Science.gov

Sample records for economic development process

  1. A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…

  2. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development

  3. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  4. Teaching the Concept of Economic Development as a Social Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the concept in the context of the conceptually designed and sequentially organized social studies instructional materials developed at the University of Illinois Social Studies Curriculum Study Center in cooperation with USOE/DHEW. Copies of the final report, An Evaluation Report of the Sequential Social Science Courses for the Secondary…

  5. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Food Processing Facility

    E-print Network

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Food Processing/8/2011 #12;Table of Contents UBC Farm Pilot Food Processing Center the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;UBCFSP PROJECT Scenario 7: UBC Food

  6. Development of economical compact type wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Shigeru; Kaku, Hiroyuki

    1995-06-01

    In the last quarter of this century Environmental Protection has become a major global issue. For the removal of SO{sub 2} emitted from thermal power plants, the wet limestone-gypsum process has widely been adopted. However, a more noteworthly economical method has been desired for its spreading. Under these circumstances, Babcock-Hitachi has developed a new compact type Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system by improving the conventional type wet limestone-gypsum process incorporating its advantages. The compact absorber was realized by increasing its gas velocity and the flue gas duct has been minimized by adopting a horizontal flow spray tower instead of a vertical flow spray tower which is commonly adopted in the conventional type. Through this a considerable reduction in construction costs have been achieved. The design study of this compact type FGD plant shows that it can be applied not only new plants but also existing power plants, Features of this compact type FGD, pilot plant test results and examples of the design study are introduced in this paper.

  7. The Role of Educational Quality and Quantity in the Process of Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castello-Climent, Amparo; Hidalgo-Cabrillana, Ana

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory of human capital investment to study the effects of school quality on student choices of education, and to understand its effect on economic growth. In a dynamic general equilibrium closed economy, primary education is mandatory but there is an opportunity to continue to secondary education and beyond. High-quality education…

  8. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  9. Partnerships in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Edward J.; Dary, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Many colleges in North America are taking a proactive role in community economic development to respond to changing economic conditions. This article explores the myriad of activities engaged in by Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada, by describing the partnerships themselves, their benefits, and the principles under which they operate. (Author)

  10. Essays on development economics

    E-print Network

    Ruthbah, Ummul Hasanath

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three independent papers in empirical development economics. The first chapter studies the effect of a family planning program in Bangladesh, which successfully reduced fertility, on ...

  11. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  12. Renewable Energy Economic Development

    E-print Network

    Renewable Energy Economic Development Dick Sheehy & Nate Monosoff, CH2M HILL March, 2010 #12 Thin Film Heads high volume, intense cost focus · High-Density Data Centers advanced modeling, energy;Contents 1. Who is CH2M HILL? 2. Why Do We Need Renewables? 3. Where Is The Wind Blowing? 4. Where

  13. [Economic Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Recent efforts of the World Bank to improve global economic problems are described, issues which will influence the role of the World Bank in the decade to come are discussed, and the Bank's future role is examined. Recent World Bank efforts to help developing nations include a lending program, project investments, analytical and advisory work,…

  14. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  15. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  16. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    DOE estimates that if algae fuel replaced all the petroleumalgae feedstock instead of the lipid is converted to fuelsfuels production from microalgae The detail conversion process is the same as green waste-to-liquid process introduced earlier and algae

  17. Xylo-Oligosaccharide Process Development, Composition, and Techno-Economic Analysis. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-483

    SciTech Connect

    Shekiro, Joe; Elander, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this cooperative work agreement between General Mills Inc. (GMI) and NREL is to determine the feasibility of producing a valuable food ingredient (xylo-oligosaccharides or XOS), a highly soluble fiber material, from agricultural waste streams, at an advantaged cost level relative to similar existing ingredients. The scope of the project includes pilot-scale process development (Task 1), compositional analysis (Task 2), and techno-economic analysis (Task 3).

  18. Economic Impact Wind Energy Development in Illinois

    E-print Network

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Economic Impact Wind Energy Development in Illinois June 2012 Updated for 2012 #12;Authors ..................................................................................... Economic Development Opportunities........................................................... Illinois. Economic Impacts of Wind Farm Development ...................................... Wind Energy Creates

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    i ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Executive summary Background This report was prepared for the Environmental Conservation Branch, Environment Canada, Vancouver, by CoastWriters Research and environmental planners, to stakeholders in planning processes, to businessmen and community activists

  20. Economic Impact Wind Energy Development in Illinois

    E-print Network

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Economic Impact Wind Energy Development in Illinois June 2009 #12;Table of Contents Authors .................................................................................... 13 III. Economic Impacts of Wind Farm Development ....................................... 14 Wind .............................................................................. 21 Economic Activities Impacts ........................................

  1. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  2. Women Empowerment and Economic Development

    E-print Network

    Duflo, Esther

    Women empowerment and economic development are closely related: in one direction, development alone can play a major role in driving down inequality between men and women; in the other direction, empowering women may benefit ...

  3. Environmental management and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, G.; Warford, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of and demand for fuelwood in Africa; economic aspects of afforestation and soil-conservation projects; multilevel resource analysis and management: the case of watersheds.

  4. Population, poverty and economic development

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  5. Economic development partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkila, N.

    1994-12-31

    The economy and the environment are inextricably linked. Neither one can be concentrated on to the total exclusion of the other. When the economy declines, so does public and private support for aggressive clean air measures. So a healthy economy is a necessary partner for a healthful environment. California is going through tough economic times and, in the future, when things have improved, the South Coast Air Quality Management District wants to be able to look back and say it pitched in and did its share to help in the recovery. The author gives a few examples of what it has done and what it is doing.

  6. Three essays in development economics

    E-print Network

    Leight, Jessica E. (Jessica Ellen)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis seeks to analyze two questions central to the economic welfare of rural households in developing countries: the trade-offs between equity and efficiency induced by hybrid forms of property rights, and the ...

  7. Schools and Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses schools' evolving relationships with private industry and local government entities, which are providing mutually beneficial results. Examples include the community services located in West Virginia schools and the workforce development efforts of Intel in New Mexico schools. (EV)

  8. Essays in development economics

    E-print Network

    Breierova, Lucia, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation brings together three essays on the relationship between education, health, and family structure in developing countries. The first essay studies the impact of the AIDS epidemic on children's schooling ...

  9. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully-contained, growing, dependent sub-system of a non-growing ecosphere. Potential solutions fly in the face of contemporary development trends and cultural values. PMID:12858997

  10. 75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Tribal Economic Development Bonds AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Departmental Offices. ACTION... from Indian Tribal Governments regarding the Tribal Economic Development Bond provision in Section 7871... ``Tribal Economic Development Bonds,'' under Section 7871(f) of the Internal Revenue Code (``Code'')...

  11. 75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Tribal Economic Development Bonds AGENCY: Department...Governments regarding the Tribal Economic Development Bond provision in Section...governments, known as ``Tribal Economic Development Bonds,'' under...

