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1

A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…

Walter, G. R.

2003-01-01

2

Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development

Kim, Ki Su

2012-01-01

3

Acetone-butanol fermentation process development and economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for the manufacture of butanol from corn is described. An improved bacterial strain has made the multistage fermentation process stable, productive, and high yielding. Economic evaluation of the process and the rhodium catalyst petrochemical process for a 200 MM lb/year butanol plant is presented. 13 references.

Marlatt, J.A.; Datta, R.

1986-03-01

4

The Role of Educational Quality and Quantity in the Process of Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We develop a theory of human capital investment to study the effects of school quality on student choices of education, and to understand its effect on economic growth. In a dynamic general equilibrium closed economy, primary education is mandatory but there is an opportunity to continue to secondary education and beyond. High-quality education…

Castello-Climent, Amparo; Hidalgo-Cabrillana, Ana

2012-01-01

5

Wind Economic Development (Postcard)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

Not Available

2011-08-01

6

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert

R. F. Hogsett; M. C. Jha

1991-01-01

7

International Economic Development Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

8

The significance of development economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development economics focuses on the elemental forces that raise per capita income. A key factor in this process is the growth-generating reallocation of labor and capital among sectors, an aspect missed completely by all versions of the neoclassical growth theory. The relevance of our discipline to development policy remains undiminished by a greater recognition of market forces and freer international

Syed Nawab Haider Naqvi

1996-01-01

9

LITERACY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN THIS ESSAY ON LITERACY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS, THE STRATEGIC ROLE OF TIME PERSPECTIVES IN THE CHOICE BETWEEN FORMAL EDUCATION AND ADULT LITERACY IS VIEWED AS AN INHERENT ASPECT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN POOR COUNTIRES. A CONSIDERATION OF THE RISE OF THE MAJOR INDUSTRIAL POWERS AND OF THE FEATURES…

BLAUG, MARK

10

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1991-12-01

11

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

2003-04-01

12

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the technical progress from April to September 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. Characteristics of doped lanthanum gallate (LSGMF) powder suitable for thin electrolyte fabrication have been defined. Bilayers with thin LSGMF electrolyte supported on an anode were fabricated and the fabrication process was improved. Preliminary performance was characterized. High performance cathode material Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} has been down-selected and is being optimized by modifying materials characteristics and processing parameters. The selected cathode exhibited excellent performance with cathode polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} at 600 C.

Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

2003-10-01

13

Western Economic Developments: May 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FRB San Francisco's bi-monthly publication Western Economic Developments summarizes economic growth and development in the Twelfth District. The economy remained strong throughout the first quarter of 2000, with an employment growth rate of 2.5 percent annually. California's economic growth rate was especially high, due to "usually rapid growth of income and consumer spending."

14

Rural Tourism and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism is a popular economic development strategy. The author reviews three diverse books that study tourism from various social science perspectives-economic, sociological, psychological, and anthropological. Ryan's book is multidisciplinary, in approach and covers all major topics of tourism study-economic, cultural, and environmental impacts; demand for tourism; tourist experience; and marketing. Michal Smith details the negative effects of tourism development in

Martha Frederick

1993-01-01

15

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Geography also seems to affect economic policy choices. Many geographic regions that have not been conducive to modern economic growth have high population densities and are experiencing rapid increases in population. At particular disadvantage

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1999-01-01

16

Evolutionary Psychology and Development Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary development economics have provided much empirical evidence to suggest that democracy and other institutions that promote equity are good for growth and development. Why should this be the case? In this paper it is argued that Evolutionary Psychology (EP) can greatly enrich development economics, specifically in adding to our understanding of the micro-foundations of the family unit and the

W. A. NAUDé

17

The Bologna Process and the Economic Impacts of Research and Development within the Context of Europeanization: The Case of Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education and public research play an important role in economic development, mainly in industrial research and development (R & D) and innovation through the manufacturing sector. Finland has taken great strides in this regard as it represents a Europeanization of a knowledge system in the European Union, being relevant at the…

Habti, Driss

2010-01-01

18

SCIENCE, RELIGION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The correlations between scientometric indices, macroeco- nomic variables and results from attitude polls in different countries were explored. The results show that a minimum threshold of economic development (around GDP per capita of 1000US$) is required for science and the economy of a country to interact. Above that threshold, a positive interaction can be observed between economic development, scientific

Klaus Jaffe

2005-01-01

19

Geography and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the complex relationship between geography and macroeconomic growth. We investigate the ways in which geography may matter directly for growth, controlling for economic policies and institutions, as well as the effects of geography on policy choices and institutions. We find that location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth, through their effects on

John Luke Gallup; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Andrew D. Mellinger

1998-01-01

20

Women Empowerment and Economic Development  

E-print Network

Women empowerment and economic development are closely related: in one direction, development alone can play a major role in driving down inequality between men and women; in the other direction, empowering women may benefit ...

Duflo, Esther

21

Minnesota's Transportation Economic Development (TED)  

E-print Network

· Carefully targeted transportation infrastructure improvements will: ­ Stimulate new economic development/safer access to markets ­ Provide more opportunities for employers/ employees ­ Improve livability development of new business or expanding existing businesses ­ Target industries: manufacturing, technology

Minnesota, University of

22

Environmental management and economic development  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of and demand for fuelwood in Africa; economic aspects of afforestation and soil-conservation projects; multilevel resource analysis and management: the case of watersheds.

Schramm, G.; Warford, J.J.

1989-01-01

23

Frontiers and sustainable economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting new resource “frontiers,” such as agricultural land and mineral reserves, is a fundamental feature of economic\\u000a development in poor economies. Yet frontier-based development is symptomatic of a pattern of economy-wide resource exploitation\\u000a in developing economies that: (a) generates little additional economic rents, and (b) what rents are generated are not being\\u000a reinvested in other sectors. Such development is inherently

Edward B. Barbier

2007-01-01

24

Development, Geography, and Economic Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do certain ideas gain currency in economics while others fall by the wayside? Paul Krugman argues that the unwillingness of mainstream economists to think about what they could not formalize led them to ignore ideas that turn out, in retrospect, to have been very good ones. Krugman examines the course of economic geography and development theory to shed light

Paul Krugman

1996-01-01

25

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4.6, Technical and economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert

R. F. Hogsett; M. C. Jha

1991-01-01

26

Sustainable Development: Environment and Economic Framework Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development is a multifaceted concept that has drawn on a number of disciplines including economics, ecology, ethics, sociology and political science. Sustainable development links the welfare of generations with the capacity of the biosphere to sustain life and has a policy focus. Sustainable development is not a fixed state but rather a process of change in which resource exploitation,

Basil M. H. Sharp

2001-01-01

27

Essays in development economics  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 looks at the empirical estimation of the welfare impacts of bargaining. Bargaining for retail goods is common in developing countries, but rare in the developed world. The welfare implications of this difference ...

Keniston, Daniel Eben

2011-01-01

28

Three essays in development economics  

E-print Network

This thesis seeks to analyze two questions central to the economic welfare of rural households in developing countries: the trade-offs between equity and efficiency induced by hybrid forms of property rights, and the ...

Leight, Jessica E. (Jessica Ellen)

2013-01-01

29

Economic Development in Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mongolian economy has evolved rapidly in recent decades. It has a number of particular features which makes it interesting to study from a development perspective. One is the landlocked condition which limits its development potential. Another is its high dependence on a few products and natural resources like minerals, energy and agriculture. A third is the large scale of its

Erkhemchimeg Byambasuren; Almas Heshmati

2010-01-01

30

Natural Resources and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural Resources and Economic Development, first published in 2005, explores a key paradox: why is natural resource exploitation not yielding greater benefits to the poor economies of Africa, Asia and Latin America? Part I examines this paradox both through a historical review of resource use and development and through examining current theories which explain the under-performance of today's resource-abundant economies,

Edward B. Barbier

2005-01-01

31

Health, Nutrition, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between economic development and health has received far less attention than the relationship between development and schooling. However, recent studies indicate that better health is associated with improved labor market outcomes, particularly in low-income settings. Difficulties in disentangling the causal mechanisms underlying these associations are discussed, highlighting the role of behaviors and measurement of health. The empirical literature

John Strauss; Duncan Thomas

1998-01-01

32

Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As many cities have begin to grapple with their vast areas of brownfields that dot the urban landscape, the federal government has begun to step in and provide various financial assistance in order to assist with the redevelopment of abandoned, idled and underused industrial and commercial facilities. This website, provided by the U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, provides information about the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI), which is a competitive grant program that is meant to serve as a stimulus for local government and private sector parties to start the long redevelopment process. The site contains detailed information about the program, along with archived webcasts that talk about various success stories that have been funded with monies from the program thus far. Also on the site, information is provided about how brownfields are defined and how monies for the program have been distributed to various communities. Finally, visitors will want to take a look at the related publications available here, including those that detail various brownfields initiative and the potential long-term effects of environmental degradation.

33

Process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

Bickler, D. B.

1985-01-01

34

Research and Economic Development at  

E-print Network

by the committee and assignment of a protocol number. ANIMALS: All research using animals, whether or not it is funded, must be reviewed by the UCR Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Research canResearch and Economic Development at UC Riverside Michael Pazzani Vice Chancellor for Research

35

Backpacker tourism and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

International tourism is often perceived by LDC (Less Developed Country) government tourism planners as an engine of economic growth, but the focus is commonly upon mass tourism while ignoring the subsector of backpacker tourism. The case study of Gili Trawangan island in Lombok, eastern Indonesia, indicates that the encouragement of backpacker tourism may alleviate some of the excesses of international

Mark P Hampton

1998-01-01

36

Management Model for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An economic development model was formulated to foster and strengthen commerce and industry retention and expansion in the state of Illinois. The main thrust of the model was on increasing productivity, decreasing business failures, encouraging entrepreneurship, and creating a favorable business climate through community support. To meet these…

Harris, Edward

37

Economic Development in South Carolina  

E-print Network

Retirement and Economic Development in South Carolina Supported by: The South Carolina DepartmentCollege of Business AdministrationCollege of Business Administration University of South CarolinaUniversity of South CarolinaUniversity of South CarolinaUniversity of South CarolinaUniversity of South Carolina Columbia

Almor, Amit

38

UAP 5784: Local Economic Development Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course presents a survey of the field of local economic development planning. We begin with an overview of the history of economic development. We then examine the theoretical and methodological foundation of economic development. The key question that will be addressed is what practitioners are actually doing in economic development. In the second course segment we will focus on

Heike Mayer

39

Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

Bowen, William M.

2007-01-01

40

Cogeneration Economics for Process Plants  

E-print Network

This paper presents the incentives for cogeneration, describing pertinent legislation and qualification requirements for cogeneration benefits, and indicates the performance and economic characteristics of combined cycle cogeneration applications...

Ahner, D. J.

41

Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an introduction to the special issue from the 3rd Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Research Conference held in\\u000a Washington, D.C., in 2008. The paper has three objectives. First, to discuss the importance of the three stages of economic\\u000a development, the factor-driven stage, the efficiency-driven stage and the innovation-driven stage. Second, to examine the empirical evidence on the relationship between

Zoltan J. Acs; Sameeksha Desai; Jolanda Hessels

2008-01-01

42

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4.6, Technical and economic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1991-12-01

43

Labor emigration and economic development.  

PubMed

"This article is concerned with the extent to which labor migration is advantageous to the labor exporting country. It focuses on development consequences of labor emigration with a view toward the formulation of policies which can shape those consequences into a positive force for development, discussing a wide variety of potential costs and benefits generated by labor emigration. The issue of private versus public choice relative to emigration is examined, as [are] the major economic benefits and costs of labor emigration and the influence of development objectives on the valuation of these costs and benefits. Policies by which emigration countries may increase the benefits from labor emigration and reduce the costs are outlined." PMID:12265314

Stahl, C W

1982-01-01

44

River Hills Economic Development District Jill Saegesser  

E-print Network

development Historic preservation Tourism, Park and Recreational Facilities Economic Dislocation AdjustmentRiver Hills Economic Development District Jill Saegesser 300 Spring Street, Suite 2A Jeffersonville://www.riverhills.cc/ The River Hills Economic Development District (RHEDD) serves a five-county region in southeast Indiana which

45

Assessing the economic impact of indirect liquefaction process improvements: Volume 1, Development of the integrated indirect liquefaction model and baseline case  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of an integrated indirect liquefaction system model, which processes input coal to refined liquid products, and the model's application in the analysis of a baseline case. The baseline case uses Shell gasification of coal followed by gas cleaning to produce a clean synthesis gas for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The raw liquid products are refined to produce gasoline and diesel. Costs of liquid products have been estimated for the baseline plant. The model also alloys many sensitivity studies to be performed so that the economic impacts of research and development advances can be quantified. When used in this manner, the model can provide research guidance for future indirect liquefaction studies. 18 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.C. (Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (USA). Civil Systems Div.)

1990-10-01

46

The Unofficial Economy and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, informal firms (those that are not registered with the government) account for about half of all economic activity. We consider three broad views of the role of such firms in economic development. According to the romantic view, these firms would become the engine of economic growth if not stopped by government regulation. According to the parasite view,

Rafael La Porta; Andrei Shleifer

2008-01-01

47

Michigan Economic Development Education Manual. Second Printing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual represents an educational program designed for public officials, interested citizens, and professionals interested in improving the economic climate of the municipality or region. Its purpose is to teach economic development skills, thus enabling participants to develop community economic growth plans. Focus is on four essential…

Conboy, Michael, Ed.; Guiles, Roger, Ed.

48

NARF Indian Economic Development Law Project Begins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Native American Rights Fund (NARF) is beginning a project to assist tribes and Indian communities with the legal aspects of economic and business development. Historic monopolistic and oppressive trade restrictions imposed on the tribes created an economic context that has suppressed Indian economic development for over two centuries. Faced…

NARF Legal Review, 1989

1989-01-01

49

Economic Comparison of Processes Using Spreadsheet Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive approach aids plant-design decisions. Commercially available electronic spreadsheet programs aid economic comparison of different processes for producing particular end products. Facilitates plantdesign decisions without requiring large expenditures for powerful mainframe computers.

Ferrall, J. F.; Pappano, A. W.; Jennings, C. N.

1986-01-01

50

Essays on conflict, cooperation and economic development  

E-print Network

This dissertation consists of three chapters on topics relating to conflict, social cooperation and development economics. Several studies have identified the impact of adverse economic shocks on civil conflict using ...

Ralston, Laura R. (Laura Rosalind)

2013-01-01

51

Essays in experimental and development economics  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three essays on economic development and experimental economics. In Chapter 1, I present experimental evidence about how Thais treat information from domestic and foreign sources. Thai students ...

Healy, Andrew J

2005-01-01

52

Essays in development and environmental economics  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on economic development and environmental economics. Chapter 1 measures the response of U.S. based multinational firms to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which ...

Hanna, Rema

2005-01-01

53

THE NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS AND DEVELOPMENT Douglass C. North,  

E-print Network

1 THE NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS AND DEVELOPMENT by Douglass C. North, Washington Univesity, St (as I see it) to problems of development. I The new institutional economics is an attempt processes information, but cognitive science has made impressive strides in recent years. Individuals

Tesfatsion, Leigh

54

A technology strategy analysis for the deployment of broadband connectivity for economic development in emerging economies : studying the case of Kenya using the CLIOS process  

E-print Network

The role of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in economic development is increasingly moving to the core of national competitiveness strategies around the world thanks to its revolutionary power as a critical ...

Omwenga, Brian Gichana

2009-01-01

55

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 302.11 Economic development information clearinghouse...EDA maintains an economic development information clearinghouse on its Internet Web site at...

2013-01-01

56

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 302.11 Economic development information clearinghouse...EDA maintains an economic development information clearinghouse on its Internet Web site at...

2012-01-01

57

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 302.11 Economic development information clearinghouse...EDA maintains an economic development information clearinghouse on its Internet Web site at...

2014-01-01

58

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 302.11 Economic development information clearinghouse...EDA maintains an economic development information clearinghouse on its Internet Web site at...

2010-01-01

59

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 302.11 Economic development information clearinghouse...EDA maintains an economic development information clearinghouse on its Internet Web site at...

2011-01-01

60

Philippine Rural Banks and Economic Development1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the link between financial and economic development at the regional level in the Philippines and focuses on the role played by rural banks in regional economic activity. We apply cointegration panel data analysis on regional banking and economic data for the period 1993 to 2005. We ranked the sixteen regions in three different groups based on their

Céline CROUZILLE; Jessica LOS BANOS; Emmanuelle NYS; Alain SAUVIAT

61

The cultural politics of local economic development: meaning-making, place-making, and the urban policy process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern of work in urban and political geography in recent decades has been to analyze how and in whose interests local space economies are produced and reproduced. A common focus is on the role local elites play in gathering support for their development agendas. Drawing from these literatures, this paper focuses on how various visions of the future

Eugene J. McCann

2002-01-01

62

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

63

Economics of vegetable oil processing  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils offer great promise as a diesel fuel substitute, given the similarity in their physical and chemical properties. This report examines the cost of converting oilseeds to oil, as a first step in evaluating the potential competitiveness of vegetable oil fuels. Processing costs for typical existing US facilities - including solvent, prepress-solvent, and mechanical extraction technologies - were reviewed. The capital costs of a dedicated rapeseed oil processing facility in the southeastern US were also estimated. A third objective was to estimate the costs of modifying existing processing facilities to crush multiple oilseeds, since the oilseed industry has considerable excess capacity. Using existing excess capacity to crush oilseeds for 60 days per year resulted in savings for each of the three extraction technologies with prepress-solvent extraction being the minimum cost technology. The 17 southeastern prepress-solvent facilities identified could produce over 34 million gallons of rapeseed oil per year if each are operated for an additional 60 days per year. This would require over 312,000 acres of winter rapeseed production, providing an excellent opportunity for early introduction of this crop for energy purposes. 57 figs.

Scheithauer, R.; Dripchak, K.

1988-05-01

64

Wind Energy and Economic Development in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fact sheet summarizes a recent report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Economic Development Benefits from Wind Power in Nebraska: A Report for the Nebraska Energy Office, which focuses on the estimated economic development impacts in Nebraska from development and operation of wind power in the state as envisioned in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) report, 20%

Lantz

2009-01-01

65

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

66

Adventuresports and Economic Development Team Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventuresports Institute offers a two-year degree program at Garrett Community College (McHenry, Maryland) that combines courses in adventure sports with economics, marketing, environmental science, and events management. The goal is to develop an infrastructure for the adventure sport industry and promote economic development in Appalachia based…

Baldwin, Fred

1994-01-01

67

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (Postcard)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.

Not Available

2011-08-01

68

Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

2007-06-01

69

Communication technology transfer : Impact on economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

International technology transfer is defined and described from the economics perspective, with emphasis on costs. Its role in economic development is discussed, including its impact on social values and the question of 'appropriate' technology for developing countries. Examples are provided for communications technology, particularly in the areas of telecommunications and satellite communications.

Meheroo Jussawalla

1980-01-01

70

The Role of Economic Development in Curriculum Development Process in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Call for New Approach to Socioeconomic Development in Africa with a Special Reference to Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main hypothesis here is that the notion of economic and social development has been misconceived by most stakeholders in matters of development. This misconception is the main cause of underdevelopment in Kenya, which leads to all the reasons most authors and commentators have given to explain Kenya's situation. Therefore, it is only possible…

Odiemo, Luke Okunya

2008-01-01

71

Wind Energy and Economic Development in Nebraska  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet summarizes a recent report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Economic Development Benefits from Wind Power in Nebraska: A Report for the Nebraska Energy Office, which focuses on the estimated economic development impacts in Nebraska from development and operation of wind power in the state as envisioned in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030.

Lantz, E.

