment also provides direction for the community's overall economic development...

Myers, M. S.; Diserens, S. E.

1985-01-01

12

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

13

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the complex relationship between geography and macroeconomic growth. We investigate the ways in which geography may matter directly for growth, controlling for economic policies and institutions, as well as the effects of geography on policy choices and institutions. We find that location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth, through their effects on

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1998-01-01

14

Institutions, Economic Development, and Deforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a unified framework linking two important debates: First, the debate about the respective roles of geography and institutions on economic development; Second, the literature on the role of technological change and economic development on agricultural intensification and land use changes. We use this framework to study empirically deforestation patterns at the rainforest margin. To this end we

Michael Grimm; Stephan Klasen; Stefan Schwarze

2009-01-01

15

Strategies for Arab economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 20-nation Arab world needs to clarify and evaluate strategies for economic development in order to take advantage of the opportunities presented by petrodollar surpluses. Statistics and averages do not present an accurate picture of the social and economic status of individual countries because of their different levels of development. While sources of potential wealth include petroleum reserves, natural gas,

Oweiss

2009-01-01

16

Environmental management and economic development  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of and demand for fuelwood in Africa; economic aspects of afforestation and soil-conservation projects; multilevel resource analysis and management: the case of watersheds.

Schramm, G.; Warford, J.J.

1989-01-01

17

Development, Geography, and Economic Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do certain ideas gain currency in economics while others fall by the wayside? Paul Krugman argues that the unwillingness of mainstream economists to think about what they could not formalize led them to ignore ideas that turn out, in retrospect, to have been very good ones. Krugman examines the course of economic geography and development theory to shed light

Paul Krugman

1996-01-01

18

Community Colleges and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document argues that regions that sustain economic growth or recover rapidly from economic slumps are often the same communities that have aggressively developed and continue to strengthen collaborations with business and industry, universities, community colleges, high schools, and other key public and private sector entities. In San Diego…

Gallego, Augustine

19

FE: Aspects of Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents national and international perspectives on the role of further education (FE) in economic development in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Throughout the papers, special attention is paid to the need to reassess FE and its role as service provider, stakeholder, and strategic partner in view of the following social and economic

James, Simon, Ed.

1998-01-01

20

Essays in development economics  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 looks at the empirical estimation of the welfare impacts of bargaining. Bargaining for retail goods is common in developing countries, but rare in the developed world. The welfare implications of this difference ...

Keniston, Daniel Eben

2011-01-01

21

Three essays in development economics  

E-print Network

This thesis seeks to analyze two questions central to the economic welfare of rural households in developing countries: the trade-offs between equity and efficiency induced by hybrid forms of property rights, and the ...

Leight, Jessica E. (Jessica Ellen)

2013-01-01

22

Essays in development economics  

E-print Network

This dissertation brings together three essays on the relationship between education, health, and family structure in developing countries. The first essay studies the impact of the AIDS epidemic on children's schooling ...

Breierova, Lucia, 1976-

2003-01-01

23

Economic Development for Small Communities and Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to provide an introductory understanding of challenges, goals, processes, and procedures for economic developers, particularly economic development volunteers, in rural areas and small towns. Chapter 1 defines economic development and basic terms. Chapter 2 describes major economic, social, and demographic trends that…

Phillips, Phillip D.

24

Conservation and economic development  

SciTech Connect

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I`m going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today`s energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work!

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

25

Conservation and economic development  

SciTech Connect

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I'm going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today's energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

26

Process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

Bickler, D. B.

1985-01-01

27

Local Initiative for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1982, in an effort to address a rising unemployment rate in its service area, Pueblo Community College (PCC) joined with local community leaders and the Pueblo Economic Development Corporation to explore feasible, practical, and workable assistance models which would foster the retention and development of small businesses. Numerous…

Zeiss, P. Anthony

28

75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Tribal Economic Development Bonds AGENCY: Department...Governments regarding the Tribal Economic Development Bond provision in Section...governments, known as ``Tribal Economic Development Bonds,'' under...

2010-07-12

29

Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As many cities have begin to grapple with their vast areas of brownfields that dot the urban landscape, the federal government has begun to step in and provide various financial assistance in order to assist with the redevelopment of abandoned, idled and underused industrial and commercial facilities. This website, provided by the U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, provides information about the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI), which is a competitive grant program that is meant to serve as a stimulus for local government and private sector parties to start the long redevelopment process. The site contains detailed information about the program, along with archived webcasts that talk about various success stories that have been funded with monies from the program thus far. Also on the site, information is provided about how brownfields are defined and how monies for the program have been distributed to various communities. Finally, visitors will want to take a look at the related publications available here, including those that detail various brownfields initiative and the potential long-term effects of environmental degradation.

30

Cogeneration Economics for Process Plants  

E-print Network

This paper presents the incentives for cogeneration, describing pertinent legislation and qualification requirements for cogeneration benefits, and indicates the performance and economic characteristics of combined cycle cogeneration applications...

Ahner, D. J.

31

Economic benefits of space development  

SciTech Connect

Space offers us the opportunity to extend Earth's natural resources and to exploit them more efficiently. The classic economic problems of scarcity are thus amenable to attack through productivity increases resulting from space development. Our research shows that this is already occurring and that many benefits to consumers presently exist.

Lorber, H.W.; Drake, R.H.

1982-03-01

32

CERTIFICATE PROGRAM Community Economic Development  

E-print Network

and social media. & A sustainable local economy is a complex system of exchanges, built on reciprocitySFU CERTIFICATE PROGRAM Community Economic Development GET THE SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE, NETWORKS TO BUILD SUSTAINABLE LOCAL ECONOMIES access to the most effective and efficient strategies access to hundreds of case

Kavanagh, Karen L.

33

Integrated study of sustainability technological-economic in manufacturing processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, some of the key aspects to consider during a manufacturing process are the ones related to its energy study. Choosing the most appropriate process allows to optimize not only technological and economic, but also it influence in sustainability and suitability of the process. In the current work a comparative technological-economic analysis between forming processes and machining processes is developed. We can find that drawing (forming process) has more advantages in most cases.

Peinado, B.; Sevilla, L.; Sebastián, M. A.

2012-04-01

34

Economic Development: Commitment, Communication, and Coordination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community and junior colleges play a vital role in the economic development process. They serve as catalysts in planning and implementing the efforts of the involved groups. They also provide technical assistance through program offerings, services, and resources. There are specific ways that each group involved can display a commitment,…

Sanders, Carol S.

1988-01-01

35

Economics of Processing Tomatoes in Egypt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report in Arabic has an English summary. Consumption of processed tomato products has been rising dramatically, leading to sharply increased imports. Egypt processes only about 1 percent of its tomato production; the industry currently is not economic...

A. K. M. Ashry

1983-01-01

36

Winter Term 2013/14 Development Economics I: Macro Issues in Development Economics  

E-print Network

1 Winter Term 2013/14 Development Economics I: Macro Issues in Development Economics Instructor.104). This course is providing an overview of development economics issues, with particular emphasis on macro issues in economic development. The most important topics to be covered are the measurement and meaning of economic

Krivobokova, Tatyana

37

The contribution of agricultural economics to development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural economics is an applied discipline with a broadly based application to development theory. The importance of agriculture in economic development has led to pressing demands on the role which agricultural economists are required to play. At all stages, a major part of the planning and implementation input is contributed by agricultural economists. The development of agricultural economics was therefore

T. I. Fenyes; C. J. van Rooyen

1985-01-01

38

Energy resources and economic development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the relationship between energy resource development and economic development in India. The thesis which evolved from the research is that energy resource development has lagged behind and constrained economic development in India. Inadequate attention has been paid to developing the power sector, and the petroleum sector is just beginning to be developed. This research consists of an

1978-01-01

39

Why State and Local Economic Development Programs Cause so Little Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although evaluations show that state and local economic development programs have few effects on economic growth or redistribution of economic activity, explanations for the failures are incomplete. Technocratic explanations have dominated economic development research but cannot account for many program activities. Based on evidence from a Minnesota program, the best explanation emphasizes a perspective of bureaucratic and political imperatives. Economic

Margaret E. Dewar

1998-01-01

40

Foreign Aid, War, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign Aid, War, and Economic Development traces the economic history of South Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. During this period encompassing the Vietnam war, high-level officials paid relatively little attention to the economy of South Vietnam even though economic development was a necessary condition for the country's survival. A generous foreign aid program was designed to pay local troops and

Douglas C. Dacy

41

III.1 Economic Development and Environmental Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long-standing debate on the relationship between economic development and environmental quality. From a sustainable development viewpoint there has been a growing concern that the economic expansion of the world economy will cause irreparable damage to our planet. In the last few years several studies have appeared dealing with the relationship between the scale of economic activity and

Marzio Galeotti

42

NARF Indian Economic Development Law Project Begins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Native American Rights Fund (NARF) is beginning a project to assist tribes and Indian communities with the legal aspects of economic and business development. Historic monopolistic and oppressive trade restrictions imposed on the tribes created an economic context that has suppressed Indian economic development for over two centuries. Faced…

NARF Legal Review, 1989

1989-01-01

43

A technology strategy analysis for the deployment of broadband connectivity for economic development in emerging economies : studying the case of Kenya using the CLIOS process  

E-print Network

The role of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in economic development is increasingly moving to the core of national competitiveness strategies around the world thanks to its revolutionary power as a critical ...

Omwenga, Brian Gichana

2009-01-01

44

Essays in development and environmental economics  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on economic development and environmental economics. Chapter 1 measures the response of U.S. based multinational firms to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which ...

Hanna, Rema

2005-01-01

45

Essays on conflict, cooperation and economic development  

E-print Network

This dissertation consists of three chapters on topics relating to conflict, social cooperation and development economics. Several studies have identified the impact of adverse economic shocks on civil conflict using ...

Ralston, Laura R. (Laura Rosalind)

2013-01-01

46

Essays in experimental and development economics  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three essays on economic development and experimental economics. In Chapter 1, I present experimental evidence about how Thais treat information from domestic and foreign sources. Thai students ...

Healy, Andrew J

2005-01-01

47

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE  

E-print Network

of Labor Economics has since 1983 presented international research on issues affecting the economy as well. Audience Academic, business, and government economists, and labor relations specialists. journals

Mateo, Jill M.

48

ECONOMIC EVALUATION TECHNIQUES : APPLICATION TO A CHINESE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agricultural Development Bank of China (ADBC) seeks a complete economic evaluation of the Loaning Funds Program to support private agricultural product processing factories. This paper aims at economically evaluate one loaning project of ADBC : the soybean processing of Huabao Industrial Co. Ltd.

Lei Sun

2007-01-01

49

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

50

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

1988-01-01

51

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic development information...

2010-01-01

52

Mainstreaming Sustainability in Local Economic Development Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development objectives now form a central part of the local economic development practitioner's remit. So an understanding of the concepts used and the tools required to mainstream sustainability is vital. The paper reviews economic, environmental and social conceptualisations of sustainability as these relate to local development practice. It distinguishes between weak sustainability 'no-regrets' policy instruments (such as ecological modernisation,

Tony Jackson

2007-01-01

53

Metropolises and Russia's Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, when Russia opened again, the world became a global world, where the regions organised by metropolises turned into global economic players. According to the newest research, a metropolis is an urban centre of not less than a million of inhabitants, concentrating upper service and control functions, disseminating prosperity to its hinterland and acting as \\

P. Marchand; I. Samson

2004-01-01

54

Engineers and economic development in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the relationship between engineers and economic development in a less developed southern European country, Greece, where the post-war construction boom promoted the importance of the engineer. However, by the early 1980s, as a result of the decline in building activity, economic crises, and a lack of investment in technology, the fortunes of engineers reversed significantly. Data for the late

Harry A. Patrinos; Marie Lavoie

1995-01-01

55

The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development  

E-print Network

Entrepreneurship and Economic Development* (22:620:672) (3) Evaluation of New Ventures* (22:390:674) Social: Evaluation of Business Ventures and Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development are courses that can count of Strategic Transformation 22:620:606 Negotiations 22:620:617 Doing Business in China 22:553:671 Doing

56

Heterodoxy and the governance of economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emergent heterodox approach is challenging the prevailing orthodoxy of thinking, doing, and governing economic development, particularly at the subnational, regional, and local levels. Looking at underlying debates concerning institutionalism and a `new centrism', the author draws together the theoretical and conceptual threads of the heterodox agenda. Several critical issues are outlined: the historical evolution of economic development approaches; the

Andy Pike

2004-01-01

57

Adventuresports and Economic Development Team Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventuresports Institute offers a two-year degree program at Garrett Community College (McHenry, Maryland) that combines courses in adventure sports with economics, marketing, environmental science, and events management. The goal is to develop an infrastructure for the adventure sport industry and promote economic development in Appalachia based…

Baldwin, Fred

1994-01-01

58

Tribal College Contributions to Local Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes some economic development efforts of the 32 tribal colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. Although the data needed for a comprehensive analysis of the economic impact of tribal colleges are not available, the report argues that the colleges affect local community development on many levels. Specific data…

Cunningham, Alisa Federico

59

Federalism and Russias economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system of center\\/region separation of powers in Russia has not yet been completed and is still the object of lawmaking activity, political dialogue, legal debates and professional discussions. The recent changes in economic and other spheres create favorable conditions to use the benefits from federalism as a long-run factor and resource. At the same time, the dynamics of center\\/region

L. Polishchuk

2006-01-01

60

Socio-economic Indicators for Development Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The broad sense of the term socio-economic is used when discussing indicators for national development planning while investigating a case study of India, selection of indicators, and development of indicators. (ND)

Rao, M. V. S.

1975-01-01

61

Taxation and economic development: the state of the economic literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

What conclusions, if any, can be drawn about the impact of state and local tax policy on economic development relative to other factors? What tax characteristics appear to be the most significant determinants? Are certain industries more sensitive to tax policy than others? Are business taxes more important than personal taxes? Paper: Michael Wasylenko

Michael J Wasylenko

1997-01-01

62

Process development and techno-economic analysis of a novel process for MeOH production from CO2 using solar-thermal energy.  

SciTech Connect

Mitigating and overcoming environmental problems brought about by the current worldwide fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure requires the creation of innovative alternatives. In particular, such alternatives must actively contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions via carbon recycling and a shift to the use of renewable sources of energy. Carbon neutral transformation of biomass to liquid fuels is one of such alternatives, but it is limited by the inherently low energy efficiency of photosynthesis with regard to the net production of biomass. Researchers have thus been looking for alternative, energy-efficient chemical routes inspired in the biological transformation of solar power, CO2 and H2O into useful chemicals; specifically, liquid fuels. Methanol has been the focus of a fair number of publications for its versatility as a fuel, and its use as an intermediate chemical in the synthesis of many compounds. In some of these studies, (e.g. Joo et al., (2004), Mignard and Pritchard (2006), Galindo and Badr (2007)) CO2 and renewable H2 (e.g. electrolytic H2) are considered as the raw materials for the production of methanol and other liquid fuels. Several basic PFD diagrams have been proposed. One of the most promising is the so called CAMERE process (Joo et al., 1999 ). In this process, carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen are fed to a first reactor and transformed according to: H2 + CO2 <=> H2O + CO Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) After eliminating the produced water the resulting H2/CO2/CO mixture is then feed to a second reactor where it is converted to methanol according to: CO2 + 3.H2 <=> CH3OH + H2O Methanol Synthesis (MS) CO + H2O <=> CO2 + H2 Water Gas Shift (WGS) The approach here is to produce enough CO to eliminate, via WGS, the water produced by MS. This is beneficial since water has been proven to block active sites in the MS catalyst. In this work a different process alternative is presented: One that combines the CO2 recycling of the CAMERE process and the use of solar energy implicit in some of the biomass-based process, but in this case with the potential high energy efficiency of thermo-chemical transformations.

Henao, Carlos (University of Wisconsin); Kim, Jiyong (University of Wisconsin); Johnson, Terry Alan; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin); Miller, James Edward

2010-11-01

63

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

Cohen, L.R. [Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States); Hogsett, R.F. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Sinor, J.E. [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

1992-10-01

64

Nuclear Development Nuclear Energy in a Sustainable Development Perspective NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed: ? to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy; ? to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and ? to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with

unknown authors

65

Evolutionary Economic Theories of Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development has become the dominant concept in the study of interactions between the economy and the biophysical environment, as well as a generally accepted goal of environmental policy. So far, economists have predominantly applied standard or neo-classical theory to environmental economic problems. In this article it will be argued that to fully understand a transformation of the economic system

Peter Mulder; Bergh van den J. C. J. M

2001-01-01

66

Corruption, Institutions and Economic Development  

E-print Network

and in developing the underlying theory (Dasgupta, 2001, chapter 9; Hamilton and Clemens, 1999). Loosely speaking, sustainable development is related to an economy?s ability to maintain living standards through time. More precisely, Arrow et al. (2004) suggest... capita ?a direct measure of sustainable development ?and corruption. While corruption may have little average e¤ect on the growth rate of GDP per capita, it is a likely source of unsustainable development. Key words: Corruption, Growth, Sustainable...

Aidt, Toke S

67

Corruption, institutions, and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholarly articles on corruption give the impression that the world is populated by two types of people: the ‘sanders’ and the ‘greasers’. The ‘sanders’ believe that corruption is an obstacle to development, while the ‘greasers’ believe that corruption can (in some cases) foster development. This paper takes a critical look at these positions. It concludes that the evidence supporting

Toke S. Aidt

2009-01-01

68

Finance, institutions and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from 72 countries for the period 1978-2000, we find that financial development has larger effects on GDP per capita when the financial system is embedded within a sound institutional framework. Moreover, we find that financial development is most potent in middle-income countries, where its effects are particularly large when institutional quality is high. Importantly, we also find that

Panicos Demetriades; Siong Hook Law

2006-01-01

69

Three essays on development economics in China  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three independent essays in empirical development economics using data from China. In the first two chapters, I examine the determinants of choices within the household. In the first ...

Qian, Nancy

2005-01-01

70

Megacities : sustainability, transport, and economic development  

E-print Network

The connections between sustainability, transport, and economic development are and will remain essential in the governance of cities. Sustainability concepts include valuing and preserving the earth's resources so that ...

Tobias, Justin Charles, 1980-

2005-01-01

71

Is Your Community Ready for Economic Development?  

E-print Network

A critical step in initiating or facilitating an effective economic development project is to determine if the community is actually prepared to take on such a difficult task. This publication can help community leaders determine how "prepared a...

Saldana, Luis

2003-03-30

72

Essays in development economics and political economy  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on issues in economic development, with a focus ,on political economy and the labor market in India. Chapter 1] analyzes the effect of television coverage on political ...

Datta, Saugato

2007-01-01

73

The Influence of Education on Economic Development  

E-print Network

The purpose of this research is to measure the effect of education on economic development. Economists use education to explain growth unexplained by capital, and argue that it is a fundamental determinant of technological change. Sociologists have...

Garcia, Julia

2013-04-15

74

DSM as an economic development strategy  

SciTech Connect

Models capable of reflecting price adjustments and capital flows can estimate the longer-term impacts of energy choices on the net gain and distribution of employment. But without a common basis in the types of models used, research on the employment effects of energy efficiency cannot be integrated in a way that is useful. A sluggish economic recovery, lagging consumer confidence and concerns about the U.S.`s international competitiveness have pushed the jobs issue to the forefront of almost all economic policies. Energy efficiency and demand-side management (DSM) advocates are actively raising the issue in energy policy and regulatory forums around the country. Recent policy level discussions within the Department of Energy have strengthened this momentum. At the heart of the DOE work is an emphasis on the use of `Quality Metrics` to guide the development of its programs and budgets. Employment and income benefits are part of this new calculus. Several new studies have elevated this issue to new levels of policy consideration. Even municipal utilities have begun to explore this issue, with the release of a software package called the OPTIONS model. But with all this activity a good deal of confusion remains about how to understand the job creation process. To help clear some of the confusion, this article explains the basic tools used to measure employment gains or losses. It also reviews some of the basic lessons learned in the application of these tools.

Laitner, S.; Goodman, I.; Krier, B.

1994-05-01

75

Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis.  