  12. Strategies for Sustainable Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeill, Jim

    1989-01-01

    This article is based on "Our Common Future" reported by the World Commission on Environment and Development. Discussed are the conditions making development sustainable including reviving growth, equity, meeting needs and aspirations, population, productivity, economic and ecological systems, budgets, and military expenditures. Lists seven…

  13. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  14. Cogeneration Economics for Process Plants 

    E-print Network

    Ahner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the incentives for cogeneration, describing pertinent legislation and qualification requirements for cogeneration benefits, and indicates the performance and economic characteristics of combined cycle cogeneration applications...

  15. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4.6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  16. 78 FR 67925 - Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development AGENCY: Department of Energy...the purpose of promoting economic development, and prescribes the process...purpose of permitting the economic development of the property...

  17. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  18. Assessing the economic impact of indirect liquefaction process improvements: Volume 1, Development of the integrated indirect liquefaction model and baseline case

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.C. . Civil Systems Div.)

    1990-10-01

    This report documents the development of an integrated indirect liquefaction system model, which processes input coal to refined liquid products, and the model's application in the analysis of a baseline case. The baseline case uses Shell gasification of coal followed by gas cleaning to produce a clean synthesis gas for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The raw liquid products are refined to produce gasoline and diesel. Costs of liquid products have been estimated for the baseline plant. The model also alloys many sensitivity studies to be performed so that the economic impacts of research and development advances can be quantified. When used in this manner, the model can provide research guidance for future indirect liquefaction studies. 18 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Center for Agribusiness & Economic Development Information Session

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    specializing in food business development, economic impact analysis, and economic & community development Dr Award for Farm to Food Bank Pilot Program Customized Economic Studies & Feasibility Analysis Center; agricultural and demographic data for private and public decision makers; and conducting analysis related

  20. Essays in experimental and development economics

    E-print Network

    Healy, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three essays on economic development and experimental economics. In Chapter 1, I present experimental evidence about how Thais treat information from domestic and foreign sources. Thai students ...

  1. Essays in development and environmental economics

    E-print Network

    Hanna, Rema

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on economic development and environmental economics. Chapter 1 measures the response of U.S. based multinational firms to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which ...

  2. Essays on conflict, cooperation and economic development

    E-print Network

    Ralston, Laura R. (Laura Rosalind)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters on topics relating to conflict, social cooperation and development economics. Several studies have identified the impact of adverse economic shocks on civil conflict using ...

  3. Preliminary economic evaluation of the Alkox process

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, L.J.; Lilga, M.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Snowden, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    A new chemical process has been invented at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories for converting alkanes to alcohols. This new chemistry has been named the Alkox Process.'' Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared a preliminary economic analysis for converting cyclohexane to cyclohexanol, which may be one of the most attractive applications of the Alkox process. A process flow scheme and a material balance were prepared to support rough equipment sizing and costing. The results from the economic analysis are presented in the non-proprietary section of this report. The process details, including the flow diagram and material balance, are contained in separate section of this report that is proprietary to Battelle. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Economic Comparison of Processes Using Spreadsheet Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Pappano, A. W.; Jennings, C. N.

    1986-01-01

    Inexpensive approach aids plant-design decisions. Commercially available electronic spreadsheet programs aid economic comparison of different processes for producing particular end products. Facilitates plantdesign decisions without requiring large expenditures for powerful mainframe computers.

  5. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 302.11 Economic development information clearinghouse...EDA maintains an economic development information clearinghouse on its Internet Web site at...

  6. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 302.11 Economic development information clearinghouse...EDA maintains an economic development information clearinghouse on its Internet Web site at...

  7. A technology strategy analysis for the deployment of broadband connectivity for economic development in emerging economies : studying the case of Kenya using the CLIOS process

    E-print Network

    Omwenga, Brian Gichana

    2009-01-01

    The role of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in economic development is increasingly moving to the core of national competitiveness strategies around the world thanks to its revolutionary power as a critical ...

  8. Austempered ductile iron process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, C. D.; Keough, J. R.; Pramstaller, D. M.

    1986-11-01

    Pressure from imports and material substitution has severly affected demand for domestic iron industry products. It is estimated that the potential market for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) is as large as the market for carburized and/or through hardened forgings. The primary interest in ADI is generated by the economics of process. Improved machinability and reduced processing costs as well as interesting physical properties has created an enormous interest in all metalworking industries towards ADI. The development of gas-fired austempering processes and resoluton of technical and economic uncertainities concerning the process will help improve the outlook for iron founderies.

  9. Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.

  10. Universities: A Focal Point for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidique, Modesto A.

    1988-01-01

    Higher education can act as a focal point of economic development. The most widely recognized type of economic development entails an association between a university, its research facilities, and private industry. An example of this partnership is the one between Stanford University and the industries in the "Silicon Valley." (MLW)

  11. Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

    2007-06-01

    Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

  12. Adventuresports and Economic Development Team Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Adventuresports Institute offers a two-year degree program at Garrett Community College (McHenry, Maryland) that combines courses in adventure sports with economics, marketing, environmental science, and events management. The goal is to develop an infrastructure for the adventure sport industry and promote economic development in Appalachia based…

  13. Economic Development Grant Report, Fiscal Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    A profile is provided of community college business centers and their activities conducted under economic development grants during fiscal year (FY) 1985. Following introductory remarks, section I provides a narrative description of the FY 1985 economic development grant activities, including industrial attraction, retention and expansion,…

  14. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential...Documents Memorandum of May 5, 2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Memorandum...achieve energy independence, biomass and biofuels promise to play a key role...

  15. Office of Economic Development Strategic Plan CLEMSON UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Office of Economic Development Strategic Plan CLEMSON UNIVERSITY OFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 2020 STRATEGIC PLAN #12;Office of Economic Development Strategic Plan Executive Summary I's economic needs have changed over the years, and addressing those needs through innovative education

  16. The Role of Economic Development in Curriculum Development Process in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Call for New Approach to Socioeconomic Development in Africa with a Special Reference to Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odiemo, Luke Okunya

    2008-01-01

    The main hypothesis here is that the notion of economic and social development has been misconceived by most stakeholders in matters of development. This misconception is the main cause of underdevelopment in Kenya, which leads to all the reasons most authors and commentators have given to explain Kenya's situation. Therefore, it is only possible…

  17. Exploring Gender and Economic Development in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Melissa; Oberhauser, Ann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights how dynamic gender relations affect the diverse experiences of men and women in Appalachia's economic development. The analysis draws from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census data to examine and compare the demographic, social, and economic conditions of women and men in Appalachia. The discussion focuses on geographical…

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.R.; Hogsett, R.F.; Sinor, J.E.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D.

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  19. Essays in development economics and political economy

    E-print Network

    Datta, Saugato

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on issues in economic development, with a focus ,on political economy and the labor market in India. Chapter 1] analyzes the effect of television coverage on political ...

  20. Three essays on development economics in China

    E-print Network

    Qian, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three independent essays in empirical development economics using data from China. In the first two chapters, I examine the determinants of choices within the household. In the first ...