2009-06-01

72

Natural resources, education, and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth since 1965 has varied inversely with the share of natural capital in national wealth across countries. Four main channels of transmission from abundant natural resources to stunted economic development are discussed: (a) the Dutch disease, (b) rent seeking, (c) overconfidence, and (d) neglect of education. Public expenditure on education relative to national income, expected years of schooling for

Thorvaldur Gylfason

2001-01-01

73

Academic Libraries and Regional Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic libraries should follow the practice adopted by some academic institutions during recent periods of economic scarcity and develop economic and political ties with the business community, a partnership that could provide genuine benefits for members of the business community, elected officials, and academia. An example of such cooperation…

Fiscella, Joan B.; Ringel, Joan D.

74

India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents analysis of endemic deprivation in India and the role of public action in addressing the problem. The analysis is based on a broad view of economic development, focusing on human well-being and 'social opportunity' rather than the standard indicators of economic growth. India's success in reducing deprivation since Independence has been limited. Recent diagnoses of this failure

Jean Dreze; Amartya Sen

1995-01-01

75

Aggregate dynamic economic - ecological models for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to formulate a general integrated aggregate dynamic model for sustainable development, that will be both simple in structure and able to deal with the main objectives, processes, and constraints applying to sustainable development in closed economic - ecological systems. General characteristics of models to be used for sustainable development are discussed. It turns out

J C J M van den Bergh; P Nijkamp

1991-01-01

76

Three Essays on Economic Development in Africa  

E-print Network

To achieve economic development, regional authorities have to address issues that relate to climate change, efficient information flow in the market place, and health care. This dissertation presents three essays on current issues of concern...

Musumba, Mark

2012-10-19

77

Essays in development economics and political economy  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on issues in economic development, with a focus ,on political economy and the labor market in India. Chapter 1] analyzes the effect of television coverage on political ...

Datta, Saugato

2007-01-01

78

Megacities : sustainability, transport, and economic development  

E-print Network

The connections between sustainability, transport, and economic development are and will remain essential in the governance of cities. Sustainability concepts include valuing and preserving the earth's resources so that ...

Tobias, Justin Charles, 1980-

2005-01-01

79

Is Your Community Ready for Economic Development?  

E-print Network

A critical step in initiating or facilitating an effective economic development project is to determine if the community is actually prepared to take on such a difficult task. This publication can help community leaders determine how "prepared a...

Saldana, Luis

2003-03-30

80

Process development and techno-economic analysis of a novel process for MeOH production from CO2 using solar-thermal energy.  

SciTech Connect

Mitigating and overcoming environmental problems brought about by the current worldwide fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure requires the creation of innovative alternatives. In particular, such alternatives must actively contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions via carbon recycling and a shift to the use of renewable sources of energy. Carbon neutral transformation of biomass to liquid fuels is one of such alternatives, but it is limited by the inherently low energy efficiency of photosynthesis with regard to the net production of biomass. Researchers have thus been looking for alternative, energy-efficient chemical routes inspired in the biological transformation of solar power, CO2 and H2O into useful chemicals; specifically, liquid fuels. Methanol has been the focus of a fair number of publications for its versatility as a fuel, and its use as an intermediate chemical in the synthesis of many compounds. In some of these studies, (e.g. Joo et al., (2004), Mignard and Pritchard (2006), Galindo and Badr (2007)) CO2 and renewable H2 (e.g. electrolytic H2) are considered as the raw materials for the production of methanol and other liquid fuels. Several basic PFD diagrams have been proposed. One of the most promising is the so called CAMERE process (Joo et al., 1999 ). In this process, carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen are fed to a first reactor and transformed according to: H2 + CO2 <=> H2O + CO Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) After eliminating the produced water the resulting H2/CO2/CO mixture is then feed to a second reactor where it is converted to methanol according to: CO2 + 3.H2 <=> CH3OH + H2O Methanol Synthesis (MS) CO + H2O <=> CO2 + H2 Water Gas Shift (WGS) The approach here is to produce enough CO to eliminate, via WGS, the water produced by MS. This is beneficial since water has been proven to block active sites in the MS catalyst. In this work a different process alternative is presented: One that combines the CO2 recycling of the CAMERE process and the use of solar energy implicit in some of the biomass-based process, but in this case with the potential high energy efficiency of thermo-chemical transformations.

Henao, Carlos (University of Wisconsin); Kim, Jiyong (University of Wisconsin); Johnson, Terry Alan; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin); Miller, James Edward

2010-11-01

81

Financial Development and Dual Economic Structural Transformation: Experience from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual economic structure is not only a typical feature of developing countries in their initial economic development, but also its transformation is the main task of economic development in these countries. Finance is the core of modern economy, and financial development would exert crucial influences on dual economic structure transformation. However, neither financial development theory, nor dual economic structure theory

Wang Xiu-hua; Wan Ying

2006-01-01

82

A Dream Experiment in Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development

Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

2013-01-01

83

Recognizing Constraints to Local Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on Kaufman's distinction between development in the community and development of the community, this paper discusses the constraints on local economic development associated with increased concentration of capital. The likelihood of successfully employing "import substitution" and other localization strategies without confronting issues of…

Fitzgerald, Joan; Meyer, Peter B.

1986-01-01

84

Tourism and economic development: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the literature on tourism and economic development, identifying the contribution that tourism can make to development, including foreign currency, income and employment, and the costs that it entails. Single equation and system of equations models for estimating tourism demand are provided, indicating developing countries’ potential to benefit from increasing expenditure on tourism but their susceptibility to deterioration

M. Thea Sinclair

1998-01-01

85

FDI and Economic Development in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

FDI and Economic Development in Costa Rica: The Tico Tiger that hasn't..... Carnegie Endowment, MA, USA #12;FDI and Development in Costa Rica: The Power of Path Dependency and the Peril of Lack benefits #12;Costa Rica's (and LA's) Approach to Development: From ISI to Washington Consensus Trade

86

Subsea completions improve development economics  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief historical account of the development of the offshore drilling and production sector of the oil and gas industries. The paper provides data showing the growth of offshore drilling and completion on a world-wide basis. The author attributes this to the increased reliability of subsurface production equipment showing that the new control systems have lowered the failure rate to less than two percent. The paper traces the early offshore field development and equipment used to the current floating production platforms and how they came into existence. Finally, the paper discusses the development of offshore standards for drilling, production, and control equipment.

Booth, D. (Subsea Data Services, Wimberly, TX (United States))

1993-10-01

87

WORKING GROUP ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

Vice President of Statewide Operations and Eco- nomic Development for the North Carolina Biotech: the NC Biotech Center and MCNC. Feldman compared the two entities in terms of orga- nizational structure.4 million, while the Biotech Center started with $843,000 in funding from the state. As Feldman explained

Engel, Jonathan

88

CERTIFICATE PROGRAM Community Economic Development  

E-print Network

and social media. & A sustainable local economy is a complex system of exchanges, built on reciprocity access to alumni network, news and events develop a lasting and relevant peer network Benefits Conn, Co-operative Enterprise Naomi Devine, Pitching, Presenting & Visualization Peter Elkins. Social

Kavanagh, Karen L.

89

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF MINERAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEAST MINNESOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic effects of mineral resource development addressed in this paper are the changes in employment, population and income in the State of Minnesota and in Northeast Minnesota. These include the present mining, processing and shipping of natural ores and taconite pellets and the potential copper-nickel development.

Wilbur R. Maki

1980-01-01

90

Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critique argues that the preponderance of theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence suggests a positive, first-order relationship between financial development and economic growth. The body of work would push even most skeptics toward the belief that the development of financial markets and institutions is a critical and inextricable part of the growth process and away from the view that the

Ross Levine

1997-01-01

91

Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

Hanrahan, Colleen F; Shah, Maunank

2014-08-01

92

Corruption, Institutions and Economic Development  

E-print Network

of this is "speed money" paid by business people to government o˘ cials to speed up bureaucratic procedures. This paper takes a critical look at the link between corruption and eco- nomic development. The analysis centers on whether corruption is sanding or greasing... and ready, but the fact that the data is con- structed using two alternative methods allows for some robustness analysis. The question I am interested in here is whether there exists a link be- tween corruption, both perceived and actual, and growth...

Aidt, Toke S

93

Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

94

New Potentials for Modern Indian Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently American Indians have experienced an unprecedented renaissance in community spirit. Capitalizing upon this spirit, Indian economic development should be directed toward particular community needs, utilizing Indian leadership to determine needed training and development programs. There is no question but that the majority of Indian…

Heath, Wallace G.

95

Trade Pattern and Economic Development when Endogenous  

E-print Network

Trade Pattern and Economic Development when Endogenous and Exogenous Comparative Advantages Coexist Papers Center for International Development at Harvard University #12;CID Working Paper no. 3 Trade is divided between commercialized sector which trades with foreign country and self-sufficient sector which

96

Social Capital, Creative Destruction and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a conceptual framework for the role of social capital in the political economy of innovation, growth and reform, with illustrations from developing and transition countries. It identifies separate but related roles for the individual and communal interpretations of social capital. It argues that economic growth via innovation requires the creative destruction of individual social capital linkages and

Dirk Bezemer; Uwe Dulleck; Paul Frijters

2005-01-01

97

Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators. PMID:17331640

Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corręa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

2007-08-25

98

Economic Development of British Colonial America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

Serena Zabin

99

Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

Kelly, John

2011-01-01

100

Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

2002-01-01

101

RESTORINGRESILIENCE A Sustainable Economic Development Plan  

E-print Network

RESTORINGRESILIENCE A Sustainable Economic Development Plan for Miller and Beyond, 2014-2044 #12;credits UPP 506: Plan Making Studio, a graduate course in the Urban Planning & Policy Program at UIC four star planning associates professor Sanjeev Vidyarthi project managers Sydney Blankers Jessica Stevenson

Illinois at Chicago, University of

102

Biogeography and Long-Run Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from a hunter-gather economy to agricultural production, which made possible the endogenous technological progress that ultimately led to the industrial revolution, is one of the most important events in the thousands of years of humankind’s economic development. In this paper we present theory and evidence showing that exogenous geography and initial condition biogeography exerted decisive influence on the

Ola Olsson; Douglas A. Hibbs Jr.

2000-01-01

103

Corrosion resistant process piping changes in economics  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the process piping industry has seen dramatic changes occur in corrosion resistant materials. Some changes have occurred in the form of new and modified materials becoming available. However, the most dramatic changes have occurred in the pricing of some older and well known materials. These economic changes have been dramatic and quick, so much so that the old established budget pricing ``rules of thumb`` used for many years to estimate piping projects are no longer valid. In many instances, the prices of some premium metals (titanium, for example) are now on a comparatively equal basis even with high alloys when all factors including densities, special fabrication requirements and service life are taken into account. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some commonly encountered corrosion resistant piping materials, a brief summary of their chemical and mechanical properties and usage. However, the focus of the paper presented will be economic. It will detail the current raw material prices for high alloys including duplex stainless steels, nickel and nickel alloys, Hastelloys+, as well as the reactive metals, zirconium and titanium. In addition, a typical fabricated piping spool in various diameters will be estimated for all of the above metals and the results plotted in graphical format for quick comparison. Last, a quick method will be presented to estimate as fabricated piping costs if the base material price for pipe is known.

Lain, E.H. Jr. [Phoenix, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-07-01

104

The Relationship Between Economic Freedom and Soci-Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of economic freedom is not a novel one in economic theory. Since the time of Adam Smith, if not before, economists have believed that the freedom to choose and supply resources, compete in business, trade with others, and secure property rights are central ingredients of economic progress (North and Thomas, 1973). Adam Smith (1776-1937) explained how the invisible

AnishaMadan

2002-01-01

105

From Economic Drivers to B2B Process Models: a Mapping from REA to UMM  

E-print Network

From Economic Drivers to B2B Process Models: a Mapping from REA to UMM Rainer Schuster, Thomas is that business analysts design the business processes from scratch, disregarding the economic drivers to be developed. However, most current approaches are limited to the technical process aspects, disregarding

106

Issues in the Economic Development of Nonmetropolitan United States. Economic Development Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing issues relative to economic development in nonmetropolitan areas, this document presents narrative and tabular data re: (1) the causal forces behind economic decline in rural America (technology, shifting patterns of demand for goods and services, and changes in life styles and residential preferences); (2) the incidence and indicators…

Ledebur, Larry C.

107

Global health funding and economic development.  

PubMed

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

2012-01-01

108

Global health funding and economic development  

PubMed Central

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

2012-01-01

109

Comparative economics for the Arthur D. Little extractive coking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

General aspects concerning coal liquefaction processes are considered and a process description is provided, taking into account delayed coking technology, the ADL extractive coking process, and questions concerning the yield structure. Attention is given to the commercial design for a preliminary economic analysis, the extraction\\/coking cycle, a preliminary economic analysis, a comparison with other processes, and the current status of

S. A. Reber; R. M. Nadkarni; R. W. Hyde

1977-01-01

110

Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China  

E-print Network

Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China Sylvie DĂ©murger, Jeffrey D. Sachs Development Working Papers #12;Forthcoming in Asian Economic Papers Vol. 1 No. 1 Geography, Economic Policy;1 October 14, 2001 Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China Sylvie DĂ©murger, Jeffrey D

111

Theory, General Equilibrium, and Political Economy in Development Economics  

E-print Network

I discuss the role of economic theory in empirical work in development economics with special emphasis on general equilibrium and political economy considerations. I argue that economic theory plays (should play) a central ...

Acemoglu, Daron

112

The urban-rural dimension in national economic development.  

PubMed

Urban growth should be evaluated less as good or bad in itself than in terms of whether it promotes the efficient and equitable performance of vital economic functions within a nation. Much urban growth in developing nations both reflects national growth and promotes it. Cities are sources of economic growth, which is their dominant characteristic. There is a strong tendency for large cities and their surrounding core regions to be the most active, rapidly growing areas of developing nations. Certain economic functions tend to be found only in cities and tend to cluster into certain cities because it is economically efficient. 3 mechanisms which make cities economically efficient are 1) internal economies of scale, 2) localization economies, and 3) agglomeration economies. Urban areas can provide support functions for rural areas and, in turn, their growth depends on the support of an agricultural base. Urban areas also provide alternative employment and income opportunities for the rural surplus population. There are 4 prominent questions often raised about possible negative effects of urbanization on national growth and development. One question is urban growth and urban bias, which the authors argue is overemphasized. Another question is diseconomies of scale in large cities; this, the authors suggest, is not a matter of size as much as operating efficiently. Third is urbanization and regional dualism, which the authors argue can be maintained through a strategy of changing a nation's mix and location of urban activity. Fourth is the question of cities and rural outmigration. The authors argue that although most people who leave rural areas are younger, more motivated, and better educated than those left behind, their departures are economically favorable. Getting economic activity located correctly along an urban-rural spectrum is important to the growth of developing countries. 6 rules that illustrate how to do this are 1) be guided by local circumstances, not theoretical models; 2) promote better management of major urban areas; 3) avoid direct controls on migration and location; 4) understand the reluctance of industry to locate outside core regions; 5) develop secondary cities with an eye to economic eficiency; and 6) be cautious about "new town" developments. The authors conclude that 1) both host governments and those involved in development assistance should realize that urban growth is a natural process; and 2) when they do intervene in the process, they should do so in ways designed to build upon economic forces already at work. PMID:12314419

Egan, M L; Bendick M

1986-01-01

113

The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative  

SciTech Connect

India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-09-01

114

Economic processes in management of business informatics economic - ICT invesment plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to issues connected with processes that can be used for management of economic efficiency of business informatics with the support of Business Intelligence (BI). The significance of these processes increases especially at the time of financial crisis. The aim of the paper is analyze processes for management of business informatics economics in the context of the

Milos Maryska

2011-01-01

115

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Other economic development objectives. 120.862 Section 120...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other...

2010-01-01

116

The Economic Development Opportunity. A Guide for Building VTAE District-Community Partnerships for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed to assist local postsecondary community and technical colleges in designing or redesigning an economic development strategy. Section 1 explains the critical need for enhancing the development of human resources to boost the lagging productivity of the state (Wisconsin) and nation. The second part suggests an eight-step…

Huddleston, Kenneth; And Others

117

Laser forming process development  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a summary of the activities performed for the process development of laser thermal forming sheet metal parts in support of rapid prototyping. A 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser and 50 watt desktop CO{sub 2} laser were used during initial process development. Several tool-assisted laser forming approaches were conceived during the development of the process, and simple fixtures for process development/understanding were used throughout all testing. Much of the actual forming was performed with the base material in an unfixtured state. CRES (304) was used for baseline development, but the effort was directed toward forming titanium (e.g., 6Al-4V, 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al). Several DOE (i.e., Design of Experiment) techniques were employed during development and a Neural Net Computer Model was conceived for process control. This program was a joint effort in cooperation with the American Welding Society under contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). A synopsis of the laser forming process development, future opportunities, and applications are presented.

Blake, R.J. [High Tech Images, Sheridan, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

118

Incorporating an Applied Economic Development Component into a Geography Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how applied economic development has been integrated into the economic geography curriculum at Oregon State University (Corvallis). States that coursework in applied economic development should lead to greater understanding of the causes of economic change, the problems associated with growth or decline, and methods for achieving…

Kale, Steven R.

1989-01-01

119

Development of an Economic Dashboard for the Flint Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project constructed an economic dashboard for Genesee County (Flint, Michigan) that identified, monitored, ranked, and compared key regional factors to other metro areas. The resulting dashboard enables economic development organizations and stakeholders in Genesee County to better focus their efforts by identifying the regional factors most associated with economic growth. Secondly, the dashboard allows economic development stakeholders to compare

Erickcek George A

2007-01-01

120

Drug Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... in the laboratory. More Information arrow Step 2 Preclinical Research Preclinical Research Drugs undergo laboratory and animal testing to answer ... Process Step 1: Discovery and Development Step 2: Preclinical Research Step 3: Clinical Research Step 4: FDA Review ...

121

ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION OF EOR PROCESSES USING KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM: CASE STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main challenge of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes at the prevailing low oil prices is to reduce the cost. An optimization methodology, combined with an economic model, is implemented into an expert system for optimizing the net present value of full field development with an EOR process. The approach is automated and combines an economic package and existing numerical

Ridha B. C. Gharbi

2001-01-01

122

Minority Business Development and Economic Development Policy in New York. Implications for Black Entrepreneurs and Communities. Report of the Subcommittee on Economic Development. Volume 5, Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State should develop a comprehensive justification for its involvement in minority business development and each State program should be closely associated with that rationale. Minority business development programs are often short-sighted, potentially conflicting, and yield unimpressive results. Development of Economic Development Zones…

New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

123

Understanding Your Local Economy: Economic Base Analysis and Local Development Strategies. Community Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community decision makers selecting an economic development strategy most appropriate for their local community must begin with an understanding of how their local economy functions, what its economic base is, and how changes in that base may affect local economic structure and performance. The economic base approach emphasizes the roles of…

Weber, Bruce A.; And Others

124

Governor's Office of Economic Development I. Internal Scan  

E-print Network

: business and tourism development. There are certain demographic trends in an aging population whichGovernor's Office of Economic Development I. Internal Scan The Governor's Office of Economic Development (GOED) charter is based on Governor Jon Huntsman's commitment to economic development statewide

Tipple, Brett

125

Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

Hanson, Mark

2011-01-01

126

Unplanned Terminology Development: A Synchronic and Diachronic Study on Economic Terms in Turkish Newspapers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with unplanned terminology development in the subject field of economics within media discourse. It examines how economic terms in Turkish newspapers emerge, are used, and cease. This developmental process is also analyzed through productivity of economic terms and the factors affect them. The subject terms are also analyzed as a…

Karabacak, Erkan

2009-01-01

127

Estimating the economic impacts of geothermal resource development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of geothermal plants, as all other energy facilities, may have significant economic impacts on local and regional economies. Often the magnitudes of these impacts will be of great interest to both environmental and economic development planners. Because of their availability and relative ease of use, input-output models are often used to estimate selected economic impacts arising from resource development.