PubMed

The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child's other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795

Conger, Rand D; Schofield, Thomas K; Conger, Katherine J; Neppl, Tricia K

2010-01-01

76

Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis  

PubMed Central

The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795

Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

2010-01-01

77

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Winter 2014  

E-print Network

toward the problems of development in Asia--a continent that contains some of the fastest growing economies to which the US economy is increasingly connected. The course will give students a flavor to providing an integrated business education for ethical and socially responsible leadership. COURSE LEARNING

Carter, John

78

Child Labor and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops an overlapping generations model where the issue of child labor can be addressed in the short as well as in the long run. It also captures the transitional dynamics from the short to the long run. In this model parents are the decision-making unit and are altruistic towards their children. Since child labor is present only in

Ambar Ghosh; Chandana Ghosh

79

What economics courses are there? Economics and International Development  

E-print Network

(PPE) (p103) BSc Economics Economics and Management Studies Finance and Business (p46) Mathematics and economic problems. · We have strong links to the major national and international economic institutions research project supervised by a faculty member. Why economics? Addressing many of the world's problems

Sussex, University of

80

FDI and Economic Development in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

FDI and Economic Development in Costa Rica: The Tico Tiger that hasn't..... Carnegie Endowment, MA, USA #12;FDI and Development in Costa Rica: The Power of Path Dependency and the Peril of Lack benefits #12;Costa Rica's (and LA's) Approach to Development: From ISI to Washington Consensus Trade

81

Advanced MED process for most economical sea water desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low temperature horizontal tube multi-effect desalination (MED) process is thermodynamically the most efficient of all thermal distillation processes.A comprehensive multi-disciplinary development and design approach resulted in prevention of corrosion and scale formation on the plant’s heat transfer surfaces. It also allows the successful and most economical use of aluminum alloys for heat transfer tubes, as well as carbon steel

A. Ophir; F. Lokiec

2005-01-01

82

Quantitative Aspects of Africa's Past Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative analysis of pre-modern economic condi- tions in sub-Saharan Africa. We find that large- and medium-sized cities, our proxy for pre-modern economic development, were less prevalent in Africa than in South and Central America, a comparable region. Empirical analyses of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS), which includes 186 pre-industrial so- cieties around the world, confirm and

Javier A. Birchenall

83

Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process  

SciTech Connect

The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

1997-12-31

84

Credit Constraints, Entrepreneurial Talent, and Economic Development  

E-print Network

Credit Constraints, Entrepreneurial Talent, and Economic Development Milo Bianchiy Paris School an e¢ cient matching between entrepreneurial talent and production technologies. We ...rst explore the role of ...nancial development in promoting such e¢ cient allocation of talent, which results in higher

Boyer, Edmond

85

The software industry and India's economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the contribution of software to India’s economic development, paying particular attention to the role of software in the absorption of labour and the development of human capital in the economy. The success of the software industry has increased the relative value of professional workers, not only programmers, but also managers and analysts. The growing importance of human

Ashish Arora; Suma Athreye

2002-01-01

86

A Gold Rush Theory of Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of social learning about the suitability of local conditions for new business ventures and explores its implications for the microeconomic patterns of economic development. I show that: i) firms tend to 'rush' into business ventures with which other firms have had surprising success thus causing development to be 'lumpy'; ii) sufficient business confidence is crucial

Ralph Ossa

2006-01-01

87

Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

88

Trade Pattern and Economic Development when Endogenous  

E-print Network

Trade Pattern and Economic Development when Endogenous and Exogenous Comparative Advantages Coexist Papers Center for International Development at Harvard University #12;CID Working Paper no. 3 Trade is divided between commercialized sector which trades with foreign country and self-sufficient sector which

89

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203...Activities § 570.203 Special economic development activities. A recipient may use CDBG funds for special economic development activities in...

2010-04-01

90

24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203... § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in...

2010-04-01

91

Oman: Economic, social and strategic developments  

SciTech Connect

Oman is an important country for the West, both as an oil exporter and as a key ally strategically placed at the entrance to the Arab Gulf. This book provides an overview of recent economic, social and political developments in Oman. It begins by outlining the historical and geographical background, emphasising in particular the problems of geography and tribalism and the impact of the war against Marxist insurgents in Dhofar. It considers economic developments, both in the oil and non-oil sectors, and Oman's contribution to economic co-operation and integration in the region. It examines strategic developments, particularly Oman's relations with the United States, addressing the key question of how close an alliance between Oman and the US is likely and showing how this is influenced by internal politics in Oman. It also explores educational and cultural issues.

Pridham, B.R.

1986-01-01

92

Growth through greening: developing and assessing alternative economic development programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper articulates how communities can capitalize on the specific benefits of urban forestry and assesses the outcomes of urban forestry efforts. To accomplish this, the paper defines the context of local economic development and urban forestry; outlines the economic, aesthetic, and ecological benefits of a smart-growth agenda that includes urban forestry; and presents two brief case studies that empirically

J. D. Gatrell; R. R. Jensen

2002-01-01

93

Three Essays on Economic Development in Africa  

E-print Network

to economic development in Africa. Climate change is examined in terms of its effects on the Egyptian agricultural sector; transmission of world price to small scale growers is examined in Uganda; and the benefits of insecticide-treated bed nets use...

Musumba, Mark

2012-10-19

94

Economic Development of British Colonial America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

Zabin, Serena

95

Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

Kelly, John

2011-01-01

96

Advanced Child Development. Vocational Home Economics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide, developed for use in secondary vocational home economics education in Texas, is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in each guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

97

Global health funding and economic development.  

PubMed

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

2012-01-01

98

Global health funding and economic development  

PubMed Central

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

2012-01-01

99

Issues in the Economic Development of Nonmetropolitan United States. Economic Development Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing issues relative to economic development in nonmetropolitan areas, this document presents narrative and tabular data re: (1) the causal forces behind economic decline in rural America (technology, shifting patterns of demand for goods and services, and changes in life styles and residential preferences); (2) the incidence and indicators…

Ledebur, Larry C.

100

The Impact of Vocational and Technical Education on Manpower and Economic Development. Economic Development Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planners, administrators, economists, and all others involved with human resources and economic development are cautioned to never underestimate the role that vocational education can play in attracting new and expanding industries. Industrial expansion means new capital investments, a vital factor to the future well being of economically

Tuttle, Francis T.; Alexander, Arch B.

101

Economic and Social Indicators of Rural Development From An Economic Viewpoint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for constructing a set of statistical economic and social indicators for rural development is discussed in this paper. Operational definitions are presented for economic development, economic growth, rural, and rural development. The framework for identifying economic and social indicators can be adapted to quantify most existing…

Edwards, Clark; Coltrane, Robert

102

Northern regions of Russia: economic dynamics and development problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes what regional economic tendencies are observed in the Russian North, and how national crisis processes affect the regional economies. We tried to take into consideration a current necessity of enhancing the innovation factors for the development of both national and regional economies.

V. S. Selin

2011-01-01

103

Device Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Public Meetings Comments on Current FDA Draft Guidances Listen to Webinars With FDA Experts About the Patient Representative Program MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Learn About Drug & Device Approval The Drug Development Process ...

104

Drug Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Public Meetings Comments on Current FDA Draft Guidances Listen to Webinars With FDA Experts About the Patient Representative Program MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Learn About Drug & Device Approval The Drug Development Process ...

105

Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China  

E-print Network

Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China Sylvie DĂ©murger, Jeffrey D. Sachs Development Working Papers #12;Forthcoming in Asian Economic Papers Vol. 1 No. 1 Geography, Economic Policy;1 October 14, 2001 Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China Sylvie DĂ©murger, Jeffrey D

106

Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries. Methods: Data used in this paper were obtained from different information sources: international and national journal articles and reports, web-based statistics, and fact sheets. We used both online search and hand search methods to gather the information. Results: Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the economic cost associated with poor sanitation is substantial. At the global level, failure to meet the MDG water and sanitation target would have ramifications in the area of US$38 billion, and sanitation accounts for 92% of this amount. In developing countries, the spending required to provide new coverage to meet the MDG sanitation target (not including program costs) is US$142 billion (US$ year 2005). This translates to a per capita spending of US$28 for sanitation. Annually, this translates to roughly US$14 million. The evidence complied in this paper demonstrates that investing in sanitation is socially and economically worthwhile. For every US$1 invested, achieving the sanitation MDG target and universal sanitation access in the non-OECD countries would result in a global return of US$9.1 and US$11.2, respectively. Conclusion: Given the current state of knowledge, sanitation is undeniably a profitable investment. It is clear that achieving the MDG sanitation target not only saves lives but also provides a foundation for economic growth. PMID:22084575

Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

2011-01-01

107

Economic Development in American Indian Reservations. Development Series No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of 13 scholarly articles and essays, this book makes available hard-to-find information and theories about American Indian economic development. Part I, "The Land and the People", emphasizes cultural traditions and beliefs of Indian people and traces the development of the concept of sovereignty and its applicability to Indian self…

Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar, Ed.

108

PROCESS SIMULATION TO MAKE PERSONALISATION ECONOMICALLY VIABLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of fashion products can be customised to better meet the needs and preferences of individual consumers. Although the technology to achieve this is becoming available, it is still unclear whether mass customisation of fashion products will be economi- cally viable. This paper explores how the economics of different customisation approaches in the textile industry can be assessed by

Claudia M. Eckert; David C. Wynn; P. John Clarkson; Sandy Black

2008-01-01

109

Economic and logistical modeling for regional processing and recovery of engineering thermoplastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of processing and recovering engineering thermoplastics from electronic products is not well understood. This is in part due to uncertainty as to the optimum system for collection and processing, and the ongoing challenges in consolidation, identification and sorting of plastics. This paper presents the results from the development of an economics and logistics model for a regional resin

Cynthia F. Murphy; Patricia S. Dillon; G. E. Pitts

2001-01-01

110

Economics of Concentration Processes in the Food Industry  

E-print Network

The economics of four concentration processes utilized by the food industry were analyzed. The processes examined are: triple effect evaporation, mechanical vapor recompression evaporation, reverse osmosis, and freeze concentration. The analysis...

Renshaw, T. A.; Sapakie, S. F.; Hanson, M. C.

1983-01-01

111

Model developed for economic gas dispatch  

SciTech Connect

Essex County Gas Co. is using at new, highly efficient approach to simulate the daily economic dispatch of gas supplies to meet market requirements under FERC Order 636. Although sophisticated in its design, the modeling environment permits straightforward model construction with richly detailed components that can be readily changed as needed by gas utility personnel after only a short training period. It provides a mechanism for very detailed simulation of the market and supply balances governing LDC operations. The model serves as Essex County Gas' primary what if tool for testing the operational and economic consequences of a wide variety of supply and demand-side-management alternatives. The model, developed by consultant E.J. Curtis, is driven by Effective Heating Degree-Day daily weather patterns, such as design, normal, warm and extreme. The model is driven by weather patterns input as time series, so other independent variables such as general inflation factors, energy cost projections and economic model results can also be input as time-series data. Alternatively, detailed submodels for such components can be imbedded within the model to automatically generate this information. It incorporates supply and market simulation elements, permitting ready adaptation for use not only in conventional supply planning but also integrated resource management. Comparative what if ' cases can be run with specific demand-side management initiatives toggled on and off.

Leary, A. (Essex County Gas Co., Amesbury, MA (United States)); Curtis, E.J. (Curtis Associates Inc., York Harbor, ME (United States))

1993-12-01

112

Development of an Economic Dashboard for the Flint Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project constructed an economic dashboard for Genesee County (Flint, Michigan) that identified, monitored, ranked, and compared key regional factors to other metro areas. The resulting dashboard enables economic development organizations and stakeholders in Genesee County to better focus their efforts by identifying the regional factors most associated with economic growth. Secondly, the dashboard allows economic development stakeholders to compare

Erickcek George A

2007-01-01

113

Minority Business Development and Economic Development Policy in New York. Implications for Black Entrepreneurs and Communities. Report of the Subcommittee on Economic Development. Volume 5, Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State should develop a comprehensive justification for its involvement in minority business development and each State program should be closely associated with that rationale. Minority business development programs are often short-sighted, potentially conflicting, and yield unimpressive results. Development of Economic Development Zones…

New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

114

Economic and energy audit of textile foam processing  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wet processing of textiles - dyeing, or application of such surface finishes as soil and water repellents, antistatic agents, fire retardants, permanent press agents, and starch - consumes about 0.19 quadrillion Btu's of energy per year, the equivalent of 30 million barrels of oil. Because wet processing involves immersion of the fabric in a water bath, most of the energy used is in the form of heat for drying. In the newer foam finishing approach, the chemicals for surface finishes are dispersed in a mixture of water and air. The chemicals are concentrated in a relatively small amount of water, and air is injected to form a thick, stable foam. Because little water is involved, drying time and temperature may be drastically reduced. Authur D. Little, Inc., conducted an economic and energy audit of foam processing that considered the technical feasibility, reliability, energy savings, and economic incentives for using foam finishing. We monitored four plants that finish textiles (carpets, broad-woven fabrics, and tubular knits). The plants were selected by the developer of the foaming process (United Merchants and Manufacturers, Inc.) to represent a wide range of textile finishing applications.

Machacek, R.

1983-06-01

115

Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

Hanson, Mark

2011-01-01

116

Financial modeling of new product development economics  

E-print Network

Product design and development is a complex process that involves extensive engineering considerations as well as management decisions based on the overall vision for the product. Traditionally, most decision making in ...

Balasubramaniam, Anitha

2014-01-01

117

Early Childhood Development: Economic Development with a High Public Return  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, the future of Minnesota's economy has been called into question. The resulting debate illustrates how little is understood about the fundamentals that underlie economic development. While many recognize the success of the Minnesota economy in the past, they see a weakening in the foundations of that success. Some point to the decline in corporate headquarters

Art Rolnick; Rob Grunewald

118

South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

2005-01-01

119

13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.120 Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development of one or more LI...

2010-01-01

120

32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration for economic development conveyances. 174.10 Section 174.10 National... Real Property § 174.10 Consideration for economic development conveyances. (a) For conveyances...

2010-07-01

121

Wind Power Development Economics and Policies  

E-print Network

This study reviews the prospects of wind power at the global level. Existing studies indicate that the earth’s wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 1 percent of the global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 40 percent annual growth in wind generating capacity over the past 25 years. More than 98 percent of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. It has been estimated that wind power could supply 7 to 34 percent of global electricity needs by 2050. However, wind power faces a large number of technical, economic, financial, institutional, market, and other barriers. To overcome these barriers, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides these policies, climate change mitigation initiatives resulting from the Kyoto Protocol (e.g., CO 2-emission reduction targets in developed countries and the Clean Development Mechanism in developing countries) have played a significant role in promoting wind power. This paper—a product of the Environment and Energy Team, Development Research Group—is part of a larger effort in

G. Cornelis Van Kooten; Govinda R. Timilsina

122

Telecommunications infrastructure and economic growth: Evidence from developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often, it has been observed that telecommunication infrastructure development and economic growth proceed together. While this relationship has been studied in the context of developed (OECD) countries, in this study, we investigate this simultaneous relationship between telecommunications and the economic growth, using data for developing countries. Using 3SLS, we estimate a system of equations that endogenize economic growth and telecom

Kala Seetharam Sridhar; Varadharajan Sridhar

2004-01-01

123

Theories of economic development in the Scottish enlightenment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to consider why Scottish Enlightenment thought should have generated a particular theory of economic development. Ideas about economic development in the Scottish Enlightenment period involve a certain circularity. One of the key arguments was that economic development encourages creativity and ideas, which promote productivity growth. The Enlightenment itself, as a set of ideas, can

Alexander Dow; Sheila Dow

2009-01-01

124

Industry Clusters An Economic Development Strategy for Minnesota  

E-print Network

a unified approach to economic development problems. Today we know that the health of MinnesotaIndustry Clusters An Economic Development Strategy for Minnesota Preliminary Report January 1999 CLUSTER STRATEGY BENEFITS TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS TO THE PUBLIC SECTOR BENEFITS TO ESTABLISHED

Levinson, David M.

125

West Central Indiana Economic Development District Merv Nolot, Executive Director  

E-print Network

West Central Indiana Economic Development District Merv Nolot, Executive Director 1718 Wabash@westcentralin.com http://www.westcentralin.com/ The West Central Indiana Economic Development District (WCIEDD) is a six- county region in west central Indiana working to stimulate economic and community development through

126

Unplanned Terminology Development: A Synchronic and Diachronic Study on Economic Terms in Turkish Newspapers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with unplanned terminology development in the subject field of economics within media discourse. It examines how economic terms in Turkish newspapers emerge, are used, and cease. This developmental process is also analyzed through productivity of economic terms and the factors affect them. The subject terms are also analyzed as a…

Karabacak, Erkan

2009-01-01

127

Africa Recovery: Tracking the Continent's Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library and Publications Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information has recently begun providing major excerpts of its quarterly periodical Africa Recovery via the web. The publication tracks economic and social development issues in Africa. The latest issue (July 1997) contains articles on Congolese reconstruction, the 33rd Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the recent G-7 Summit, and the recent Africa Governance Forum in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (UN Special Initiative). Articles are mostly concise news summaries. There are also sections on upcoming and recent conferences and pertinent books, as well as the features Africa in Brief and Under the Baobob Tree, which highlights a single African issue.

1997-01-01

128

Physics And Its Roles In Economic Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics plays a variety of roles in economic development. These are explored and ways of increasing the importance of physics to world economies are discussed. Surveys by the Institute of Physics have shown that over 40% of employment in manufacturing in the UK is based on physics, and that this sector continues to expand. Physics provides techniques and equipment for advances in the life sciences. An education in physics gives an ability to tackle a diverse range of subjects from first principles and to find innovative solutions to problems where conventional approaches fail. Physicists in many countries readily find employment in a wide range of areas. However, because of the range of opportunities available, there is a reluctance of physics graduates to enter teaching and prepare the next generation of physicists. Sharing experience between countries is vital. The World Year of Physics has played an important role in this.

Melville, Peter

2007-04-01

129

Development of the Precarbon process  

SciTech Connect

The Precarbon process has been developed jointly by the Bergbauforschung Institute and the Federal German company, Didier. The characteristic feature of the process is the combination of two-stage coal heating in pipe dryers to 200/sup 0/C and its smokeless charging to the coke ovens by means of a Redler conveyor passing over the coke oven battery. Calculations have shown that the use of preheated coal can be justified economically in three cases: (1) To increase coke oven battery outputs. When using standard coals the battery throughput increase of approximately 45% due to coal preheating reduces costs for coking in comparison with wet coal coking, which would require larger coke ovens. (2) To improve coke quality. Use of preheated coal produces a blast furnace coke of the required quality from charges containing increased weakly-coking coal contents. 3. To increase output from coke oven batteries being rebuilt. A recent development of the Precarbon process is the use of a scheme combining it with the coke dry cooling (CDC) process. The sharp increases of energy costs in recent years have increased the competitiveness of the dry cooling process. The combination of this process with preheating provides a possibility of using the heat from the incandescent coke directly for the coking process. Calculations made by Didier for the cost of coking wet coal with wet coke quenching (alternative A) and of coking a preheated coal of similar composition in combination with coke dry cooling (altnernative B) show that with direct use of the sensible heat of the coke for coal preheating, and also the corresponding reduction of the number of ovens due to increased throughput, the costs for coke are approximately 10% lower for alternative B than for alternative A.

Meckel, J.F.; Joseph, H.G.

1980-01-01

130

EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

131

Commercializing plant tissue culture processes: economics, problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel tissue culture techniques and a range of process schemes may be considered for commercial production of plant derived drugs, chemicals, flavors and cosmetics. Plant cell immobilization, in conjunction with strain selection and product leakage, represents a major technological advancement, with significant economic implications. Conventional batch processes produce high value products at low production capacities, whereas continuous biocatalytic processes can

O. Sahai; M. Knuth

1985-01-01

132

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to  

E-print Network

PNNL-23227 Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction (BETO) is to enable the development of biomass technologies to: Reduce dependence on foreign oil

133

11.437 Financing Economic Development, Fall 2003  

E-print Network

Focuses on financing tools and program models to support local economic development. Includes an overview of private capital markets and financing sources to understand capital market imperfections that constrain economic ...

Seidman, Karl F.

134

International project finance : the case of Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the record of the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) in light of changing fashions regarding the proper role and management of such funds in the development finance process. The key ...

Al-Jassar, Sulaiman Ahmed

2005-01-01

135

Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro  

SciTech Connect

Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

Not Available

1980-05-01

136

Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

1994-11-01

137

Econometric Analysis Economic Growth and Development  

E-print Network

Marketing Marketing Management Social Media Technology Strategies of Multinational Corporations PARTNERS INCLUDE: The New England Economic Partnership (NEEP) is a member-supported, nonprofit and Regional Economic Studies at Bryant University has been an integral part of moving forward the debate about

Blais, Brian

138

Urban design and local economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the enhancement of architectural quality has traditionally been considered by planners as an apolitical issue, a number of urban governments and political elites are beginning to acknowledge the link between urban design and broader economic policies. Birmingham is a case study of a local authority that has explicitly recognized that improved urban design can contribute to local economic regeneration.

Phil Hubbard

1995-01-01

139

Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

Bryson, Judy C.

140

Africa's Past Economic Development and its Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the colonial era to the present, economic progress in sub-Saharan Africa has been slow. This paper argues that Africa's stagnation started be- fore the European expansion and that modern influences are not able to fully account for Africa's growth tragedy. The paper uses measures of urbanization to proxy for economic progress in pre-modern times and shows that before the

Javier A. Birchenall

141

Economic development via the Net in Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is permeating our lives because of its power. This brings obvious social and economic value. Less obvious are the social and economic hurts. The Net's reach is global, but Net access is far from global; and as the IT caravan rolls on, stragglers slip further behind. However, the Net is a cheap power just made for isolated people,

142

Economic development via the net in Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is permeating our lives because of its power. This brings obvious social and economic value. Less obvious are the social and economic hurts.The Net's reach is global, but Net access is far from global; and as the IT caravan rolls on, stragglers slip further behind. However, the Net is a cheap power just made for isolated people, and

Stanley W. Johnston; Gerald A. Acquaah-gaisie

2000-01-01

143

JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly  

E-print Network

JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels, concentrating from industry norms), JEDI estimates the number of jobs and economic impacts to a local area (usually

144

Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and  

E-print Network

Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China* Sylvie DĂ©murger Jeffrey D the location dummies in provincial growth regressions to obtain estimates of the effects of geography

145

Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

146

Contributions of Cell Phones to Economic Development in  

E-print Network

to impact corn growers cell phone usage · RH 2: Agricultural information carried on cell phone is moreContributions of Cell Phones to Economic Development in Africa: An Information Study of Corn development in developing countries #12;Motivation/Development · According to cell phones enhance economic

Anderson, Richard

147

Economic analysis for the Hilo Coast Processing Company's solar industrial process heat system  

SciTech Connect

Levelized required revenues per total investment dollar for a variety of investment rates were developed for the project. These values were used in turn to develop the following economic characteristics: internal rate of return assuming the entire component represents an investment by the contractor; internal rate of return assuming the solar investment consists only of the equity portion of total projected project costs; the levelized price of the solar thermal process heat energy produced under varying discount rates; the levelized price of the alternative conventional energy under varying discount rates; expected annual fossil fuel savings; and payback period. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01

148

The entrepreneurial process and economic success in a constrained environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and impact of the entrepreneurial process on economic and business success is difficult to research as there are many intervening variables to consider. It is also a complex ongoing evolutionary process, which can only be fully understood in the context of the wider socioeconomic environment. Conventional cross-sectional quantitative approaches can only provide limited insights and answers on the

Sarath S. Kodithuwakku; Peter Rosa

2002-01-01

149

Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration  

E-print Network

Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration Tarun R Naik1 and Rakesh sequestration. Most of the studies related to the carbonation are limited to its effects on corrosion. The possibility of using carbonation process as a direct means for carbon dioxide sequestration is yet

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

150

Literacy at Work. Developing Adult Basic Skills for Employment. Education-Economic Development Series 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is part of a series that is designed to promote stronger ties between the educational resources in the Northeast and Midwest and the economic development process. The discussion identifies steps that businesses, education communities, and public policymakers can take to define literacy standards and raise basic competency levels in…

Duggan, Paula

151

Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries  

SciTech Connect

Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs.