  1. Is Your Community Ready for Economic Development

    E-print Network

    Saldana, Luis

    2003-03-30

    A critical step in initiating or facilitating an effective economic development project is to determine if the community is actually prepared to take on such a difficult task. This publication can help community leaders determine how "prepared a...

  2. Megacities : sustainability, transport, and economic development

    E-print Network

    Tobias, Justin Charles, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    The connections between sustainability, transport, and economic development are and will remain essential in the governance of cities. Sustainability concepts include valuing and preserving the earth's resources so that ...

  3. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic...

  4. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic...

  5. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development

  6. Recognizing Constraints to Local Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Joan; Meyer, Peter B.

    1986-01-01

    Drawing on Kaufman's distinction between development in the community and development of the community, this paper discusses the constraints on local economic development associated with increased concentration of capital. The likelihood of successfully employing "import substitution" and other localization strategies without confronting issues of…

  7. Economic Plantwide Control of the Cumene Process Vivek Gera,

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Economic Plantwide Control of the Cumene Process Vivek Gera, Mehdi Panahi, Sigurd Skogestad Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT: Economic operation. For economic plantwide control, the best pairings for tight control of the maximum throughput

  8. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe supercritical PC plant with 90% CO2 capture. This plant has the same boiler firing rate and superheated high pressure steam generation as the DOE/NETL report’s Case 12 PC plant. However, due to the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant may not be exactly at 550 MWe.

  9. 32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Consideration for economic development conveyances...BASE CLOSURE COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING...Consideration for economic development conveyances...marketing of the development and reuse of...proceeds to support economic...

  10. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  11. New Potentials for Modern Indian Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Wallace G.

    Recently American Indians have experienced an unprecedented renaissance in community spirit. Capitalizing upon this spirit, Indian economic development should be directed toward particular community needs, utilizing Indian leadership to determine needed training and development programs. There is no question but that the majority of Indian…

  12. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  13. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF FOREST-DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES: ANALYZING

    E-print Network

    ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF FOREST-DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES: ANALYZING TRADE-OFFS USING of wood fiber for community stability, and financial returns for economic diversification. We address weighting of objectives. Economic development outcomes obtained using compromise and fuzzy programming

  14. Advanced Child Development. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in secondary vocational home economics education in Texas, is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in each guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for…

  15. Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

  16. Can Economic Development Programs Be Evaluated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Bingham, Richard D.

    The question of whether economic development programs can be evaluated seems simple, but the answer is not simple because of the nature of evaluation. Determining a program's effectiveness requires the evaluator to distinguish changes due to the program from changes due to nonprogram factors. The evaluator must focus on outcomes caused by the…

  17. DISASTER-RESILIENT HOUSING AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    4/26/2014 1 DISASTER-RESILIENT HOUSING AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ELIZABETH HAUSLER STRAND, PH;4/26/2014 2 What Build Change Does INFLUENCE post-disaster housing reconstruction policy DESIGN earthquake and windstorms Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction Contractor-Driven or Donor-Driven Homeowner-Driven Cash + TA

  18. Economic Development Grant Report, Fiscal Year 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    A profile is provided of Illinois community college business centers and the activities they conducted under the fiscal year 1986 $3.5 million economic development grant allocation. First, highlights of the year's accomplishments are presented, including: (1) community colleges provided training for 852 companies through 1,400 courses, serving…

  19. Fiscal Year 1987 Economic Development Grant Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    A profile is provided of Illinois community college business centers and the activities they conducted under fiscal year 1987's $3,730,376 economic development allocation. First, highlights of the year's accomplishments are presented, indicating that: (1) community colleges provided customized job training for 1,395 companies through 1,954…

  20. THE NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS AND DEVELOPMENT Douglass C. North,

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    processes information, but cognitive science has made impressive strides in recent years. Individuals (as I see it) to problems of development. I The new institutional economics is an attempt and political--characterize economies. In fact, we have incomplete information and limited mental capacity

  1. Corrosion resistant process piping changes in economics

    SciTech Connect

    Lain, E.H. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    In recent years, the process piping industry has seen dramatic changes occur in corrosion resistant materials. Some changes have occurred in the form of new and modified materials becoming available. However, the most dramatic changes have occurred in the pricing of some older and well known materials. These economic changes have been dramatic and quick, so much so that the old established budget pricing ``rules of thumb`` used for many years to estimate piping projects are no longer valid. In many instances, the prices of some premium metals (titanium, for example) are now on a comparatively equal basis even with high alloys when all factors including densities, special fabrication requirements and service life are taken into account. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some commonly encountered corrosion resistant piping materials, a brief summary of their chemical and mechanical properties and usage. However, the focus of the paper presented will be economic. It will detail the current raw material prices for high alloys including duplex stainless steels, nickel and nickel alloys, Hastelloys+, as well as the reactive metals, zirconium and titanium. In addition, a typical fabricated piping spool in various diameters will be estimated for all of the above metals and the results plotted in graphical format for quick comparison. Last, a quick method will be presented to estimate as fabricated piping costs if the base material price for pipe is known.

  2. Global health funding and economic development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  3. Issues in the Economic Development of Nonmetropolitan United States. Economic Development Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledebur, Larry C.

    Describing issues relative to economic development in nonmetropolitan areas, this document presents narrative and tabular data re: (1) the causal forces behind economic decline in rural America (technology, shifting patterns of demand for goods and services, and changes in life styles and residential preferences); (2) the incidence and indicators…

  4. [Co-piloting economic development and the biosphere].

    PubMed

    Passet, R

    1992-01-01

    Development has reached a stage of evolution in which its effects on the biosphere have become critical, but the discipline of economics has not yet fully absorbed this change. Economic development is in conflict with the ability of ecosystems to regulate themselves largely because of its focus on the immediate exploitation of resources and neglect of bio- geo-chemical cycles and of effects on the larger environment. Development driven solely by economic considerations is destined to end in destruction. A co-management of economic development and the biosphere is required. Economics suffers from a reductionism in which the natural and the social are both denied their rightful places, and a single type of variable, usually monetary, is overemphasized. A new, multidimensional view of the relationship of the economy to the world is needed. The economy finds its raw materials and disposes of its wastes in the natural sphere, but its purpose and ends reside in the sociocultural sphere. The natural and social spheres are related to the economy, but they obey their own laws, which must be respected in economic calculations. The reproductive and renewing mechanisms of the biosphere should be considered constraints to be respected by development and included in economic calculations. Growth in per capita income should not be considered development when, as often happens, it is accompanied by destruction of sociocultural values and degradation of the relationship between individuals and their environment. The reality of economic development is that it is a process of creative destruction in which minerals, raw materials, and energy are transformed to create objects, while material and energy wastes are discarded in the environment. The models used by economists should take account of these processes. The concept of a multidimensional development in perpetual transformation and sensitive to human activity suggests the responsibility of each generation to its successors. Human beings have the responsibility of managing development in harmony with the regulatory mechanisms of nature. The management problem for the economists is to assure development of the productive sphere in interdependence with the rest of the environment without reducing them to market principles that are not their own and without so diluting the economic principles that they become meaningless. PMID:12343880