J LESSER

1994-01-01

128

Economic and energy audit of textile foam processing  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wet processing of textiles - dyeing, or application of such surface finishes as soil and water repellents, antistatic agents, fire retardants, permanent press agents, and starch - consumes about 0.19 quadrillion Btu's of energy per year, the equivalent of 30 million barrels of oil. Because wet processing involves immersion of the fabric in a water bath, most of the energy used is in the form of heat for drying. In the newer foam finishing approach, the chemicals for surface finishes are dispersed in a mixture of water and air. The chemicals are concentrated in a relatively small amount of water, and air is injected to form a thick, stable foam. Because little water is involved, drying time and temperature may be drastically reduced. Authur D. Little, Inc., conducted an economic and energy audit of foam processing that considered the technical feasibility, reliability, energy savings, and economic incentives for using foam finishing. We monitored four plants that finish textiles (carpets, broad-woven fabrics, and tubular knits). The plants were selected by the developer of the foaming process (United Merchants and Manufacturers, Inc.) to represent a wide range of textile finishing applications.

Machacek, R.

1983-06-01

129

Developing policy solutions for a more active nation: Integrating economic and public health perspectives.  

PubMed

Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. We begin by comparing and contrasting the economic and public health perspectives, including introducing relevant economic concepts. We next identify economic considerations for the development of environmental incentives that promote physical activity. We then assess features of the political environment which could impact the success of policy alternatives aimed at increasing physical activity. We conclude with several policy levers that may promote active living. Throughout the manuscript, we use the term economics to refer to classical economics and utility maximization rather than behavioral economics. In addition, we focus mostly on normative economics (which offers prescriptions for what should be done) rather than positive economics (which offers predictions of economic outcomes conditional on various hypothetical scenarios). PMID:19616575

Bleich, Sara N; Sturm, Roland

2009-10-01

130

A Relational Approach to the Theory and Practices of Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments and evidence from the social sciences, natural sciences and development practice are used to frame a broader discussion of the role of social relations in the process of economic development. We trace the intellectual history of social relations within theories of economic development and situate the rise of ‘social capital’ as idea and practice in the late twentieth century.

Michael Woolcock; Elizabeth Radin

2007-01-01

131

ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 2011-2012 Concentration Information  

E-print Network

Economic and Community Development concentration: PA 5501 Theories and Policies of Development* (3 cr of Development 3 PA 5511 Community Economic Development 3 PA 5521 Development Planning and Policy Analysis 4 PA 5522 International Development Policy, Families & Health 3 PA 5590 Topics in Econ. and Community

Levinson, David M.

132

The application of economic-demographic models to development planning.  

PubMed

The Population Division's evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of economic-demographic models shows that procedures for considering the short and long-term implications of population growth can be significantly improved. The Division's research projects demonstrate that models can help planners to achieve an efficient allocation of scarce resources, set clear-cut national objectives and provide a national sense of political and social purpose. There are many advantages in applying economic-demographic models to development planning in order to integrate population factors within the development process, yet care must be taken in adopting and/or applying a certain model at the national level. Aside from the question of adopting a model, the question of the applicability and application of models is emphasized. The choice of model structure is discussed in terms of 4 major issues: 1) the choice of a central core; 2) the trade-off between simplicity and complexity and the appropriate degree of endogeneity; 3) the choice of a demand or supply orientation; and 4) the criteria for selecting a particular model for use. A representative selection of economic demographic models is presented. Included are the TEMPO (designed to illustrate the benefits of reduced fertility) and Long-Range Planning Models (LAPM--designed to illustrate the implications of policy assumptions for economic development, particularly in regard to health and education), both developed by the US government. Also described are the BACHUE and the UN Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) models. It is argued that these latter models offer the greatest promise as tools for planning in the ESCAP Region, at the present time. As the BACHUE model is primarily concerned with employment and the distribution of income and the UNFPA/FAO model with agriculture, incorporating both into the planning process could be desirable. PMID:12340524

1985-01-01

133

EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

134

Alternative economic evaluation measures for solar industrial process heat  

SciTech Connect

The measures most commonly used to assist decision-makers in evaluating the economic merits of solar energy projects are described and compared. An example is given to illustrate the economic evaluation measures and the results are applied to a solar industrial process heat project. Four widely used economic measures are: net present value, benefit-cost ratio, internal rate of return, and payback period. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-07-30

135

Beyond Responsiveness: Promoting Good Practice in Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the involvement of further education (FE) colleges in England and Wales in economic development and presents case studies of good practice in nine FE colleges. Chapter 1 addresses FE's role in economic development and measuring and planning economic growth. Chapter 2 contains the case studies: Lewisham College's Action for…

Hughes, Maria; Kypri, Photoula

1998-01-01

136

Developing social equality and economic transparency for future cities  

E-print Network

the summer of 2012 or those currently taking place in Brazil and Chile. Unlike the UK social and economicDeveloping social equality and economic transparency for future cities Dr Claudia Murray School of the following institutions: #12;Developing social equality and economic transparency for future cities | Dr

Reading, University of

137

Equity markets and economic development: Does the primary market matter?  

E-print Network

show that the primary equity market is not an important determinant of economic growth, despite development and economic growth, the impact of market- based measures on growth has assumed importanceEquity markets and economic development: Does the primary market matter? Andriansyaha,b,*and George

138

Economic and Social Significance of Forests For Africa's Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

Economic and Social Significance of Forests For Africa's Sustainable Development Volume 25, Issue 2, Issue 2 Economic and social significance of forests for Africa's sustainable development Editor: Foday Rosa 3 Announcements 7 News 9 Special Feature 10 Economic and Social Significance of forests for Rwanda

139

Physics And Its Roles In Economic Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics plays a variety of roles in economic development. These are explored and ways of increasing the importance of physics to world economies are discussed. Surveys by the Institute of Physics have shown that over 40% of employment in manufacturing in the UK is based on physics, and that this sector continues to expand. Physics provides techniques and equipment for advances in the life sciences. An education in physics gives an ability to tackle a diverse range of subjects from first principles and to find innovative solutions to problems where conventional approaches fail. Physicists in many countries readily find employment in a wide range of areas. However, because of the range of opportunities available, there is a reluctance of physics graduates to enter teaching and prepare the next generation of physicists. Sharing experience between countries is vital. The World Year of Physics has played an important role in this.

Melville, Peter

2007-04-01

140

Africa Recovery: Tracking the Continent's Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library and Publications Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information has recently begun providing major excerpts of its quarterly periodical Africa Recovery via the web. The publication tracks economic and social development issues in Africa. The latest issue (July 1997) contains articles on Congolese reconstruction, the 33rd Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the recent G-7 Summit, and the recent Africa Governance Forum in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (UN Special Initiative). Articles are mostly concise news summaries. There are also sections on upcoming and recent conferences and pertinent books, as well as the features Africa in Brief and Under the Baobob Tree, which highlights a single African issue.

1997-01-01

141

11.437 Financing Economic Development, Fall 2003  

E-print Network

Focuses on financing tools and program models to support local economic development. Includes an overview of private capital markets and financing sources to understand capital market imperfections that constrain economic ...

Seidman, Karl F.

142

Techno-economic evaluation of the ROPE copyright process  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process for recovering oil from tar sand and for coprocessing heavy crude oil with tar sand. WRI has constructed and operated a 2-inch-diameter process development unit with a throughput of 5 to 10 lb/hr and a 6-inch-diameter bench-scale unit with a throughput of 50 to 100 lb/hr to develop the ROPE process. Based on experimental results to date, a preliminary commercial design has been performed for a 2500-ton/day Asphalt Ridge, Utah, tar sand plant. Major equipment items and their sizes were determined from the process flow diagram and heat and material balance results. No major technical uncertainties were discovered during the design of the 2500-ton/day plant. The total capital investment for the 2500-ton/day Asphalt Ridge tar sand plant was estimated at $53,336,000 in mid-1989 dollars including 16% contingency. This is equivalent to 27,240 dollars per barrel of daily oil production. The annual operating cost is estimated at $9,683,000 in mid-1989 dollars or $14.28/bbl including 5% contingency. Tar sand mining cost (27.1%) is the highest, followed by maintenance cost (23.1%), and plant operating labor (18.5%). Tax and insurance cost is 17.5% of total operating expenses. From an economic perspective, the best market for the ROPE product oil will be realized if the ROPE process facility is located near sites where there are already commercially developed heavy oil and bitumen extraction/processing facilities and existing pipelines for transporting the blend to distant refineries. These sites would be located in the countries of Canada and Venezuela and possibly the states of Utah, Wyoming, and California. 27 refs., 20 figs., 14 tabs.

Cha, C-Y.; Greaves, M.J.; Netzel, D.A.

1989-11-01

143

A Book on the History of the Economic Development of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important tasks of Soviet economists and historians is the study of the economic development of our homeland and of foreign countries. Without searchingly analysing the socio-economic history of a given country, without studying the distinctive features in the development of its productive forces and production relations, the conformity to universal law of the historical process cannot

I. Mayevsky

1959-01-01

144

Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and  

E-print Network

Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China* Sylvie DĂ©murger Jeffrey D the location dummies in provincial growth regressions to obtain estimates of the effects of geography

145

76 FR 17662 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant...of Proposal: Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant...40123--Brownfields Economic Development Application, SF...

2011-03-30

146

78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual...Office of Rural Housing & Economic Development, Department of Housing and...Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative. OMB...

2013-11-29

147

76 FR 2405 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) AGENCY...of Proposal: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI). OMB...proposed use: The Brownfield Economic Development Initiative is...

2011-01-13

148

77 FR 19178 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA), Department...

2012-03-30

149

76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2011-10-17

150

75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2010-10-18

151

77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2012-10-23

152

78 FR 68025 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

2013-11-13

153

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

2010-04-01

154

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

2011-04-01

155

Contributions of Cell Phones to Economic Development in  

E-print Network

to impact corn growers cell phone usage · RH 2: Agricultural information carried on cell phone is moreContributions of Cell Phones to Economic Development in Africa: An Information Study of Corn development in developing countries #12;Motivation/Development · According to cell phones enhance economic

Anderson, Richard

156

Population and Family Planning in the Economic Development of Rhodesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of population growth on economic development are hotly debated by rival schools of economists, and with the notable exception of Colin Clark,1 there are basically two camps. First- ly, the Marxist School believes that the problems of the less developed countries can be solved by socio-economic development alone; development, they claim, will outstrip population growth pro- vided that

D. Clarke

157

Occupational Choice and the Process of Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models economic development as a process of institutional transformation by focusing on the interplay between agents' occupational decisions and the distribution of wealth. Becau se of capital-market imperfections, poor agents choose working for a wa ge over self-employment and wealthy agents become entrepreneurs who monitor workers. Only with sufficient inequality, however, will ther e be employment contracts; otherwise,

Abhijit V. Banerjee; Andrew F. Newman

1993-01-01

158

Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

2010-01-01

159

Toward the Development of a Cultural Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which various economic specialties have incorporated or avoided cultural analyses is reviewed; problem areas where such studies might be most fruitful are suggested. It is indicated there now exists in embryo form an orientation deserving the name cultural economics''; its furture is speculated. (JB)

Boulding, Kenneth E.

1972-01-01

160

Experimental methods for environment and development economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many poor countries remain trapped in a cycle of poverty and environmental degradation. Understanding how people react to existing and proposed solutions most likely can be improved using the methods of experimental economics. Experiments provide researchers a method to test theory, look for patterns of behavior, testbed economic institutions and incentives, and to educate people. Herein we explore how experimental

MARIAH D. EHMKE; JASON F. SHOGREN

2008-01-01

161

Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

Zhang, Yu Aimee

2012-01-01

162

Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

Bryson, Judy C.

163

A regional IT occupational partnership for economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, the economic viability of regions, states and countries is being linked to the viability of technology-enabled, knowledge-intensive economic sectors. Hence, among the factors of interest in regional economic development is the availability of an information technology (IT) talent pool. There is a growing need to understand the regional supply and demand dynamics of appropriately educated IT professionals. Consequently, an

Eileen M. Trauth; Mike Reinert; Michael C. Zigner

2007-01-01

164

Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

Acemoglu, Daron

2013-01-01

165

Selection of process control structure based on linear dynamic economics  

SciTech Connect

It is recognized widely that the choice of measured and manipulated variables employed in a control system (the control structure) can have a strong effect on the performance of the process control system. This paper outlines a systematic method that can be used to select the economically optimal control structure of a process without designing the process controller, while maintaining good controllability characteristics. This requires examination of the effects of process dynamics on process economics and how changes in the control structure alter these economics. The scope of the problem is limited to selecting economically optimal square regulatory feedback control structures for processes whose operation is dominated by steady-state aspects. As the problem is combinatorial in nature, the method addresses systematic generation and efficient search of the space of potential structures through the use of integer programming techniques. Application of this approach to two case studies demonstrates that the technique leads to an improved understanding of the effects of the control structure on process economics and process controller performance.

Narraway, L.T.; Perkins, J.D. (Imperial Coll. of Science, London (United Kingdom))

1993-11-01

166

Seminar: Advanced Economic Development MW 1:20-2:35 PM, Ross Hall, Room 135 Spring 2008 Instructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Description: This graduate level course explores the application of economics to the process of economic growth and development in low and middle-income countries. The emphasis will be on the \\

Edward B. Barbier

167

Highway Investment and Rural Economic Development: An Annotated Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Dennis M. Brown, Food and Rural Economics Division, US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) (described in the July 2, 1999 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this annotated bibliography summarizes studies on the rural economic development implications of highway investment. The bibliography includes some urban studies in addition to rural and covers the effects of highway investment on different industries, local and regional spatial effects, and highway effects over time, among other issues.

Brown, Dennis M.

1999-01-01

168

Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

169

Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

1994-11-01

170

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

171

Rural energy in developing countries: A challenge for economic development  

SciTech Connect

The energy problems of the developing world are both serious and widespread. Lack of access to sufficient and sustainable supplies for energy affects as much as 90% of the population of many developing countries. Some 2 billion people are without electricity; a similar number remain dependent on fuels such as animal dung, crop residues, wood, and charcoal to cook their daily meals. Without efficient, clean energy, people are undermined in their efforts to engage effectively in productive activities or to improve their quality of life. Developing countries are facing two crucial--and related--problems in the energy sector. The first is the widespread inefficient production and use of traditional energy sources, such as fuelwood and agricultural residues, which pose economic, environmental, and health threats. The second is the highly uneven distribution and use of modern energy sources, such as electricity, petroleum products, and liquefied or compressed natural gas, which pose important issues of economics, equity, and quality of life. To address these problems, this paper evaluates some successful programs and recommends that governments support market-oriented approaches that make the energy market equally accessible and attractive to local investors, communities, and consumers. Such approaches ideally improve access to energy for rural and poor people by revising energy pricing and by making the first costs of the transition to modern and more sustainable uses of energy more affordable. 70 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Barnes, D.F.; Floor, W.M. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)] [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

172

Pattern of Trade and Economic Development in the Model  

E-print Network

Pattern of Trade and Economic Development in the Model of Monopolistic Competition Jeffrey D. Sachs for International Development at Harvard University #12;CID Working Paper no. 14 Pattern of Trade and Economic into the model of monopolistic competition to investigate the interplay between trade policies and development

173

Essays in Development Economics and the Economics of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is a powerful tool to improve lives and enhance the prospect of innovation and development of nations. While primary school enrollment has increased considerably over the past few decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, learning and the retention rate have remained low. The first two chapters of this dissertation analyze two dimensions in a bid…

Blimpo, Moussa Pouguinimpo

2010-01-01

174

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

2010-04-01

175

24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203 Section 1003.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

2010-04-01

176

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

2011-04-01

177

24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203 Section 1003.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN...

2011-04-01

178

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility. 304.1 Section 304.1 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1 Designation of Economic Development...

2014-01-01

179

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility. 304.1 Section 304.1 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1 Designation of Economic Development...

2013-01-01

180

Econometric Analysis Economic Growth and Development  

E-print Network

International Economics Public Policy Finance Entrepreneurship Lending and Credit Monitoring Systems informed, insightful business and policy decisions. Visit www.neepecon.org The Rhode Island Public Expenditure Council (RIPEC) is an independent, nonprofit and nonpartisan public policy research and education

Blais, Brian

181

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

2007-01-01

182

Economic manufacturing quantity, optimum process mean, and economic specification limits setting under the rectifying inspection plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic manufacturing quantity, process mean, and specification limits setting are three important methods for the inventory and quality control problems. In the imperfect production system, we usually consider the manufacturing quantity for reducing the inventory cost, determine the process level for reducing the production cost, and select the specification limits for screening the products. In this paper, we propose the

Chung-ho Chen; Min-tsai Lai

2007-01-01

183

Economic structure and development in an emergent Asian economy: evidence from  

E-print Network

Economic structure and development in an emergent Asian economy: evidence from a social accounting Vietnam started a wide-ranging process of economic reform in 1986 and is presently opening up its economy of resources and the determination of prices. An ongoing shift from an economy dominated by the state and co

Kammen, Daniel M.

184

Tourism as a driver of economic development: The Colombian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper analyzes the importance and potentials of the tourism sector for economic development. It is divided into four major parts. After a short introduction, section two presents some theoretical insights into the topic of economic development. Commenting on the most relevant components of the catching-up theory by Abramovitz (1986) and the structural change theory by Baumol (1967) and

Andreja Benkovi?; Juan Felipe Mejía

2008-01-01

185

Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.

2004-01-01

186

Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

2005-01-01

187

Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

Barry, Frank

2014-01-01

188

Targeting Occupations in Regional and Community Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper analyzes why and how economic and community,development planners might target occupations as well as industries in shaping an economic development strategy. Key occupations can be identified on the basis of capturability, high relative employment growth rates, connectivity across industries, fit with underemployed workforce groups and potential for self-employment and entrepreneurship. I demonstrate the potential for an occupational

Ann Markusen; J. W. Harrington; Jim Heilbrun; Brian Holly; Matt Kane; Michael Lahr; Leslie Mccall; Eric Parker; Bruce Seaman; Michael Teitz; Heike Meyer; Maria Hanratty; Norma Rantisi; Ragui Assaad; Ned Hill

2004-01-01

189

Global production networks and the analysis of economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines a framework for the analysis of economic integration and its relation to the asymmetries of economic and social development. Consciously breaking with state-centric forms of social science, it argues for a research agenda that is more adequate to the exigencies and consequences of globalization than has traditionally been the case in 'development studies'. Drawing on earlier attempts

Jeffrey Henderson; Peter Dicken; Martin Hess; Neil Coe; Henry Wai-Chung Yeung

2002-01-01

190

Recouple: Natural Resource Strategies for Rural Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This source book provides guidance and technical assistance material on utilizing forest, agricultural, and scenic and wildlife resources for rural economic development. The document focuses on the uniqueness of existing rural resources for new enterprise opportunities. Natural resource-based economic development strategies are a means to…

Thomas, Margaret G.

191

Corruption and Economic Development of Russia: A Regional Aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of corruption on economic development on the regional level. The indices of INDEM Foundation for the year 2002 were used as indicators of corruption. The estimation of the model has shown that the corruption is a significant negative determinant of a regional economic development.

Oleg Pushkarev

2007-01-01

192

Development Education in Secondary Home Economics Programs: An Interdisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines delivery approaches to integrating development education into secondary home economics curriculum and how an interdisciplinary approach can be used to teach development education in secondary home economics programs. Discusses cultural diversity and similarities, food security and insecurity, production and consumption, nutrition and…

Miller, Julia R.