El-Ashry, M.T. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

152

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

2007-01-01

153

Highway Investment and Rural Economic Development: An Annotated Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Dennis M. Brown, Food and Rural Economics Division, US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) (described in the July 2, 1999 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this annotated bibliography summarizes studies on the rural economic development implications of highway investment. The bibliography includes some urban studies in addition to rural and covers the effects of highway investment on different industries, local and regional spatial effects, and highway effects over time, among other issues.

Brown, Dennis M.

1999-01-01

154

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

155

24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 ...evaluating and selecting economic development projects. The following...activities to be carried out for economic development purposes....

2010-04-01

156

78 FR 68025 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

2013-11-13

157

77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

2012-10-23

158

75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

2010-10-18

159

76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

2011-10-17

160

77 FR 6517 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts...120202093-2093-01] Economic Development Administration Regulatory...Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration...

2012-02-08

161

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 ...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2010-01-01

162

Flexible Software Development: From Software Architecture to Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern software development practices show that there is significant diversity in the product, process and geographical location of software development due to economical, technical and logistical constraints. Such diverse development demands flexibility in the software engineering methodology. In this paper, we propose the cellular development methodology (CDM), an architecture-driven approach to flexible software development. CDM derives the development process and

Dharini Balasubramaniam; Ronald Morrison; R. Mark Greenwood; Brian Warboys

2007-01-01

163

Journal of Development Economics Z .Vol. 59 1999 4376  

E-print Network

Journal of Development Economics Z .Vol. 59 1999 43­76 The big push, natural resource booms that natural resource booms can be important catalysts for development in poorer countries. In this paper we booms; Big push 1. Introduction If low-income equilibrium traps are important in economic development

164

Pattern of Trade and Economic Development in the Model  

E-print Network

Pattern of Trade and Economic Development in the Model of Monopolistic Competition Jeffrey D. Sachs for International Development at Harvard University #12;CID Working Paper no. 14 Pattern of Trade and Economic into the model of monopolistic competition to investigate the interplay between trade policies and development

165

Keynes and development economics: a sixty-year perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

John Maynard Keynes exercised considerable influence on the formative years of development economics, through his disciples. Key issues were the relevance of disguised unemployment to developing countries and the supply side policies that would have to complement Keynesian demand management. Although Michal Kalecki made a greater contribution to structuralist economics, Keynesian accounting formats still dominate macroeconomic development models. The legend

John Toye

2006-01-01

166

European Economic Review 45 (2001) 827}838 Natural Resources and Economic Development  

E-print Network

European Economic Review 45 (2001) 827}838 Natural Resources and Economic Development The curse of natural resources Je!rey D. Sachs, Andrew M. Warner* Center for International Development, Harvard research that has shown evidence of a `curse of natural resourcesa } countries with great natural resource

167

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

...standards: (1) Business development assistance. An activity...including efforts to stimulate the development or expansion of microenterprises...training; (ii) Provision of child care; (iii) Transportation...assistance meets the economic development standard only if the...

2014-04-01

168

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

169

African Economic Development in a Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional explanations of poor African economic performance generally fail to pay adequate attention to causal mechanisms of growth, decline and stagnation. Many African countries experienced investment booms after independence but, in contrast to East Asian newly industrialising economies, these were not sustained owing to failure to establish a virtuous growth circle involving complementary increases in savings and exports. Structural adjustment

Yilmaz Akyuz; Charles Gore

2001-01-01

170

Special Section: Approaches to Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four articles: "Estimating Economic Impacts of Programming: A Case Study of Forestry" (Marcouiller et al.); "Aquaculture Opportunities" (Snyder); "Starting a County Agricultural Marketing Program" (Vossen); and "A Multidisciplinary Model for Industry Support: Program Redirection Creates Missouri Textile Center" (Dillard et al.). (SK)

Marcouiller, David W.; And Others

1992-01-01

171

Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

Ball, Nicole

1983-01-01

172

Sustainable Economic Development. A Paradigm Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the turn of the last decade a paradigm change in environmental policies became apparent. At the end of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 1980s, during the first environmental revolution, environmental problems were seen as a potential conflict between economic growth and the quality of the environment; since the end of the 1980s, however, the new concept

Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl

1995-01-01

173

Population change and some aspects of socio-economic development.  

PubMed

Some of the major dimensions of the interrelationship of population dynamics and socioeconomic development are examined in the context of Asia and the Pacific. Most of the countries in the region are developing, and population growth is viewed more as an obstacle to development rather than as a stimulant to economic progress. There are at least 10 countries in the region whose per capita income is less than US$300, namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 1979 these countries had an estimated combined population of 1,867,103,000 or about 77% of the population of the region. Per capita gross national product (GNP) masks the real economic condition of the people as it fails to show the actual distribution of income and wealth. In most nonsocialist countries there is maldistribution of income and wealth. The International Labor Organization (ILO) report points out that during 1963-73 in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, the richest 20% of households receive about half the income. In contrast, the poorest 40% receive between 12-18% of total income. In short, there could be economic development but not social development, such as equitable distribution of wealth and income. Studies have shown that equitable income distribution exerts a far greater influence on fertility than the GNP. In many countries of the region poverty is reality. The World Bank estimates that half of the people in absolute poverty live in South Asia, mainly India and Bangladesh. It is most unfortunate that among the very poor, poverty is frequently regarded as the cause rather than the effect of high fertility. Among the very poor, mortality, particularly infant mortality, tends to be high. China is among the countries which have recognized that rapid population growth is not beneficial to the accelerated speed of capital accumulation. It has been observed that in most countries as the GNP per capita increases the birthrate decreases. This is the case in the developed countries of the region, i.e., Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and Singapore. It appears to be that wealth begets wealth, and that development is one of the better contraceptives. The processes and conditions which lead to and result from an increase in per capita income usually cause a number of social and attitudinal changes which in turn bring about an eventual decrease in the birthrate. In sum, population growth and economic development are complementary, interdependent, and act as constraints on each other. PMID:12265663

1982-06-01

174

LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

175

Pollution prevention and its role in sustainable economic development  

SciTech Connect

The recent United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was the largest gathering of governments and heads of states to date. This paper describes the preparatory process for this meeting as well as the recommendations of UNCED. This Conference was essentially about changing behavior -- specifically economic behavior. The implications of sustainable development was among the subjects explored during the 9th World Clean Air Congress in Montreal in September 1992. At a plenary session on the topic, Professor de Lemos, President of Brazil's UNEP Institute, reported on the 1992 UNCED Conference and what it revealed about the impact of business, poverty, and population on the goals of sustainable development. His remarks are included in the article. 8 refs.

Mattos, de Lemos, H. (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1992-12-01

176

Principles for Rethinking the Federal Government's Role in Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with a discussion of differences between economic and community development. A three-dimensional policy frame work for analyzing subnational economic development policy is presented One dimension consists of the goals of efficiency and equity. The confusion between the equity objectives of poverty alleviation and helping distressed communities is explained The second dimension includes three sets of government and

Edward W. Hill

1998-01-01

177

Community Colleges and Economic Development: Models of Institutional Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is provided of the nontraditional, direct involvement of community colleges in economic development activities. While a review of the literature and a discussion of the factors leading to community colleges' participation in economic development are included, the primary focus of the monograph is on seven models of nontraditional…

Katsinas, Stephen G.; Lacey, Vincent A.

178

Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio

Kao

1985-01-01

179

Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

180

Small Business and Economic Development in Macomb County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the economic development role of small businesses in Macomb County, Michigan, in order to identify those businesses which are most significant in terms of their contribution to economic development and, which therefore, would warrant public support for their retention and growth. Using these criteria, the study isolated the…

Jacobs, James

181

Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross E. Levine

2002-01-01

182

Tropics, germs, and crops: how endowments influence economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross Levine

2003-01-01

183

Recouple: Natural Resource Strategies for Rural Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This source book provides guidance and technical assistance material on utilizing forest, agricultural, and scenic and wildlife resources for rural economic development. The document focuses on the uniqueness of existing rural resources for new enterprise opportunities. Natural resource-based economic development strategies are a means to…

Thomas, Margaret G.

184

MAXIMIZING THE VALUE OF REMITTANCES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrant remittances can play a critical role in the economic development of low\\/middle-income countries. Remittances to developing countries, which currently total over $300 billion annually, are generally seen as an instrument to reduce poverty and inequality, to provide social benefits and multiplier effects, and to act as buffers against economic shocks. However, the full developmental potential of remittances is far

Michael R. Comstock; Marco Iannone; Romi Bhatia

185

Consumer & Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mt. San Antonio Community College District's Consumer/Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development Project was designed to provide activities to meet staff development and program improvement needs. The choice of activities was based on evaluation data from previous home economics projects, and priorities identified by the Consumer/Home…

McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

186

Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

187

Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

2005-01-01

188

PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF NOX FLUE GAS TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a preliminary economic evaluation of seven flue gas treatment (FGT) processes for the removal of NOx from power plant flue gas. The base case was a new, 500-MW power plant burning 3.5% sulfur coal and emitting 600 ppm NOx in the flue gas. Total capital...

189

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1981-01-01

190

Economic structure and development in an emergent Asian economy: evidence from  

E-print Network

process of Vietnam will have to take place. Vietnam joined the Association of South East Asian NationsEconomic structure and development in an emergent Asian economy: evidence from a social accounting to regional and global economic forces. As a result, Vietnam faces signi®cant challenges in the area

Kammen, Daniel M.

191

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

1977-01-01

192

A non-linear model of economic production processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

2003-06-01

193

Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.

Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.

2014-10-01

194

Silicon Web Process Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

1978-01-01

195

Nuclear Power in Competitive Electricity Markets NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENTORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

promote policies designed: ? to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy; ? to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and ? to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations.

unknown authors

196

Socioeconomic Data for Economic Development: An Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, prepared for the US Department of Commerce, examines the uses of regional socioeconomic data in the United States in order to make suggestions for more efficient use of such data and provide better coordination between the federal agencies that generate such data and the regional organizations, governments, and institutions who employ and interpret it in the formation of public policy. The report was based on surveys of prime users of regional data and identifies about a dozen obstacles to effective, accurate data use and makes recommendations for improvements in the overall federal system of data dissemination. The report is posted by the EconData.Net site (see the October 21, 1999 Scout Report for Business and Economics).

197

Roles of airships in economic development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed that airships of known and tested technology could, in some cases, perform routine transport missions more economically than conventional transport modes. If infrastructure for direct surface transport is already in place or if such infrastructure can be justified by the size of the market and there are no unusual impediments to constructing it, then the airships of tested technology cannot normally compete. If, however, the surface routes would be unusually expensive or circuitous, or if they involve several transhipments, or if the market size is too small to spread infrastructure costs of conventional transport, the airships of tested technology present a workable alternative. A series of special cases are considered. The cases, though unusual, are not unique; there are several similar possible applications which, in total, would provide a reasonably large market for airships.

Beier, G. J.; Hidalgo, G. C.

1975-01-01

198

Economic Development, Population Ageing and Sustainability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most populous country in the world, China is enjoying unprecedented economic growth. However this growth is accompanied with population ageing and serious environmental degradation which has attracted global attention. The impact of China's environmental problems on the rest of world in the future will be as important as that of the country's rapid economic growth. Without a balanced development

Xiumei Guo; Dora Marinova

199

Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

2011-01-01

200

Silicon web process development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; McHugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1980-06-01

201

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization with 29 Member countries from North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific area. The OECD serves as a "forum for governments of the industrialized democracies to study and formulate the best policies possible in all economic and social spheres." Content is organized into activity sections such as development and co-operation, economics, environmental issues, transition economies, trade and transport. Within each activity, visitors can usually find related publications. The OECD site features a news and events page highlighting the latest OECD developments, and a guide to free on-line documents sorted by activity.

1999-01-01

202

The Impact of Technology on Ireland's Economic Growth and Development: Lessons for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of information technology (IT) to economic growth and development is seen as an important factor underlying the pace of development in many developing countries. While Asia's newly industrialized economies (NIEs) are often portrayed as models for economic growth, Ireland's recent economic performance has attracted considerable attention, earning it the label “Europe's Celtic Tiger”. We adopt a framework of

Paul P. Tallon; Kenneth L. Kraemer

1999-01-01

203

Bioelectrochemical Process Development, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work performed under the Independent Research and Development project 'Bioelectrochemical Process Development' using Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 henceforth MR-1, a model dissimilitory metal reducing (DMRB) bacteria successfully demonstrates the following: ...

A. A. Ekechukum, C. E. Turick

2004-01-01

204

Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

2014-01-01

205

The Economics of Slums in the Developing World  

E-print Network

The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

Marx, Benjamin

206

ADDENDUM to Economic and Community Development Research Initiative RFP  

E-print Network

on other topics and addressing other issues related to economic and community development. Research topics? #12;· What is the role of entrepreneurship education and training in successful company start-ups? How has the fledgling youth entrepreneurship education movement

Shyy, Wei

207

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF FOREST-DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES: ANALYZING  

E-print Network

weighting of objectives. Economic development outcomes obtained using compromise and fuzzy programming, even flow ignores the business cycle as too much timber is har- vested when prices are low and too

208

ECON 483N: Economic Policy Development Prof. Vikesh Amin  

E-print Network

about the developing world - be able to apply theoretical and empirical economic analysis to the study, cheating on exams will be prosecuted as specified in the code. C he course will be delivered through 3 one

Suzuki, Masatsugu

209

Cluster-Based Economic Development: A Key to Regional Competitiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drawing on case studies of 17 initiatives and more than a decade of state and local experience in regional economic development, this report describes a framework for regional growth based on the recognitin that healthy regional economies are composed of ...

J. O. Gollub, H. Birss, E. Sullivan, M. Salvato, S. Waldhorn, T. Lyman, S. Goldstein, J. Juo, E. Egan

1997-01-01

210

Computer Game - Discussing Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing game is anymore essentially a personal effort. The game development process is an important issue. In fact, games are becoming more and more complex task, involving multidisciplinary teams composed by member with specialised knowledge and skills. In this paper, we propose a framework, based in the information systems development literature and aplied to game development. This framework is also

Carlos J. Costa; Manuela Aparício

211

Essays on social networks in development economics  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the role that social networks play in developing economies. The first two chapters analyze econometric issues that arise when researchers work with sampled network data. The final two chapters study ...

Chandrasekhar, Arun Gautham

2012-01-01

212

3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...efforts to achieve energy independence, biomass and biofuels promise to play a...National Science and Technology Council's Biomass Research and Development Board in undertaking...in plant operations by installing new biomass energy systems or producing new...

2010-01-01

213

Essays in economic development and education  

E-print Network

The first chapter of this dissertation examines the market for private school. Private school market shares are rising steadily in many developing countries, but we have a limited understanding of how private schools set ...

Feigenberg, Benjamin

2014-01-01

214

Preliminary Economic Feasibility Analysis of High Fructose Corn Syrup Processing in the United States with Emphasis on North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prefeasibility analysis directed at the HFCS industry was carried out under a short-term turnaround basis with the intent of accomplishing two objectives. First, provide a current economic overview of the United States HFCS industry; secondly, to develop some major HFCS processing plant operating benchmarks in an effort to provide a timely informational base for state economic development interests.

Scott M. Wulff; Delmer L. Helgeson

1987-01-01

215

After the exit: Acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

MASON C. M. and HARRISON R. T. (2006) After the exit: acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development, Regional Studies40, 55–73. Most studies of the impact of mergers and acquisitions suggest they have a detrimental impact on economic development in peripheral regions over the longer-term. However, such assessments fail to consider the post-acquisition behaviour of the cashed-out entrepreneurs. It is

Colin M. Mason; Richard T. Harrison

2006-01-01

216

[Population change and economic development in Korea (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The purposes of this paper were to formulate an economic-demographic growth model for Korea and to analyze the policy impacts on population change and economic development. It is hoped that the result of this study would contribute to formulating a more efficient economic-demographic policy. An economic-demographic growth model for Korea is formulated on the basis of the Suits-Mason model and other relevant models. The equations which explain the level of economic variables in the model are estimated by econometric methods using time-series data. 4 variables are selected as policy variables. They are: total fertility rate, marginal growth capital formation rate, high school education rate of the working age population, and emigration rate. A different scenario is assigned to each of these variables, and the future levels of economic and demographic variables in these scenarios are calculated using simulation methods. Then, economic gains from each policy are computed to provide a basis for appraising alternative policies. Major findings from this study are as follows. The target fertility control policy is efficient in reducing the population growth rate and in increasing the GNP growth rate. The investment and education policies contribute to a rapid economic growth by increasing both capital stock and human capital. The emigration policy has a direct significant effect on the size of the population, but has an insignificant effect on economic growth. If the policy mix of the fertility control policy and investment policy is used, the economic gain will be greater than the sum of the economic gains from each policy. That indicates that synergic effects may be obtained by combining appropriate policies. In conclusion, a proper mix of various policies is essential to obtain a balanced and rapid economic growth through synergic effects. (author's modified) PMID:12339137

Ro, K K; Cho, N H; Park, D K

1983-07-01

217

Nature's role in sustaining economic development  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's comprehensive wealth per capita can decline even while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increases and the UN Human Development Index records an improvement. I then use some rough and ready data from the world's poorest countries and regions to show that during the period 1970–2000 wealth per capita declined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, even though the Human Development Index (HDI) showed an improvement everywhere and GDP per capita increased in all places (except in sub-Saharan Africa, where there was a slight decline). I conclude that, as none of the development indicators currently in use is able to reveal whether development has been, or is expected to be, sustainable, national statistical offices and international organizations should now routinely estimate the (comprehensive) wealth of nations. PMID:20008380

Dasgupta, Partha

2010-01-01

218

Economic Development Impacts of Urban Rail Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

New investments in urban rail transport, both in Europe and North America, have been widely discussed in the transport policy literature, especially in the context of the relative success of individual projects. Recent experience in developed countries has seen something of a revival of urban light rail infrastructure, mainly because of its lower cost relative to full underground metro rail.

Graham R. Crampton

2003-01-01

219

Technology Transfer and Economic Development in Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status of Arizona's effort to encourage the creation and expansion of high technology based on the discoveries and new knowledge developed at its research universities is discussed. The study of the University of Arizona and Arizona State University was recommended by the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and…

Brophy, James

220

Technology, Innovation, and Regional Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years state and local governments, universities, and private sector groups have become increasingly active in promoting technological innovation and technology-based business development in their local economies. These efforts have resulted in productive new forms of partnership and cooperation at all levels. While federal programs have…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

221

ED>Net: The California Community College Approach to Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes California's Educational Development Network (ED>Net), an experimental effort to use the existing community college infrastructure to enhance the state's economic development activities. Highlights ED>Net's focus on developing organization, process, and individual skills in the current workforce. Indicates that ED>Net is composed of…

Dozier, Ken E.

1996-01-01

222

Developing the JPL Engineering Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

2004-01-01

223

Teaching Local Economic Development Using Problem-Based Service Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course was a senior-level 3 credit seminar designed primarily for junior and senior economics majors and minors. This capstone-type course offered an opportunity for 18 students to learn about urban economics as it applies to local economic development while being actively involved in the actual practice of community and economic development through a partnership with Burlington's innovative Community and Economic Development Office (CEDO). Specifically, Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's economic development division: 1. Collected data to enable an up-to-date understanding of economic/demographic trends and conditions in Burlington and the region. CEDO has previously hired outside consultants to periodically produce a data rich document titled "Jobs and People." My students put together "Jobs and People IV." Key contributions unique to J&P IV were the construction of time series based on NAICS instead of SIC industry codes and the addition of variables to reflect Burlington's movement away from manufacturing to an economy based more on the arts, technology and sustainable agriculture. This report is now used throughout the state of Vermont. 2. Developed a dataset in excel with formulas and sources that makes it easy for CEDO staff to keep "Jobs and People" continuously updated and to modify the data and charts to meet their changing needs. CEDO will now need to rely less on expensive outside consultants. Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's community development division: 1. Conducted a survey of Burlington residents on their quality of life in the historical but economically challenged Old North End neighborhood. The survey was also designed to gather information about the types of supports residents want and to identify the role played by CEDO sponsored neighborhood associations in resident perceptions of quality of life.

Brooks, Nancy

224

Technology and Economics Affecting Unconventional Reservoir Development  

E-print Network

???????????????????..??..?????? 7 1.6 The chronology of the US energy consumption by source and its relation with technological developments worldwide??????.?????? 8 1.7 Oil and natural gas R&D funds provided by the US government????.. 10 1.8 Investments in oil and gas... recovery R&D and unconventional gas produc- tion. Data from 29 major US-based energy producing companies???? 11 2.1 History matching and forecasting for a natural gas producer reservoir as example???????????????????????............. 16 2...

Flores Campero, Cecilia P.

2010-01-15

225

Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

Akubue, Anthony I.