  5. E000308 economic development and the environment Economic development in low-income economies is initially highly resource-

    E-print Network

    Coxhead, Ian

    E000308 economic development and the environment Economic development in low-income economies sources of emissions that contribute to global climate change. Economic development depends on sustained drawdowns, may affect economic development in a dynamic interaction. This feedback is hard to quantify

  6. Winter Term 2013/14 Development Economics I: Macro Issues in Development Economics

    E-print Network

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    of Nations, Introduction, ch. 1-3 #12;3 3. -5. : Growth Theory and Growth Empirics -Harrod-Domar Model -Solow development, theoretical and empirical growth research, trade and development, population and development Development Economics, the first 2 are required and third is optional. For student in the MA International

  7. Theory, General Equilibrium, and Political Economy in Development Economics

    E-print Network

    Acemoglu, Daron

    I discuss the role of economic theory in empirical work in development economics with special emphasis on general equilibrium and political economy considerations. I argue that economic theory plays (should play) a central ...

  8. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES... § 1003.203 Special economic development...

  9. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES... § 1003.203 Special economic development...

  10. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    PubMed

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  11. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  12. Economic Development in American Indian Reservations. Development Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar, Ed.

    A collection of 13 scholarly articles and essays, this book makes available hard-to-find information and theories about American Indian economic development. Part I, "The Land and the People", emphasizes cultural traditions and beliefs of Indian people and traces the development of the concept of sovereignty and its applicability to Indian self…

  13. Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries. Methods: Data used in this paper were obtained from different information sources: international and national journal articles and reports, web-based statistics, and fact sheets. We used both online search and hand search methods to gather the information. Results: Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the economic cost associated with poor sanitation is substantial. At the global level, failure to meet the MDG water and sanitation target would have ramifications in the area of US$38 billion, and sanitation accounts for 92% of this amount. In developing countries, the spending required to provide new coverage to meet the MDG sanitation target (not including program costs) is US$142 billion (US$ year 2005). This translates to a per capita spending of US$28 for sanitation. Annually, this translates to roughly US$14 million. The evidence complied in this paper demonstrates that investing in sanitation is socially and economically worthwhile. For every US$1 invested, achieving the sanitation MDG target and universal sanitation access in the non-OECD countries would result in a global return of US$9.1 and US$11.2, respectively. Conclusion: Given the current state of knowledge, sanitation is undeniably a profitable investment. It is clear that achieving the MDG sanitation target not only saves lives but also provides a foundation for economic growth. PMID:22084575

  14. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

  15. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other economic development... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. A Project that achieves any of the following community development or public...

  16. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other economic development... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. A Project that achieves any of the following community development or public...

  17. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other economic development... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. A Project that achieves any of the following community development or public...

  18. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other economic development... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. A Project that achieves any of the following community development or public...

  19. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other economic development... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. A Project that achieves any of the following community development or public...

  20. Incorporating an Applied Economic Development Component into a Geography Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kale, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how applied economic development has been integrated into the economic geography curriculum at Oregon State University (Corvallis). States that coursework in applied economic development should lead to greater understanding of the causes of economic change, the problems associated with growth or decline, and methods for achieving…

  1. Minority Business Development and Economic Development Policy in New York. Implications for Black Entrepreneurs and Communities. Report of the Subcommittee on Economic Development. Volume 5, Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    New York State should develop a comprehensive justification for its involvement in minority business development and each State program should be closely associated with that rationale. Minority business development programs are often short-sighted, potentially conflicting, and yield unimpressive results. Development of Economic Development Zones…

  2. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special economic development... Eligible Activities § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in addition to other activities authorized in this subpart...

  3. Community Economic Development: Perspectives on Research and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaway, Burt, Ed.; Hudson, Joe, Ed.

    This book contains 27 papers that were originally developed for a research and policy symposium at which Canadian community economic development (CED) was examined in terms of research and policy requirements. The book contains the following papers: "Community Economic Development Practice in Canada" (Brodhead); "Community Economic Development: An…

  4. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

  5. Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

  6. Financial modeling of new product development economics

    E-print Network

    Balasubramaniam, Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Product design and development is a complex process that involves extensive engineering considerations as well as management decisions based on the overall vision for the product. Traditionally, most decision making in ...

  7. Unplanned Terminology Development: A Synchronic and Diachronic Study on Economic Terms in Turkish Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabacak, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with unplanned terminology development in the subject field of economics within media discourse. It examines how economic terms in Turkish newspapers emerge, are used, and cease. This developmental process is also analyzed through productivity of economic terms and the factors affect them. The subject terms are also analyzed as a…

  8. South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

  9. RESEARCH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC PLAN 2015-2020

    E-print Network

    Capogna, Luca

    RESEARCH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC PLAN 2015-2020 14-347 Contact Vice Provost for Research and Economic Development Room 205 1125 W. Maple St. 1 University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 (479) 575-5901 research@uark.edu #12;Strategic Plan Contributors Office of Research and Economic Development Jeff Amerine

  10. 32 CFR 174.9 - Economic development conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Economic development conveyances. 174.9 Section... Economic development conveyances. (a) The Secretary concerned may transfer real property and personal... Economic Development Conveyance (EDC). (b) An LRA is the only entity eligible to receive property under...

  11. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  12. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  13. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  14. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  15. 32 CFR 174.9 - Economic development conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economic development conveyances. 174.9 Section... Economic development conveyances. (a) The Secretary concerned may transfer real property and personal... Economic Development Conveyance (EDC). (b) An LRA is the only entity eligible to receive property under...

  16. The Role of Vocational Education in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Katy; Jeffries, Louis

    Intended to provide basic information to policymakers and education-for-work planners, this report addresses both past history and possible directions for linking job training to economic development. In a discussion of the nature of economic development both international issues and economic development in the United States are covered. Discussed…

  17. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  18. Interurban Systems and Regional Economic Development, Resource Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohr, Walter B.

    This resource paper on economic geography is part of a series designed to supplement undergraduate geography courses. It interprets regional economic development in terms of geographic spatial patterns of production, income, and physical or economic distance. Chapter two outlines some selected characteristics of spatial disparities of economic

  19. Development of metallization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    A non lead frit paste is evaluated. A two step process is discussed where the bulk of the metallization is Mo/Sn but a small ohmic pad is silver. A new matrix of paste formulations is developed. A variety of tests are performed on paste samples to determine electrical, thermal and structural properties.