1987-01-01

193

Open For Business? Institutions, Business Environment and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen a significant focus in the literature on growth and development on the idea that legal and political institutions are the key determinant of economic development. The main finding of this paper is that the focus on the primacy of legal and political institutions may be misplaced and that business-friendly economic policies (proxied for here by the

Robert Gillanders; Karl Whelan

2010-01-01

194

Small Business and Economic Development in Macomb County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the economic development role of small businesses in Macomb County, Michigan, in order to identify those businesses which are most significant in terms of their contribution to economic development and, which therefore, would warrant public support for their retention and growth. Using these criteria, the study isolated the…

Jacobs, James

195

Commercializing plant tissue culture processes: economics, problems and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Novel tissue culture techniques and a range of process schemes may be considered for commercial production of plant derived drugs, chemicals, flavors and cosmetics. Plant cell immobilization, in conjunction with strain selection and product leakage, represents a major technological advancement, with significant economic implications. Conventional batch processes produce high value products at low production capacities, whereas continuous biocatalytic processes can potentially enable production of plant derived chemicals in the $20-$25/kg price range.

Sahai, O.; Knuth, M.

1985-03-01

196

Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

Alfred, Mary V.

2007-01-01

197

Special Section: Approaches to Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four articles: "Estimating Economic Impacts of Programming: A Case Study of Forestry" (Marcouiller et al.); "Aquaculture Opportunities" (Snyder); "Starting a County Agricultural Marketing Program" (Vossen); and "A Multidisciplinary Model for Industry Support: Program Redirection Creates Missouri Textile Center" (Dillard et al.). (SK)

Marcouiller, David W.; And Others

1992-01-01

198

Natural Disasters, Economic Development, and Humanitarian Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters are one of the major problems facing humankind. Between 1980 and 2004, two million people were reported killed and five billion people cumulatively affected by around 7,000 natural disasters, according to the dataset maintained by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) at University of Louvain (Belgium). The economic costs are considerable and rising. The

David Stromberg

2007-01-01

199

The Economic Role of Political Institutions: Market-Preserving Federalism and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thriving markets require not only an appropriately designed economic system, but a secure political foundation that limits the ability of the state to confiscate wealth. This requires a form of limited government, that is, political institutions that credibly commit the state to honor economic and political rights. This article studies how limited government arose in the developed West, focusing on

Barry R. Weingast

1995-01-01

200

Process and information in economic models of markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme of this essay is simple: what economic equilibrium is in a particular market (structure) depends on what individuals and firms know and how they react in disequilibrium processes to information imperfectly available in that market. Three simplified cases are used to demonstrate this point. The cases technically are shown to be related to the kinds of analyses common

Clement G. Krouse

1975-01-01

201

Economics of Beaver-Herter extraction process revealed  

SciTech Connect

The Herter process is a surface-mined solvent extraction process which utilizes fatty acids as the solvent. The uniqueness of the Herter process if that it provides a low energy method of separating the fatty acids from the recovered oil for subsequent recycling. The Herter process recovers the fatty acid by saponification, followed by migration of the soap to the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the resulting soap phase again followed by phase separation. The formation of a hydrocarbon-soap-water emulsion limits the process unless carefully controlled by the addition of an alcohol cosolvent. Addition of the short-chain alcohol limits emulsification and allows a meaningful separation to be accomplished. The modified process is known as the Beaver-Herter process. A bench-scale model of the process has recently been completed and has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the process. A computer model has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the process on a site specific basis. This paper summarizes the process, the site selection (Oklahoma), and the economic analysis.

Not Available

1986-09-01

202

Community Economic Development Law: a Text for Engaged Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community development law has assumed pre-eminence among strategies to alleviate entrenched poverty and create sustainable economic and social change within low income communities. Despite the growing prominence of community development within graduate schools and the helping professions, there is no comprehensive textbook to date. This text provides that resource.\\u000aCommunity Economic Development Law: A Text for Engaged Learning provides a

Susan D. Bennett; Brenda Bratton Blom; Louise A. Howells; Deborah Kenn

2012-01-01

203

LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

204

Profitable Partnerships: Public-Private Partners in Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four case studies are presented to demonstrate the economic development potential of partnerships between community colleges and public and private sectors, focusing on programs that targeted a specific area of need in Oregon's economic base and raised significant funds for program implementation. Introductory comments provide background…

Edge, Barbara; MacDonald, William J.

205

Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

2011-01-01

206

Education, Gender, and Economic Development: A Cross-National Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of gender differences in educational expansion on national economic growth. Using cross-national data from 96 countries, the authors found that in less-developed countries, educational expansion among primary school-age girls had a stronger impact on long-term economic prosperity than did educational expansion among primary…

Benavot, Aaron

1989-01-01

207

The Role of Natural Resources in Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economists now recognize that, along with physical and human capital, environmental resources should be viewed as important economic assets, which can be called natural capital. Three recent debates have emerged over the role of natural capital in economic development. First, as many ecological services are unique, does the environment have an “essential” role in sustaining human welfare, and if so,

Edward B. Barbier

2003-01-01

208

Influence of Transformation Demographic Model on Economic Development of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The page represents model of influence of the occurred demographic changes on economic development of Russia. Transformation of model birth rate in modern Russia and its rapprochement to type of the western countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain). Reflection of a social and economic conjuncture in a channel of \\

Maria Kopeykina

2005-01-01

209

The Role of School Improvement in Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of improved schooling, a central part of most development strategies, has become controversial because expansion of school attainment has not guaranteed improved economic conditions. This paper reviews the role of education in promoting economic wellbeing, with a particular focus on the role of educational quality. It concludes that there…

Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

2007-01-01

210

Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.

Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.

2014-10-01

211

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization with 29 Member countries from North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific area. The OECD serves as a "forum for governments of the industrialized democracies to study and formulate the best policies possible in all economic and social spheres." Content is organized into activity sections such as development and co-operation, economics, environmental issues, transition economies, trade and transport. Within each activity, visitors can usually find related publications. The OECD site features a news and events page highlighting the latest OECD developments, and a guide to free on-line documents sorted by activity.

1999-01-01

212

Process-Based Quality (PBQ) Tools Development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort is to benchmark the development of process-based quality tools for application in CAD (computer-aided design) model-based applications. The processes of interest are design, manufacturing, and quality process applications. A study was commissioned addressing the impact, current technologies, and known problem areas in application of 3D MCAD (3-dimensional mechanical computer-aided design) models and model integrity on downstream manufacturing and quality processes. The downstream manufacturing and product quality processes are profoundly influenced and dependent on model quality and modeling process integrity. The goal is to illustrate and expedite the modeling and downstream model-based technologies for available or conceptual methods and tools to achieve maximum economic advantage and advance process-based quality concepts.

Cummins, J.L.

2001-12-03

213

Developments in Signature Process Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in the adaptive process control technique known as Signature Process Control for Advanced Composites (SPCC) are described. This computer control method for autoclave processing of composites was used to develop an optimum cure cycle for AFR 700B polyamide and for an experimental poly-isoimide. An improved process cycle was developed for Avimid N polyamide. The potential for extending the SPCC technique to pre-preg quality control, press modeling, pultrusion and RTM is briefly discussed.

Keller, L. B.; Dominski, Marty

1993-01-01

214

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1981-01-01

215

Resilience Processes in Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do children and adolescents “make it“ when their development is threatened by poverty, neglect, maltreatment, war, violence,\\u000a or exposure to oppression, racism, and discrimination? What protects them when their parents are disabled by substance abuse,\\u000a mental illness, or serious physical illness? How do we explain the phenomenon of resilience-children succeeding in spite of\\u000a serious challenges to their development-and put

Margaret O’Dougherty Wright; Ann S. Masten

216

Preliminary Economic Feasibility Analysis of High Fructose Corn Syrup Processing in the United States with Emphasis on North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prefeasibility analysis directed at the HFCS industry was carried out under a short-term turnaround basis with the intent of accomplishing two objectives. First, provide a current economic overview of the United States HFCS industry; secondly, to develop some major HFCS processing plant operating benchmarks in an effort to provide a timely informational base for state economic development interests.

Scott M. Wulff; Delmer L. Helgeson

1987-01-01

217

Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

Barbara Louise Endemańo Walker; Michael A. Robinson

2009-01-01

218

Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

2014-01-01

219

The Economics of Slums in the Developing World  

E-print Network

The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

Marx, Benjamin

220

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

1977-01-01

221

Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

Mastrangelo, Christina M.

1998-01-01

222

Roles of airships in economic development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed that airships of known and tested technology could, in some cases, perform routine transport missions more economically than conventional transport modes. If infrastructure for direct surface transport is already in place or if such infrastructure can be justified by the size of the market and there are no unusual impediments to constructing it, then the airships of tested technology cannot normally compete. If, however, the surface routes would be unusually expensive or circuitous, or if they involve several transhipments, or if the market size is too small to spread infrastructure costs of conventional transport, the airships of tested technology present a workable alternative. A series of special cases are considered. The cases, though unusual, are not unique; there are several similar possible applications which, in total, would provide a reasonably large market for airships.

Beier, G. J.; Hidalgo, G. C.

1975-01-01

223

After the exit: Acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

MASON C. M. and HARRISON R. T. (2006) After the exit: acquisitions, entrepreneurial recycling and regional economic development, Regional Studies40, 55–73. Most studies of the impact of mergers and acquisitions suggest they have a detrimental impact on economic development in peripheral regions over the longer-term. However, such assessments fail to consider the post-acquisition behaviour of the cashed-out entrepreneurs. It is

Colin M. Mason; Richard T. Harrison

2006-01-01

224

World Development Report 1985. International Capital and Economic Development. World Development Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

225

[Immigration and economic development in Eastern Asia].  

PubMed

This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from the employee's viewpoint or the employer's. The consequences of importing manpower must be studied in relation to possible alternatives. PMID:12346374

Lim, L L

1994-01-01

226

Silicon Web Process Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

1978-01-01

227

Training of Economic Administrators for Industrial Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most countries, industrialization is increasingly regarded as one of the principle activities needed to achieve and sustain a high level of development. In order to plan, implement, and operate the many complex programs and projects, a number of development training institutes have come into being. A 1962 survey revealed that the focus of the…

United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria).

228

E-Learning and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia's transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an…

Carey, Kelly; Blatnik, Stanko

2005-01-01

229

Teaching Local Economic Development Using Problem-Based Service Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course was a senior-level 3 credit seminar designed primarily for junior and senior economics majors and minors. This capstone-type course offered an opportunity for 18 students to learn about urban economics as it applies to local economic development while being actively involved in the actual practice of community and economic development through a partnership with Burlington's innovative Community and Economic Development Office (CEDO). Specifically, Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's economic development division: 1. Collected data to enable an up-to-date understanding of economic/demographic trends and conditions in Burlington and the region. CEDO has previously hired outside consultants to periodically produce a data rich document titled "Jobs and People." My students put together "Jobs and People IV." Key contributions unique to J&P IV were the construction of time series based on NAICS instead of SIC industry codes and the addition of variables to reflect Burlington's movement away from manufacturing to an economy based more on the arts, technology and sustainable agriculture. This report is now used throughout the state of Vermont. 2. Developed a dataset in excel with formulas and sources that makes it easy for CEDO staff to keep "Jobs and People" continuously updated and to modify the data and charts to meet their changing needs. CEDO will now need to rely less on expensive outside consultants. Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's community development division: 1. Conducted a survey of Burlington residents on their quality of life in the historical but economically challenged Old North End neighborhood. The survey was also designed to gather information about the types of supports residents want and to identify the role played by CEDO sponsored neighborhood associations in resident perceptions of quality of life.

Nancy Brooks

230

LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT AS A MAGNET FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT AS A MAGNET FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: EVIDENCE FROM TWIN CITIES Jason Cao Light-Rail Line on Commercial & Industrial PropertyValues in Minneapolis Real Estate Development inAnticipation of the Green Line Light RailTransit in St. Paul Green Line and DevelopmentActivities #12;Blue Line

Minnesota, University of

231

Development Economics: From the Poverty to the Wealth of Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This textbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatise on development economics, combining classical political economy, modern institutional theory, and current development issues. Grown out of twenty years' experience of teaching in the United States and Japan, its treatment is global, although the organizing principle is the East Asian development experience. Taking a comparative institutional analysis approach, it also outlines quantitative characteristics

Yujiro Hayami; Yoshihisa Godo

1997-01-01

232

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1980-01-01

233

Essays in economic development and education  

E-print Network

The first chapter of this dissertation examines the market for private school. Private school market shares are rising steadily in many developing countries, but we have a limited understanding of how private schools set ...

Feigenberg, Benjamin

2014-01-01

234

Economic evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination for developing countries.  

PubMed

Economic evaluations, in particular cost-effectiveness, are important determinants for policy makers and stakeholders involved in decision-making for health interventions. Up until now, most evaluations of cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination have been performed in developed countries. Appropriate health-economic studies on this topic specifically targeted at the developing world are essential in order to justify adding another vaccine into the existing Expanded Program on Immunization in these countries. We present a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination against HBV for developing and less-developed countries. Vaccine price, the discount rate, incidence and prevalence of HBV infection were found to be major drivers of cost-effectiveness. Data accuracy and reliability were also major issues, with major potentials for improvement in studies of these countries. The choice between monovalent or combination vaccines (diphteria, tetanus and polio-hepatitis B) poses new challenges to cost-effectiveness analysis. It is concluded that for many developing countries implementation of universal immunization against HBV to reduce the level of endemicity of hepatitis B is an appropriate strategy, and probably cost effective in many settings. Given their limited financial resources, developing countries should properly plan how to achieve this. Further country-specific economic evaluations and related gathering of high-quality data must be conducted in developing countries in order to raise both public awareness of the effectiveness and economic attractiveness of universal immunization against HBV. PMID:19538116

Tu, Hong-Anh T; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Kane, Sumit; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; van Hulst, Marinus; Postma, Maarten J

2009-07-01

235

Formal opening of conference: Social and economic aspects of electronic data processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE ARE many differing views regarding the impact that electronic data processing will have on the development of our social and economic lives, but most of us can agree that the potentialities of EDP are limited only by the boundaries of our individual imaginations. The outlook, therefore, is open to wide-ranging speculations.

W. W. Finke

1962-01-01

236

Egalitarianism in the process of Modern Economic Growth: The case of Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an analytical framework is developed where the poorly understood question of the long-term relationship between equality and growth is addressed. The authors go on to demonstrate the interconnectedness of egalitarianism and growth through the process of structural change in the case of Sweden during the last two centuries with emphasis on the drive to Modern Economic Growth.

Martin Andersson; Christer Gunnarsson

237

Nature's role in sustaining economic development  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's comprehensive wealth per capita can decline even while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increases and the UN Human Development Index records an improvement. I then use some rough and ready data from the world's poorest countries and regions to show that during the period 1970–2000 wealth per capita declined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, even though the Human Development Index (HDI) showed an improvement everywhere and GDP per capita increased in all places (except in sub-Saharan Africa, where there was a slight decline). I conclude that, as none of the development indicators currently in use is able to reveal whether development has been, or is expected to be, sustainable, national statistical offices and international organizations should now routinely estimate the (comprehensive) wealth of nations. PMID:20008380

Dasgupta, Partha

2010-01-01

238

Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions. PMID:18030342

Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

2007-01-01

239

Economic Development Web Site: State and Local Policy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Development Web Site is maintained by the State and Local Policy Program, in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, at the University of Minnesota. The site provides various resources related to economic development at the regional level. Visitors may want to start with Understanding Your Industries -- A Framework for Industry Analysis, which will examine several different analytical tools (both quantitative and qualitative) that help to describe how key industries cluster in a particular area. Several examples of areas that include industry cluster in their development strategies are available. There are also "ten key principles for developing a cutting edge economic development strategy for your area" and links to both national and state data coupled with a description of the data.

240

Technology, Innovation, and Regional Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years state and local governments, universities, and private sector groups have become increasingly active in promoting technological innovation and technology-based business development in their local economies. These efforts have resulted in productive new forms of partnership and cooperation at all levels. While federal programs have…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

241

Technology and Economics Affecting Unconventional Reservoir Development  

E-print Network

the introduction of new technologies that have boosted even more oil and gas production from the plays. Great examples are the use of horizontal and multilateral wells which has opened up additional areas for development, such as the Barnett Shale and the Bakken...

Flores Campero, Cecilia P.

2010-01-15

242

31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma. 537...411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma. ...equity interest, in the economic development of resources located in...

2010-07-01

243

31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma...and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma...contract that includes the economic development of resources located...

2010-07-01

244

31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma. 537...Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma. ...company that is engaged in the economic development of resources located...

2010-07-01

245

7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development. 2.45 Section...Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development. Pursuant to...Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be...

2010-01-01

246

7 CFR 25.502 - Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations. 25.502...Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations. Any rural area nominated by an economic development corporation chartered by...

2010-01-01

247

41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes? 102-75.900 Section...900 What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means that the...

2010-07-01

248

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2010-01-01

249

77 FR 6517 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts 300, 301...No. 120202093-2093-01] Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA),...

2012-02-08

250

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2010-01-01

251

75 FR 10219 - Solicitation of Applications for the FY 2010 University Center Economic Development Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration [Docket No.: 100210082-0082-01...the FY 2010 University Center Economic Development Program Competition in EDA's Austin...Denver Regional Offices AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA),...

2010-03-05

252

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2011-01-01

253

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2011-01-01

254

Development of an economic selection index for Australian tea tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has developed the first formal breeding objective for the Australian tea tree plantation industry. Significant\\u000a gains in profitability of Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) could be made through selection for biomass and oil yield, while maintaining oil quality at acceptable levels. Economic\\u000a values or weights (EWs), for breeding-objective traits were estimated based on a bio-economic model of a

G. J. Zhang; M. Ivkovi?; Prastyono; J. C. Doran

2011-01-01

255

The Influence of Education on Economic Development  

E-print Network

development (Boldorf 2012). Australia is another case where in 1920-1930, after World War I, Belgium required military resistance while Germany continued to invade the nation. Because Belgium resisted this, the Germans responded by destroying bridges... and burning down buildings. The Great Depression took place during this time period as well. The crisis affected Belgium in the late 1930s (Witte 2000). The Netherlands was weak militarily in the 1930?s. Adolf Hitler sent an Austrian known as Arthur Seyess...

Garcia, Julia

2013-04-15

256

Beyond Economic Growth: Meeting the Challenges of Global Development. WBI Learning Resources Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed primarily to help readers broaden their knowledge of global issues, gain insight into their country's situation in a global context, and understand the problems of sustainable development nationally and globally. Because development is a comprehensive process involving economic as well as social and environmental changes, the…

Soubbotina, Tatyana P.

257

Scaleup of IGT MILDGAS Process to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The MILDGAS process is capable of processing both eastern caking and western non-caking coals to yield a slate of liquid and solid products. The liquids can be processed to produce: feedstocks for chemicals; pitch for use as a binder for electrodes in the aluminum industry; and fuels. Depending on the feed coal characteristics and the operating conditions, the char can be used as an improved fuel for power generation or can be used to make form coke for steel-making blast furnaces or for foundry cupola operations. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. In this paper, the authors present the process design of the PDU facility, a description of the expected product distribution and the project test plan to be implemented in the program.

Campbell, J.A.L. [Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Longanbach, J.; Johnson, R. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Underwood, K. [Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States); Mead, J. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-31

258

Human Development Competencies in Preservice Home Economics Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Views the influence of human development content in home economics preservice education (1) as subject matter to teach; (2) as development concepts teachers need in order to plan, teach, and evaluate student educational experiences; and (3) as a way for students to understand their own behavior and attitudes. (CT)

Dewald-Link, Margaret R.