2001-01-01

226

Economic Development and Air Quality: Complementary Goals for Local Governments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Commerce (DOC), the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and the Department of Transportation (DOT) jointly awarded demonstration grants to eight urban areas to develop and test ways to coordinate economic development and air quality improvement. The funding period for the grantees participating in this Air Quality Technical Assistance

Jerry A. Kurtzweg; Cristina Nelson Griffin

1981-01-01

227

LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT AS A MAGNET FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT AS A MAGNET FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: EVIDENCE FROM TWIN CITIES Jason Cao Light-Rail Line on Commercial & Industrial PropertyValues in Minneapolis Real Estate Development inAnticipation of the Green Line Light RailTransit in St. Paul Green Line and DevelopmentActivities #12;Blue Line

Minnesota, University of

228

Economic Development Web Site: State and Local Policy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Development Web Site is maintained by the State and Local Policy Program, in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, at the University of Minnesota. The site provides various resources related to economic development at the regional level. Visitors may want to start with Understanding Your Industries -- A Framework for Industry Analysis, which will examine several different analytical tools (both quantitative and qualitative) that help to describe how key industries cluster in a particular area. Several examples of areas that include industry cluster in their development strategies are available. There are also "ten key principles for developing a cutting edge economic development strategy for your area" and links to both national and state data coupled with a description of the data.

1997-01-01

229

Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development  

SciTech Connect

The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

2006-05-01

230

The economics of development with thresholds, catalysts and spillovers: Baloo the economist and Baloo the man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a long and distinguished career Professor V. N. Balasubramanyam (Baloo hereafter) has made numerous seminal contributions to our understanding of the processes of economic development and the operation of transnational corporations. These include the role of export processing zones and the determinants and consequences of foreign direct investment flows. The purpose of this article is to highlight the central

David Sapsford

231

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Santhirasegaram, Selvarathinam

232

Helping the Discarded Generation: Youth Employment and Community Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains and illustrates features of community economic development (CDC) organizations using two Canadian examples (Learnxs Foundation, Inc., and Learning Enrichment Foundation). Proposes CDCs as a way to improve youth employment and community development. Discusses youth employment programs in Germany, Austria, Britain, and the United States and…

Shuttleworth, Dale

1984-01-01

233

CO2 Storage and Sink Enhancements: Developing Comparable Economics  

E-print Network

CO2 Storage and Sink Enhancements: Developing Comparable Economics B.R. Bock1 , R.G. Rhudy2 , and H technologies and practices under development for CO2 storage and sink enhancement, including options for storing captured CO2, such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal

234

Women's Education for Economic Development in Cross Section of Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International organizations and researchers in the field of education and development have emphasized the importance of women's education for the social and economic development of Third World countries. However, women's educational levels are lower than men's in most countries throughout the world. This paper presents findings of a study that…

Kuroda, Kazuo

235

Recent trends in local economic development in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades issues of local economic development (LED) have come to dominate urban politics and planning in many cities in the United States, and local governments have increasingly adopted entrepreneurial development strategies. More recently, LED strategies are being adopted in the third world (Mitchell-Weaver and Manning 1991; Rondinelli 1990;1991; Zank 1991; Fergusen 1992; Linfield 1993; Zaaijer and

Brij Maharaj; Kemraj Rambali

1996-01-01

236

Economic Development and the Escape from High Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — This paper studies the characteristic features of the escape from high mortality as re- corded from the historical experience of Northwestern Europe and from the current experience of less developed countries. The paper documents stylized facts of mortality change and measures the contribution of economic development, represented by income per capita, to the mortality decline during the second

Javier A. Birchenall

2007-01-01

237

Financial development and economic growth: a symbiotic relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the plausibility of financial development as a tool to boost economic growth, using time series data on a cross-section of thirteen countries at different stages of development. Using annual data from 1960 to 2002, it conducts stationarity tests on the variables, followed by cointegration analysis among the banking and non-banking financial variables and GDP. It also tests

Jagdish Handa; Shubha Rahman Khan

2008-01-01

238

Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in

Yemane Wolde-Rufael; Kojo Menyah

2010-01-01

239

Remarks on Successful Economic Development Programs in Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural economic development depends on implementation of strategies that capture the competitive edge of the total rural environment. It will not succeed by weak duplication of traditional urban development strategies. The historic dependence on the natural resource base that is the common denominator for rural areas must be regarded not as a…

Thomas, Margaret G.

240

PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Programme name MSc Development Economics  

E-print Network

development. 5) Develop microeconomic models to explain how people make such decisions and how policy and the need for public policies and interventions. Analyse and assess policies designed towards helping the poor. Apply economic and quantitative analysis to solve problems of a type that face #12;2 policy-making

Weyde, Tillman

241

Economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an introduction to this special issue of The Journal of Development Studies on economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, it outlines how the contributions fit into the extant literature. A series of regularities emerge across these studies. The poor consist of those who are always poor — poor

Bob Baulch; John Hoddinott

2000-01-01

242

31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma. 537...Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma. ...company that is engaged in the economic development of resources located...

2010-07-01

243

31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma. 537...411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma. ...equity interest, in the economic development of resources located in...

2010-07-01

244

7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel...Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel...associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b)...

2010-01-01

245

7 CFR 4280.15 - Ultimate Recipient Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding. 4280.15... LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs...Projects eligible for Rural Economic Development Loan funding....

2010-01-01

246

31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma...and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma...contract that includes the economic development of resources located...

2010-07-01

247

41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes? 102-75.900 Section...900 What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means that the...

2010-07-01

248

76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal Year 2009...for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program. This announcement...Office of Rural Housing and Economic Development, Office of Community...

2011-02-18

249

7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development. 2.45 Section...Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development. Pursuant to...Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be...

2010-01-01

250

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in-depth analysis of economic and community development problems and opportunities, including...present and projected future economic development investments...necessary to solve the economic development problems of the Region;...

2012-01-01

251

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in-depth analysis of economic and community development problems and opportunities, including...present and projected future economic development investments...necessary to solve the economic development problems of the Region;...

2013-01-01

252

The ambiguous role of alcohol in economic and social development.  

PubMed

An increased and industrialized alcohol supply in a developing society is usually assumed to have positive effects on economic development, although it may be recognized that the effects on public health and order will be negative. There has been little attention to the potential for negative effects on the economic side. This paper directs attention to such factors as unemployment for cottage producers (often female heads of household) and reduced industrial employment as highly-automated "turnkey" brewers are installed. On the other hand, changes in the mode of production of alcoholic beverages may have little impact on the much larger work-force involved in serving or selling alcohol in retail trade. The net contribution of an increased and industrialized alcohol supply in terms of economic development is unclear, but industrialization and development bring with them increased demands for attention and sobriety, e.g. in motorized traffic and on the production line, which increased drinking may undercut. Decisions by international development agencies on investment in alcohol production and distribution should take account of both the positive and negative impacts on economic development as well as on public health. In line with this, the World Bank has recently decided to invest in alcohol industry projects only when there is a strong positive development impact and the project is "consistent with public health issues and social policy concerns". PMID:11218349

Room, R; Jernigan, D

2000-12-01

253

Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

2013-03-01

254

Activated carbon from pecan shell: process description and economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbons derived from pecan shells have been shown to adsorb a variety of metal and organic species in various processing wastewaters. Their effectiveness is equivalent to or exceeds comparable commercial carbons in this regard. The objectives of this study were to develop process flow diagrams for the large-scale production of pecan shell-based carbons derived from steam or phosphoric

Chilton Ng; Wayne E Marshall; Ramu M Rao; Rishipal R Bansode; Jacques N Losso

2003-01-01

255

Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-10-01

256

State and local economic development tools : how does the range of state-level economic development tools available to a locality influence the way local resources are deployed?  

E-print Network

Patterns in Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) expenditures for economic development in selected states were analyzed to explore whether differences in economic development tools, policies and programs available at ...

Piercy, Brett I. (Brett Ianthe)

2010-01-01

257

Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

258

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01

259

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's annual report on the economic prospects for developing countries focuses on international trade and the policies needed to help these nations benefit from global integration. The news is good for many developing countries, whose economic growth is expected to register "5.3 percent this year, 5 percent next year, and ease to 4.8 percent by 2002." However, the world's poorest nations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have not kept pace. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release and summary are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main page also provides a slide show of the primary points and issues of the report and a video interview with the Director of the Bank's Economy Policy and Prospects program, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

260

Methodological developments in randomized controlled trial-based economic evaluations.  

PubMed

Economic evaluation is a key contributor to decision making in health care, and it is important that it is carried out as effectively and reliably as possible. Studies carried out alongside randomised controlled trials are required to contribute real-world evidence to the decision-making process. However, the requirement that resource use be measured as well as effectiveness data within a trial results in additional complexity for trialists, and there are a number of methodological areas in which improvement is needed. This article reviews the literature in methodological work carried out to inform economic evaluation studies conducted alongside randomised controlled trials. Recent advances in areas including overall trial design, measuring resource use, measuring outcomes and reporting economic evaluations are discussed. PMID:25179207

Thorn, Joanna C; Noble, Sian M; Hollingworth, William

2014-12-01

261

Institutions and economic development: How strong is the relation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the relationship between institutions and economic development (output per worker). As in Hall and Jones (1999), we find that a 1% improvement in institutions (as we measure them) generates on average a 5% increase in output per worker. However, this relationship is not linear and the data have important heterogeneity. Countries with the same value of institutions

Tiago V. de V. Cavalcanti; Álvaro A. Novo

2005-01-01

262

Energy Costs, Economic and Environmental Analysis Course Development Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course development model on energy costs as well as economic and environmental analysis. Topics include utility rate analysis, simple payback analysis, compound interest and more. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-18

263

The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol.2, Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the relationship between federal programs and policies and urban economic development. It provides both a conceptual analysis of the relationships and a review of the theoretical and empirical literature relevant to assessing policy effects. It is one of several in a broad study that examined federal actions in relation to…

Vaughan, Roger J.

264

Recruitment of Rural Teachers in Developing Countries: An Economic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…

McEwan, Patrick J.

1999-01-01

265

International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

2009-01-01

266

The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

267

Human Geography Data and Mapping for Economic Development & Livelihoods  

E-print Network

Human Geography Data and Mapping for Economic Development & Livelihoods 27 June 2012 World Bank, Washington D.C. We are pleased to announce the World-Wide Human Geography Data Working Group meeting on 27 partnerships around human geography data and mapping focused on the general principle of making appropriate

Giles, C. Lee

268

Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between economic development and environmental quality is analyzed econometrically for a large sample of countries over time. The results indicate that some indicators improve with rising incomes (like water and sanitation), others worsen and then improve (particulates and sulfur oxides), and others worsen steadily (dissolved oxygen in rivers, municipal solid wastes, and carbon emissions). Growth tends to be

Nemat Shafik

1994-01-01

269

STATE OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY, TRADE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

, nuclear, and renewable energy generated in-region, except for any that is subject to unit on the California Energy Commission staff's proposed methodology for estimating the generation mix of CaliforniaSTATE OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY, TRADE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENERGY POLICY DIVISION

270

Rural Community College Initiative II. Economic Development. AACC Project Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) from the American Association of Community Colleges, which seeks to enhance the capacity of targeted community colleges to expand access to postsecondary education and help foster regional economic development. The Ford Foundation has made a decade-long commitment to community…

Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Garza, Hector; Barnett, Lynn

271

RETRAINING AND MIGRATION AS FACTORS IN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REPORT, PREPARED FOR THE OFFICE OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, FEATURES A REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH ON RETRAINING AND MIGRATION AS INDEPENDENT AND INTERACTING FACTORS IN REGIONAL ECONOMIES. FINDINGS ARE ALSO RELATED TO CURRENT UNITED STATES MANPOWER POLICY AND TO RETRAINING AND RELOCATION SCHEMES IN WESTERN EUROPE. IN THE UNITED STATES,…

SOMERS, GERALD G.

272

Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local political and community leaders and the owners of professional sports teams frequently claim that professional sports facilities and franchises are important engines of economic development in urban areas. These structures and teams allegedly contribute millions of dollars of net new spending annually and create hundreds of new jobs, and provide justification for hundreds of millions of dollars of public

Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

2003-01-01

273

Post Cold War economic and development on warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradigm of warfare has significantly changed from industrial and intrastate conflict to civil and informal war. This study examines the effect of Cold War and the post-Cold war economic policies and development polices have on the shift in warfare paradigm as well as funding conflict. Along with secondary literature, primary sources from international institutions such as International Monetary Fund,

Tamara Simunovic

2011-01-01

274

India's missing girls: biology, customs, and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the evidence on the sex ratio among children below the age of six. International evidence shows that the sex ratio at birth is slightly biased towards boys, but boys suffer greater mortality, a pattern consistent with Darwinian evolution. With economic development, the male bias in the child sex ratio increases. South and East India show levels and trends

V. Bhaskar; Bishnupriya Gupta

2007-01-01

275

STATE OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY, TRADE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

STATE OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY, TRADE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Energy Policy Division 925 Plum Street SE, Bldg. 4 PO Box 43173 Olympia, Washington 98504-3173 (360) 956-2096 (via email to on the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Draft 5th Power Plan The Washington State Department

276

Regional Economic Development: An Analysis of Practices, Resources and Outcomes  

E-print Network

--SWOT Index Scores by Question (Virginia) xi #12;The Thomas Jefferson Program in Public Policy Brett Levanto for a Strengths/Weaknesses/Opportunities/Threats (SWOT) analysis of Economic Development organizations, which can long existed in the United States. Just after the Revolution, these simplistic government and non-government

Lewis, Robert Michael

277

A Portfolio of Community College Initiatives in Rural Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges across the United States have initiated programs that are making an impact on the productivity of rural America and its residents. Profiles of 20 community and technical college initiatives in rural economic development are contained in this report intended for use by community and technical college administrators. The programs…

Thomas, Margaret G.

278

The Study of Relations Between Commercial Development and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commerce is an important part of national economy and it plays an influential role to national economic growth; our country (China) also pays more and more attention to commercial development, for example the commercial affairs department decided to start establishing works of the commercial network plans of cities in 2008. This article wants to explain the importance and present situation

Yi-Yi Jiang; Yu-Ying Sun; Di Li

2008-01-01

279

Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

2010-01-01

280

Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of articles which have been selected to provide insight into different aspects of the relationship between the two most pressing and challenging issues of the current time. The first is the need to achieve a just level of economic development for two-thirds of the world's population that live in poverty. The second is the…

Gold, Howard, Ed.

281

Economic Development Administration Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Economic Development Administration (EDA) Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012. During the year, EDA continued to work collaboratively with public- and private-sector partners to break down bureaucratic silos and maximize the effectiveness of its p...

2013-01-01

282

Modeling the economics of landfilling organic processing waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector are many examples of various liquid, sludge, and solid biological and organic waste streams that require remediation. Alternative disposal methods for food and other bio-organic manufacturing waste streams are increasingly being investigated. Direct shipping, blending, extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human food, animal feed, industrial products, and components ready for further manufacture. Landfilling, the traditional approach to waste remediation, however, should not be dismissed entirely. It does provide a baseline to which all other recycling and reprocessing options should be compared. This paper discusses the implementation of a computer model designed to examine the economics of landfilling bio-organic processing waste streams. Not only are these results applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm would benefit from examining the trends discussed here.

Rosentrater, Kurt A.

2005-11-01

283

High-throughput Process Development  

E-print Network

High-throughput Process Development with PreDictorTM Plates Principles and Methods GE Healthcare imagination at work #12;Handbooks from GE Healthcare GST Gene Fusion System Handbook 18-1157-58 Affinity Chromatography and Chromatofocusing Principles and Methods 11-0004-21 Cell Separation Media Methodology

Lebendiker, Mario

284

7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...regional area overcome severe economic distress. (7 ) The distribution...waste collection or disposal problem. (8 ) The extent to...State agency responsible for economic and community development or...State representative of the Economic Development...

2012-01-01

285

7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...regional area overcome severe economic distress. (7 ) The distribution...waste collection or disposal problem. (8 ) The extent to...State agency responsible for economic and community development or...State representative of the Economic Development...

2013-01-01

286

7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regional area overcome severe economic distress. (7 ) The distribution...waste collection or disposal problem. (8 ) The extent to...State agency responsible for economic and community development or...State representative of the Economic Development...

2011-01-01

287

75 FR 49016 - County of Greenville, S.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Greenville County Economic Development Corporation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exemption--Greenville County Economic Development Corporation The County of...acquire from Greenville County Economic Development Corporation (GCEDC) approximately...See Greenville County Economic Development...

2010-08-12

288

Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health yesterday released this 210-page report on the role of health in global economic development. The Commission, which was established in January of last year, finds "that extending the coverage of crucial health services, including a relatively small number of specific interventions, to the world's poor could save millions of lives each year, reduce poverty, spur economic development, and promote global security." The report recommends an effort on the part of developing and developed nations alike and argues that millions of lives would be saved annually if cooperating countries invested one tenth of one percent of national income. At the site, users can download the report in full or by section.

2001-01-01

289

Developability studies before initiation of process development  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies constitute a robust class of therapeutic proteins. Their stability, resistance to stress conditions and high solubility have allowed the successful development and commercialization of over 40 antibody-based drugs. Although mAbs enjoy a relatively high probability of success compared with other therapeutic proteins, examples of projects that are suspended due to the instability of the molecule are not uncommon. Developability assessment studies have therefore been devised to identify early during process development problems associated with stability, solubility that is insufficient to meet expected dosing or sensitivity to stress. This set of experiments includes short-term stability studies at 2?8 ţC, 25 ţC and 40 ţC, freeze-thaw studies, limited forced degradation studies and determination of the viscosity of high concentration samples. We present here three case studies reflecting three typical outcomes: (1) no major or unexpected degradation is found and the study results are used to inform early identification of degradation pathways and potential critical quality attributes within the Quality by Design framework defined by US Food and Drug Administration guidance documents; (2) identification of specific degradation pathway(s) that do not affect potency of the molecule, with subsequent definition of proper process control and formulation strategies; and (3) identification of degradation that affects potency, resulting in program termination and reallocation of resources. PMID:23883920

Yang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Wei; Dukleska, Svetlana; Benchaar, Sabrina; Mengisen, Selina; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Cheung, Jason; Mann, Leslie; Babadjanova, Zulfia; Rowand, Jason; Gunawan, Rico; McCampbell, Alexander; Beaumont, Maribel; Meininger, David; Richardson, Daisy; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

2013-01-01

290

Consolidating Local Economic Development in Post-Apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the release in 2006 of a national coordinated framework, a new policy maturity has emerged in South Africa around the\\u000a planning of local economic development (LED). In this article, key issues are explored for the consolidation of LED as an\\u000a important aspect of development planning in postapartheid South Africa. Five significant themes are identified as central\\u000a to the consolidation

Christian M. Rogerson

2008-01-01

291

Ecologically and economically conscious design of the injected pultrusion process via multi-objective optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injected pultrusion (IP) is an environmentally benign continuous process for low-cost manufacture of prismatic polymer composites. IP has been of recent regulatory interest as an option to achieve significant vapour emissions reduction. This work describes the design of the IP process with multiple design objectives. In our previous work (Srinivasagupta D et al 2003 J. Compos. Mater. at press), an algorithm for economic design using a validated three-dimensional physical model of the IP process was developed, subject to controllability considerations. In this work, this algorithm was used in a multi-objective optimization approach to simultaneously meet economic, quality related, and environmental objectives. The retrofit design of a bench-scale set-up was considered, and the concept of exergy loss in the process, as well as in vapour emission, was introduced. The multi-objective approach was able to determine the optimal values of the processing parameters such as heating zone temperatures and resin injection pressure, as well as the equipment specifications (die dimensions, heater, puller and pump ratings) that satisfy the various objectives in a weighted sense, and result in enhanced throughput rates. The economic objective did not coincide with the environmental objective, and a compromise became necessary. It was seen that most of the exergy loss is in the conversion of electric power into process heating. Vapour exergy loss was observed to be negligible for the most part.

Srinivasagupta, Deepak; Kardos, John L.

2004-05-01

292

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China  

PubMed Central

Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

2014-01-01

293

E000308 economic development and the environment Economic development in low-income economies is initially highly resource-  

E-print Network

is initially highly resource- intensive. Resource depletion and pollution damage is often estimated to reduce not only to phenomena such as water and air quality but also, importantly, to natural resource stocks drawdowns, may affect economic development in a dynamic interaction. This feedback is hard to quantify

Coxhead, Ian

294

Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.  

PubMed

Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine. PMID:24706569

Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

2014-06-01

295

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water

Yu, Qian

296

Provenance of Software Development Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a ”Why does the build fail currently?” - This and similar questions arise on a daily basis in software development processes\\u000a (SDP). There is no easy way to answer these questions, the required information is stored throughout different tools, the\\u000a version control and continuous integration systems in this example. The tools mainly live in isolated worlds and no direct\\u000a connection between

Heinrich Wendel; Markus Kunde; Andreas Schreiber

2010-01-01

297

Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

2011-01-01

298

Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people. PMID:1508934

Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

1992-05-01

299

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01

300

Final Report: Bioelectrochemical Process Development  

SciTech Connect

Work performed under the Independent Research and Development project ''Bioelectrochemical Process Development'' using Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 henceforth MR-1, a model dissimilitory metal reducing (DMRB) bacteria successfully demonstrates the following: MR-1 transfers electrons by hydrogen oxidation to solid phase electrodes; MR-1 can act as an electron transfer agent when attached to a solid metal electrode surface - a modified electrode has been developed and tested; MR-1 transfers electrons from solution to a solid electrode. DMRB grow by transferring electrons to insoluble metals. When bacteria oxidize organic compounds or hydrogen this results in electron flow from the bacterial cell for the purpose of cellular energy production. Extracellular electron transfer to solid terminal electron acceptors permits coupling this oxidation process to electrodes. As a result, detection of organic compounds and hydrogen can be accomplished by bacterial contact to an electrode. The authors have designed a process that incorporates bacterial cells onto electrodes for the purpose of hydrogen detection. In addition, this type of bio-sensor also responds to the presence of FE III thereby providing potential utility as a Fe III sensor. Immediate uses of this technology include in-situ detection and quantification of organic compounds and hydrogen in the subsurface that provide energy for growth of indigenous bacteria.