  20. Economic and energy audit of textile foam processing

    SciTech Connect

    Machacek, R.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional wet processing of textiles - dyeing, or application of such surface finishes as soil and water repellents, antistatic agents, fire retardants, permanent press agents, and starch - consumes about 0.19 quadrillion Btu's of energy per year, the equivalent of 30 million barrels of oil. Because wet processing involves immersion of the fabric in a water bath, most of the energy used is in the form of heat for drying. In the newer foam finishing approach, the chemicals for surface finishes are dispersed in a mixture of water and air. The chemicals are concentrated in a relatively small amount of water, and air is injected to form a thick, stable foam. Because little water is involved, drying time and temperature may be drastically reduced. Authur D. Little, Inc., conducted an economic and energy audit of foam processing that considered the technical feasibility, reliability, energy savings, and economic incentives for using foam finishing. We monitored four plants that finish textiles (carpets, broad-woven fabrics, and tubular knits). The plants were selected by the developer of the foaming process (United Merchants and Manufacturers, Inc.) to represent a wide range of textile finishing applications.

  1. International project finance : the case of Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development

    E-print Network

    Al-Jassar, Sulaiman Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines the record of the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) in light of changing fashions regarding the proper role and management of such funds in the development finance process. The key ...

  2. Exemplary Project Handbook: Planning for Economic Development. CETA & Reservation Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia; And Others

    A number of exemplary planning mechanisms and systems implemented by Native American Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) grantees to achieve coordination of resources for reservation economic development are highlighted in this handbook on integrated planning. Also included is an examination of the problems caused by the failure to…

  3. Physics And Its Roles In Economic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Physics plays a variety of roles in economic development. These are explored and ways of increasing the importance of physics to world economies are discussed. Surveys by the Institute of Physics have shown that over 40% of employment in manufacturing in the UK is based on physics, and that this sector continues to expand. Physics provides techniques and equipment for advances in the life sciences. An education in physics gives an ability to tackle a diverse range of subjects from first principles and to find innovative solutions to problems where conventional approaches fail. Physicists in many countries readily find employment in a wide range of areas. However, because of the range of opportunities available, there is a reluctance of physics graduates to enter teaching and prepare the next generation of physicists. Sharing experience between countries is vital. The World Year of Physics has played an important role in this.

  4. Economic and Social Significance of Forests For Africa's Sustainable Development

    E-print Network

    Economic and Social Significance of Forests For Africa's Sustainable Development Volume 25, Issue 2, Issue 2 Economic and social significance of forests for Africa's sustainable development Editor: Foday Resources specialist Rome, Italy Jeffrey Sayer Ecologist/expert in political and economic context of natural

  5. 32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration for economic development... Property § 174.10 Consideration for economic development conveyances. (a) For conveyances made pursuant to... the date of the initial transfer of property shall be used to support economic redevelopment of,...

  6. 32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration for economic development... Property § 174.10 Consideration for economic development conveyances. (a) For conveyances made pursuant to... the date of the initial transfer of property shall be used to support economic redevelopment of,...

  7. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse. 302.11 Section 302.11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic...

  8. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse. 302.11 Section 302.11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic...

  9. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse. 302.11 Section 302.11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic...

  10. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse. 302.11 Section 302.11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic...

  11. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse. 302.11 Section 302.11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic...

  12. Beyond Responsiveness: Promoting Good Practice in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Kypri, Photoula

    1998-01-01

    This paper looks at the involvement of further education (FE) colleges in England and Wales in economic development and presents case studies of good practice in nine FE colleges. Chapter 1 addresses FE's role in economic development and measuring and planning economic growth. Chapter 2 contains the case studies: Lewisham College's Action for…

  13. Teaching and Learning Development Economics: Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edward K. Y.

    2005-01-01

    The author has chosen three major topics in development economics for a discussion on how to teach the subject: the concepts and measurement of development, models of growth and development, and the international aspects of economic development. For the concepts of development, it is important to emphasize the coherence of the topics to be…

  14. 11.437 Financing Economic Development, Fall 2003

    E-print Network

    Seidman, Karl F.

    Focuses on financing tools and program models to support local economic development. Includes an overview of private capital markets and financing sources to understand capital market imperfections that constrain economic ...

  15. Office of Research and Economic Development Enabling Translational Research

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Stephen José

    Office of Research and Economic Development Enabling Translational Research at Rutgers University S Executive Director, Strategic Alliances Rutgers Translational Sciences #12;Office of Research of entrepreneurship and support startup companies. Rutgers Translational Sciences Office of Research and Economic

  16. Is biomass fractionation by Organosolv-like processes economically viable? A conceptual design study.

    PubMed

    Viell, Jörn; Harwardt, Andreas; Seiler, Jan; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the conceptual designs of the established Organosolv process and a novel biphasic, so-called Organocat process are developed and analyzed. Solvent recycling and energy integration are emphasized to properly assess economic viability. Both processes show a similar energy consumption (approximately 5 MJ/kg(dry biomass)). However, they still show a lack of economic attractiveness even at larger scale. The Organocat process is more favorable due to more efficient lignin separation. The analysis uncovers the remaining challenges toward an economically viable design. They largely originate from by-products formation, product isolation, and solvent recycling. Necessary improvements in process chemistry, equipment design, energy efficiency and process design are discussed to establish economically attractive Organosolv-like processes of moderate capacity as a building block of a future biorefinery. PMID:24157680

  17. 78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual...Office of Rural Housing & Economic Development, Department of Housing and...Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative. OMB...

  18. 77 FR 6517 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts...120202093-2093-01] Economic Development Administration Regulatory...Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration...

  19. 77 FR 19178 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA), Department...

  20. 78 FR 68025 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

  1. 77 FR 5044 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) program...David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development Grants Management...

  2. 77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

  3. 75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

  4. 76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

  5. 77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) program...David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development Grants Management...

  6. 76 FR 17662 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant...of Proposal: Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant...40123--Brownfields Economic Development Application, SF...

  7. 76 FR 2405 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) AGENCY...of Proposal: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI). OMB...proposed use: The Brownfield Economic Development Initiative is...

  8. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the analysis shows that the propagation of error method introduces essentially negligible error, especially when compared to the uncertainty associated with some of the estimates themselves. The results of these uncertainty analyses generally quantify and identify the sources of uncertainty in the overall cost estimation. The obvious generalization—that capital cost uncertainty is the main driver—can be shown to be an accurate generalization for the current state of reactor cost analysis. However, the detailed analysis on a component-by-component basis helps to demonstrate which components would benefit most from research and development to decrease the uncertainty, as well as which components would benefit from research and development to decrease the absolute cost.

  9. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ashry, M.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu Aimee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

  11. Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Judy C.

    Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

  12. Toward the Development of a Cultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1972-01-01

    The degree to which various economic specialties have incorporated or avoided cultural analyses is reviewed; problem areas where such studies might be most fruitful are suggested. It is indicated there now exists in embryo form an orientation deserving the name cultural economics''; its furture is speculated. (JB)

  13. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  14. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okpala, A O

    1995-06-01

    It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

  15. 32 CFR 174.9 - Economic development conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Economic development conveyances. 174.9 Section... Economic development conveyances. (a) The Secretary concerned may transfer real property and personal... Development Conveyance (EDC). (b) For installations having a date of approval for closure after January...