1980-01-01

259

Politics and economic development in Russia under Yeltsin and Putin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the political economy of Russia and how ideas about modernization and late development can be used to explain the problems of securing and maintaining economic change under Presidents Yeltsin and Putin. The paper draws on ideas from the literature on the political economy of development to argue that Russia has had problems securing modernization because of

Neil Robinson

2009-01-01

260

http://edq.sagepub.com Economic Development Quarterly  

E-print Network

engineers were senior executives at one quar- ter of Silicon Valley's technology businesses. These immigrantEconomic Development Quarterly AnnaLee Saxenian Silicon Valley's New Immigrant High-Growth Entrepreneurs DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY / February 2002Saxenian / SILICON VALLEY'S NEW IMMIGRANTS Silicon Valley's New Immigrant

Saxenian, AnnaLee

261

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF COPPER-NICKEL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEAST MINNESOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulations of industry gross output, employment and earnings changes associated with alternative copper-nickel development scenarios are presented in this report. The direct and indirect economic effects of seven development scenarios are projected for a mining impact Study Area in St. Louis County, Minnesota.

Wilbur R. Maki; Patrick D. Meagher; Leonard A. Laulainen Jr.

1979-01-01

262

Economic Development Practices among Small/Rural Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In developing this compendium of exemplary economic development practices among small and/or rural two-year colleges, the American Association of Community Colleges Commission on Small/Rural Community Colleges (CSMCC) sent out a call for program descriptions to all community colleges with less than 3,000 full-time employees or that were…

Esbeck, Tim, Comp.; Falcone, Lisa, Ed.

263

Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

1978-01-01

264

AMERICAN INDIAN CASINO GAMBLING: ISSUES OF COMMUNITY VERSUS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antell, Blevins, and Jensen present a useful description of the policy conflicts between Indian casino gambling and tribal sovereignty. However, they fail to distinguish casino gaming as a form of community versus economic development in terms of general American Indian tribal community well-being. Legal tension certainly exists between the states (mandated by federal legislation to develop gambling compacts with the

Rebecca T. Richards

2000-01-01

265

The role of small business in economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to evaluate the role that entrepreneurs and small businesses play in economic development. How important are entrepreneurs and small businesses in creating jobs, and are these the types of jobs that should be encouraged? How important are entrepreneurs and small businesses in the development of new products and new markets? Does promoting entrepreneurship and small businesses

Kelly D. Edmiston

2004-01-01

266

Food and Resource Economics 340 International Agricultural Development  

E-print Network

attention to rural areas and the agricultural sector. This will include -the factors responsible for growth and transformation in urban and rural areas -the role of agriculture in poorer countries' economic development, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press and World Bank, 1983. #12;2 World Bank, World Development Report

Farrell, Anthony P.

267

Leading Economic Development across Ontario: Achievements and Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has been developed by the Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario (ACAATO) to advance a strong college system that will continue to contribute to economic development in Ontario. Each year the colleges provide accessible quality career education and training in English and French to over one million adults. The…

Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

268

Aligning Economic and Workforce Development Activities in Baltimore. Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent efforts to build economic and work force development systems in seven leading cities were reviewed to inform similar efforts undertaken in Baltimore, Maryland. Research examining efforts to establish work force development systems in the following cities were analyzed: Austin, Texas; Berkeley, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Cleveland,…

Hicks, Lisa; Olins, Alexandra; Prince, Heath

269

Economic Development and the Escape from High Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — This paper studies the characteristic features of the escape from high mortality as re- corded from the historical experience of Northwestern Europe and from the current experience of less developed countries. The paper documents stylized facts of mortality change and measures the contribution of economic development, represented by income per capita, to the mortality decline during the second

Javier A. Birchenall

2007-01-01

270

Health and economic development: introduction to the symposium.  

PubMed

This symposium explores the role of health as an 'economic engine' in the lower Mississippi River Delta region of the United States. The health as an economic engine model proposes that health is an important and perhaps critical determinant of economic growth and development. This model is the reverse of the more commonly considered paradigm in which economic conditions are major determinants of health status. This reframing of the conventional pathway draws upon an existing and extensive internationally-based body of knowledge, predominantly from research done in Africa and Asia. We suggest, in this symposium, that the health as an economic engine model can also be applied within the United States, particularly in regions that are economically underdeveloped and have poor health. This reframing has significant implications for population health policy as public health advancement can be legitimately argued to be an investment rather than just an expense. Viewing health as an economic engine supports a call to community-based participatory action on the part of policy makers, researchers, and educators to further both public and private investment in health, particularly for children and the poor. PMID:18575145

Clay, Joy A; Mirvis, David M

2008-01-01

271

Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

1981-04-01

272

State and local economic development tools : how does the range of state-level economic development tools available to a locality influence the way local resources are deployed?  

E-print Network

Patterns in Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) expenditures for economic development in selected states were analyzed to explore whether differences in economic development tools, policies and programs available at ...

Piercy, Brett I. (Brett Ianthe)

2010-01-01

273

Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

1982-01-01

274

Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

2014-09-01

275

75 FR 49016 - County of Greenville, S.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Greenville County Economic Development Corporation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exemption--Greenville County Economic Development Corporation The County of...acquire from Greenville County Economic Development Corporation (GCEDC) approximately...See Greenville County Economic Development...

2010-08-12

276

Sponge iron: economic, ecological, technical and process-specific aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process cycle sponge iron/hydrogen/iron oxide offers a simple possibility to store the energy of synthesis gases in the form of sponge iron, and at the same time to reform and to condition these synthesis gases. As 'product' of this energy storage one receives pure hydrogen which is intended for the running of fuel cells. The process cycle is investigated on two levels: (i) on a general level, economic, ecological and technical conditions are investigated and established, and (ii) on the process-specific level industrially produced iron ore pellets are tested for their suitability for employment in cyclic operation with synthesis gases. Mechanical strength, porosity, speed of reaction, additives and attendant materials (gangue) determine the properties of the pellets. The reaction degree of the iron contained in the pellets should be large and will remain constant. Negative influences such as sintering and carbonization should be avoided as far as possible in order to achieve a high number of cycles.

Selan, M.; Lehrhofer, J.; Friedrich, K.; Kordesch, K.; Simader, G.

277

Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

2013-03-01

278

Making the Link. Coordinating Economic Development and Employment and Training. State Governments. Regional Councils. Local Economic Development Agencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of three closely related reports, dealing with "State Governments", "Regional Councils", and "Local Econcomic Development Agencies", respectively, together with a fourth document, a preceding overview. These documents draw from results of a project to identify successful approaches to coordinating economic development and…

National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

279

Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development  

SciTech Connect

The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

2006-05-01

280

Grounding Development in Cognitive Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmentalists have made remarkable progress over the last several decades in detailing what children know at various points in development. Less progress has been made, however, in detailing the processes through which knowledge is realized in real-time tasks, or in detailing the processes of developmental change. We argue that the operating characteristics of perceiving and remembering provide a foundation for

Larissa K. Samuelson; Linda B. Smith

2000-01-01

281

Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-10-01

282

Community Economic Development Law : A Text For Engaged Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Economic Development Law: A Text for Engaged Learning provides a flexible set of materials that faculty can customize to meet the goals of the stand-alone community development class, or the pedagogical needs of community development law clinics. The text enables students to approach the substantive material as would problem-solving, community-based practitioners. They do so by entering the community of

Susan D. Bennett; Brenda Bratton Blom; Louise A. Howells; Deborah S. Kenn

2012-01-01

283

Advanced process modeling at the BCL smelter: Improving economic and environmental performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1973 Bamangwato Concessions Limited (BCL) has operated a nickel-copper smelter in Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana. The smelter treats concentrates from local mines and various custom feed concentrates. The nickel throughput capacity of this smelter is constrained by a low nickel feed grade in its primary BCL concentrate. BCL contracted Xstrata Process Support (XPS) to assist in identifying key economic drivers to maximize revenue-generating opportunities. After the disclosure of essential BCL plant performance data XPS developed and utilized advanced metallurgical modeling techniques to identify production bottlenecks, calculate Ni, Cu, and Co recoveries, manage the slag volumes, increase the custom feed capacity, and perform various feasibility analyses for key unit process operations in the BCL smelter. The methodology for developing the process model and its application in contributing to the economic bottom line are outlined in this paper.

Tripathi, Nagendra; Peek, Edgar; Stroud, Milton

2011-01-01

284

Economic evaluation of rural woodlots in a developing country: Tanzania  

SciTech Connect

Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

Kihiyo, V.B.M.S. [Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of)] [Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of)

1996-03-01

285

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This year's annual report on the economic prospects for developing countries focuses on international trade and the policies needed to help these nations benefit from global integration. The news is good for many developing countries, whose economic growth is expected to register "5.3 percent this year, 5 percent next year, and ease to 4.8 percent by 2002." However, the world's poorest nations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have not kept pace. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release and summary are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main page also provides a slide show of the primary points and issues of the report and a video interview with the Director of the Bank's Economy Policy and Prospects program, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

286

A survey of the economics of materials processing in space. [accenting biomedical materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the economics of space materials processing has been performed with the objectives of identifying those areas of space materials processing that give preliminary indication of significant economic potential, and to identify possible approaches to quantify the economic potential. It is concluded that limited economic studies have been performed to date, primarily in the area of the processing of inorganic materials, but that the economics of space processing of biological material has not received adequate attention. Specific studies are recommended to evaluate the economic impact of human lymphocyte subgroup separation on organ transplantation, and on the separation and concentration of urokinase producing cells.

Miller, B. P.

1975-01-01

287

UOP develops new oxygenates process  

SciTech Connect

UOP, Des Plaines, Ill., has developed a process it claims is new state of the art for making methyl or ethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE or ETBE) or tertiary amyl methyl ester (TAME) from olefin feedstocks. UOP the the process, carrying the trademark Ethermax, achieves higher conversion rates than fixed bed processes: more than 99% isobutylene conversion in MTBE units and more than 91% isoamylene conversion in TAME units, compared with 96-98% and 70% respectively, with conventional etherification technology. UOP, Huels AG of Marl, Germany, and Koch Engineering Co. Inc., Wichita, Kan., developed the Ethermax process by combining principles of conventional fixed bed MTBE processing with Koch's proprietary reaction with distillation (RWD) technology.

Not Available

1991-06-03

288

Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas  

SciTech Connect

Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

Kao, C.S.

1985-01-01

289

Catalogue of Social and Economic Development Institutes and Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This international directory of institutes covers over 140 specialized postgraduate level programs offered in such fields as economic and social planning, agricultural or industrial development, and public administration by 78 universities and other educational institutions in 25 nations, as well as through 15 international bodies. Each entry…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

290

AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

291

Is there a role for genetics in economic development?  

E-print Network

possibility is that genetic di¤erences may play a role in explaining di¤erences in economic development in the original). Their mechanism relies instead in an assumed relationship between genetic and cultural distance a single, parent population. The authors then assume that the longer the time since divergence the greater

Glasgow, University of

292

Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

293

World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of

D. W. Pearce; J. J. Warford

1993-01-01

294

The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

295

Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between economic development and environmental quality is analyzed econometrically for a large sample of countries over time. The results indicate that some indicators improve with rising incomes (like water and sanitation), others worsen and then improve (particulates and sulfur oxides), and others worsen steadily (dissolved oxygen in rivers, municipal solid wastes, and carbon emissions). Growth tends to be

Nemat Shafik

1994-01-01

296

Human Geography Data and Mapping for Economic Development & Livelihoods  

E-print Network

Human Geography Data and Mapping for Economic Development & Livelihoods 27 June 2012 World Bank, Washington D.C. We are pleased to announce the World-Wide Human Geography Data Working Group meeting on 27 partnerships around human geography data and mapping focused on the general principle of making appropriate

Giles, C. Lee

297

Parenting and Child Development. Vocational Home Economics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide, developed for use in secondary vocational home economics education in Texas, is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in each guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

298

Investment Security as a Factor of Steady Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article argues for the growing role of economic security factors in the situation of post-crisis development. The paper is focused on the problem of investment security of the national economy. The article contains the definition of investment security and its basic criteria. The author designates major directions and tools of the state policy directed at maintenance of investment security

S. NARYSHKIN

2010-01-01

299

Telecommunications Infrastructure and Economic Development: A Simultaneous Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate how telecommunications infrastructure affects economic growth. We use evidence from 21 OECD countries over a 20-year period to examine the impacts that telecommunications developments may have had. We jointly estimate a micromodel for telecommunication investment with a macro production function. We find evidence of a significant positive causal link, especially when a critical mass of

Lars-Hendrik Roller; Leonard Waverman

2001-01-01

300

Role of Siberia's territories in the economic development of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of Russia's largest macroregion, Siberia, in the economic development of the country is demonstrated. The emphasis is on examining the delimitation of Siberia, and on substantiating its paramount spatial, resource and ecological significance. An economicgeographical analysis of the consequences of the macroregion's inland location is carried out.

L. A. Bezrukov; L. M. Korytny

2009-01-01

301

Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

2010-01-01

302

Energy Costs, Economic and Environmental Analysis Course Development Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course development model on energy costs as well as economic and environmental analysis. Topics include utility rate analysis, simple payback analysis, compound interest and more. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

303

Position Description Project Manager, Office of Community and Economic Development  

E-print Network

Position Description Project Manager, Office of Community and Economic Development Full-time Administrative Professional Position Job Description: As part of our team, this Project Manager position and staff. This is a full-time, 12-month Administrative Professional Manager position that reports jointly

304

Contributions of Home-Based Businesses to Regional Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home-based businesses (HBBs) are the most dominant form of enterprise and the fastest growing business segment in most Western economies. HBBs have raised significant government interest based on their potential to deliver economic development and growth for the communities that they operate in. While international knowledge of the home-based sector is growing in the areas of HBB occurrence, operator characteristics

Calvin Wang; Elizabeth Walker; Janice Redmond; John Breen

2009-01-01

305

Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

Ferguson, W. Ker

2011-01-01

306

Attracting, Developing, and Maintaining Human Capital: A New Model for Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development," a 2011 book by Timothy Bartik, Senior Economist at the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, provides a new evidence-based approach for effective economic development. This approach is designed to support business growth and job creation by improving worker…

America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

307

Research and Development and the Role of the Urban University in Strategic Economic Development Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban universities have a definite role to play within the context of strategic economic development. Coordination between state and local government, the private sector, and the academic community can lead to effective partnerships to formulate and implement economic development plans. Declining university enrollments and fewer dollars available…

Sheppard, Ronald J.

308

Multi-Market Industrial Organizational Economic Models for the Internationalization Process by Small and Medium Enterprise Construction Design Service Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are critical to strategic initiatives in an economy; however, their contribution to foreign trade is not as significant. SMEs are one of the principal driving forces in economic development. One of the greatest challenges is the internationalization process for longevity rather than seeing the process as initial market entry. The internationalization process research has typically

Kerry London

2010-01-01

309

Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health yesterday released this 210-page report on the role of health in global economic development. The Commission, which was established in January of last year, finds "that extending the coverage of crucial health services, including a relatively small number of specific interventions, to the world's poor could save millions of lives each year, reduce poverty, spur economic development, and promote global security." The report recommends an effort on the part of developing and developed nations alike and argues that millions of lives would be saved annually if cooperating countries invested one tenth of one percent of national income. At the site, users can download the report in full or by section.

2001-01-01

310

Activated carbon from pecan shell: process description and economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbons derived from pecan shells have been shown to adsorb a variety of metal and organic species in various processing wastewaters. Their effectiveness is equivalent to or exceeds comparable commercial carbons in this regard. The objectives of this study were to develop process flow diagrams for the large-scale production of pecan shell-based carbons derived from steam or phosphoric

Chilton Ng; Wayne E Marshall; Ramu M Rao; Rishipal R Bansode; Jacques N Losso

2003-01-01

311

Tourism development and economic growth: A closer look at panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies the new heterogeneous panel cointegration technique to re-investigate the long-run comovements and causal relationships between tourism development and economic growth for OECD and nonOECD countries (including those in Asia, Latin America and Sub-Sahara Africa) for the 1990–2002 period. On the global scale, after allowing for the heterogeneous country effect, a cointegrated relationship between GDP and tourism development

Chien-Chiang Lee; Chun-Ping Chang

2008-01-01

312

Economic Development and the Role of Community Colleges: Contract Education in Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many California community colleges are accepting the challenge of their vital role in economic development through contract education (i.e., the process of entering into partnerships with business, government, and industry at the work site to assist employer training). Employer-based education and training is generally contracted in one of six…

Ramirez, Kevin M.

1989-01-01

313

Economic Partnership Agreements Between Sub-Saharan Africa and the EU: A Development Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on Hinkle and Schiff (2003). It analyses the planned Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the EU and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from a development perspective. It does not take a position on whether SSA should enter into EPAs with the EU. Rather, it starts from the notion that the process of forming EPAs is unlikely to be reversed

Lawrence E. Hinkle; Maurice Schiff

2004-01-01

314

Modeling Integrated Farm Systems: A Tool for Developing more Economically and Environmentally Sustainable Farming Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of models have been developed to represent farm systems, but only a few actually integrate all or most of the major biological, physical, and economic processes of a farm. Farm system models are used for decision support, education, and research purposes. Because of differences in the type ...

315

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China  

PubMed Central

Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

2014-01-01

316

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

2014-08-01

317

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.  

PubMed

Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan

2014-01-01

318

The urban economic development impacts of ethnic entrepreneurship : a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in Lawrence, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the process through which ethnic entrepreneurship impacts urban economic development. In many urban places across the United States, demographic change has led to the rise of ethnic communities and the ...

Cheigh, Brian Chaneung

2005-01-01

319

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01

320

Rural People and Rural Economic Development. IIEP Seminar Paper: 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming development is a process that involves the generation, diffusion, and realization of new opportunities, this paper discusses the following: (1) The Development Process: Facts and Issues (re: visible unemployment; rural to urban migration; the dualism of labor markets in the less developed countries; population growth; and the…

Bowman, M. J.

321

Developability studies before initiation of process development  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies constitute a robust class of therapeutic proteins. Their stability, resistance to stress conditions and high solubility have allowed the successful development and commercialization of over 40 antibody-based drugs. Although mAbs enjoy a relatively high probability of success compared with other therapeutic proteins, examples of projects that are suspended due to the instability of the molecule are not uncommon. Developability assessment studies have therefore been devised to identify early during process development problems associated with stability, solubility that is insufficient to meet expected dosing or sensitivity to stress. This set of experiments includes short-term stability studies at 2?8 ţC, 25 ţC and 40 ţC, freeze-thaw studies, limited forced degradation studies and determination of the viscosity of high concentration samples. We present here three case studies reflecting three typical outcomes: (1) no major or unexpected degradation is found and the study results are used to inform early identification of degradation pathways and potential critical quality attributes within the Quality by Design framework defined by US Food and Drug Administration guidance documents; (2) identification of specific degradation pathway(s) that do not affect potency of the molecule, with subsequent definition of proper process control and formulation strategies; and (3) identification of degradation that affects potency, resulting in program termination and reallocation of resources. PMID:23883920

Yang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Wei; Dukleska, Svetlana; Benchaar, Sabrina; Mengisen, Selina; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Cheung, Jason; Mann, Leslie; Babadjanova, Zulfia; Rowand, Jason; Gunawan, Rico; McCampbell, Alexander; Beaumont, Maribel; Meininger, David; Richardson, Daisy; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

2013-01-01

322

Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida and St. Johns County  

E-print Network

Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida and St. Johns County Economics Department #12;i Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida....................................................................................................................ii Economic Impacts of the World Golf Village Development for Northeast Florida.................1 Introduction

Florida, University of

323

Modeling the economics of landfilling organic processing waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector are many examples of various liquid, sludge, and solid biological and organic waste streams that require remediation. Alternative disposal methods for food and other bio-organic manufacturing waste streams are increasingly being investigated. Direct shipping, blending, extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human food, animal feed, industrial products, and components ready for further manufacture. Landfilling, the traditional approach to waste remediation, however, should not be dismissed entirely. It does provide a baseline to which all other recycling and reprocessing options should be compared. This paper discusses the implementation of a computer model designed to examine the economics of landfilling bio-organic processing waste streams. Not only are these results applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm would benefit from examining the trends discussed here.