EKECHUKWU, AMY

2004-07-15

301

Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes  

PubMed Central

Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process. PMID:23213298

Dobos, Laszlo; Kiraly, Andras; Abonyi, Janos

2012-01-01

302

Socio-economic impact analysis in the NEPA process  

SciTech Connect

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations require environmental impact statements to assess direct and indirect effects on a number of different environmental resource categories, including economic and social effects. However, NEPA regulations do not dictate the scope of the socio-economic analyses or specify which analytical procedures must be employed. As a result, socio-economic impact analyses vary considerably across NEPA documents in both the methodology of analysis and in the models used to quantify impacts. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of socio-economic analyses in NEPA documents and present strategies for ensuring that the socio-economic analyses are focused on the most relevant socio-economic indicators, while still conforming to the full intent of NEPA. This paper will provide guidance on what factors should be considered when identifying the economic indicators to be assessed. The paper will also describe and discuss various types of models currently used to quantify economic impacts in NEPA documents, and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of these models. In addition, the definition of the appropriate Return On Investment in relation to the model used and the analysis performed will be discussed. The offices of the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and the Food and Drug Administration present real world examples of innovative approaches to socio-economic impact analysis.

Karnovitz, A.; McQueen, S. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States)

1997-08-01

303

The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development was started in 1987 by Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt. The Project's primary goal is "to understand and foster the conditions under which sustained, self-determined social and economic development is achieved among American Indian nations." To accomplish this goal, the Project has sponsored a number of conferences and events, and as also offered advisory services to interested persons and tribal leaders. The "Publications" area is a good way to take a look at the fruits of their labors, as it includes the archives of the Joint Occasional Papers on Native Affairs and a variety of field reports, such as "Renewing Beauty: Options for Navajo Land Management and Decision Making".

304

The urban economic development impacts of ethnic entrepreneurship : a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in Lawrence, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the process through which ethnic entrepreneurship impacts urban economic development. In many urban places across the United States, demographic change has led to the rise of ethnic communities and the ...

Cheigh, Brian Chaneung

2005-01-01

305

USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

2005-05-01

306

The Important Role of Physics in Industry and Economic Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good Physics requires good education. Good education translates into good Physics professionals. The process starts early with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education programs for Middle and High-School students. Then it continues with competitive higher education programs (2 years and 4 years) at colleges and universities designed to satisfy the needs of industry and academia. The research work conducted by graduate students in Physics (and Engineering Physics) frequently translates into new discoveries and innovations that have direct impact in society (e.g. Proton Cancer Therapy). Some of the major and largest scientific experiments in the world today are physics-centered (e.g. Large Hadron Collider-LHC) that generate employment and business opportunities for thousands of scientists, academic research groups and companies from around the world. New superconducting magnets and advanced materials that have resulted from previous research in physics are commonly used in these extreme experiments. But not all physicists will end up working at these large high-energy physics experiments, universities or National Laboratories (e.g. Fermilab); industry requires new generations of (industrial) physicists in such sectors as semiconductor, energy, space, life sciences, defense and advanced manufacturing. This work presents an industry perspective about the role of Physics in economic development and the need for a collaborative Academic-Industry approach for a more effective translational research. A series of examples will be presented with emphasis in the measurement, control, diagnostics and computing capabilities needed to translate the science (physics) into innovations and practical solutions that can benefit society as a whole.

Alvarado, Igor

2012-10-01

307

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Skamania County, Washington.  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

308

Development in Rural Texas: An Assessment of TEEX Economic Development Reports  

E-print Network

School TEEX 2012 Capstone. iii FOREWORD This report, Development in Rural Texas, tackles a compelling subject: economic development in rural Texas communities. It does so at the request of the Knowledge Engineering Division of the Texas... in economic development. After delivering their carefully-crafted and well-researched reports to these communities, officials at TEEX were left to wonder what would happen next. Would the recommendations in the reports be implemented or would the reports...

Calcaneo, Edgar Adrian; Cripe, Ramsey; Davis, Taylor; Gonzalez, Ramon; Grimes, Joshua; Hemby, Olivia; Humphrey, Colby; Keppy, Paul; Surgenor, Ken

2012-01-01

309

Economic analysis of a zero discharge industrial wastewater treatment process. Final report, September 1994-September 1995  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of an economic analysis of advanced and emerging industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) technologies. New regulations and the increase in disposal costs for solid wastes have required the Navy to focus on improving the metal removal efficiency and waste generation rates. The Navy is developing Zero Discharge Technologies for three waste steams: (1) chromium, (2) cyanide, and (3) acid/alkali cleaning wastewaters. A Zero Discharge IWTP conceptual design described in this document incorporates advanced separation technologies for metals removal and recovery, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for mineralization of organics, and membrane separation technologies. This document reports an economic analysis of the unit processes identified in the Zero Discharge IWTP design, identification of further effluent polishing/purification methods, and an assessment of system costs for each effluent recycling option.

NONE

1995-12-01

310

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Reusable Cutlery  

E-print Network

of an environmental, economic, and social evaluation. The environmental indicators include the materials usedUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation, transportation, energy consumption, and compostability. The economic assessment consists of a financial cost

311

Spatial and Temporal Dynamics: Residential Development Process  

E-print Network

patterns in each pattern of neighborhood showed discrete development processes. Age of neighborhood can be used to predict development pressures and growth. In this process, physical and social infrastructure is involved, therefore, development process...

Park, Joung Im

2012-02-14

312

THE EFFECTS OF TRIPS-MANDATED INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

for all but the least-developed countries to comply with the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) requirements of the WTO2 for extending and harmonizing Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). Many countries have complied in full while others are in process in some regards, but virtually all developing countries are asking, what are the economic implications of compliance? Better insights into

W. Lesser

313

Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.  

PubMed

This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another. PMID:22403910

Bunge, Mario

2012-01-01

314

An engineering and economic evaluation of wet and dry pre-fractionation processes for dry-grind ethanol facilities.  

PubMed

An engineering-economic model was developed to compare the profitability of the wet fractionation process, a generic dry fractionation process, and the conventional dry grind process. Under market conditions as of January 2011, only fractionation processes generated a positive cash flow. Reduced unit manufacturing costs and increased ethanol production capacity were two major contributions. Corn and ethanol price sensitivity analysis showed that the wet fractionation process always outperformed a generic dry fractionation process at any scenario considered in this research. A generic dry fractionation process would provide better economic performance than the conventional dry grind process if corn price was low and ethanol price was high. All three processes would perform more resiliently if the DDGS price was determined by its composition. PMID:21778050

Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Li, Changying; Eckhoff, Steven R

2011-10-01

315

From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation  

SciTech Connect

This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

Koester, S.K.

1986-01-01

316

Process development and evaluation for algal glycerol production. [Koor Process, Dunaliella parva  

SciTech Connect

An economically and technically feasible process is proposed for large-scale production of glycerol by means of a halophilic algae. This process provides an alternative route for glycerol production that is minimally dependent on fossil fuels and is, therefore, less sensitive to crude oil availability and price. The primary raw material, carbon dioxide from stack gas, is an inexpensive and renewable resource. Maximal utilization of solar energy is made not only in the glycerol synthesis steps but also in the product recovery system. Significant improvment in the process economics can be realized through further development of large-scale cultivation technology, and biomass distribution and collection machinery. 21 refs.

Chen, B.J.; Chi, C.H.

1981-06-01

317

Culturally appropriate vegetables and economic development. A contextual analysis.  

PubMed

This paper examines the implications of the demand for ethno-cultural vegetables (ECV) by South-Asians, the largest cultural group in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), on their potential for Ontario agricultural economic development and significant consumer health benefits. A conceptual framework is presented to explain the relationship among factors such as change in demographics, demand for locally produced ECV and both the potential agricultural and health benefits. Analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 2009 also indicates that the respondents have certain characteristics that are pertinent to understanding why they shop in particular stores and their perceptions about what constitutes quality. In sum, household size and percentage spent on vegetables predict their expenditure on ECV, an indication that South-Asians resident in the GTA will continue to demand their ECV. It is thus a niche market that farmers can explore if its potential economic value to them is clarified and the government can provide sufficient support by increasing awareness and creating appropriate economic incentives for farmers willing to grow these vegetables. PMID:22516843

Adekunle, Bamidele; Filson, Glen; Sethuratnam, Sridharan

2012-08-01

318

Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

2000-10-01

319

Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.  

PubMed

This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates. PMID:22066128

Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter

2011-01-01

320

Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts  

SciTech Connect

This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

None

1981-12-22

321

Oil export policy and economic development in OPEC  

SciTech Connect

During the 1970s, members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) increased the price of their oil exports by 2000% in nominal terms. The ability of OPEC countries to increase the economic and other benefits they drew from each barrel of oil was a familiar theme of that decade. However, recent developments in the world oil market may not be so encouraging for OPEC. From 1979 to 1983, demand for OPEC crude oil decreased by almost 45%, or from 30.9 to 17.5 million barrels per day (mbd). Despite this dramatic decrease, the news on the price front has not so far been that bad for OPEC. The average OPEC oil price, which had increased from $1.80/bbl (barrel) in 1970 to $36/bbl by 1980, declined to $29/bbl by 1983. OPEC has thus defied many experts by managing to avoid a price collapse. Not surprisingly, these developments have raised arguments about the nature of OPEC and how it operates. OPEC has been characterized variously as a very tight cartel and as a loose and ineffectual organization. This paper tries to shed some light on OPEC, and especially on how the economic development objectives of influential OPEC members affect their oil policies.

Aperjis, D.G.

1984-01-01

322

Sustainable Design of Geopolymers - Integration of Economic and Environmental Aspects in the Early Stages of Material Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of novel products is a complex, multi-level process. It may be divided into the two main phases of material and product development. Up to now, economic and ecological assessments have been carried out mainly after the development of materials. At that point of time, however, there is only a small degree of freedom to change the composition or process

Marcel Weil; Edgar Gasafi

323

Child Development Is Economic Development. A Conversation with Economist Art Rolnick. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public dollars spent to stimulate economic development would be more wisely invested in child development programs, according to two different streams of research. Brain research shows the impact of experiences and environments on the developing brain architecture, with weaker architecture leading to increased vulnerability to later problems…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

2006-01-01

324

Joint IDA Selected as National Finalist for Excellence in Rural Economic Development Award  

Microsoft Academic Search

WYTHEVILLE—The Economic Development Administration of the U. S. Department of Commerce has announced its finalists for the 2004 EDA Excellence in Economic Development Awards. The Joint Industrial Development Authority of Wythe County, Wytheville, and Rural Retreat is one of three finalists in the Rural Economic Develop- ment category. Nominations in this category were evaluated to determine how effective- ly they

Steven D. Irvin; Joseph W. Freeman; Robert J. Ayers; Alan Hawthorne; Gerald L. Brewer; Michael Webb; Danny B. Gordon; Linda D. Lester; William F. Snyder

325

Regional, economic, and environmental effects of traditional and biotechnologically enhanced ethanol production processes in Brazil  

E-print Network

Climate change, food security, and energy efficiency have become universal challenges for global economic development and environmental conservation that demand in-depth multidisciplinary research. Biofuels have emerged ...

Guerrero Compeán, Roberto

2008-01-01

326

31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. 537.413 Section 537...Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. The sale to a foreign...

2010-07-01

327

Civic Culture and Governmentality in the Politics of Growth and Local Economic Development in Lawrence, Kansas  

E-print Network

Leading theories on the politics of local economic development have been anemic in their ability to explain variation among cities regarding economic development policies, priorities, and community support for such activities. This can be addressed...

Wipf, Justin

2012-12-31

328

11.471 Targeting the Poor: Small Firms, Workers, and Local Economic Development, Fall 2004  

E-print Network

Covers conditions under which public-sector policies, programs, and projects succeed in enhancing the economic activities of poorer groups and micro-regions in developing countries. Topics include local economic development; ...

Tendler, Judith

329

Research on the Innovative Service Platform of Agricultural Economic Development - A Case Study on New Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Development Model of Yunnan Province in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations (ACEO) is an important service platform to promote the industrialization of agriculture, increase farmers' income, and solve the \\

Yingmei Gong; Youjin Gu; Yougang Wang

2010-01-01

330

Overview of processing activities aimed at higher efficiencies and economical production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of processing activities aimed at higher efficiencies and economical production were presented. Present focus is on low-cost process technology for higher-efficiency cells of up to 18% or higher. Process development concerns center on the use of less than optimum silicon sheet, the control of production yields, and making uniformly efficient large-area cells. High-efficiency cell factors that require process development are bulk material perfection, very shallow junction formation, front-surface passivation, and finely detailed metallization. Better bulk properties of the silicon sheet and the keeping of those qualities throughout large areas during cell processing are required so that minority carrier lifetimes are maintained and cell performance is not degraded by high doping levels. When very shallow junctions are formed, the process must be sensitive to metallizatin punch-through, series resisitance in the cell, and control of dopant leaching during surface passivation. There is a need to determine the sensitivity to processing by mathematical modeling and experimental activities.

Bickler, D. B.

1985-01-01

331

Population growth and economic development in the very long run: a simulation model of three revolutions.  

PubMed

The authors propose an economic model capable of simulating the 4 main historical stages of civilization: hunting, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial. An output-maximizing society to respond to changes in factor endowments by switching technologies. Changes in factor proportions arise through population growth and capital accumulation. A slow rate of exogenous technical process is assumed. The model synthesizes Malthusian and Boserupian notions of the effect of population growth on per capita output. Initially the capital-diluting effect of population growth dominates. As population density increases, however, and a threshold is reached, the Boserupian effect becomes crucial, and a technological revolution occurs. The cycle is thereafter repeated. After the second economic revolution, however, the Malthusian constraint dissolves permanently, as population growth can continue without being constrained by diminishing returns to labor. By synthesizing Malthusian and Boserupian notions, the model is able to capture the salient features of economic development in the very long run. PMID:12315554

Steinmann, G; Komlos, J

1988-08-01

332

Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process  

SciTech Connect

It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums today over the apparent decline in global competitiveness of U.S. industry. The question is why does U.S. industry not succeed in the development and marketing of competitive products when they lead in the generation of new technology.

Mock, John E.

1989-03-21

333

Regional Economic Development: Evaluation of a Local Initiative in North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread economic problems in rural areas have stimulated interest in rural economic development, and particularly in locally-based development initiatives. This paper describes and evaluates a state\\/local economic development initiative that has been operational in North Dakota for almost ten years-creation of regional economic development funds financed by local option sales taxes. Data collected through interviews with managers of seven such

F. Larry Leistritz; Dean Bangsund

1998-01-01

334

Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

Not Available

1990-07-31

335

ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS AND THE PROCESSING OF HYPERACTIVE SCHOOL CHILDREN  

E-print Network

contradictions of a capitalist economic system. As more and more "baby boom" children entered school, they needed to be managed in the classroom during a time of high achievement expectations and expectations for their future position in a technologically...' of Immoral Novels." Social Prob­ lems 28(3):290-307. Conrad, P. 1976 Identifying Hyperactive Children. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Conrad, P. and J. Schneider 1980 Deviance and Medicalization. St. Louis: Mosby. Doll, E., W. Phelps and R. Melcher 1932...

Kiger, Gary

1985-04-01

336

The Process of Economic Reform and Its Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

>i>Perestroika>\\/i> in the Soviet Union is a grandiose and unique historical initiative. Its specific future contours and consequences are not yet amenable to strict scientific forecasts. At the same time, it becomes increasingly obvious that the sources of >i>perestroika>\\/i> are rooted in fundamental contradictions of the Soviet economic system and consequently its principal material content is the effective implementation of

G. Zoteev; E. Hewett

1990-01-01

337

Environmental Processes, Social Perspectives and Economic Valuations of the Coast  

E-print Network

of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Russell A. Feagin Committee Members, Ben Wu Sorin Popescu Scott Shafer... of New Jersey, M.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Russell A. Feagin Coastal ecosystems provide important resources for social, economic and environmental capital to global and local communities. Socially, coastal ecosystems...

Williams, Amy M.

2011-10-21

338

Economic development and the university: A case study of a failed program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the basis of university attempts in the United States to stimulate economic development. Next, the paper describes the background of a particular university's economic development program. The projects and especially the problems of that university's economic development program are enumerated in detail. The problems include financial losses in particular projects large enough to cause the university to

Richard Senter

1996-01-01

339

Energy consumption and economic development in West Africa  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the commercial energy sector of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Presently, an economic union exists between the 16 countries of West Africa that are members of ECOWAS. Although the ECOWAS region has plentiful resources of commercial energy, it faces problems in this sector for two reasons. First is the problem resulting from the diminishing traditional energy resources such as wood fuel and charcoal. Second, most ECOWAS members, except Nigeria, are net importers of commercial energy, and hence face a high import burden for oil. Liquid petroleum is the dominant form of commercial energy used in the ECOWAS despite the availability of other resources. This author basically argues that the best policy and strategy solution for dealing with energy problems is through a combination of regional cooperative effort, and a more-intensive country level. The intensity-of-use hypothesis is tested with case studies of Ghana, the Ivory Coast, and Nigeria. The results indicate that newly developing countries can deviate from the expectations of the hypothesis.

Chima, C.M.

1987-01-01

340

Tourism development and economic growth a nonlinear approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use cross sectional data (1995-2005 yearly averages) for 88 countries to investigate the nonlinear relationship between tourism development and economic growth when a threshold variable is used. The degree of tourism specialization ( qi, defined as receipts from international tourism as a percentage of GDP) is used as the threshold variable. The results of the tests for nonlinearity indicate that the 88 countries’ data should be separated into three different groups or regimes to analyze the tourism-growth nexus. The results of the threshold regression show that when the qi is below 4.0488% (regime 1, 57 countries) or above 4.7337% (regime 3, 23 countries), there exists a significantly positive relationship between tourism growth and economic growth. However, when the qi is above 4.0488% and below 4.7337% (regime 2, 8 countries), we are unable to find evidence of such a significant relationship. Further in-depth analysis reveals that relatively low ratios of the value added of the service industry to GDP, and the forested area per country area are able to explain why we are unable to find a significant relationship between these two variables in regime 2’s countries.

Po, Wan-Chen; Huang, Bwo-Nung

2008-09-01

341

Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological innovations to achieve economic oil sands productivity, the oil companies have responded successfully to declining rates of American conventional oil production. With respect to North American hinterlands, implications for development theory center on connections among established and changing political coalitions, capacities for technological innovations, and responses to dynamic world conditions.

Steinmann, Michael

342

The Living Software Development Process 1  

E-print Network

Abstract: Today’s software development projects are confronted with a frequently changing environment like rapidly altering business domains and processes, a fast technology evolution and a great variety of evolving methods and development processes. Therefore highly flexible and adaptable software development processes are required, which allow projects to react on changes quickly and to adopt existing development methods to comply with the projects ’ actual needs. Such a process, which allows static and dynamic tailoring and evolutionary improvements, is called a living software development process. This article introduces a common process framework for the living software development process based on the concepts of process patterns and work artefacts. The proposed framework enables software engineers to define, evolve and apply a flexible development process with respect to the daily needs of their software development project. A running example guides the reader through the article.

Michael Gnatz; Frank Marschall; Andreas Rausch; Wolfgang Schwerin

343

Making Sense of Clusters: Regional Competitiveness and Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more and more scholars and policy experts struggle to determine what makes a successful region (urban or otherwise), there is a growing interest in the notion of cluster strategies and how they may be best deployed. Basically, this economic development strategy states that a group of related firms or companies in close proximity can create a number of productive and competitive advantages for the region. Recently, Joseph Cortright of The Brookings Institution researched the academic literature on industry clusters, and subsequently released this compelling 66-page paper in March 2006. The paper begins with a review of the existing literature on the subject, then proceeds to discuss why they are relevant, and also includes a section on future research questions that might be asked by those interested in the field. As Cortright concludes, ĂÂŻĂÂżĂ½"cluster research should evolve to become a creative and informative mixture of art and science.ĂÂŻĂÂżĂ½

Cortright, Joseph

2006-01-01

344

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual publication from the World Bank predicts growth patterns in developing countries. It reports that "recovery from the financial crisis is 'fragile and uneven,' with some regions recovering much faster than others." According to this year's report, growth in Asia will be strong through 2000, as the countries slowly pull themselves out of recession. The average per capita income of Third World countries outside of Asia, however, will decline. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release, summary, and the forward by Joseph Stiglitz are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main site also provides a slide show of the main points and issues of the report, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

345

World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

1993-01-01

346

Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) has developed a spreadsheet-based wind model (Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI)) that incorporates economic multipliers for jobs, income, and output. Originally developed with state-specific parameters, it can also be used to conduct county and regional analyses. NREL has enlisted the Wind Powering America (WPA) State Wind Working Groups (SWWGs) to conduct county-specific economic impact analyses and has encouraged them to use JEDI if they do not have their own economic model. The objective of the analyses is to identify counties within WPA target states, and preferably counties with a significant agricultural sector, that could economically benefit from wind development. These counties could then explore opportunities to tap into the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Bill Section 9006 grants and loans to stimulate wind development. This paper describes the JEDI model and how i t can be used. We will also summarize a series of analyses that were completed to fulfill a General Accounting Office (GAO) request to provide estimates of the economic development benefits of wind power.

Sinclair, K.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

2004-03-01

347

[30 years' development of economic theories in confrontation with facts].  