  16. 32 CFR 174.9 - Economic development conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic development conveyances. 174.9 Section... Economic development conveyances. (a) The Secretary concerned may transfer real property and personal... Development Conveyance (EDC). (b) For installations having a date of approval for closure after January...

  17. Essays in Development Economics and the Economics of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimpo, Moussa Pouguinimpo

    2010-01-01

    Education is a powerful tool to improve lives and enhance the prospect of innovation and development of nations. While primary school enrollment has increased considerably over the past few decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, learning and the retention rate have remained low. The first two chapters of this dissertation analyze two dimensions in a bid…

  18. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  19. The Influence of Education on Economic Development 

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Julia

    2013-04-15

    . 2003. The Demographic Dividend: A New Perspective On The Economic Consequences Of Population Change. Santa Monica, Rand. Boldorf, Marcel, and Jonas Scherner. "France's Occupation Costs and the War in the East: The Contribution to the German War...

  20. 76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY:...

  1. 77 FR 19178 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA), Department of Commerce... Analyst, Office of Regional Affairs, Room 7009, Economic Development Administration, Washington, DC...

  2. 75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY:...

  3. 78 FR 68025 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY:...

  4. 77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY:...

  5. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  6. Economics of on-farm sunflower processing

    SciTech Connect

    Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    Sunflower oil is being researched as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel. Sunflower seed as a high oil content and an acre will produce about 60 gallons. Each Btu used to produce the seed and process sunflower oil will return about 5.78 Btu's. The price relationship per Btu of diesel to sunflower oil was 1:4.00 in 1979. This ratio declined to 1:1.80 in 1981. The on-farm processing cost for 4800 gallons varied from $2.82 to $4.33 per gallon for three press sizes analyzed. Operating these presses 300 days annually the cost per gallon varied from $1.74 to $2.99. 1 figure, 8 tables.

  7. Retrofit Sizing and Economics of Air Preheaters and Economizers for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-print Network

    Kumar, A.; Vasquez, R.; Crump, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    AND ECONOMICS OF AIR PREHEATERS AND ECONOMIZERS FOR PROCESS HEATERS AND BOILERS Ashok Kumar, Ramiro Vasquez, and Joseph R. Crump Department of Chemical Engineering University of Houston Houston, Texas POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION The conservation...-04-52 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 The greatest single driving force for energy conservation in all sections is rising fuel cpst. Direct fired heaters and boilers are getting much attention...

  8. Population change and some aspects of socio-economic development.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Some of the major dimensions of the interrelationship of population dynamics and socioeconomic development are examined in the context of Asia and the Pacific. Most of the countries in the region are developing, and population growth is viewed more as an obstacle to development rather than as a stimulant to economic progress. There are at least 10 countries in the region whose per capita income is less than US$300, namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 1979 these countries had an estimated combined population of 1,867,103,000 or about 77% of the population of the region. Per capita gross national product (GNP) masks the real economic condition of the people as it fails to show the actual distribution of income and wealth. In most nonsocialist countries there is maldistribution of income and wealth. The International Labor Organization (ILO) report points out that during 1963-73 in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, the richest 20% of households receive about half the income. In contrast, the poorest 40% receive between 12-18% of total income. In short, there could be economic development but not social development, such as equitable distribution of wealth and income. Studies have shown that equitable income distribution exerts a far greater influence on fertility than the GNP. In many countries of the region poverty is reality. The World Bank estimates that half of the people in absolute poverty live in South Asia, mainly India and Bangladesh. It is most unfortunate that among the very poor, poverty is frequently regarded as the cause rather than the effect of high fertility. Among the very poor, mortality, particularly infant mortality, tends to be high. China is among the countries which have recognized that rapid population growth is not beneficial to the accelerated speed of capital accumulation. It has been observed that in most countries as the GNP per capita increases the birthrate decreases. This is the case in the developed countries of the region, i.e., Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and Singapore. It appears to be that wealth begets wealth, and that development is one of the better contraceptives. The processes and conditions which lead to and result from an increase in per capita income usually cause a number of social and attitudinal changes which in turn bring about an eventual decrease in the birthrate. In sum, population growth and economic development are complementary, interdependent, and act as constraints on each other. PMID:12265663

  9. Pollution prevention and its role in sustainable economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Mattos, de Lemos, H. )

    1992-12-01

    The recent United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was the largest gathering of governments and heads of states to date. This paper describes the preparatory process for this meeting as well as the recommendations of UNCED. This Conference was essentially about changing behavior -- specifically economic behavior. The implications of sustainable development was among the subjects explored during the 9th World Clean Air Congress in Montreal in September 1992. At a plenary session on the topic, Professor de Lemos, President of Brazil's UNEP Institute, reported on the 1992 UNCED Conference and what it revealed about the impact of business, poverty, and population on the goals of sustainable development. His remarks are included in the article. 8 refs.

  10. Consumer & Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

    Mt. San Antonio Community College District's Consumer/Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development Project was designed to provide activities to meet staff development and program improvement needs. The choice of activities was based on evaluation data from previous home economics projects, and priorities identified by the Consumer/Home…

  11. Community Colleges and Economic Development: Models of Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Lacey, Vincent A.

    An overview is provided of the nontraditional, direct involvement of community colleges in economic development activities. While a review of the literature and a discussion of the factors leading to community colleges' participation in economic development are included, the primary focus of the monograph is on seven models of nontraditional…

  12. Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2004-01-01

    Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

  13. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…

  14. Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

  15. Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

  16. Small Business and Economic Development in Macomb County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James

    This study examined the economic development role of small businesses in Macomb County, Michigan, in order to identify those businesses which are most significant in terms of their contribution to economic development and, which therefore, would warrant public support for their retention and growth. Using these criteria, the study isolated the…

  17. Special Section: Approaches to Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcouiller, David W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Estimating Economic Impacts of Programming: A Case Study of Forestry" (Marcouiller et al.); "Aquaculture Opportunities" (Snyder); "Starting a County Agricultural Marketing Program" (Vossen); and "A Multidisciplinary Model for Industry Support: Program Redirection Creates Missouri Textile Center" (Dillard et al.). (SK)

  18. Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

  19. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  20. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Nicole

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  1. Position Description Project Manager, Office of Community and Economic Development

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Position Description Project Manager, Office of Community and Economic Development Full-time Administrative Professional Position Job Description: As part of our team, this Project Manager position conceptual development and scoping, through tracking and management of projects, including tracking details

  2. Innovation districts : economic development, community benefits, and the public realm

    E-print Network

    Davis, Alice Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Innovation Districts are emerging across the country as vehicles for economic development, job creation, urban revitalization, and sustainable growth. As they continue to be developed, there is a need to rethink the role ...

  3. Commercializing plant tissue culture processes: economics, problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, O.; Knuth, M.