Rosentrater, Kurt A.

2005-11-01

324

Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox  

SciTech Connect

Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

2012-03-01

325

The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development was started in 1987 by Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt. The Project's primary goal is "to understand and foster the conditions under which sustained, self-determined social and economic development is achieved among American Indian nations." To accomplish this goal, the Project has sponsored a number of conferences and events, and as also offered advisory services to interested persons and tribal leaders. The "Publications" area is a good way to take a look at the fruits of their labors, as it includes the archives of the Joint Occasional Papers on Native Affairs and a variety of field reports, such as "Renewing Beauty: Options for Navajo Land Management and Decision Making".

326

Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

Adams, Alan M.

1995-01-01

327

Recent developments in decision-analytic modelling for economic evaluation.  

PubMed

The past few years have seen rapid changes in the methods of decision-analytic modelling of healthcare programmes for the purposes of economic evaluation. This paper focuses on four developments in modelling that have emerged over the past few years or have become more widely used. First, no one optimal method for extrapolating outcomes from clinical trials has yet been established. Modellers may draw from a set of varied assumptions about survival extrapolation that encompass a range of possibilities from highly optimistic to extremely cautious. Secondly, the practicality and appeal of microsimulation as a method for analysing healthcare decision problems has increased dramatically with the speed of computing technology. Individual instantiations of a system are generated by using a random process to draw from probability distributions a large number of times (also known as Monte Carlo or probabilistic simulation). Microsimulation is moving in new directions, such as discrete-event simulations that simulate sequences of events by drawing directly from probability distributions of event times; this approach is now being broadly applied to model situations where populations of patients interact with healthcare delivery systems. Microsimulation modelling of transmission systems at the population level is also rapidly developing. Thirdly, model calibration is emerging as a new tool that may offer health scientists a means of generating important fundamental knowledge about disease processes. Model calibration allows evidence synthesis in which observations on observable quantities are used to draw inferences about unobservable quantities. The methodology of model calibration has advanced considerably, drawing on theories of numerical analysis and mathematical programming such as gradient methods, intelligent grid search algorithms, and many more. As a fourth issue, an area of extraordinary activity is in the use of transmission models to analyse interventions for infectious diseases, including population-wide effects of vaccination. Transmission models use differential equations to simulate, deterministically for the most part, transitions among infection-related health states. Only recently have modelling methodologies been combined so that cost-effectiveness analyses can consider explicitly not only the patient-level benefits of interventions but also the secondary benefits through transmission dynamics. Advances in technology allow more realistic and complex healthcare models to be simulated more rapidly. However, decision makers will not readily accept results from models unless they can understand them intuitively and explain them to others in relatively simple terms. The challenge for the next generation of modellers is not only to harness the power available from these newly accessible methods, but also to extract from the new generation of models the insights that will have the power to influence decision makers. PMID:17067190

Weinstein, Milton C

2006-01-01

328

Tourism's Impact on Economic Growth and Development in Spain  

E-print Network

Tourism's Impact on Economic Growth and Development in Spain Jessica Dennis #12;Spanish Civil War,500,000,000 International Tourism Receipts 1960-2008 (US$ in year 2000) #12;$0 $200,000,000,000 $400,000,000,000 $600 (US$ in the year 2000) #12;0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% International Tourism Receipts

New Hampshire, University of

329

USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

2005-05-01

330

CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies and Economic Development of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the consequences of alternative CO2 emission reduction strategies on economic development and, in particular, the implications for the poor by empirically implementing an economy-wide model for India over a 35-year time horizon. A multi-sectoral, inter-temporal model in the activity analysis framework is used for this purpose. The model with specific technological alternatives, endogenous income distribution, truly dynamic

N. Satyanarayana Murthy; Manoj Panda; Kirit Parikh

2007-01-01

331

The Important Role of Physics in Industry and Economic Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good Physics requires good education. Good education translates into good Physics professionals. The process starts early with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education programs for Middle and High-School students. Then it continues with competitive higher education programs (2 years and 4 years) at colleges and universities designed to satisfy the needs of industry and academia. The research work conducted by graduate students in Physics (and Engineering Physics) frequently translates into new discoveries and innovations that have direct impact in society (e.g. Proton Cancer Therapy). Some of the major and largest scientific experiments in the world today are physics-centered (e.g. Large Hadron Collider-LHC) that generate employment and business opportunities for thousands of scientists, academic research groups and companies from around the world. New superconducting magnets and advanced materials that have resulted from previous research in physics are commonly used in these extreme experiments. But not all physicists will end up working at these large high-energy physics experiments, universities or National Laboratories (e.g. Fermilab); industry requires new generations of (industrial) physicists in such sectors as semiconductor, energy, space, life sciences, defense and advanced manufacturing. This work presents an industry perspective about the role of Physics in economic development and the need for a collaborative Academic-Industry approach for a more effective translational research. A series of examples will be presented with emphasis in the measurement, control, diagnostics and computing capabilities needed to translate the science (physics) into innovations and practical solutions that can benefit society as a whole.

Alvarado, Igor

2012-10-01

332

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Skamania County, Washington.  

SciTech Connect

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

333

7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true State rural economic development review panel. 1940.956 Section...System for Delivery of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General....

2010-01-01

334

7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant... System for Delivery of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel...

2010-01-01

335

7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant... System for Delivery of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel...

2011-01-01

336

7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2009-01-01 true State rural economic development review panel. 1940.956 Section...System for Delivery of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General....

2011-01-01

337

Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

2011-01-01

338

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01

339

Economic development and dependency: the case of oil-exporting developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliance of oil-exporting developing countries on oil-revenues has certain implications for both their domestic economic structures and foreign trade relations. The purposes of this research were to study and analyze: (1) the extent of the dependence of oil-exporting developing countries on the exportation of a single exhaustible resource, (2) the impact of this dependence on domestic economic structures, and

Shahrokhi

1982-01-01

340

The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility.  

PubMed

This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

Heckman, James J; Mosso, Stefano

2014-08-01

341

Economic on-line optimization for liquids extraction and treating in gas processing plants  

SciTech Connect

Significant changes in the gas processing industry are driving processors to become more dependent on their ability to adapt plant operations to respond to changing third party contracts, wide variability of inlet conditions, plus the volatile market pricing of NGL`s and residue gas in order to remain competitive and profitable. The need for flexible operations at each facility requires an on-line, real time supervisory controller/optimizer that manipulates the process to achieve its economic optimum. Economic optimum does not equal process optimum and the traditional approach of only meeting the control objectives is insufficient for today`s gas plant operations. Because gas plants have no storage of products or residue gas, lost opportunity is immediate with no means to regain lost profitability. The nonlinear characteristics of the process makes typical available control technologies unacceptable for these applications. A new solution that incorporates economics, process dynamics and the economic arrangements of the gas processor has been developed with the cooperation of industry, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and Continental Controls, Inc. (CCI). The objective function of this software solution is the maximization of profit for the plant and its co-owners. Thus, the optimum set of controlled variables is also dynamic, dependent on product price margins, variability of the inlet gas, and the cost of utilities. This simultaneous control and optimization solution has produced benefits that have paid for the project in as little as two and one half months and typically four to seven months depending on the gas throughput and its richness.

Berkowitz, P.N. [Continental Controls, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, J.P. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-11-01

342

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

343

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

344

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

345

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

346

Child Development Is Economic Development. A Conversation with Economist Art Rolnick. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public dollars spent to stimulate economic development would be more wisely invested in child development programs, according to two different streams of research. Brain research shows the impact of experiences and environments on the developing brain architecture, with weaker architecture leading to increased vulnerability to later problems…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

2006-01-01

347

Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

2000-10-01

348

Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

1997-01-21

349

Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

1992-01-01

350

Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis. PMID:20146767

Stage, Jesper

2010-01-01

351

31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. 537.413 Section 537...Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. The sale to a foreign...

2010-07-01

352

11.471 Targeting the Poor: Small Firms, Workers, and Local Economic Development, Fall 2004  

E-print Network

Covers conditions under which public-sector policies, programs, and projects succeed in enhancing the economic activities of poorer groups and micro-regions in developing countries. Topics include local economic development; ...

Tendler, Judith

353

Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

Elam, Jeffrey W.

2015-01-01

354

The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development*  

PubMed Central

Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of capabilities. Both cognitive and noncognitive capabilities determine success in life but to varying degrees for different outcomes. An empirically determined technology of capability formation reveals that capabilities are self-productive and cross-fertilizing and can be enhanced by investment. Investments in capabilities are relatively more productive at some stages of a child’s life cycle than others. Optimal child investment strategies differ depending on target outcomes of interest and on the nature of adversity in a child’s early years. For some configurations of early disadvantage and for some desired outcomes, it is efficient to invest relatively more in the later years of childhood than in the early years. PMID:20209045

Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

2009-01-01

355

The economics of environmental degradation from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises in less developed countries  

SciTech Connect

The economic productivity of ecological systems constitutes imperfectly known resources for many developing countries and, as a result, national incentives for their preservation are hampered. Scarcity of capital and foreign exchange, on the other hand, creates for these countries an economic pressure to reduce environmental quality standards in return for foreign exchange from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises. For a bargaining outcome to be considered successful, the host country`s marginal cost of environmental protection should be equal to the social scarcity cost of foreign exchange for capital accumulation. However, imperfections in the international capital markets and in he information processing of private and government institutions as well as government failure may upgrade the value of foreign exchange relative to environmental protection. As a result, many developing countries may prefer to have more direct investment gains derived from an inflow of foreign exchange by allowing pollution-intensive multinationals an excessive amount of pollution, than the strategically optimal one, if these enterprises are prepared to shift operations to their country. Strategic bargaining by pollution-intensive multinationals can turn the economic pressures of developing countries into an exploitable dependence. This paper investigates the socio-economic outcome from strategic bargaining opportunities between developing countries and pollution-intensive multinationals in an effort to provide a better understanding of what is negotiable in the presence of exploitable dependencies.

Grivoyannis, E.C. [Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ (United States)

1997-06-01

356

The healthcare off-shoring industry in developing economies – institutional and economic foundations : An Indian case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Industrialized world-based healthcare providers are increasingly off-shoring low-end healthcare services such as medical transcription, billing and insurance claims. High-skill medical jobs such as tele-imaging and tele-pathology are also being sub-contracted to developing countries. Despite its importance, little theory or research exists to explain what factors affect industry growth. The article's goals, therefore, are to examine economic processes associated

Nir Kshetri

2011-01-01

357

Environment, health, and sustainable development: the role of economic instruments and policies.  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen considerable progress in integrating environmental concerns into the mainstream of development policy and planning. Economic instruments designed explicitly for environmental purposes may help to achieve cost-effective solutions, and generate public revenues. Macroeconomic and sectoral policies may impact heavily upon the environment, and there is much scope for policy reforms that are justified in both economic and environmental terms. Progress in this area has been much more rapid than in the case of health objectives, even though the rationale for environmental improvement is often ultimately related to human health and well-being. It is proposed that lessons from recent experience in the use of economic instruments and policies to achieve environmental objectives are highly relevant for the health sector, which should seek and encourage support for measures that requires consumer and producers of environmentally degrading products to pay for the economic and social costs of the damage resulting from their use. Policy reform at the macroeconomic or sectoral level may yield cost-effective solutions to some health problems, and may even bring about improvements in health status that involve no net cost at all. The countrywide impact of such policies indicate that health agencies, including WHO, should develop the capacity to understand how economic policies and the adjustment process impact upon human health, not only direct through the effect on incomes, but also indirectly, via changes in the natural environment. Ability to conduct rigorous health impact assessment of economic policy reform, which requires a multidisciplinary effort, is a necessary condition if health ministries are to maximize their effectiveness in influencing overall government economic policy. PMID:7614671

Warford, J. J.

1995-01-01

358

Increasing the Economic Development Benefits of Higher Education in Michigan. Working Paper No. 04-106  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how a state such as Michigan can increase the economic development benefits of higher education. Research evidence suggests that higher education increases local economic development principally by increasing the quality of the local workforce, and secondarily by increasing local innovative ideas. These economic development

Bartik, Timothy J.

2004-01-01

359

Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing the pace and extent of economic development across the developing regions yields that Arab countries have displaced a weak economic performance over the past 20 years, despite their favorable geo-strategic location and a high density of national and international structural adjustment efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of

Juliane Brach

2010-01-01

360

National Use of Asbestos in Relation to Economic Development  

PubMed Central

Background National disparities in asbestos use will likely lead to an unequal burden of asbestos diseases. Objectives As economic status may be linked to asbestos use, we assessed, globally, the relationship between indicators of national economic development and asbestos use. Methods For the 135 countries that have ever used asbestos, per capita asbestos use (kilograms per capita per year) was compared with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 1990 Geary–Khamis dollars (GKD) for the period 1920–2003. Countries were grouped into three income levels (high, middle, and low) that were adapted from the 2003 World Bank categories. Results The historical pattern of asbestos use followed the environmental Kuznets curve in which use by high-income countries peaked when incomes attained 10,000–15,000 GKD and essentially ceased at income levels over 20,000 GKD. Currently, middle- and low-income countries are increasing their use of asbestos, closely following the paths once traced by higher income countries. Conclusions Developing countries have the opportunity to eliminate asbestos use sooner than high-income countries and thus reduce the future burden of asbestos diseases. PMID:20056590

Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken; Karjalainen, Antti; Delgermaa, Vanya; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Miyamura, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Sugio; Higashi, Toshiaki; Pan, Guowei; Wagner, Gregory

2010-01-01

361

Pervaporation-based hybrid process: a review of process design, applications and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation is one of the developing membrane technologies that can be used for various industrial applications but for a predefined task, the optimal process design is unlikely to consist solely of pervaporation. Often the optimised solution becomes a hybrid process combining pervaporation with one or more other separation technologies. A distinction will be made between hybrid and integrated processes. Hybrid

Frank Lipnizki; Robert W Field; Po-Kiong Ten

1999-01-01

362

Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

Shaw, Eric J.

1998-01-01

363

Eastern University's MBA in Economic Development: Insights for Development Management Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evangelical Christian development organizations have long realized that mis- sion effectiveness is largely contingent on the skills and abilities possessed by their human capital. A crucial way to create that human capital is through development-oriented academic programs, especially those focused on devel- oping skills required by grassroots personnel and their support organizations. A review of Eastern University's MBA in economic

M. Thomas Ridington; Chris Kapp

2009-01-01

364

Energy consumption, economic growth and prices: A reassessment using panel VECM for developed and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reinvestigates the energy consumption–GDP growth nexus in a panel error correction model using data on 20 net energy importers and exporters from 1971 to 2002. Among the energy exporters, there was bidirectional causality between economic growth and energy consumption in the developed countries in both the short and long run, while in the developing countries energy consumption stimulates

Renuka Mahadevan; John Asafu-Adjaye

2007-01-01

365

Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges" is a compilation of best practice examples, which illustrate what it takes for community colleges to achieve their goal of helping people acquire education and skills, helping employers, supporting communities, and building the nation. The book is written…

Rothwell, William J., Ed.; Gerity, Patrick E., Ed.

2008-01-01

366

Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university model…

Shin, Jung Cheol

2012-01-01

367

Partners in Growth: Business-Higher Education Development Strategies. Education-Economic Development Series, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies to facilitate better cooperation between business and higher education institutions are explored with a focus on policies that colleges, businesses, and public policy makers can implement to utilize educational resources for economic development. Consideration is given to: developing informal university-industry networks, universities…

Doyle, Peter H.; Brisson, Candice

368

Economics of controlling invasive species: a stochastic optimisation model for a spatial-dynamic process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are significant threats to biodiversity, natural ecosystems and agriculture leading to large worldwide economic and environmental damage. Spread and control of invasive species are stochastic processes with important spatial dimensions. Most economic studies of invasive species control ignore spatial and stochastic aspects. This paper covers this gap in the previous studies by analysing a spatially explicit dynamic process

Morteza Chalak; David J. Pannell; Maksym Polyakov

2011-01-01

369

Economics of Controlling Invasive Species: A Stochastic Optimisation Model for a Spatial-Dynamic Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are significant threats to biodiversity, natural ecosystems and agriculture leading to large worldwide economic and environmental damage. Spread and control of invasive species are stochastic processes with important spatial dimensions. Most economic studies of invasive species control ignore spatial and stochastic aspects. This paper covers this gap in the previous studies by analysing a spatially explicit dynamic process

Morteza Chalak; David J. Pannell; Maksym Polyakov

2011-01-01

370

Regional, economic, and environmental effects of traditional and biotechnologically enhanced ethanol production processes in Brazil  

E-print Network

Climate change, food security, and energy efficiency have become universal challenges for global economic development and environmental conservation that demand in-depth multidisciplinary research. Biofuels have emerged ...

Guerrero Compeán, Roberto

2008-01-01

371

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

372

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

373

Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ˘/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit operations, utilizing high sulfidity green liquor pretreatment, PSAQ with auto-causticization, or converting the process to mini-sulfide sulfite-AQ.

Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

374

Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a 1-year program to develop the processes required for low-energy ion implantation for the automated production of silicon solar cells are described. The program included: (1) demonstrating state-of-the-art ion implantation equipment and designing an automated ion implanter, (2) making efforts to improve the performance of ion-implanted solar cells to 16.5 percent AM1, (3) developing a model of the pulse annealing process used in solar cell production, and (4) preparing an economic analysis of the process costs of ion implantation.

Minnucci, J. A.

1978-01-01

375

Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process  

SciTech Connect

It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums today over the apparent decline in global competitiveness of U.S. industry. The question is why does U.S. industry not succeed in the development and marketing of competitive products when they lead in the generation of new technology.

Mock, John E.

1989-03-21

376

Energy consumption and economic development in West Africa  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the commercial energy sector of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Presently, an economic union exists between the 16 countries of West Africa that are members of ECOWAS. Although the ECOWAS region has plentiful resources of commercial energy, it faces problems in this sector for two reasons. First is the problem resulting from the diminishing traditional energy resources such as wood fuel and charcoal. Second, most ECOWAS members, except Nigeria, are net importers of commercial energy, and hence face a high import burden for oil. Liquid petroleum is the dominant form of commercial energy used in the ECOWAS despite the availability of other resources. This author basically argues that the best policy and strategy solution for dealing with energy problems is through a combination of regional cooperative effort, and a more-intensive country level. The intensity-of-use hypothesis is tested with case studies of Ghana, the Ivory Coast, and Nigeria. The results indicate that newly developing countries can deviate from the expectations of the hypothesis.

Chima, C.M.

1987-01-01

377

A process model for packaged software development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As software development migrates from its roots as a process for building a custom product to a process for building packaged products, there is a greater need for an appropriate product development process model that is market-oriented. Field data suggests that process models are not widely used in the package industry. An overview of normative process models in the software

E. Carmel; Shirley Becker

1995-01-01

378

Special Economic Zones and Economic Corridors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various reports show that special economic zones (SEZ) have become a prime catalyst for regional development in developing countries such as China and the ASEAN countries. The SEZ can be defined as a specific geographical region with economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws. Many SEZs have characteristics of bonded zones, export processing zone (EPZ)

Masami ISHIDA

2009-01-01

379

Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect

Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

Not Available

1990-07-31

380

Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) has developed a spreadsheet-based wind model (Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI)) that incorporates economic multipliers for jobs, income, and output. Originally developed with state-specific parameters, it can also be used to conduct county and regional analyses. NREL has enlisted the Wind Powering America (WPA) State Wind Working Groups (SWWGs) to conduct county-specific economic impact analyses and has encouraged them to use JEDI if they do not have their own economic model. The objective of the analyses is to identify counties within WPA target states, and preferably counties with a significant agricultural sector, that could economically benefit from wind development. These counties could then explore opportunities to tap into the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Bill Section 9006 grants and loans to stimulate wind development. This paper describes the JEDI model and how i t can be used. We will also summarize a series of analyses that were completed to fulfill a General Accounting Office (GAO) request to provide estimates of the economic development benefits of wind power.