PubMed

In 1969, R. Frish and J. Tinbergen received the first Nobel Price in Economics. 200 years after Quesnay's "economic tables", economics were at last considered as a science. During the last thirty years, economics haven't lost their scientific reputation, but, confronted with different situations in the world and in France, economics have been unable to bring appropriate solutions to every problem. Nowadays, economics are quite far from the promises born after the Second World War: indeed, until the 1974 world crisis, Keynes' theory (from a macro-economic point of view) and Walras' formalisation of the markets (from a micro-economic point of view) were sufficient to give satisfying representations of any economic reality and mechanism. Nevertheless, these theories were unable to deal with both growing unemployment and raising inflation in the late 70's and early 80's. Today, economics present a wide variety of efficient analysis of society. Game theory, behaviour theory or econometrics are new means used to found new kinds of reality representation. Therefore, if economics can no longer be considered as an exact science, it remains nevertheless scientific. PMID:7736311

Levy, F

1994-01-01

348

Guidelines For Developing Low Energy Separation Processes  

E-print Network

A large portion of the energy required by the process industry is consumed by separation processes. This paper discusses current engineering techniques that can be used in the development and optimization of low energy separation processes....

Bojnowski, J. H.; Hanks, D. L.

1981-01-01

349

Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-10-01

350

SocioEconomic Development in Northern Russia in New Economic and Political Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article considers an economic and social situation in Northern regions in the period of transition to a new geopolitical and economic space and market relations. The industrial output indices in 15 RF Northern regions in 1991-2004 are given in comparison with those of 1990th. The authors discuss the intergovernmental relations, for example those concerning the distribution of subsidies from

A. V. Istomin; V. S. Selin; E. I. Zaytseva

2006-01-01

351

Some simple economics of improved cookstove programs in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

More efficient cookstoves have been introduced in developing countries by development agencies to retard deforestation and to improve the welfare of low-income consumers. To date, studies of the economics of cookstove programs have been limited to financial analyses of stove costs and an input-output study of a single country. This paper examines the consequences of the implicit income effect of a 25% to 50% improvement in fuel efficiency of household cookstoves. A model is constructed to examine the spending pattern of resources saved from reduced fuel expenditures and the consequences of fuel price reductions caused by reductions in aggregate demand. It is found that, with parameter values typical of low-income developing countries, roughly 50% of technical fuel savings from stove efficiency improvements are lost through increased fuel use induced by income and price effects. Even when the income elasticity of demand for the fuel is zero, an own-price elasticity of one-half, with a unitary supply elasticity, 28% of the initial technical savings will be lost through increased consumption. 22 refs., 6 tabs.

Jones, D.W.

1988-07-01

352

ECONOMICS OF UNIRRADIATED PROCESSING PHASES OF URANIUM FUEL CYCLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expanding reactor programs prescnt industrial opportunities in their ; fuel processing phases. This . paper considers the manufacture of ; unirradiated uranium fuel materials, including the conversion of uranium ; hexafluoride to uranium metal, uranium dioxide, etc.; their subsequent ; fabrication into fuel elements; and the processing and recycle of accrued scrap. ; The intent is to offer potentinl processors

J. P. Murray; F. S. Patton; R. F. Hibbs; W. L. Griffith

1958-01-01

353

Thermo-economic process model for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed thermo-economic model considering different technological alternatives for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. First, candidate technology for processes based on biomass gasification and subsequent methanation is discussed and assembled in a general superstructure. Both energetic and economic models for biomass drying with air or steam, thermal pretreatment by torrefaction or pyrolysis, indirectly

Martin Gassner; François Maréchal

2009-01-01

354

Economic evaluation of optional recycling processes for waste electronic home appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an economic evaluation of three typical recycling processes for the five main types of waste electronic home appliances (EHA) (TV set, refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner and personal computer) in Beijing, the capital of China. The main purpose is to identify the formal management framework with economic feasibility for the waste EHA generated in large municipalities of

Xianbing Liu; Masaru Tanaka; Yasuhiro Matsui

2009-01-01

355

Allocation of Talent in Society and Its Effect on Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies in psychology and economics have demonstrated that the average cognitive ability (talent) of people living in a society affects the economic development of the society. There is, however, reason to expect that the economic development of societies depends not just on the average level of talent but also on the allocation of talent…

Strenze, Tarmo

2013-01-01

356

New highways as economic development tools: An evaluation using quasi-experimental matching methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulating economic growth and development in rural and economically lagging regions is the goal of several federal and state highway programs. This paper examines the effectiveness of highway investment as an economic development tool. A quasi-experimental matching method is used to examine the effects of interstate highways on counties which obtained links during the period 1963-75 or are in close

Terance Rephann; Andrew Isserman

1994-01-01

357

Volume 30, Issue 3 Bank competition, institution and economic development: Evidence from Asia  

E-print Network

the excessive risk taking by banking institutions can cause economic vulnerability which ended up in financialVolume 30, Issue 3 Bank competition, institution and economic development: Evidence from Asia-2007, this paper investigates the link between bank competition and economic development. In general, although

Boyer, Edmond

358

Economic Geography of Human Development: Stratified Growth in Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala and Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins by constructing a model of stratified and divergent economic growth integrating economic geography, human development and endogenous technological change. Even in the presence of perfect capital, goods, and labor markets, economic geography and local governance can lead to stratification and divergence. The article then shows that early child development (ECD) determinants include both individual and local indicators

David Mayer-Foulkes

359

Rural Job Creation--A Study of CETA Linkage with Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how jobs are created in rural areas by or with the help of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs involved with local economic development activities. It consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 reviews literature pertinent to the historical perspective and key elements of economic development, economic

Bruno, A. Lee; Wright, L. M., Jr.

360

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

Tegen, S.

2012-06-01

361

Aqaba's Old Town : proposed model for community development within the Aqaba Special Economic Zone  

E-print Network

As a recently designated Special Economic Zone in 2001 and Jordan's only port, Aqaba has been experiencing a major economic boom and rapid development at a scale previously unprecedented in Jordan. Under the governance of ...

Al-Husseini, Dalia Z. (Dalia Zuehir)

2007-01-01

362

A preliminary process design and economic assessment of a catalyst rejuvenation process for waste disposal of refinery spent catalysts.  

PubMed

Spent hydroprocessing catalysts from refineries have been classified as hazardous solid waste by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), refiners must find a viable but economical solution to solve this serious environmental issue. Catalyst rejuvenation is an attractive option for minimizing the environmental problems associated with spent catalysts. In this study, a preliminary design for such a process and the corresponding economic analysis are performed to assess the proposed catalyst rejuvenation process for metal-fouled spent catalysts generated in residue hydroprocessing units. The scenarios used in the economic assessment are based on three options of process synthesis and two operator modes. It is found that the option of rejuvenating medium and lightly fouled spent catalyst produced by the refinery will be the best solution for refiners, both environmentally and economically. PMID:17316960

Marafi, Meena; Stanislaus, Antony; Kam, Ezra

2008-03-01

363

Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

1992-11-01

364

78 FR 38006 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for...and grants under the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant (REDLG...Opportunity Type: Rural Economic Development Loans and Grants....

2013-06-25

365

Fisheries Development and Fisheries Dependent Communities in Portugal: SocioEconomic Change and Strategic Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The socio-economic subsystem encompassing fisheries may be defined as including not only the harvesting sector but also several related activities occurring both upstream (shipbuilding, gear manufacture) and downstream (processing, distribution and trade). But these closely interrelated economic activities can also be set within a much broader system which would include the ecological, institutional and political influences which frame economic behaviour.

António Moniz; Ilona Kovács; Duarte Vicente; Ana R. Ramos

2000-01-01

366

Participation of Culturally, Linguistically and Economically Diverse Parents in the Special Education Planning Process  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Although federal law governing the education of students with disabilities recognizes the important role parents play in the special education planning process, there is considerable evidence that culturally, linguistically and economically...

Klein, Janet

2009-12-17

367

The Role of Agriculture in Sustainable Economic Development in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant economic progress recorded in some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade or so, a substantial proportion of the people in the region still live in acute poverty and suffer immensely from inadequate access to economic and social resources. This paper explores the prerequisites and priorities for sustainable growth in Africa. Drawing heavily on lessons Srom the

Awudu Abdulai; Peter B. R. Hazell

1996-01-01

368

International and Development Economics T AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Craig Jennings Crawford School of Economics and Government THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Crawford School of Economics and Government WORKING PAPERS #12;The Use of Spread Models to Inform of biological invasions but predictive models rarely are applied to inform invasion management. Here, we

Botea, Adi

369

Rural Economic Development: What Makes Rural Communities Grow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies local factors that foster rural economic growth. A review of the literature revealed potential indicators of county economic growth, and those indicators were then tested against data for nonmetro counties during the 1980s using multiple regression analysis. The principal variables examined included demographic and labor…

Aldrich, Lorna; Kusmin, Lorin

370

The Family Economic Environment as a Context for Children's Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinally examines how the complexities of the family economic environment may affect children's health, behavior, and ideas about the world of work. Family economic factors considered include father's/mother's work status (especially parental unemployment); per-capita income; health insurance; father's job security; and satisfaction with…

Farran, Dale Clark; Margolis, Lewis H.

1987-01-01

371

Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints, and short term objectives) as well. In the models operating rules represent different models of human behavior, and the objective of the modeling is to find rules for human behavior that perform well in terms of long term human objectives. The conceptual model used to represent human behavior incorporates economic multi-objective optimization for surrogate objectives, and rules that set those objectives based on current conditions and accounting for uncertainty, at least implicitly. The author asserts that real world operating rules follow this form and have evolved because they have been perceived as successful in the past. Thus, the modeling efforts focus on human behavior in much the same way that economic models focus on human behavior. This paper illustrates the above concepts with real world examples.

Sheer, D. P.

2008-12-01

372

Primer on Social Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elaboration of the author's booklet entitled "First Steps Toward Economic Understanding," this primer is designed to help the reader develop a functional understanding of the economic process so that he can make wiser decisions on issues of social policy and on matters affecting his economic well-being. The document is not "economics in one…

Darcy, Robert L.

373

Production of activated carbons from waste tire – process design and economical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire – pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal – pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main

Danny C. K. Ko; Edward L. K. Mui; Ken S. T. Lau; Gordon McKay

2004-01-01

374

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF SPECIALTY CROP PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING IN WISCONSIN  

E-print Network

in Wisconsin include potatoes, sweet corn, green beans, green peas, carrots, cucumbers, and onions,400 Sweet Corn $83 660 Green Beans $63 490 Green Peas $26 200 Carrots, Cucumbers & Onions $28 220 Ginseng. For major processing crops (sweet corn, green beans and green peas), Wisconsin ranks 2 nd among US states

Radeloff, Volker C.

375

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

376

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

377

Economic analysis of materials processing in space: Introduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space processing concepts investigated included an unmanned space factory, and a permanently launched factory. Product lines chosen for analysis were: (1) turbine blades, (2) tungsten targets for X-ray machines, (3) 1 sub G subclass separation by electrophoresis, and (4) high-price exotic crystals. The turbine blade, and 1 sub G products are considered promising candidates.

1975-01-01

378

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

379

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-06-01

380

Fermentation Kinetics and Process Economics for the Production of Ethanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to develop and optimize fermentation technology for the production of ethanol. Using glucose as the fermentable substrate, optimal fermentation parameters of pH, temperature, oxygen tension, and sugar concentration were determine...

C. R. Wilke, G. R. Cysewski

1976-01-01

381

Economic considerations of battery recycling based on the Recytec process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Recytec process is successfully operated on a continuous industrial base since autumn 1994. All the products are regularly re-used without any problems and environmental limits are fully respected. The European Community Battery Directive is valid since many years and only a few countries like Switzerland and The Netherlands have implemented it in national guidelines. In the meantime, battery producers have accepted the necessity of the recycling of mercury-free batteries in order to prevent the contamination of municipal waste streams by other heavy metals, such as zinc and cadmium. Recycling processes like the Recytec process are considered by the battery producers as highly expensive and they are looking for cheaper alternatives. Steel works are confronted with a market change and have to produce less quantities of better quality steels with more stringent environmental limits. The electric arc furnace (EAF), one of the chosen battery destruction techniques, is producing 20% of the European steel. Even if the battery mixes contain only mercury-free batteries, the residual mercury content and the zinc concentration will be too high to insure a good steel quality, if all collected batteries will be fed in EAF. In Waelz kilns (production of zinc oxide concentrates for zinc producers) the situation is the same with regard to the residual mercury concentration and environmental limits. Sorting technologies for the separation of battery mixes into the different battery chemistries will presently fail because the re-users of these sorted mercury-free batteries are not able to accept raw waste batteries but they are interested in some fractions of them. This means that in any case pretreatment is an unavoidable step before selective reclamation of waste batteries. The Recytec process is the low-cost partner in a global strategy for battery recycling. This process is very flexible and will be able to follow, with slight and inexpensive adaptations of the equipment, the trend in mercury content and quantities of collected batteries.

Ammann, Pierre

382

Economic development and the health care system in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

This article describes parallel developments of the Hong Kong economy and its health care system. The purpose is to illustrate how the Hong Kong health system evolved in response to external and internal pressures generated by economic prosperity. The Hong Kong system illustrates the importance of clear policy making in the face of these pressures. In particular, issues of investment, financing and distribution of health services are examined in relation to hospital cost control and service accessibility. In the past, health care costs in Hong Kong have been controlled at the expense of limited accessibility of health services. At present, Hong Kong policy-makers are faced with the challenge of maintaining a sharp focus on cost control as they face pressure to expand and improve health care coverage for the citizens. So far they have responded by emphasizing management efficiency through reorganization. It remains to be seen whether this strategy can be successful without passing increased health care costs to the consumers. PMID:10135878

Chu, D K

1994-06-01

383

Novel anaerobic digestion process with sludge ozonation for economically feasible power production from biogas.  

PubMed

A novel process scheme was developed to achieve economically feasible energy recovery from anaerobic digestion. The new process scheme employs a hybrid configuration of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion with sludge ozonation: the ozonated sludge is first degraded in a thermophilic digester and then further degraded in a mesophilic digester. In small-scale pilot experiments of the new process scheme, degradation of VSS improved by 3.5% over the control (mesophilic-only configuration) with 20% less ozone consumption. Moreover, biogas conversion also improved by 7.1% over the control. Selective enrichment of inorganic compounds during centrifugation produced a dewatered sludge cake with very low water content (59.4%). This low water content in the sludge cake improved its auto-thermal combustion potential during incineration and added to the overall energy savings. We conducted a case study to evaluate power generation from biogas for a municipal wastewater treatment plant with an average dry weather flow of 43,000 m3/d. Electricity production cost was 5.2 ˘/kWh for the advanced process with power generation, which is lower than the current market price of 7.2 ˘/kWh. The new anaerobic digestion scheme with power generation may reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 1,000 t-CO(2)/year compared with the conventional process without power generation. PMID:21508552

Komatsu, K; Yasui, H; Goel, R; Li, Y Y; Noike, T

2011-01-01

384

Economic Development through Youth. A Program for Schools and Communities. Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help teachers, businesses, Chambers of Commerce, and students start their own economic development activities and youth ventures. It describes a two-step plan to economic development through youth: development of an in-school student chamber of commerce program and development of a youth-owned venture. The first part of…

Nolen, Lori

385

The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

Rajan, Raghuram

2010-01-01

386

The Role of Economic Strain on Adolescent Delinquency: A Microsocial Process Model  

PubMed Central

The current study examines the role of economic strain as a moderator of the microsocial processes influencing younger siblings’ delinquency (externalizing behavior and substance use) in a longitudinal design. The younger siblings (122 younger brothers and 122 younger sisters) were from 244 families with same-sex biological siblings. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine a process model whereby mothers’ harsh/inconsistent parenting and older sibling delinquency influence younger siblings’ delinquent behavior via sibling aggression and delinquent peer affiliation. Findings suggest that indirect mechanisms vary as a function of economic strain, with sibling aggression having a stronger, more detrimental effect on adolescent delinquency in economically strained families. Data suggest that familial economic conditions contextualize the relative roles of parenting, sibling, and peer processes in the transmission of risk to adolescent delinquency. PMID:22709262

Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Shortt, Joann Wu

2013-01-01

387

Managing the Software Development Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of any software development project is to produce a product that is delivered on time, within the allocated budget, and with the capabilities expected by the customer and unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved. However, a properly managed project in a mature software engineering environment can consistently achieve this goal. In this paper we provide an introduction to three project success factors, a properly managed project, a competent project manager, and a mature software engineering environment. We will also present an overview of the benefits of a mature software engineering environment based on 24 years of data from the Software Engineering Lab, and suggest some first steps that an organization can take to begin benefiting from this environment. The depth and breadth of software engineering exceeds this paper, various references are cited with a goal of raising awareness and encouraging further investigation into software engineering and project management practices.

Lubelczky, Jeffrey T.; Parra, Amy

1999-01-01

388

Developing Science Process Skills through Directed Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Directed Inquiry Approach to Learning Science Process Skills and Scientific Problem Solving [DIAL(SPS)2] is described. Concept mapping, advance organizers, Vee diagrams, the theme approach, and focusing are used to help students develop science process skills. (KR)

Germann, Paul J.

1991-01-01

389

Tool Support for Dynamic Development Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Development processes in engineering disciplines are highly dynamic. Since development projects cannot be planned completely\\u000a in advance, the process to be executed changes at run time. We present a process management system which seamlessly integrates\\u000a planning and enactment. The system manages processes at the project management level, but goes beyond the functionality of\\u000a project management systems inasmuch as it both

Thomas Heer; Markus Heller; Bernhard Westfechtel; René Wörzberger

2010-01-01

390

Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit. [MILDGAS Process  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

1992-01-01

391

Evansville: The Economic History and Development of a River Town in the 1800's. Grade 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide for the instruction of economic concepts at the seventh grade level uses Evansville's (Indiana) historical development to further the study of concepts such as economic needs and wants, factors of production, and opportunity cost. The first part of the guide, "Introducing Basic Economic Concepts," uses the text "Enterprise…

Adams, Ruth; And Others

392

Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler 6-12. Home Economics. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of activities is intended to assist home economics teachers in incorporating basic energy education concepts into traditional home economics topics. Awareness activities that are intended to help students develop an understanding of fundamental energy conservation concepts and, at the same time, apply these concepts in home economics

Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

393

An Evaluation of California's Community College Based Economic Development Programs (ED>Net).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes economic outcomes of California's ED>Net (California Community College Economic Network) program, an alliance between community colleges and California businesses. ED>Net's purpose is to advance the state's economic growth by providing job-related education and services to businesses and organizations. This report develops

Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

394

Opportunities for technological and economic development policy in Brazil  

E-print Network

Brazil's transformation from an agriculturally-based colonial economy to an industrial republic spans seven decades - from the 1930s to the present - with three rapid growth phases which were each followed by economic and ...

Dalquist, Stephanie K. (Stephanie Kay), 1981-

2005-01-01

395

Economic aspects of solar energy for industrial process heat  

SciTech Connect

Energy requirements for industrial process heat (IPH) represent a high percentage of the national demand for oil and natural gas. Although solar IPH systems have the potential for significant industrial energy savings, current costs to the user of installed solar plants will not meet the normal investment criteria of industrial firms. Most companies using process heat predicate the application of new and improved systems on the attainment of 2 to 4 years payback time on the investment. In order to achieve the payback, substantial improvements in solar system technology and costs must be obtained. In addition, more favorable tax regulations and incentives must be implemented if we are to hasten the use of solar energy. The key factors which must be considered for solar IPH applications are outlined. Included in these factors are system performance, land availability and cost, integrated solar plant/building systems design, taxation effects, and installed cost of the solar system. Cost goals are presented for solar IPH systems with varying levels of Federal tax incentives and a comparison of projected system costs shows solar systems to be cost competitive by the mid-1980's.

Cohen, A.D.; McCarthy, R.L.; Trice, J.B.

1980-01-01

396

The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

2013-02-11

397

International Home Economics, Conference on World-Wide Development of Home Economics in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report was comprised of 22 papers presented by US and foreign home economists at a conference held in July 1965 at Iowa State University. The meeting was planned to serve the interests of those who train foreign students in US universities and those who plan to work in home economics programs abroad. The international aspects and priorities of…

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

398

Regionally Balanced Economic Development in the Recession. Economic Activity in the Provinces in 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic activity tends to exhibit a more uniform pattern in an international recession than during an upswing. In 1993, GDP growth rates by provinces were within the range of 1 percentage point (Austria total, excluding agriculture and forestry ±0.0 percent). The only exception was the Burgenland which gained almost 3 percentage points on the average rate for Austria. No clear

Norbert Geldner; Peter Mayerhofer; Gerhard Palme

1994-01-01

399

Economics of a commercial slurry-phase biological treatment process  

SciTech Connect

Slurry-phase bioremediation is an engineered process for treating contaminated soils or sludges in a slurry of water at 10 to 40% solids. Slurry-phase treatment relies on the mobilization of contaminants to the aqueous phase, where they are susceptible to microbial degradation. The mobilization or dissolution step can be the result of either microbial or physical/chemical action. Operating parameters are maintained to provide optimal conditions for biological treatment of the contaminants. OHM Remediation Services Corp. has completed the full-scale slurry-phase biological treatment of 10,500 yd{sup 3} of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-K001 wastes at the Southeastern Wood Preserving Superfund site in Canton, Mississippi. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the untreated material ranged from 8,000 mg/kg to 12,000 mg/kg dry-weight. A 95% reduction in total PAH concentration was achieved following treatment.

Jerger, D.E.; Woodhull, P.M. [OHM Remediation Services Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

400

Product Development Processes, Three Vectors Of Improvement  

E-print Network

Product Development Processes have achieved a state of some maturity in recent years, but have focused primarily on structuring technical activities from the initiation of development to launch. We advocate major advances ...