    1985-03-01

    Novel tissue culture techniques and a range of process schemes may be considered for commercial production of plant derived drugs, chemicals, flavors and cosmetics. Plant cell immobilization, in conjunction with strain selection and product leakage, represents a major technological advancement, with significant economic implications. Conventional batch processes produce high value products at low production capacities, whereas continuous biocatalytic processes can potentially enable production of plant derived chemicals in the $20-$25/kg price range.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

    1996-07-01

    The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

  5. Urbanization and energy use in economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper identifies a number of developments which are prominent during the urbanization of a country and which have particularly strong implications for energy use. Concomitant with urbanization, the industrial composition of the economy's production shifts, with reductions in agriculture and increases in the importance of primary metals, chemicals, and cement, all of which are relatively energy-intensive sectors. Evidence from India indicates that the movement of a worker from agriculture to the least energy-intensive urban activity other than services will quadruple per worker production energy requirements. Next, population concentration associated with urbanization facilitates increases in the scale of production which in turn encourages the substitution of modern energy for traditional fuels and requires energy for longer deliveries. Also, concentrated, off-farm populations require processing and delivery of food, which are not required for largely agricultural countries. Domestic activity changes send activities which were formerly conducted in the household with little or no energy use, outside, usually into firms, where fuels are used. Urban households also use considerably more transportation than do rural households. Evidence from Hong Kong indicates that pure urban density increases encourage substitutions of modern energy for traditional fuels. Finally, increased real incomes associated with urbanization increase energy consumption, with an elasticity of roughly unity. Aggregate cross-sectional data evidence from sixty developing countries was used to examine the overall magnitude of the effects of urbanization and associated developmental changes on per capita energy use. Controlling for industrial structure, per capita income (per capita gross domestic product), and several other variables, a one-percent increase in urbanization will cause a one-half percent increase in per capita energy use. 81 refs., 5 figs., 63 tabs.

  6. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  13. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203 Section 1003.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  17. The Product Development Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Harry L.

    Product development has emerged very recently as an area of specialization within the field of education, having received its greatest impetus with the establishment of the federally funded educational research and development centers in 1964 and the regional educational laboratories in 1965. The first part of this three-part document defines…

  18. Meeting Summary, Economic Development Panel, Business Meeting No.31

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2003-06-18

    OAK-B135 The objectives of the meeting were as follows: (1) Learn more about and discuss economic impacts of wind power development in the U.S, highlighting the NWCC report, ''Assessing the Economic Impacts of Wind Power Development''; (2) Learn more about and discuss wind integration costs and the impacts of recent studies on wind energy development; and (3) Review activities and products planned for FY 2004.

  19. Process-Based Quality (PBQ) Tools Development

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, J.L.

    2001-12-03

    The objective of this effort is to benchmark the development of process-based quality tools for application in CAD (computer-aided design) model-based applications. The processes of interest are design, manufacturing, and quality process applications. A study was commissioned addressing the impact, current technologies, and known problem areas in application of 3D MCAD (3-dimensional mechanical computer-aided design) models and model integrity on downstream manufacturing and quality processes. The downstream manufacturing and product quality processes are profoundly influenced and dependent on model quality and modeling process integrity. The goal is to illustrate and expedite the modeling and downstream model-based technologies for available or conceptual methods and tools to achieve maximum economic advantage and advance process-based quality concepts.

  20. International Economic Development Minor Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences

    E-print Network

    , trade, etc., and the economics of development projects and international capital and commodity markets (539) China's Economic Reforms and Dev. 3 AEDECON/INTSTDS 4540 (540) International Commerce and the World Economy 3 AEDECON 5330 (631) Benefit-Cost Analysis 3 AEDECON 5797 (697) Study at a Foreign

  1. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  2. Profitable Partnerships: Public-Private Partners in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Barbara; MacDonald, William J.

    Four case studies are presented to demonstrate the economic development potential of partnerships between community colleges and public and private sectors, focusing on programs that targeted a specific area of need in Oregon's economic base and raised significant funds for program implementation. Introductory comments provide background…

  3. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  4. Economics of Beaver-Herter extraction process revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Herter process is a surface-mined solvent extraction process which utilizes fatty acids as the solvent. The uniqueness of the Herter process if that it provides a low energy method of separating the fatty acids from the recovered oil for subsequent recycling. The Herter process recovers the fatty acid by saponification, followed by migration of the soap to the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the resulting soap phase again followed by phase separation. The formation of a hydrocarbon-soap-water emulsion limits the process unless carefully controlled by the addition of an alcohol cosolvent. Addition of the short-chain alcohol limits emulsification and allows a meaningful separation to be accomplished. The modified process is known as the Beaver-Herter process. A bench-scale model of the process has recently been completed and has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the process. A computer model has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the process on a site specific basis. This paper summarizes the process, the site selection (Oklahoma), and the economic analysis.

  5. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ?US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued. PMID:26196421

  6. Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.

    2014-10-01

    Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.

  7. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203 Section 1003.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  8. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203 Section 1003.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  9. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203 Section 1003.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  10. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

  11. Development of metallization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    Solar cells were produced using a Mo/Sn/TiH screen printed paste with a lead/borosilicate frit that are electrically comparable to control silver cells. The process is currently unsuccessful because the soldering of interconnects to these cells has proved difficult. Future work will investigate using CO instead of H2 as the reducing gas and putting an ITO coating on the cell prior to metallization.

  12. Simulation models of ecological economics developed with energy language methods

    SciTech Connect

    Odum, H.T. . Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    The energy-systems language method of modelling and simulation, because of its energy constrained rules, is a means for transferring homologous concepts between levels of the hierarchies of nature. Mathematics of self-organization may justify emulation as the simulation of systems overview without details. Here, these methods are applied to the new fields of ecological economics and ecological engineering . Since the vitality of national economics depends on the symbiotic coupling of environmental resources and human economic behavior, the energy language is adapted to develop overview models of nations relevant to public policies. An overview model of a developing nation is given as an example with simulations for alternative policies. Maximum economic vitality was obtained with trade for external resources, but ultimate economic carrying capacity and standard of living was determined by indigenous resources, optimum utilization and absence of foreign debt.

  13. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  14. Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

  15. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  16. The Economics of Slums in the Developing World

    E-print Network

    Marx, Benjamin

    The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

  17. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  18. Master of Urban Affairs & Policy: Economic/ Community Development Policy

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haiying

    Master of Urban Affairs & Policy: Economic/ Community Development Policy Student Name___________________________ ID Number 1001_________________ Semester Core Courses (15 hours) URPA 5305 Theories of Urban Society __________ URPA 5306 The Urban Economy or __________ URPA 5364 Urban Political Economy URPA 5309 Intergovernmental

  19. World Development Report 1985. International Capital and Economic Development. World Development Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…

  20. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    S. Hendrickson; S.Tegen

    2009-12-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local(usually state) level. First developed by NREL's Wind Powering America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels,concentrating solar power, coal, and natural gas power plants.

  1. 77 FR 5044 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative... (FLY) 2010 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative... available by HUD. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development...