Sinclair, K.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

2004-03-01

381

Democracy and Economic ReformsDeveloping Underdeveloped Political Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early 1980s many African countries were compelled by bad economic circumstances and poor economic prospects to adopt structural adjustment programs dictated by their external creditors. By the late 1980s, it had become clear that these economic reform programs were failing to achieve their objectives. This factor as well as the effective disintegration of the Soviet empire enabled the

Ufo Okeke Uzodike

1996-01-01

382

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at... TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...

2013-01-01

383

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at... TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...

2012-01-01

384

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at... TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...

2010-01-01

385

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at... TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...

2014-01-01

386

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at... TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...

2011-01-01

387

Food industry and economic development in the Asia Pacific.  

PubMed

The food industry in the Asia Pacific region is gigantic in size, and is therefore a key element in the economic development prospects for the region. It is estimated that in 2000, for example, total expenditure on food and beverages in China was worth $US 188.5 billion, second only to that in Japan at $322 billion. Yet it is clear that given the expansion of both populations and incomes in the region this market will expand rapidly over the next few years. Particularly important will be the continued growth of cities and of the share of employment in industrial and service activities. Much of this growth in food purchases will be supplied from local sources, but this will demand some fundamental changes in domestic food production systems. There will also be a substantial growth in the food trade, with ever increasing levels of national and regional specialisation. These developments will put increasing pressures on quality standards at all levels, with a growing emphasis on food safety, integrity, quality, and nutritional and health impacts. This paper reviews the current status of the food industry and the food trade in the region, and presents some projections for future developments. Particular emphasis is given to policy choices that must be made to ensure that the food system in the region develops in ways that are sustainable and most beneficial to the population as a whole. PMID:17392081

McKay, John

2007-01-01

388

Volume 30, Issue 3 Bank competition, institution and economic development: Evidence from Asia  

E-print Network

the excessive risk taking by banking institutions can cause economic vulnerability which ended up in financialVolume 30, Issue 3 Bank competition, institution and economic development: Evidence from Asia-2007, this paper investigates the link between bank competition and economic development. In general, although

Boyer, Edmond

389

Allocation of Talent in Society and Its Effect on Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies in psychology and economics have demonstrated that the average cognitive ability (talent) of people living in a society affects the economic development of the society. There is, however, reason to expect that the economic development of societies depends not just on the average level of talent but also on the allocation of talent…

Strenze, Tarmo

2013-01-01

390

Happiness in the Midst of Change: A Human Development Approach to Studying GNH in the Context of Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary theories of economic development have concentrated on socioeconomic and epidemiological indices of development to the exclusion of issues of psychological and spiritual development. Yet, economic development without attention to individual human development may produce increasing wealth but decreasing happiness. The construct of Gross National Happiness (GNH), as the real measure of success in a developmental endeavor, is intended to

MICHAEL R. LEVENSON; PATRICIA A. JENNINGS; CAROLYN M. ALDWIN

391

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual publication from the World Bank predicts growth patterns in developing countries. It reports that "recovery from the financial crisis is 'fragile and uneven,' with some regions recovering much faster than others." According to this year's report, growth in Asia will be strong through 2000, as the countries slowly pull themselves out of recession. The average per capita income of Third World countries outside of Asia, however, will decline. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release, summary, and the forward by Joseph Stiglitz are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main site also provides a slide show of the main points and issues of the report, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

392

Making Sense of Clusters: Regional Competitiveness and Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As more and more scholars and policy experts struggle to determine what makes a successful region (urban or otherwise), there is a growing interest in the notion of cluster strategies and how they may be best deployed. Basically, this economic development strategy states that a group of related firms or companies in close proximity can create a number of productive and competitive advantages for the region. Recently, Joseph Cortright of The Brookings Institution researched the academic literature on industry clusters, and subsequently released this compelling 66-page paper in March 2006. The paper begins with a review of the existing literature on the subject, then proceeds to discuss why they are relevant, and also includes a section on future research questions that might be asked by those interested in the field. As Cortright concludes, �"cluster research should evolve to become a creative and informative mixture of art and science.�

Cortright, Joseph

2006-01-01

393

World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

1993-01-01

394

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

395

Aqaba's Old Town : proposed model for community development within the Aqaba Special Economic Zone  

E-print Network

As a recently designated Special Economic Zone in 2001 and Jordan's only port, Aqaba has been experiencing a major economic boom and rapid development at a scale previously unprecedented in Jordan. Under the governance of ...

Al-Husseini, Dalia Z. (Dalia Zuehir)

2007-01-01

396

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

Tegen, S.

2012-06-01

397

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...environment and other pertinent information; (2) An in-depth analysis of economic and community development problems and opportunities...future Investments; (7) A section identifying economic clusters within the Region, focusing on those that are growing or...

2013-01-01

398

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The Bike Kitchen Business Plan  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The Bike Kitchen Business or information from a number of different people that helped significantly in the making of this business plan. THE ECONOMICS OF THE BUSINESS.....................................................................8 A. ANNUAL

399

Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sketches a theory of the secular decline in morbidity and mortality that takes account of changes in human physiology since 1700. The synergism between technological and physiological improvements has produced a form of human evolution, much more rapid than natural selection, which is still ongoing in both OECD and developing countries. Thermodynamic and physiological aspects of economic growth

ROBERT WILLIAM FOGEL

1994-01-01

400

Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-10-01

401

The economic context for the development of "blind flight".  

PubMed

On 24 September 1929, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, NY, Jimmy Doolittle performed the first so-called "blind flight." He executed a flight plan and landed using only cockpit instruments, a feat that culminated a research program supported by the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics. Contemporary aviation medicine, with its understanding of the challenges of spatial (dis)orientation, has a special understanding and appreciation of the complex human performance, medical and technical problems that had to be overcome to make instrument flight possible. It is likely that the problems would not have been solved unless a socioeconomic context provoked a sufficient motivation to address them. This paper outlines some of the economic factors that motivated the research and development necessary for instrument flight. These factors were the direct consequence of the sudden, huge explosion of the aviation industry caused by World War I, and with the Armistice, the equally sudden loss of the industry's primary customer, the military. Finding a civilian role for aviation awaited the development of air mail, which, in turn, depended on the ability to fly according to a reliable schedule. The need to reliably adhere to a schedule forced the scientific and technological research needed to develop all-weather, blind flight. PMID:12862335

Temme, Leonard A; Rupert, Angus

2003-07-01

402

Business Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process Management Tools and Technologies  

E-print Network

solutions. The paradigm of Business Process Management stresses the importance of integrating entireBusiness Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process, the paradigm of Business Process Management contrasts with traditional information system development, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Family Living, Personal Culture, Child Development, [and] Careers in Home Economics. Career Development Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four instructional units or mini-courses in the area of home economics are designed for the seventh through ninth grade levels. In the first two units (parts A and B), both six-week courses, provide seven learning activities in family living and 10 activities in personal culture focusing on: self and personality development, goals and values,…

Ferguson, Gloria E.; And Others

404

Services as part of modern economic process in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with reasons and circumstances of the new emerging structure of the Russian economy at the turn of the century,\\u000a expressed in the substantial growth of the share of services in the GDP. Those changes have both positive and negative influences\\u000a on the Russian economic conditions and domestic reproductive performance in the period of transformation and are analyzed

K. E. Savchishina; V. S. Sutyagin

2009-01-01

405

Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

1992-11-01

406

Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental disaster. That is by adopting a policy of sustainable development to protect the already damaged environment. The study is centered by a case study of Yunnan Biomass-to-Electricity (BTE) Program, which is a joint research effort between American and Chinese institutions to implement biomass energy projects in rural areas of Yunnan province, China. By integrating energy production and environmental protection, the BTE Program could serve both the environmental and economic needs of the local regions. Therefore, the Yunnan BTE program can serve as a model of sustainable development. Furthermore, because the Yunnan BTE program was a cooperative research effort involving Chinese and American institutions, it also provides an opportunity to study and assess international joint policy implementation efforts. In this case study, we developed an analytical model that contains key factors, both constraints and opportunities, which may have affected the implementation of the BTE program. We explore the role of environmental policy and relationships among various relevant Chinese and American institutions involved in the BTE program. Through careful examination of these factors, and their roles in the process, we establish which facilitate and inhibit program implementation. The study of Mengpeng BTE project showed that all the factors in the analytical model influenced the outcome of the project implementation. Some played more vital roles while others were just minor players. The study demonstrated that preferential environmental policy and sound institutional setting are essential for the success of environmental program implementation in China. From this study, we have learned that it takes more than advanced technology and funding to implement sustainable development. We need not only good environmental policy, but also effective environmental policy. It was not that China lacked environmental policies to support sustainable development. It was rather that these policies were not thoroughly implemented. This case showed that the Chinese institutional setting posed problems for environmental policy implementation in China.

Gao, Qingguo

407

Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein) respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for significant ethanol cost reductions exist in increasing pentose fermentation efficiency and reducing biomass and enzyme costs. The results demonstrated the importance of addressing the tradeoffs in capital costs, pretreatment and downstream processing technologies. PMID:21892958

2011-01-01

408

The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

Rajan, Raghuram

2010-01-01

409

Economic Development through Youth. A Program for Schools and Communities. Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help teachers, businesses, Chambers of Commerce, and students start their own economic development activities and youth ventures. It describes a two-step plan to economic development through youth: development of an in-school student chamber of commerce program and development of a youth-owned venture. The first part of…

Nolen, Lori

410

Universities and Colleges as Economic Drivers: Measuring Higher Education's Role in Economic Development. Critical Issues in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local, state, and national economies are facing unprecedented levels of international competition. The current fiscal crisis has hampered the ability of many governments in the developed world to directly facilitate economic growth. At the same time, many governments in the developing world are investing significant new resources into local…

Lane, Jason E., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

2012-01-01

411

Rural Economic Development: What Makes Rural Communities Grow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies local factors that foster rural economic growth. A review of the literature revealed potential indicators of county economic growth, and those indicators were then tested against data for nonmetro counties during the 1980s using multiple regression analysis. The principal variables examined included demographic and labor…

Aldrich, Lorna; Kusmin, Lorin

412

The artistic dividend: Urban artistic specialisation and economic development implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Over the past two decades, urban and regional policy-makers have increasingly looked to the arts and culture as an economic panacea, especially for the older urban core. The arts' regional economic contribution is generally measured by totalling the revenue of larger arts organisations, associated expenditures by patrons and multiplier effects. This approach underestimates the contributions of creative artists to

Ann Markusen; Greg Schrock

2006-01-01

413

Security Threats, Enemy-Contingent Policies, and Economic Development in Dictatorships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I introduce, discuss, and formalize the argument that the type of security threat a dictatorial regime faces has implications for economic policy making and, consequently, economic outcomes. Dictators who mainly face internal threats often have incentives to conduct policies that are harmful to economic development, like underproviding productive public investment. However, dictators who mainly face external threats

Carl Henrik Knutsen

2011-01-01

414

The Role of Analysis in Economic Development: Lessons from Minnesota's Iron Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some states use subsidies, grants, and other public monies to rejuvenate lagging rural economies, but without sound economic analysis to guide these efforts money may go to projects that do not achieve economic development goals. Minnesota's Iron Range programs illustrate what happens when economic analysis is sacrificed in political tugs-of-war.…

Dewar, Margaret E.

1986-01-01

415

Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler 6-12. Home Economics. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of activities is intended to assist home economics teachers in incorporating basic energy education concepts into traditional home economics topics. Awareness activities that are intended to help students develop an understanding of fundamental energy conservation concepts and, at the same time, apply these concepts in home economics

Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

416

Industrial Districts and Economic Development in Japan: The Case of Tokyo and Osaka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics in the world economy since the 1970s have provoked a debate between proponents of industrial district and corporate dualism theories of economic change. This article investigates how well the two theories fit economic development trajectories in Tokyo and Osaka and draws lessons for North American economic revitalization efforts. District and dualism analysts both claim Japanese industrial organization fits their

Kuniko Fujita; Richard Child Hill

1998-01-01

417

Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

2005-01-01

418

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online geography of regional development  

E-print Network

of industry ­ particularly the `new economic geography' ­ has significantly helped us understanding why some1 The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online geography of regional development Jeffrey D. Sachs and Gordon C. McCord From The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition, 2008 Edited

419

An Evaluation of California's Community College Based Economic Development Programs (ED>Net).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes economic outcomes of California's ED>Net (California Community College Economic Network) program, an alliance between community colleges and California businesses. ED>Net's purpose is to advance the state's economic growth by providing job-related education and services to businesses and organizations. This report develops

Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

420

Staff Development: A Systematic Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is intended to aid programs funded by the Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) in designing and implementing staff development programs. Section I presents a working definition of staff development and outlines the preliminary steps necessary before a program is designed and administered. The section delineates the…

Brookfield, Jeffri

421

EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of process designs and retrofits to provide simple and quick economic and environmental evaluations simultaneously. The method focuses attention onto those streams and components that have the largest monetary values and...

422

The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

2013-02-11

423

Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints, and short term objectives) as well. In the models operating rules represent different models of human behavior, and the objective of the modeling is to find rules for human behavior that perform well in terms of long term human objectives. The conceptual model used to represent human behavior incorporates economic multi-objective optimization for surrogate objectives, and rules that set those objectives based on current conditions and accounting for uncertainty, at least implicitly. The author asserts that real world operating rules follow this form and have evolved because they have been perceived as successful in the past. Thus, the modeling efforts focus on human behavior in much the same way that economic models focus on human behavior. This paper illustrates the above concepts with real world examples.

Sheer, D. P.

2008-12-01

424

Fuzzontology: Resolving Information Mining Ambiguity in Economic Intelligent Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human beings are seen as a problem solver, and the process follows the simple input-process-output. Thus having identified\\u000a a decisional problem (input), will apply some rules of inference and problem solving techniques based on experience and cognitive\\u000a abilities (processing) to deduce or arrive at some conclusion (output). Information is frequently defined as interpreted data.\\u000a Juxtaposing with infological equation by Langefors,

Olufade Falade Williams Onifade; Odile Thiéry; Adenike Oyinlola Osofisan; Gérald Duffing

425

The economics of future membrane desalination processes and applications  

E-print Network

Seawater desalination, the desalination of waters flowing back from hydraulic fracturing processes and brackish water desalination constitute important desalination applications. These have a combined market size in excess ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

2014-01-01

426

Embedded Automotive System Development Process  

E-print Network

Model based design enables the automatic generation of final-build software from models for high-volume automotive embedded systems. This paper presents a framework of processes, methods and tools for the design of automotive embedded systems. A steer-by-wire system serves as an example.

Langenwalter, Joachim

2011-01-01

427

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-06-01

428

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

429

Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit. [MILDGAS Process  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

1992-01-01

430

Economic and Environmental Criteria and Trade-Offs for Recovery Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic component (VOC) and solvent recovery processes are two industrially important processes to limit the release of potentially harmful components into the environment. The extent of environmental contamination depends on the recovery system used for the harmful components, which indirectly contributes to the cost of process. Recently, VOC and solvent recovery systems have been optimized for multiple economic and

Shivom Sharma; Y. C. Chua; G. P. Rangaiah

2011-01-01

431

Research on the Coordination of Social Security and Economic Development in Hubei Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that maintaining stable coordination of social security and economic development is absolutely necessary for Hubei province, so how to analyze the coordination becomes an important content in Hubei economic development. In this paper, using factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, the author try to evaluate the regional level of social security and economic develop in Hubei province. The results indicate that Hubei need to take measures to promote social security level and balanced development. At the end of this article, some economic suggestions are given to deal with uncoordinated problem.

Rong, Cao

432

Analysis of Economical Benefit of Low Permeability Oil Reservoir Development under Different Well Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of low permeability oil reservoir is a very important in the petroleum engineering, especially for China. Adopting different well pattern, the economic benefit is different. What is the relationship between well pattern and development result? In this paper, the author described the characteristic of low permeability reservoir development, given the economic benefit calculation method. Through a sample study, the

Guihong Pei; Jianjun Liu

2010-01-01

433

NATIONAL POLICIES THAT CONNECT ICT-BASED EDUCATION REFORM TO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and communication technology (ICT) is a principal driver of economic development and social change, worldwide. In many countries, the need for economic and social development is used to justify investments in educational reform and in educational ICT. Yet the connections between national development goals and ICT-based education reform are often more rhetorical than programmatic. This paper identifies the factors

Robert B. Kozma

434

Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

Thomas, Margaret G.

435

24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 597.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

436

77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5300-FA-08...Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program for Fiscal...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of...

2012-02-01

437

24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 598.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

438

76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5300-FA-04...Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal Year 2009 AGENCY...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Notice of funding...

2011-02-18

439

77 FR 5044 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5415-FA-40...Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program for Fiscal...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of...

2012-02-01

440

77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5419-FA-01...Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program for Fiscal...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of...

2012-02-01

441

78 FR 8295 - Guarantees for Bonds Issued for Community or Economic Development Purposes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Community Development Financial Institutions Fund...Bonds Issued for Community or Economic Development Purposes; Final Rule Federal Register...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund 12 CFR...

2013-02-05

442

24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

2010-04-01

443

24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01...for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 Section 570.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

2011-04-01

444

24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 598.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2011-04-01

445

24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 597.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2011-04-01

446

Improving Software Development Processes with Multicriteria Methods  

E-print Network

Improving Software Development Processes with Multicriteria Methods Elena Kornyshova, RĂ©becca methods in software development processes. This approach is illustrated with three cases: risks, use cases engineering, method engineering, and so on) show that there are many development cases where information

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Opportunities for technological and economic development policy in Brazil  

E-print Network

Brazil's transformation from an agriculturally-based colonial economy to an industrial republic spans seven decades - from the 1930s to the present - with three rapid growth phases which were each followed by economic and ...

Dalquist, Stephanie K. (Stephanie Kay), 1981-

2005-01-01

448

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Food System Project: AMS Food and Beverage Service  

E-print Network

and businesses involved in food manufacture, processing, distribution and marketing. The system also includesUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Food System Project: AMS Food and Beverage Service Vivian Chan, Francis Gomez, Julie Lam, Helen Racic, Hong Sy, Jonathan

449

The implementation of the triple helix model of industry-university-government relations in Puerto Rico to promote knowledge-based regional economic development  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, has long sought to develop a high-tech economy and has struggled in the process. Two initiatives, Puerto Rico TechnoEconomic Corridor (PRTEC) and the Eastern Central Technological ...

Ramos-Maltés, Ana Lorena

2010-01-01

450

Product Development Processes, Three Vectors Of Improvement  

E-print Network

Product Development Processes have achieved a state of some maturity in recent years, but have focused primarily on structuring technical activities from the initiation of development to launch. We advocate major advances ...

Holmes, Maurice

2003-01-01

451

Comparing Product Development Processes and Managing Risk  

E-print Network

Product Development Processes (PDPs) require careful design to reduce development time, create better products and manage the risks of bringing new products to market. This paper investigates the relationship between product ...

Unger, Darian W.

452

Spatial and Temporal Dynamics: Residential Development Process  

E-print Network

A lack of empirical evidence to understand neighborhood and residential development processes within neighborhoods has challenged urban planners’ ability to influence the course of future land development. The main objectives of this study were...

Park, Joung Im

2012-02-14

453

Education, Key to Economic Growth. Recent Major Education Initiatives in Support of Economic Development in New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes new major education initiatives to enhance economic development in New York State. The 1970-1987 period has seen dramatic change in the labor profile impelled by technological and market forces transforming the economy. Apart from some fairly stable sectors, the state economy is characterized by a shift from manaufacturing to…

New York State Education Dept., Albany.