Holmes, Maurice

2003-01-01

401

THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE AS A CATALYST FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: RESULTS OF A NATIONAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes interorganizational arrangements — joint efforts characterized by participation of community?based organizations such as community colleges, economic development organizations, governmental agencies (those responsible for job training, economic development, agricultural development, etc.), civic groups, and chambers of commerce. This coordinating role is often achieved through a partnership of a community college with an “umbrella” organization consisting of representatives of

Jeffrey A. Cantor

1991-01-01

402

Economic Development and Social Security in Mexico, 1945-1985A Time-Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debate persists about the relationship between economic development and the development of the welfare state in Third World countries. The expansion of social security in Mexico in the context of debt crisis presents a historical puzzle that challenges many theoretical expectations. In light of this puzzle, this study re-evaluates and compares the determinants of economic develop ment and social security

Ana-Maria Wahl

1994-01-01

403

Local Economic Development in Area-based Urban Regeneration in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is intended to give insight into the state of the art of local economic development in area-based urban regeneration in Germany. The importance of local economic development has been widely recognised and a series of workshops, evaluation reports and programmes has been initiated to promote this policy area. A set of policy programmes has been developed to support

Sabine Weck

2009-01-01

404

NATIONAL POLICIES THAT CONNECT ICT-BASED EDUCATION REFORM TO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and communication technology (ICT) is a principal driver of economic development and social change, worldwide. In many countries, the need for economic and social development is used to justify investments in educational reform and in educational ICT. Yet the connections between national development goals and ICT-based education reform are often more rhetorical than programmatic. This paper identifies the factors

Robert B. Kozma

405

Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.

406

Financial Development and Economic Growth in Malaysia: The Stock Market Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth is important in enhancing the economy of a nation. Using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test approach, this study finds that stock market development is cointegrated with economic growth in the context of Malaysia. Moreover, this test also suggests that stock market development has a significant positive long-run impact

Chee Keong Choong; Zulkornain Yusop; Siong Hook Law; Venus Liew Khim Sen

2003-01-01

407

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for

A. Aden; M. Ruth; K. Ibsen; J. Jechura; K. Neeves; J. Sheehan; B. Wallace; L. Montague; A. Slayton; J. Lukas

2002-01-01

408

Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.  

PubMed

Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations. PMID:23865192

Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

2013-06-01

409

Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large substitution took place from petroleum to coal, natural gas and especially to electricity. In addition, the evidence for significant inter-fuel substitution between coal and natural gas implies that there is a possibility of replacing the use of coal with natural gas in the industrial sector. The existence of moderate input substitution suggests that there is some flexibility in energy policy options and energy utilization. Finally, the empirical evidence presented in this study suggests that the direction of causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies substantially across countries. There is a unidirectional causality running from GDP to energy consumption in 12 developed countries and in 5 developing countries. A unidirectional causality from energy to GDP exists in Netherlands and bidirectional causality exists in Slovak Republic.

Abd Aziz, Azlina

410

Recent developments in neutral beam processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is my great pleasure to introduce this special cluster issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, devoted to recent developments in neutral beam processes. It is an even greater pleasure to behold the enormous progress in this area over the last five years. Research on neutral beam processes has advanced due to the development of new nano-device technologies.

Seiji Samakawa

2008-01-01

411

EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1646 Smith*, R.L. Evaluating the Economics and Environmental Friendliness of Newly Designed or Retrofitted Chemical Processes. Clean Products and Processes (Springer-Verlag) 3:383-391 (2002). 10/22/2001 This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of ...

412

Economic analysis of consumption of fresh and processed fruit in Bowen University Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased productivity, marketing and consumption of fruits was recommended, but in west Africa we lack adequate food that is rich in nutrients needed by man for health and reproductive life. This study aim at determining the socio-economic characteristics of respondents and the proportion of students' income spent on both fresh and processed fruits. Also the level of acceptability of processed

Ayandiji Adebamiji; Omotoso Omotola

413

Parallel processing for large-scale nonlinear control experiments in economics  

SciTech Connect

In general, the econometric models relevant for purposes of evaluating economic policy contain a large number of nonlinear equations. Therefore, in applying optimal control techniques, computational difficulties are encountered. This paper presents the most common algorithm for computing nonlinear control problems and investigates the degree to which vector processing and parallel processing can facilitate optimal control experiments.

Amman, H.M. (Dept. of Macroeconomics, Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (NL)); Kendrick, D.A. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Economics)

1991-01-01

414

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A SODIUM/LIMESTONE DOUBLE-ALKALI FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comparison of results from a recent forced-oxidation limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process evaluation and those from a conceptual design and economic evaluation of a sodium/limestone double-alkali FGD process, based on recent EPA-sponsored...

415

ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

1992-01-01

416

Education, Key to Economic Growth. Recent Major Education Initiatives in Support of Economic Development in New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes new major education initiatives to enhance economic development in New York State. The 1970-1987 period has seen dramatic change in the labor profile impelled by technological and market forces transforming the economy. Apart from some fairly stable sectors, the state economy is characterized by a shift from manaufacturing to…

New York State Education Dept., Albany.

417

Controlled comparison of advanced froth flotation process technology and economic evaluations for maximizing BTU recovery and pyritic sulfur rejection  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this round robin project was to select the most efficient, as determined by the efficiency index, cost effective, as determined by the annual cost per ton of SO{sub 2} removed, advanced flotation device available. This machine was to process ultra fine coal, maximize Btu recovery and maximize pyritic sulfur rejection. The device will first be installed as a one hundred pound per hour capacity unit and, subject to the outcome of Task 6 of the Engineering Development Contract, increased to a 3 ton per hour capacity unit for installation into a proof-of-concept preparation plant. All of the technical and economic results were submitted to the TST for consideration. The TST members evaluated the data and determined to rank each of the participants 50% on technical merit and 50% on economic merit. The technical merit was to be the efficiency index. The economical merit was to be the annual dollars per ton of clean coal corrected for carrying capacity and frother concentration and the results of Test No. 4. This factor does not penalize a particular technology for not meeting a 90% pyritic sulfur rejection and therefore leaves something to be desired as the only economic basis for decision. A second economic evaluation criteria was required that considered the $/ton of sulfur dioxide removed. The technical and economic factors were calculated and added together for the final evaluation ranking. The technical factor was calculated by multiplying the efficiency index for each participant by 0.5. The two economic factors were calculated by dividing 1000 by the $/ton of clean coal and multiplying by 0.5 and by dividing 10,000 by the $/ton of sulfur dioxide removed and multiply by 0.5. The 1000 and 10,000 are numbers selected such that when divided by their economic factors, respective numbers resulted in a two digit number. The results of these calculations are discussed. 4 refs., 18 figs., 27 tabs.

Harrison, K.E.; Ferris, D.D. (ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Kosky, R.M. (Consolidation Coal Co., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Warchol, J.J.; Musiol, W.F.; Shiao, S.Y. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (USA)); Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA))

1990-01-01

418

EUV mask process specifics and development challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

Nesladek, Pavel

2014-07-01

419

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as

Alex Sifford; Kasi Beale

1993-01-01

420

Patterns of Economic Development and the Formation of Clubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the sources of heterogeneity across a worldwide set of countries. Unspecified ex ante and unanticipated cultural (Protestant versus Catholic), geographical (continents), and institutional (OECD versus non-OECD) clubs emerge endogenously and naturally as homogeneous classes on the basis of their economic structure. The dynamics both within and across the identified groups of countries are consistent with multiple equilibrium-growth

Alain Desdoigts

1999-01-01

421

High Economic Growth, Equity and Sustainable Energy Development of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been experiencing sustained high economic growth in the recentyears. However, there exists substantial amount of unacceptable poverty among the people in the country. The expressions of symptoms of such poverty include among others inadequate educational and health attainment of the people and lack of access to basic amenities like modern clean energy, safe water and sanitation which are

Ramprasad Sengupta

2007-01-01

422

The Lummi Indians - Economic Development and Social Continuity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing upon the developmental changes that have taken place among the Lummis of Washington between 1966 and the present, this case study of an American Indian tribe experiencing an economic renaissance emphasizes the fact that success can and does bring unintended risks. Specifically, this study presents information re: (1) the present (emphasis…

Stein, Barry

423

Economic Development and Educational Status in Appalachian Kentucky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates competing explanations for the relatively poor educational performance in Appalachian Kentucky. Concludes that substantial economic diversification would probably result in improved educational status. Warns against reliance on extractive industries and presents data showing increased income from mining to be significantly correlated…

DeYoung, Alan J.

1985-01-01

424

Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

425

Population, Technology, and Economic Development in the African Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the colonial era to the present, economic progress in sub-Saharan Africa has been slow. This paper argues that Africa's stagnation started long before the European expansion and that Africa, instead of being at a disad- vantage in terms of population size, had a population advantage over South and Central America, a comparable region. Using urbanization as a proxy for

Javier A. Birchenall

426

Preschool and Economic Development. Employment Research. Volume 13, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Employment Research" is published quarterly by the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment and Research. Issues appear in January, April, July, and October. This issue of "Employment Research" presents an article that summarizes the author's study of the effects of high-quality universal preschool education when it is treated as an economic

Bartik, Timothy J.

2006-01-01

427

Rural Students Development of the Conception of Economic Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three socioeconomic classes of rural students ages 6 to 18 were interviewed about their conceptions of the rich and poor and economic inequality. The 114 students in the sample were divided as follows: (1) middle class, 23; (2) working class, 61; and (3) lower class, 30. Responses of the students are analyzed according to Leahy's categories of…

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Phillips, Perry D.

428

THE NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS AND DEVELOPMENT Douglass C. North,  

E-print Network

competition--the basis of the choice theoretic approach that underlies micro-economics. What it abandons, as follows: If we accept values as given and constant, if we postulate an objective description of the world of the instrumental rationality assumption. We are still a long way from completely understanding how the mind

Tesfatsion, Leigh

429

Office of Economic Development Strategic Plan CLEMSON UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

mission was to serve as a "high seminary of learning" for the citizens of South Carolina. As a public land, driving economic opportunities for South Carolina's citizens, broadening the impact of the university Clemson's commitment to South Carolina, OED has driven the creation of exemplary public

Duchowski, Andrew T.

430

ISLAMIC COUNTRIES ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ICT DEVELOPMENT: THE MALAYSIAN CASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we conduct an examination on the cau sality and relationship between information and communication technology (ICT) and economic growth in an Islamic country, namely Malaysia. The study period in this paper is divided into two: from 1960 - 1982, and from 1983 - 2004. This is to examine if the contribution of ICT investment varies in different

Mudiarasan Kuppusamy; Bala Shanmugam

431

State Government as a Consultant for Local Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987 the state of Michigan created the Center for Local Economic Competitiveness (CLEC) within the Michigan Department of Commerce. CLEC was designed to provide consulting services, free of charge, to Michigan communities willing to engage in a strategic analysis of their local economy. This article describes and discusses the experience of CLEC, focusing both on the analytic and the

Harold Wolman; Kenneth Voytek

1990-01-01

432

Sustainable economic development: A criminal justice challenge for the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental challenges of the 21st century require co-operation between criminal justice experts and economists. Three different economics perspectives are relevant for the discipline of criminal justice in general and for adressing environmental problems in particular: neo-classical econoics, political economics and the economics of sustainable development. Criminal justice pays a role in the effort to attain sustainable development because the

Joan Hoffman

2000-01-01

433

An economic analysis of the development potential of the Texas blue crab industry  

E-print Network

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF THE TEXAS BLUE CRAB INDUSTRY A Thesis CHARLOTTE LUCIERME MILLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the reguirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major subject: Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF THE TEXAS BLUE CRAB INDUSTRY A Thesis CHARLOTTE LUCIENNE MILLER Approved as to style and content by: John P. Nichols Chairman...

Miller, Charlotte Lucienne

2012-06-07

434

Control of Economic Safety of the Developing Natural Monopolies: Modeling and Automation. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration was given to the questions of formalized description and development of the software for financial-and-economic models incorporated in the complex for analysis and control of economic safety of development of a natural monopoly using the oil-transport company by way of example (Part I). An example of their realization for analysis of economic safety of the Russian oil-trunk pipelines was

O. O. Ivashkina; A. V. Karibskii; Yu. R. Shishorin

2004-01-01

435

TED: Technology and Economic Development International Conference on Innovation, Technology and Knowledge Economics  

E-print Network

of innovation are taken as product, process, marketing and organizational innovations as suggested in the Oslo different innovation types are introduced. These are, product innovation, process innovation, marketing production or delivery method. Note that product innovation and process innovation are closely related

Yanikoglu, Berrin

436

EA Planning, Development and Management Process for Agile Enterprise Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we suggest an enterprise architecture (EA) development process model suitable for EA projects limited in scope and time. Several EA process models have been put forward, which have in common the idea of comprehensive EA management and development that is generic, cyclic and ongoing in a user organization. The suggested models are of varying level of abstraction.

Mirja Pulkkinen; Ari P. Hirvonen

2005-01-01

437

Tapping State College Research and Development Capacity in Support of State Economic Development. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied research and development activities at regional state colleges and universities bolster their primary mission of undergraduate education as well as contribute to local and statewide economic growth. As states boost efforts to fund and stimulate research as part of an integrated economic development strategy, they should seek to fully…

Hurley, Daniel

2008-01-01

438

An economic analysis of the Jim Bridger Power Plant carbon dioxide mineralization process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns for rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have lead to a myriad of schemes to reduce emissions. Many of these are complicated, expensive, and untried. Coal-fired electrical generation accounts for about 49 percent of U.S. electricity generation. Shifting generation capacity away from coal is the goal of many, yet as this statistic shows, the U.S. has a heavy dependency on coal-fired base-load generation. What is needed is a way to retrofit existing coal fired power plants to mitigate at least some of the giga-tonnes of CO2 released annually. Carbon Capture and Storage in association with greenhouse gases are a major concern in the world today. This thesis is an outgrowth of a research partnership between the University of Wyoming and the Jim Bridger Power Plant (Rocky Mountain Power) to develop a process for capture and mineralization of flue gas carbon dioxide (CO 2) using an accelerated mineral carbonization process with fly ash particles as the absorbent. This process may have several advantages over other approaches because it is an environmentally acceptable, single step process occurring at near ambient pressures and temperatures that can compliment conventional CCS processes. In addition the use of fly ash particles as an absorbent avoids the costs of processing or engineering an absorbent. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the mineralization process. Two models were used to estimate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the Jim Bridger Power Plant CO2 Mineralization Project (JBP). The first was a cost of capture model which was used to estimate CO2 capture costs and how changes in the CO2 to ash capture ratio and quantities of CO2 captured affect capture costs. The second was a financial feasibility model which considered the time value of money. This second model considered the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) for the process using different pricing scenarios and processing parameters. The analysis was based on a full size reactor system capable of capturing 90 percent of the CO2 emitted by Unit 2 of the Jim Bridger Power Plant. Unit 2 is a 530 megawatt pulverized coal-fired generator which emits 4.9 million tones of CO2 annually. The cost estimates for the full size reactor system were developed by scaling up from a pilot project currently being conducted at the plant. The results show estimates that range from 7.37 to 27.30 per metric tonne of CO2 captured. This range compares favorably with other estimates in the literature. Furthermore, since this system could be retrofitted to an existing power plant, added costs would be considerably less per installed kilowatt-hour. Our preliminary estimates place this cost at $94 per installed kilowatt hour. This thesis will introduce the process, give an update on the project and present our preliminary findings.

Christensen, Mikol Hans

439

Technical assistance and the transfer of remote sensing technology. [for economic development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transfer of technology from industrialized countries to the third world is a very complicated process and one that requires a great deal of research and development. The political and social obstacles to this transfer are generally greater than the technical obstacles, but technical assistance programs have neither the competence nor the inclination to deal with these factors adequately. Funding for technical assistance in remote sensing is now expanding rapidly, and there is a growing need for institutions to study and promote the effective use of this technology for economic development. The United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development and the Canadian technical assistance agencies take different approaches to the problem and deal with the political pressures in different ways.

Chipman, R.

1977-01-01

440

Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other. PMID:18471311

Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

2008-01-01

441

Techno-Economic Analysis of Biocatalytic Processes for Production of Alkene Epoxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A techno-economic analysis of two different bioprocesses was conducted, one for the conversion of propylene to propylene oxide (PO) and other for conversion of styrene to styrene epoxide (SO). The first process was a lipasemediated chemo-enzymatic reaction, whereas the second one was a one-step enzymatic process using chloroperoxidase. The PO produced through the chemo-enzymatic process is a racemic product, whereas

Abhijeet P. Borole; Brian H. Davison

2007-01-01

442

Techno-Economic Analysis of Biocatalytic Processes for Production of Alkene Epoxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A techno-economic analysis of two different bioprocesses was conducted, one for the conversion of propylene to propylene oxide\\u000a (PO) and other for conversion of styrene to styrene epoxide (SO). The first process was a lipasemediated chemo-enzymatic reaction,\\u000a whereas the second one was a one-step enzymatic process using chloroperoxidase. The PO produced through the chemo-enzymatic\\u000a process is a racemic product, whereas

Abhijeet P. Borole; Brian H. Davison

443

Techno-economic analysis of biocatalytic processes for production of alkene epoxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A techno-economic analysis of two different bioprocesses was conducted, one for the conversion of propylene to propylene oxide\\u000a (PO) and other for conversion of styrene to styrene epoxide (SO). The first process was a lipase-mediated chemo-enzymatic\\u000a reaction, whereas the second one was a one-step enzymatic process using chloroperoxidase. The PO produced through the chemo-enzymatic\\u000a process is a racemic product, whereas

Abhijeet P. Borole; Brian H. Davison

2007-01-01

444

A preliminary process design and economic assessment of a catalyst rejuvenation process for waste disposal of refinery spent catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent hydroprocessing catalysts from refineries have been classified as hazardous solid waste by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), refiners must find a viable but economical solution to solve this serious environmental issue. Catalyst rejuvenation is an attractive option for minimizing the environmental problems associated with spent catalysts. In this study, a preliminary design for such a process and

Meena Marafi; Antony Stanislaus; Ezra Kam

2008-01-01

445

Resist material for negative tone development process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for improving lithography performance with optimization of resist materials and formulation for negative tone development (NTD) process are discussed. Narrow pitch lithography performance comparison with NTD and PTD process for initial platform for NTD revealed the not enough maturity of the resist for NTD. Dissolution rate study suggested the optimizations of molecular weight and solvent parameter to NTD process are important to improve dissolution property. Larger dissolution rate and larger ? value in contrast curve gave larger process window at 40 nm half pitch dense contact hole pattern with double exposure and single development step.

Tarutani, Shinji; Kamimura, Sou; Enomoto, Yuuichiro; Katou, Keita

2010-04-01

446

Process engineering and economic evaluations of diaphragm and membrane chlorine cell technologies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The chlor-alkali manufacturing technologies of (1), diaphragm cells (2), current technology membrane cells (3), catalytic cathode membrane cells (4), oxygen-cathode membrane cells and to a lesser extent several other related emerging processes are studied. Comparisons have been made on the two bases of (1) conventional industrial economics, and (2) energy consumption. The current diaphragm cell may have a small economic advantage over the other technologies at the plant size of 544 metric T/D (600 T/D). The three membrane cells all consume less energy, with the oxygen-cathode cell being the lowest. The oxygen-cathode cell appears promising as a low energy chlor-alkali cell where there is no chemical market for hydrogen. Federal funding of the oxygen-cathode cell has been beneficial to the development of the technology, to electrochemical cell research, and may help maintain the US's position in the international chlor-alkali technology marketplace. Tax law changes inducing the installation of additional cells in existing plants would produce the quickest reduction in power consumption by the chlor-alkali industry. Alternative technologies such as the solid polymer electrolyte cell, the coupling of diaphragm cells with fuel cells and the dynamic gel diaphragm have a strong potential for reducing chloralkali industry power consumption. Adding up all the recent and expected improvements that have become cost-effective, the electrical energy required to produce a unit of chlorine by 1990 should be only 50% to 60% of that used in 1970. In the United States the majority of the market does not demand salt-free caustic. About 75% of the electrolytic caustic is produced in diaphragm cells and only a small part of that is purified. This study indicates that unless membrane cell costs are greatly reduced or a stronger demand develops for salt-free caustic, the diaphragm cells will remain competitive. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-12-01

447

The implementation of the triple helix model of industry-university-government relations in Puerto Rico to promote knowledge-based regional economic development  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, has long sought to develop a high-tech economy and has struggled in the process. Two initiatives, Puerto Rico TechnoEconomic Corridor (PRTEC) and the Eastern Central Technological ...

Ramos-Maltés, Ana Lorena

2010-01-01

448

The Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth and Development in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than half a century, there have been heated debates on the sources of economic growth in developing economies. The perceived factors of economic growth have ranged from surplus labor to capital investment and technological change, foreign aid, foreign direct investment, investment in human capital, increasing returns from investment in new ideas and research and development. The positive or

Bichaka Fayissa; Christian Nsiah

2008-01-01

449

Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Post-Doctoral Fellowships  

E-print Network

issues related to National Agricultural Research Systems in Africa Climate change and African agricultureDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Post-Doctoral Fellowships Economics, Extension and Rural Development is able to offer a two-year Post-Doctoral Fellowship from January

Jarrett, Thomas H.

450

Social and Policy Sciences Undergraduate BSc (Hons) International Development with Economics  

E-print Network

facing the changing world ďż˝ poverty, climate change, conflict ďż˝ from a range of social scienceSocial and Policy Sciences Undergraduate BSc (Hons) International Development with Economics www.bath.ac.uk/study ďż˝ Dr Roy Maconachie International Development with Economics is a broad social science subject looking

Burton, Geoffrey R.

451

Social and Economic Wellbeing in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: Building an Enlarged Human Development Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper calculates a human Wellbeing Composite Index (WCI) for 42 countries, belonging to the European Economic Space, North Africa and the Middle East, as an alternative to the shortcomings of other well-known measures of socio-economic development (i.e. Gross Domestic Product per head and Human Development Index). To attain this goal,…

Reig-Martinez, Ernest

2013-01-01

452

Economic Development and Surplus Labour: A Critical Review of the Lewis Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lewis dual economy model is widely recognised in development economics for its profound explanatory power and applications in economic development. However, there remain some confusions and ambiguities, especially with respect to the definition of surplus labour and the wage determination mechanisms in both the traditional and modern sectors. This has prohibited its use, especially in empirical studies. This paper

Xiaobing Wang; Jenifer Piesse

2009-01-01

453

Deploying Community Colleges to Strengthen State Economic Development: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State governments across the nation are engaging community colleges as cornerstones of their comprehensive economic development strategies. This report summarizes the efforts of 10 states, recommended by national experts, to deploy community colleges in support of state economic development priorities. The 10 states are: Florida, Mississippi,…

Cleary, Jennifer; Fichtner, Aaron

2005-01-01

454

Bringing Culture Back In: Overcoming the Economic-Cultural Split in Development Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that economic geography, by itself, does not completely explain the geography of world economic development. Argues that development must also be viewed in terms of the cultural peculiarities which influence it. Cites as examples the early United States economy, consisting of a capitalist North and an agricultural South, and the Apartheid…

Agnew, John A.

1987-01-01

455

LEARNING ABOUT WOMEN. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a recent semester-long stay in India, students from Xavier University (Cincinnati, Ohio) learned about a variety of social and economic development issues, with an emphasis on the role and status of women. This study describes and assesses the impact and effectiveness of their learning with a particular focus on their exposure to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), one economic development

NANCY BERTAUX; ELAINE CRABLE

2007-01-01

456

Rural Business, Economic Development, and Employment in New York State: A Preliminary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The First Statewide Legislative Symposium on Rural Development assessed New York's rural business, economic development, and employment potential. Growth in the economic potential of communities, favorable quality of life, and geographic accessibility have supported a decade-long influx of new residents to New York's 44 rural counties. The state…

New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

457

Optimism and adjustment of economical and social development mode in Dongting Lake area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the homogeneous natural resources, integrated environmental function, similar industrial structure and development history, as well as the same origin of social culture, natural and economical factors in Dongting Lake area are spatially dependent. Based on the analysis of these specific factors, we proposed an economical and social development mode for Dongting Lake area and evaluated its feasibility by

Minghui Dong; Xiaoya Dong

2011-01-01

458

Rural Job Creation. Case Studies of CETA Linkage with Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains 20 case studies illustrating some of the contributions Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs have made to economic development and job creation efforts in rural areas. The collection is a companion volume to the monograph entitled "Rural Job Creation--a Study of CETA Linkages with Economic Development"…

Bruno, A. Lee; Wright, L. M., Jr.

459

Financial sector development and economic growth: The South-Asian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the relationship between financial sector development and economic growth for three majors South-Asian economies, namely, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The standard Granger causality tests are employed to determine the pattern of causal linkage between various measures of financial sector development and economic growth. Also, several regression equations are estimated, using the Cobb-Douglas production function framework, in

S. M. Ahmed; M. I. Ansari

1998-01-01

460

Economic Development Coalition of Southwest Indiana Greg Wathen, CEO and President  

E-print Network

Economic Development Coalition of Southwest Indiana Greg Wathen, CEO and President P.O. Box 20127 of Southwest Indiana (Coalition) acts as the umbrella economic development organization for Gibson, Posey, Vanderburgh and Warrick Counties in Southwest Indiana. The Coalition facilitates and coordinates business

461

Development of a Regional Economic Activity Index For the Chicago Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even with strong demands for local economic activity indices, there have been relatively few attempts to develop comprehensive indices that are compatible with the national business coincident index developed by NBER and Department of Commerce. In this paper, some experimental methods are explored for generating local economic activity index. Using the Chicago Federal Reserve Bank National Activity Index (CFNAI) and

John Seo; Geoffrey J. D. Hewings

462

The Green Costs of Kelo: Economic Development Takings and Environmental Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article provides the first detailed analysis of the environmental effects of Kelo and economic development takings generally. It contends that environmentalist support for economic development takings is misguided, and that the rule embodied by the Supreme Court’s Kelo decision is bad for property owners and environmental protection alike. There is a strong environmental rationale for strictly limiting or prohibiting

Ilya Somin; Jonathan H. Adler

2006-01-01

463

Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery Process: St. Mary West Field, Lafayette County, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic appropriateness of several enhanced oil recovery processes that are available to a small mature oil field located in southwest Arkansas and to implement the most economic efficient process evaluated. The State of Arkansas natural resource laws require that an oilfield is to be unitized before conducting a secondary recovery project. This requires all properties that can reasonably be determined to include the oil productive reservoir must be bound together as one common lease by a legal contract that must be approved to be fair and equitable to all property owners within the proposed unit area.

Brock P.E., Cary D.

2003-03-10

464

Innovation capacity and economic development: China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposing the GDP growth from 1981 to 2004, this paper finds that innovation capacity has contributed significantly to the\\u000a economic growth of China and India, especially in the 1990 s. Outputs of the national innovation system, measured by patents\\u000a and high-tech\\/service exports, demonstrate the considerable progress China and India have made in innovation capacity. The\\u000a enhanced innovation capacity of China and

Peilei Fan

2011-01-01

465

Analyzing the alignment of incentives, control, and economics in development agreements between private developers and mission-driven institutions  

E-print Network

This thesis examines and analyzes the alignment of incentives, project control, and economics in development agreements between private developers and mission-driven institutions. Mission-driven institutions, such as ...

Reiche, F. Samuel (Ford Samuel)

2013-01-01

466

Culture and commerce in China's Special Economic Zone : an experiment in design and development  

E-print Network

Improvements in the real estate environment in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone have been conducive to development and foreign investment. Based on a projected market demand, a mixed-use development in the theme of a ...

Lee, Joyce See-yin

1989-01-01

467

Achieving community economic development in New York City : lessons from the Kingsbridge Armory  

E-print Network

New York City spends over two billion dollars each year in the name of economic development. Much of this money goes to subsidize private developers in order to create jobs. However, these projects often fail to produce ...

Tishman, Maggie Bancale

2014-01-01

468

Input-Output as a Method of Evaluahon of the Economic Impact of Water Resources Development  

E-print Network

In this report the results of a study of the use of input-output analysis to evaluate the economic impact of water resources development are presented. Blackburn Crossing reservoir on the Upper Neches river was the subject development...

Canion, R. L.; Trock, W. L.

469

A Community/Airport Economic Development Model. Volume II. Appendices to Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume presents data assembled during the course of the development of the Community/Airport Economic Development Model (CAEDM). Included here are land use category recommendations, land use - aircraft noise level compatibility, zoning recommendations...

J. J. Hinkle

1972-01-01

470

Techno-Economic Analysis of Biocatalytic Processes for Production of Alkene Epoxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A techno-economic analysis of two different bioprocesses was conducted, one for the conversion of propylene to propylene oxide (PO) and other for conversion of styrene to styrene epoxide (SO). The first process was a lipasemediated chemo-enzymatic reaction, whereas the second one was a one-step enzymatic process using chloroperoxidase. The PO produced through the chemo-enzymatic process is a racemic product, whereas the latter process (based on chloroperoxidase) produces an enantio-pure product. The former process thus falls under the category of high-volume commodity chemical (PO); whereas the latter is a low-volume, high-value product (SO).

Borole, Abhijeet P.; Davison, Brian H.

471

Prospects for the Development of Russia's Economic Relations with States of the Commonwealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's present economic relations with Commonwealth countries can be characterized as the transition from the fixing of boundaries between states and the creation of a fundamentally new mechanism of interaction on an international contractual basis to close integration in different spheres of the economy. These processes are complex and largely contradictory. The maintenance and improvement of economic relations between Commonwealth

O. Rybakov

1995-01-01

472

Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338

Chang, K S

1991-07-01

473

Breaking up is hard to do: the economic impact of provisional funding contingent upon evidence development.  

PubMed

Funding contingent upon evidence development (FED) has recently been the subject of some considerable debate in the literature but relatively little has been made of its economic impact. We argue that FED has the potential to shorten the lag between innovation and access but may also (i) crowd-out more valuable interventions in situations in which there is a fixed dedicated budget; or (ii) lead to a de facto increase in the funding threshold and increased expenditure growth in situations in which the programme budget is open-ended. Although FED would typically entail periodic review of provisional or interim listings, it may prove difficult to withdraw funding even at cost/QALY ratios well in excess of current listing thresholds. Further consideration of the design and implementation of FED processes is therefore required to ensure that its introduction yields net benefits over existing processes. PMID:21819632

Mortimer, Duncan; Li, Jing Jing; Watts, Jennifer; Harris, Anthony

2011-10-01

474

Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

Not Available

2011-08-01

475

Military expenditures and economic growth in less developed countries: an augmented model and further evidence  

SciTech Connect

A study of the impact of military expenditures on economic growth and development examines the differences in the results of previous studies which led to contradictory conclusions. The authors find that these differences are due to sample variations, specificational choices, and the different time periods examined. The data indicate that there is no consistent, statistically significant connection between military spending and economic growth. Augmentation of the models suggests that military expenditures neither help nor hurt economic growth to any significant extent. 2 tables.

Biswas, B.; Ram, R.

1986-01-01

476

Sustainable consumption, the new economics and community currencies: Developing new institutions for environmental governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seyfang G. (2006) Sustainable consumption, the new economics and community currencies: developing new institutions for environmental governance, Regional Studies40, 781–791. Sustainable consumption is gaining currency as a new environmental policy objective, but there is a limit to the changes in consumption behaviour that individuals can make within current socio-economic frameworks. The ‘new economics’ literature argues that sustainable consumption is characterized

Gill Seyfang

2006-01-01

477

Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to inform policymakers, local government officials, and Wyoming residents about the jobs and economic development activity that could occur should new infrastructure investments in Wyoming move forward. The report and analysis presented is not a projection or a forecast of what will happen. Instead, the report uses a hypothetical deployment scenario and economic modeling tools to estimate the jobs and economic activity likely associated with these projects if or when they are built.

Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

2011-03-01

478

Expert consensus-building for developing guidelines: lessons learned from a dengue economics workshop.  

PubMed

A workshop with 20 experts of diverse backgrounds from five countries in the Americas was convened for two-and-a-half days in March 2012 to discuss and develop a standardized methodology for assessing the economic cost of dengue. This article discusses a number of factors that contributed to the workshop's success, including: engaging the experts at various stages of the process; convening a multidisciplinary group to reduce expert bias and provide a more comprehensive and integrated approach; facilitating guided small- and large-group discussions; developing effective cross-cultural collectivism, trust, communication, and empathy across the expert panel; establishing clear lines of responsibilities within each group of experts; breaking down the complex issues into smaller and simpler ideas; providing ample background materials in multiple languages prior to the workshop. Challenges and areas for improvement are also covered. PMID:24233113

Constenla, Dagna; Lefcourt, Noah; Garcia, Cristina

2013-09-01

479

Using Reflection to Develop Higher Order Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to look at how we used specific writing assignments in our courses to encourage metacognitive reflection in order to increase the learning that takes place. The study also aimed to aid in the development of higher order processing skills through the development of student reflection. The students involved in the…

Lerch, Carol; Bilics, Andrea; Colley, Binta

2006-01-01

480

An Economic Paradigm for Query Processing and Data Migration in Mariposa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore query execution and storage management issues for Mariposa, a distributed data base system under construction at Berkeley. Because of the extreme complexity of both issues, we have adopted an underlying economic paradigm for both problems. Hence, queries receive a budget which they spend to obtain their answers, and each processing site attempts to maximize income

Michael Stonebraker; Robert Devinet; Marcel Kornacker; Witold Litwin; Avi Pfeffer; Adam Sah; Carl Staelin

1994-01-01

481

Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

2013-01-01

482

Economic assessment of membrane processes for water and waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane processes are increasingly being considered as an alternative to conventional water and waste water treatment methods in anticipation of future demands for high standards and reduced environmental impact. However, the use of membranes for these applications is currently limited by the high capital and operating costs with which they are associated. This paper looks at the economics of membrane

G. Owen; M. Bandi; J. A. Howell; S. J. Churchouse

1995-01-01

483

Genetic\\/quadratic search algorithm for plant economic optimizations using a process simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic\\/quadratic search algorithm (GQSA) is a hybrid genetic algorithms (GA) for optimizing plant economics when a process simulator models the plant. By coupling a regular GA with an algorithm based upon a quadratic search, the required number of objective function evaluations for obtaining an acceptable solution decreases significantly in most cases. The GQSA combines advantages of GA and quadratic

Won-hyouk Jang; Juergen Hahn; Kenneth R. Hall

2005-01-01

484

Preform Characterization in VARTM Process Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is a Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process where both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 kPa or less. Originally developed over a decade ago for marine composite fabrication, VARTM is now considered a viable process for the fabrication of aerospace composites (1,2). In order to optimize and further improve the process, a finite element analysis (FEA) process model is being developed to include the coupled phenomenon of resin flow, preform compaction and resin cure. The model input parameters are obtained from resin and fiber-preform characterization tests. In this study, the compaction behavior and the Darcy permeability of a commercially available carbon fabric are characterized. The resulting empirical model equations are input to the 3- Dimensional Infiltration, version 5 (3DINFILv.5) process model to simulate infiltration of a composite panel.

Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal; Loos, Alfred C.; Kellen, Charles B.; Jensen, Brian J.

2004-01-01

485

Adult Personality Development: Dynamics and Processes  

PubMed Central

The focus of this special issue of Research in Human Development is on adult personality and how personality may contribute to and be involved in adult development. Specifically, the contributions in this issue focus on the links between personality structures (e.g., traits) and personality processes (e.g., goal pursuit, self--regulation) and emphasize the contributions that intensive repeated measurement approaches can make to the understanding of personality and development across the adult life span. PMID:24068889

Diehl, Manfred; Hooker, Karen

2013-01-01

486

Strategic recovery processes for Rindu development  

SciTech Connect

Rindu sands are a large resource for Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI). Rindu sands overlay the Pertama and Kedua (P/K) sands, which are currently being steamflooded in the Duri field. Because of thin net pay, low oil saturation, and shallow depth (300 to 500 ft), technology beyond the current conventional processes are considered necessary to exploit this reservoir. A joint, multidisciplinary CPI, Chevron, and Texaco team was formed to develop a cost-effective method(s)/recovery Process(es) to exploit Rindu sands. This paper describes this recovery processes screening effort. The screening effort involved developing geologic models of the Rindu formation and high-grading a list of recovery processes. Eight geologic (geostatistically-derived) models capture the variability in Rindu geology. Numerical simulations of ten recovery processes well configurations (ranked using strategic decision analysis concepts) were run for each reservoir model. Results show that steamflood recovery processes were almost always preferable to primary production and hot waterflood recovery processes. The low rankings of primary processes were driven by low recovery or high lifting costs.

Kumar, M.; Reed, A.A.; Smith, M.E. [Chevron, La Habra, CA (United States); Mims, D.S.; Hanzlik, E.J. [Texaco, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, S.J. [Caltex Pacific, Sumatra (Indonesia)

1996-12-31

487

Strategic recovery processes for Rindu development  

SciTech Connect

Rindu sands are a large resource for Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI). Rindu sands overlay the Pertama and Kedua (P/K) sands, which are currently being steamflooded in the Duri field. Because of thin net pay, low oil saturation, and shallow depth (300 to 500 ft), technology beyond the current conventional processes are considered necessary to exploit this reservoir. A joint, multidisciplinary CPI, Chevron, and Texaco team was formed to develop a cost-effective method(s)/recovery Process(es) to exploit Rindu sands. This paper describes this recovery processes screening effort. The screening effort involved developing geologic models of the Rindu formation and high-grading a list of recovery processes. Eight geologic (geostatistically-derived) models capture the variability in Rindu geology. Numerical simulations of ten recovery processes well configurations (ranked using strategic decision analysis concepts) were run for each reservoir model. Results show that steamflood recovery processes were almost always preferable to primary production and hot waterflood recovery processes. The low rankings of primary processes were driven by low recovery or high lifting costs.

Kumar, M.; Reed, A.A.; Smith, M.E. (Chevron, La Habra, CA (United States)); Mims, D.S.; Hanzlik, E.J. (Texaco, Houston, TX (United States)); Gross, S.J. (Caltex Pacific, Sumatra (Indonesia))

1996-01-01

488

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02

489

Post-disaster economic development in Aceh: Neoliberalization and other economic-geographical imaginaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 and a subsequent Memorandum of Understanding ending three decades of armed conflict has opened up Aceh to international aid, trade, ideas and potential investment. For Naomi Klein in her (2008) book The Shock Doctrine, such disasters have been exploited systematically in processes of neoliberalization. Based on fieldwork in Aceh and Jakarta, this paper

Nicholas A. Phelps; Tim Bunnell; Michelle Ann Miller

2011-01-01

490

AvAilAble for licensing Environmentally friendly and economical, Argonne's new process will benefit a variety of industries.  

E-print Network

AvAilAble for licensing Environmentally friendly and economical, Argonne's new process-efficient, environmentally friendly, and economical solvent-free process for making tackifier dispersions (substances used reduces primary energy consumption by over 75%, compared with conventional Process Environmentally

Kemner, Ken

491

Techno-economic analysis of biocatalytic processes for production of alkene expoxides  

SciTech Connect

A techno-economic analysis of two different bioprocesses was conducted, one for the conversion of propylene to propylene oxide (PO) and other for conversion of styrene to styrene expoxide (SO). The first process was a lipase-mediated chemo-enzymatic reaction, whereas the second one was a one-step enzymatic process using chloroperoxidase. The PO produced through the chemo-enzymatic process is a racemic product, whereas the latter process (based on chloroperoxidase) produces an enantio-pure product. The former process thus falls under the category of high-volume commodity chemical (PO); whereas the latter is a low-volume, high-value product (SO).A simulation of the process was conducted using the bioprocess engineering software SuperPro Designer v6.0 (Intelligen, Inc., Scotch Plains, NJ) to determine the economic feasibility of the process. The purpose of the exercise was to compare biocatalytic processes with existing chemical processes for production of alkene expoxides. The results show that further improvements are needed in improving biocatalyst stability to make these bioprocesses competitive with chemical processes.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL

2007-01-01

492

Techno-economic analysis of biocatalytic processes for production of alkene epoxides.  

PubMed

A techno-economic analysis of two different bioprocesses was conducted, one for the conversion of propylene to propylene oxide (PO) and other for conversion of styrene to styrene epoxide (SO). The first process was a lipase-mediated chemo-enzymatic reaction, whereas the second one was a one-step enzymatic process using chloroperoxidase. The PO produced through the chemo-enzymatic process is a racemic product, whereas the latter process (based on chloroperoxidase) produces an enantio-pure product. The former process thus falls under the category of high-volume commodity chemical (PO); whereas the latter is a low-volume, high-value product (SO).A simulation of the process was conducted using the bioprocess engineering software SuperPro Designer v6.0 (Intelligen, Inc., Scotch Plains, NJ) to determine the economic feasibility of the process. The purpose of the exercise was to compare biocatalytic processes with existing chemical processes for production of alkene expoxides. The results show that further improvements are needed in improving biocatalyst stability to make these bioprocesses competitive with chemical processes. PMID:18478407

Borole, Abhijeet P; Davison, Brian H

2007-04-01

493

Diffusion of an economic development policy innovation: explaining the international spread of casino gambling.  

PubMed

This study uses an event history analysis to examine the factors that lead to the adoption of casino gambling among 13 nations around the world. Specifically, measures of fiscal stress, economic development, tourism, religiosity, and income levels are tested for their relationship to national decisions to legalize casino gambling. This study found that economic development needs, as measured by general unemployment rates, were associated with the casino legalization decisions of national governments. Higher unemployment rates were more likely in the years that nations legalized casino gambling. Religiosity, measured by frequency of church attendance, was also found to be a significant barrier in legalization decisions. Measures of fiscal stress, tourism, and income levels were not found to have significant relationships with the legalization decisions. This is interesting because these factors are often cited in case studies, media reports, and the statements of politicians during legalization processes. This study points to the need for further research in several areas. Further exploration of potential explanatory variables and more appropriate measures of currently theorized factors is warranted. Another area for further research is the seeming contradictory findings of multiple statistical analyses and multiple anecdotal findings of the impacts of fiscal stress on the casino legalization decision. PMID:20012887

Richard, Brian

2010-06-01

494

The influence of economic rationalism upon policy development : Historical, income and social cohesion perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how economic rationalism in policy development affects incomes and social cohesion within the communities in which businesses operate. Inequality of income occurs in most, if not all, countries. Historically, economic statisticians established various means of measuring levels of inequality within a country. Measuring inequality between countries, however, is a complex

Donald K. Gates; Peter Steane

2009-01-01

495

Technicians, Technical Education, and Global Economic Development: A Cross National Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the relationship among education, science, technology, and economic development is nearly universally accepted, the link among education, infrastructure, and economic growth has yet to be empirically demonstrated. A multivariate analysis of cross-national data regarding 48 countries was performed to document relationships between…

Honig, Benson; Ramirez, Francisco

496

The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic

Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

497

JEDI II: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind Power (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Using economic multipliers, JEDI II measures the potential employment (job and earnings) and economic development impacts (output) from new power plants by calculating the dollar flow from construction and annual operations. In its default form, JEDI II conducts state-specific analyses. County or regional analyses require additional multipliers.

Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

2006-01-01

498

Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

499

State Economic Development Policy and Practice in the United States: A Survey Article  

Microsoft Academic Search

The states have taken an increasingly active role in economic development policy during the past two decades. This article presents both a comprehensive overview of the state strategies and a statistical overview of the changing economic conditions from which they arise. The strategies can be grouped into three distinct orientations. Chasing and acquisition focuses on bringing into the state businesses,

Andrew M. Isserman

1993-01-01

500

Beyond Technology Transfer: Us State Policies to Harness University Research for Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the recent history of State-level policies in the United States for knowledge-based economic development, and identifies an emerging model based on technology creation. This new model goes beyond traditional investments in technology transfer and prioritizes cutting-edge scientific research in economically relevant fields. As…

Geiger, Roger L.; Sa, Creso

2005-01-01