454

An economic analysis of the development potential of the Texas blue crab industry  

E-print Network

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF THE TEXAS BLUE CRAB INDUSTRY A Thesis CHARLOTTE LUCIERME MILLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the reguirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major subject: Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF THE TEXAS BLUE CRAB INDUSTRY A Thesis CHARLOTTE LUCIENNE MILLER Approved as to style and content by: John P. Nichols Chairman...

Miller, Charlotte Lucienne

1983-01-01

455

Environmental Processes, Social Perspectives and Economic Valuations of the Coast  

E-print Network

and continued anthropogenic stresses. During their first two meetings, members worked together to develop the following six key statements for identifying critical areas for future research and science-based management decisions to sustain coastal barrier...

Williams, Amy M.

2011-10-21

456

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

457

Modeling the economics of blending organic processing waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable coproducts. Within the food and biological processing sector are many examples of various liquid,

Kurt A. Rosentrater

2006-01-01

458

Modeling the economics of landfilling organic processing waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector are many examples of various liquid, sludge, and

Kurt A. Rosentrater

2005-01-01

459

Managing the Software Development Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of any software development project is to produce a product that is delivered on time, within the allocated budget, and with the capabilities expected by the customer and unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved. However, a properly managed project in a mature software engineering environment can consistently achieve this goal. In this paper we provide an introduction to three project success factors, a properly managed project, a competent project manager, and a mature software engineering environment. We will also present an overview of the benefits of a mature software engineering environment based on 24 years of data from the Software Engineering Lab, and suggest some first steps that an organization can take to begin benefiting from this environment. The depth and breadth of software engineering exceeds this paper, various references are cited with a goal of raising awareness and encouraging further investigation into software engineering and project management practices.

Lubelczky, Jeffrey T.; Parra, Amy

1999-01-01

460

Tapping State College Research and Development Capacity in Support of State Economic Development. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied research and development activities at regional state colleges and universities bolster their primary mission of undergraduate education as well as contribute to local and statewide economic growth. As states boost efforts to fund and stimulate research as part of an integrated economic development strategy, they should seek to fully…

Hurley, Daniel

2008-01-01

461

Method for technical, economic and environmental assessment of advanced sludge processing routes.  

PubMed

The legislative framework in force in Europe entails restrictive effluent standards for sensitive areas, and quite severe restrictions on the properties of residual sewage sludge, both for landfill disposal and for agricultural use. Several technologies and management strategies have been proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants to minimise sludge production and contamination. However, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. The ROUTES project, funded within the EU Seventh Framework programme, aims to find new routes for wastewater treatment and sludge management and thereby guide EU members in their future choices. Within this project, the authors have developed and applied a procedure for techno-economic-environmental assessment of new wastewater and sludge processing lines in comparison to reference plants. The reference plants are model conventional plants that experience different types of problems and the new plants are modified plants in which different innovative technologies have been added to solve these problems. The procedure involves a rating of selected technical issues, estimates of operating costs and an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. This paper reports on the procedure and shows examples of results. PMID:24960001

Svanström, Magdalena; Bertanza, Giorgio; Bolzonella, David; Canato, Matteo; Collivignarelli, Carlo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Mininni, Giuseppe; Peters, Greg; Tomei, Maria Concetta

2014-01-01

462

Controlled comparison of advanced froth flotation process technology and economic evaluations for maximizing BTU recovery and pyritic sulfur rejection  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this round robin project was to select the most efficient, as determined by the efficiency index, cost effective, as determined by the annual cost per ton of SO{sub 2} removed, advanced flotation device available. This machine was to process ultra fine coal, maximize Btu recovery and maximize pyritic sulfur rejection. The device will first be installed as a one hundred pound per hour capacity unit and, subject to the outcome of Task 6 of the Engineering Development Contract, increased to a 3 ton per hour capacity unit for installation into a proof-of-concept preparation plant. All of the technical and economic results were submitted to the TST for consideration. The TST members evaluated the data and determined to rank each of the participants 50% on technical merit and 50% on economic merit. The technical merit was to be the efficiency index. The economical merit was to be the annual dollars per ton of clean coal corrected for carrying capacity and frother concentration and the results of Test No. 4. This factor does not penalize a particular technology for not meeting a 90% pyritic sulfur rejection and therefore leaves something to be desired as the only economic basis for decision. A second economic evaluation criteria was required that considered the $/ton of sulfur dioxide removed. The technical and economic factors were calculated and added together for the final evaluation ranking. The technical factor was calculated by multiplying the efficiency index for each participant by 0.5. The two economic factors were calculated by dividing 1000 by the $/ton of clean coal and multiplying by 0.5 and by dividing 10,000 by the $/ton of sulfur dioxide removed and multiply by 0.5. The 1000 and 10,000 are numbers selected such that when divided by their economic factors, respective numbers resulted in a two digit number. The results of these calculations are discussed. 4 refs., 18 figs., 27 tabs.

Harrison, K.E.; Ferris, D.D. (ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Kosky, R.M. (Consolidation Coal Co., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Warchol, J.J.; Musiol, W.F.; Shiao, S.Y. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (USA)); Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA))

1990-01-01

463

Technical assistance and the transfer of remote sensing technology. [for economic development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transfer of technology from industrialized countries to the third world is a very complicated process and one that requires a great deal of research and development. The political and social obstacles to this transfer are generally greater than the technical obstacles, but technical assistance programs have neither the competence nor the inclination to deal with these factors adequately. Funding for technical assistance in remote sensing is now expanding rapidly, and there is a growing need for institutions to study and promote the effective use of this technology for economic development. The United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development and the Canadian technical assistance agencies take different approaches to the problem and deal with the political pressures in different ways.

Chipman, R.

1977-01-01

464

A Major Force in Economic Development: A Challenge for the North Carolina Community College System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No other institution has played a more significant role in support of economic development in North Carolina than the North Carolina Community College System. Presented are three challenges that will define the System's future relevance in support of economic development: (1) its ability to stay ahead of the "tidal wave" that is technological…

Lancaster, H. Martin

465

Social Capital and Economic Development in Regional Australia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of a case study of social capital and economic development conducted in two towns in regional Australia between 2001 and 2002. The hypothesis driving the research states that a town displaying a high level of social capital will also display a high level of economic development, while a town with a low level of…

Woodhouse, Andrew

2006-01-01

466

Economic development and social welfare in the third world: The end of romance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since World War 2, economic and social development strategies - including the social service approach to development - have largely failed in the third world. Hundreds of millions of people remain very poor; their number may even be increasing. Perhaps billions of people live under predatory political regimes. The small economic advances carry large prices: population increase and growing inequality.

William M. Epstein

1994-01-01

467

Rural Job Creation. Case Studies of CETA Linkage with Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains 20 case studies illustrating some of the contributions Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs have made to economic development and job creation efforts in rural areas. The collection is a companion volume to the monograph entitled "Rural Job Creation--a Study of CETA Linkages with Economic Development"…

Bruno, A. Lee; Wright, L. M., Jr.

468

Economic Development Network (ED>Net): 1995-96 Report to the Governor and the Legislature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Development Network (ED>Net) of the California Community Colleges was designed to advance the state's economic growth and competitiveness by coordinating and facilitating workforce improvement, technology deployment, and business development initiatives. This report reviews outcomes for ED>Net for 1995-96 based on reports prepared by…

California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

469

Challenges and successes with economic and business development models at the local level: The Quatsino experience  

E-print Network

Challenges and successes with economic and business development models at the local level: 534 Title of Project: Challenges and successes with economic and business development models at the local level: The Quatsino experience Examining Committee: Chair: Bronwyn MacDonald MRM Candidate, School

470

Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

Tegen, S.

2014-11-01

471

On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life II: Evolutionary Stable Economic Development Strategy in Brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a solution to 'The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development' on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded

Matt Funk

2009-01-01

472

Social and Economic Wellbeing in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: Building an Enlarged Human Development Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper calculates a human Wellbeing Composite Index (WCI) for 42 countries, belonging to the European Economic Space, North Africa and the Middle East, as an alternative to the shortcomings of other well-known measures of socio-economic development (i.e. Gross Domestic Product per head and Human Development Index). To attain this goal,…

Reig-Martinez, Ernest

2013-01-01

473

Volume 31, Issue 1 Threshold Effect and Financial Intermediation in Economic Development  

E-print Network

. However, at the end of 1990s, the growing importance of stock markets in both developing and developed market to promote economic growth. In a similar vein, Rioja and Valev (2004) have found an uncertain effect on growth. In spite of the importance of banking sector to promote economic growth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

474

The contributions made by multinational enterprises to the economic development and political stabilization of less developed countries seen in its dependence on the world economic order.  

PubMed

For their own advantage, developing countries should attempt to extend and not to limit liberalication directed at improving competition. Particularly, developing countries should argue that the private export of capital, which is combined with the transfer of growth-promoting technology, should be increased rather than restricted and the security of private ownership should also be increased. A scheme insuring property rights should be established, whereby the amounts contributed would be fixed according to the political stability of the country concerned. Some thoughts are presented on the basic principles of the world economy and on the way in which the world economic order should be shaped. On the basis of this plan, the world economy is understood as a system of varying developed regions. Attention is focused on the basic principle of the world economic order, suggestions for a new world economic order, the concept of a functional world economic order, starting points and goals of an economic policy orientated towards development, instruments of a national structural policy orientated by the world economy -- cooperative association and/or multinational firms, and demands made upon single economic orders and upon the system of their cooperation. PMID:12261344

Biermann, H

1977-12-01

475

A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.  

PubMed

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

476

A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower  

PubMed Central

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

477

Development of the Concise Data Processing Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Concise Data Processing Assessment (CDPA) was developed to probe student abilities related to the nature of measurement and uncertainty and to handling data. The diagnostic is a ten question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pre-test and post-test. A key component of the development process was interviews with students, which…

Day, James; Bonn, Doug

2011-01-01

478

ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle

Bill Swisher

1992-01-01

479

Usability Requirements in Agile Development Processes  

E-print Network

usability can be integrated more tightly into agile software development processes. The examination into an agile software development process. First, the problem is analyzed theoretically by a literature study;#12;Resumé Agile udviklingsproces, som de fleste andre software udviklingsmetoder, er dybest set fokuseret på

480

Analyzing the alignment of incentives, control, and economics in development agreements between private developers and mission-driven institutions  

E-print Network

This thesis examines and analyzes the alignment of incentives, project control, and economics in development agreements between private developers and mission-driven institutions. Mission-driven institutions, such as ...

Reiche, F. Samuel (Ford Samuel)

2013-01-01

481

Development of novel microencapsulation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is for encapsulating additives into polymer particles using different techniques including emulsification/solvent evaporation, compressed carbon dioxide based microencapsulation, and encapsulation with porous polymer particles. Such microencapsulations can be applied to a vast range of areas, for example bio-labeling, controlled release, drug delivery, and printing. Fluorescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were incorporated into polyisoprene (PI) particles by emulsification/solvent evaporation. The simple method results in QDs encapsulated into the particle core without requiring chemical modification of the QDs. The fluorescence spectra of mixtures of two different-sized QDs change in PI as compared to their solution spectra, suggesting energy transfer between QDs due to their aggregation during the encapsulation. However, different emission peaks were clearly resolved, indicating that the particles are suitable for multicolor coding. The polyisoprene is easily cross-linked, and the cross-linking was shown to greatly enhance the fluorescence stability of the encapsulated QDs. Ionic dyes were successfully encapsulated in polystyrene (PS) particles by CO2-based microencapsulation. The water-soluble dyes were made hydrophobic by forming ion pairs with alkyl quaternary ammonium cations. The hydrophobic ion pairs were then encapsulated in preexisting size monodisperse PS particles dispersed in water. High-pressure carbon dioxide swelled and plasticized PS and thus facilitated mass transport of the dye into the particles. The results show that the particles maintain their size and morphology after exposure to CO2, and that ion-paired dyes have significantly higher loading in the polymer particles than the original dyes. Addition of water-miscible cosolvents was shown to further enhance the incorporation of the hydrophobic ion pairs into the polymer colloids. To encapsulate water-soluble additives, porous polymer particles were made by freeze-drying droplets of polymer solution suspended in water or from a spray. Hollow PS particles were obtained by swelling PS latex with solvent, freezing in liquid nitrogen, and drying in vacuum. It is shown that the particle morphology is due to phase separation in the polymer emulsion droplets upon freezing in liquid nitrogen, and that morphological changes are driven largely by lowering interfacial free energy. The dried hollow particles were resuspended in a dispersing media and exposed to a plasticizer, which imparts mobility to polymer chains, to close the surface opening and form microcapsules surrounding an aqueous core. The interfacial free energy difference between the hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside surfaces is the major driving force for closing the hole on the surface. A controlled release biodegradable vehicle for drug was made by encapsulating procaine hydrochloride, a water-soluble drug, into the core of poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) microcapsules, which were made by the freeze-drying and subsequent closing process. The encapsulation efficiency is affected by the hollow particle morphology, amount of closing agent, exposure time, surfactant, and method of dispersing the hollow particles in water. Controlled release of procaine hydrochloride from the microcapsules into phosphate buffer was observed. The use of benign solvents dimethyl carbonate in spray/freeze-drying and CO2 for closing would eliminate concerns of residual harmful solvent in the product. The ease of separation of CO2 from the drug solution may also enable recycling of the drug solution to increase the overall encapsulation efficiency using these novel hollow particles.

Yin, Weisi

482

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A SODIUM/LIMESTONE DOUBLE-ALKALI FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comparison of results from a recent forced-oxidation limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process evaluation and those from a conceptual design and economic evaluation of a sodium/limestone double-alkali FGD process, based on recent EPA-sponsored...

483

EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1646 Smith*, R.L. Evaluating the Economics and Environmental Friendliness of Newly Designed or Retrofitted Chemical Processes. Clean Products and Processes (Springer-Verlag) 3:383-391 (2002). 10/22/2001 This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of ...

484

ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

1992-01-01

485

ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

1992-05-01

486

Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and process economics of the fluid milk process.  

PubMed

Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process-related electrical energy in the plant would be more effective in lowering energy use and CO2e emissions than fuel-related energy reductions. The model also predicts process-related water usage, but this portion of the model was not validated due to a lack of data. The simulator model can serve as a benchmarking framework for current plant operations and a tool to test cost-effective process upgrades or evaluate new technologies that improve the energy efficiency and lower the carbon footprint of milk processing plants. PMID:23522681

Tomasula, P M; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Bonnaillie, L M

2013-05-01

487

The art of antibody process development.  

PubMed

Biopharmaceutical drug development is an intricate path that spans a dozen years from discovery through registration. The development of a therapeutic antibody presents substantial challenges, particularly with respect to the creation and implementation of manufacturing process technologies. Process development and large scale biotherapeutic manufacturing is an art generally only practiced within industry. As a consequence, these technologies may be seen as something of a 'black box' by many in the medical community. This article provides insight into the current art of antibody process development leading to market entry of novel, life-saving medicines. PMID:18598918

Steinmeyer, David E; McCormick, Ellen L

2008-07-01

488

Field Assessment Screening Team (FAST) technology process and economics  

SciTech Connect

The Field Assessment Screening Team (FAST) is a concept of innovative site characterization technologies that have been integrated (1) to expedite the characterization process for hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites, (2) to optimize characterization quality, (3) reduce field time, and (4) to effect characterization cost reductions in the 60 to 80% range. The FAST technology is an integrated system of state-of-the-art components that collectively produce a process that ensures a lower cost, high-quality, real-time decision-making environmental field screening. The components of the integrated system are as follows: Intrusive sampling based on (but not limited to) ``push`` technology for surface, subsurface, and groundwater media sampling; A field mobile laboratory equipped to complement expected site contaminants; Computer-assisted design/geographic information system (CAD/GIS) data management with interactive three-dimensional graphics presentation capability; A global positioning system to determine sample coordinates; and A telecommunication linkup for data transmittal and receiving. Using the integrated components, the technology is designed to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of site soil and/or groundwater contamination with one mobilization of the field investigative team. The system allows the user to make informed field decisions concerning site investigation plans on a real-time basis, thus assuring minimum field time, minimum cost, and optimum data collection.

Nickelson, M.D.; Long, D.D. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

489

Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

1988-09-01

490

Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

491

Preschool and Economic Development. Employment Research. Volume 13, Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Employment Research" is published quarterly by the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment and Research. Issues appear in January, April, July, and October. This issue of "Employment Research" presents an article that summarizes the author's study of the effects of high-quality universal preschool education when it is treated as an economic

Bartik, Timothy J.

2006-01-01

492

High Economic Growth, Equity and Sustainable Energy Development of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been experiencing sustained high economic growth in the recentyears. However, there exists substantial amount of unacceptable poverty among the people in the country. The expressions of symptoms of such poverty include among others inadequate educational and health attainment of the people and lack of access to basic amenities like modern clean energy, safe water and sanitation which are

Ramprasad Sengupta

2007-01-01

493

Shi Gang Circular Economic Development Evaluation Study Based on DEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Envelopment Analysis method combining the mathematical, economic and management concepts and methods to form unique model, methods and theory, Used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of inter-departmental (so it's called EDA effective). From the perspective of the production function, this model is used to study the multiple input, especially multiple output of the \\

Shujun Cui; Guanyuan Wu

2009-01-01

494

The Salinas Valley Economic Development Project -- A Regional Collaborative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes surveys done by Hartnell College's Salinas Valley Region Business Retention and Economic Advancement Project, which collected data from regional businesses concerning workforce and training issues. Results were used in two ways: (1) to reshape services to specific businesses thereby leading to regional business retention; and (2) by the…

Valeau, Edward J.; Horn, Stuart Van

1997-01-01

495

East Asian Financial Architecture for Stable Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Ever since the early part of the economic crisis in East Asia, numerous discussions have taken place within the region exploring the need for more monetary cooperation within the region, including the possibility of a new financial architecture for East Asia, such as the setting up of an Asian Monetary Fund, more stable relationships among currencies within the region,

Chalongphob Sussangkarn

496

The Lummi Indians - Economic Development and Social Continuity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing upon the developmental changes that have taken place among the Lummis of Washington between 1966 and the present, this case study of an American Indian tribe experiencing an economic renaissance emphasizes the fact that success can and does bring unintended risks. Specifically, this study presents information re: (1) the present (emphasis…

Stein, Barry

497

FAST ADJUSTING URBAN REGIONS, LEADERSHIP AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and tests a model that argues that institutional resources amplified by strategic community leadership are the factors that dominate a region's ability to achieve sustained economic performance and, therefore, to adjust rapidly to changing conditions. The argument is formulated as a path analytical model and tested with data from 35 U.S. metropolitan regions. Analysis shows that strategic

Mark DESANTIS; Roger R. STOUGH

1999-01-01

498

Reservation Economic Development. A Course in Small Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing the specific details of organizing and operating a business on an Indian reservation, this course syllabus is designed to provide American Indian college students with a general and basic understanding of past, existing, and future economic concepts affecting Indian reservations and to provide a practical, working understanding of…

Black Hills State Coll., Spearfish, SD.

499

Culture and commerce in China's Special Economic Zone : an experiment in design and development  

E-print Network

Improvements in the real estate environment in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone have been conducive to development and foreign investment. Based on a projected market demand, a mixed-use development in the theme of a ...

Lee, Joyce See-yin

1989-01-01

500

Achieving community economic development in New York City : lessons from the Kingsbridge Armory  

E-print Network

New York City spends over two billion dollars each year in the name of economic development. Much of this money goes to subsidize private developers in order to create jobs. However, these projects often fail to produce ...

Tishman, Maggie Bancale

2014-01-01