  2. 77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative...) 2009 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI... by HUD. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development...

  3. 76 FR 2405 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative...: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI). OMB Control Number: 2506-0153. Description of the need for the Information and proposed use: The Brownfield Economic Development Initiative is...

  4. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...Development Institute Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term...Strategic, Reservation-Wide Economic Development Plans; Comment Request AGENCIES...SUMMARY: The Division of Economic Development (DED), Office of...

  5. Silicon Web Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

  6. [Immigration and economic development in Eastern Asia].

    PubMed

    Lim, L L

    1994-01-01

    This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from the employee's viewpoint or the employer's. The consequences of importing manpower must be studied in relation to possible alternatives. PMID:12346374

  7. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... development, construction, and retrofitting of commercial-scale biorefineries and grants to help pay for the development and construction costs of demonstration-scale biorefineries; (ii) Expedited funding to encourage... publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.BARACK OBAMATHE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, May 5, 2009....

  8. E-Learning and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kelly; Blatnik, Stanko

    2005-01-01

    In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia's transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an…

  9. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of heat pumps for energy recovery in industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdaneta-B, A. H.; Schmidt, P. S.

    1980-09-01

    A computer code has been developed for analyzing the thermodynamic performance, cost and economic return for heat pump applications in industrial heat recovery. Starting with basic defining characteristics of the waste heat stream and the desired heat sink, the algorithm first evaluates the potential for conventional heat recovery with heat exchangers, and if applicable, sizes the exchanger. A heat pump system is then designed to process the residual heating and cooling requirements of the streams. In configuring the heat pump, the program searches a number of parameters, including condenser temperature, evaporator temperature, and condenser and evaporator approaches. All system components are sized for each set of parameters, and economic return is estimated and compared with system economics for conventional processing of the heated and cooled streams (i.e., with process heaters and coolers). Two case studies are evaluated, one in a food processing application and the other in an oil refinery unit.

  10. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

  11. Research Application in Rural Economic Development and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeten, Luther, Comp.

    The series of papers grew out of a Rural Economic Development Planning workshop conducted on the Oklahoma State University campus, July 1971, for personnel in agencies actively engaged in applying and disseminating rural development research. The first four papers supplied basic information to workshop participants: Rural development was defined…

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Economic development, urban expansion, and sustainable

    E-print Network

    Wei, Yehua Dennis

    restructuring Á Sustainable development Á Shanghai Á China 1 Introduction Chinese cities have grown rapidlyORIGINAL PAPER Economic development, urban expansion, and sustainable development in Shanghai Wenze-Verlag 2012 Abstract Studies of urbanization effects in Chinese cities from the aspect of the coupled

  13. Essays on social networks in development economics

    E-print Network

    Chandrasekhar, Arun Gautham

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the role that social networks play in developing economies. The first two chapters analyze econometric issues that arise when researchers work with sampled network data. The final two chapters study ...

  14. Essays in economic development and education

    E-print Network

    Feigenberg, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The first chapter of this dissertation examines the market for private school. Private school market shares are rising steadily in many developing countries, but we have a limited understanding of how private schools set ...

  15. Nature's role in sustaining economic development

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's comprehensive wealth per capita can decline even while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increases and the UN Human Development Index records an improvement. I then use some rough and ready data from the world's poorest countries and regions to show that during the period 1970–2000 wealth per capita declined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, even though the Human Development Index (HDI) showed an improvement everywhere and GDP per capita increased in all places (except in sub-Saharan Africa, where there was a slight decline). I conclude that, as none of the development indicators currently in use is able to reveal whether development has been, or is expected to be, sustainable, national statistical offices and international organizations should now routinely estimate the (comprehensive) wealth of nations. PMID:20008380

  16. Technology and Economics Affecting Unconventional Reservoir Development 

    E-print Network

    Flores Campero, Cecilia P.

    2010-01-15

    developments worldwide??????.?????? 8 1.7 Oil and natural gas R&D funds provided by the US government????.. 10 1.8 Investments in oil and gas recovery R&D and unconventional gas produc- tion. Data from 29 major US-based energy producing companies???? 11... by Drake in Pennsylvania in the late 1800s. Later, in the 20th century, along with the in- vention of the combustion engine to power automobiles and airplanes, the US developed into a great industrial power based on oil. Major discoveries were found...

  17. Fast economic development accelerates biological invasions in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2007-01-01

    Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R(2) = 0.378) and climatic factors (R(2) = 0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions. PMID:18030342

  18. Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2007-01-01

    Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions. PMID:18030342

  19. Developing the JPL Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

  20. Economic risk of offshore field development

    SciTech Connect

    Skjong, R.; Lereim, J.

    1988-01-01

    Many of the input parameters in an evaluation of the economy of an offshore oil and gas field development project are random or uncertain. Randomness and uncertainty are present for cost variables related to cost of design, construction, installation, and operation, as well as income variables related to reservoir size and characteristics, oil and gas prices, currency fluctuations, inflation, and interest rates, and taxation rules, etc. Uncertainty modeling is facilitated by existing tools for cost-variable uncertainty assessment, and by various available models for fluctuations in currency rates, inflation and interest rates, and oil and gas prices. This paper describes the probabilistic analysis method, with the main emphasis on the required input to the analysis and the interpretation of the results of the analysis. An example study involving a decision of developing an offshore oil field is presented and some general conclusions are offered. 5 references, 8 figures, 9 tables.

  1. 75 FR 10219 - Solicitation of Applications for the FY 2010 University Center Economic Development Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...Center Economic Development Program Competition in EDA's Austin and Denver Regional...Center Economic Development Program competition is June 1, 2010 at 5 p.m. CST for...FY 2010 University Center Program Competition, Economic Development...

  2. 77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...Background The CDQ Program is an economic development program associated with federally...BSAI fisheries, to support economic development in western Alaska, to alleviate...fisheries allocations to fund economic development activities and provide...

  3. 75 FR 39892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...Program The CDQ Program is an economic development program associated with Federally...BSAI fisheries, to support economic development in western Alaska, to alleviate...a basis both for funding economic development activities and for...

  4. 76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal Year 2009...for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program. This announcement...Office of Rural Housing and Economic Development, Office of Community...

  5. 78 FR 67925 - Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... process it will follow in the development of such regulations (65 FR 13735). DOE has examined today's rule...-AA82 Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development AGENCY... final rule published on February 29, 2000, 65 FR 10685, as final, with changes. The final...

  6. Beyond Economic Growth: Meeting the Challenges of Global Development. WBI Learning Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubbotina, Tatyana P.

    This book is designed primarily to help readers broaden their knowledge of global issues, gain insight into their country's situation in a global context, and understand the problems of sustainable development nationally and globally. Because development is a comprehensive process involving economic as well as social and environmental changes, the…

  7. Scaleup of IGT MILDGAS Process to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Longanbach, J.; Johnson, R.; Underwood, K.; Mead, J.; Carty, R.H.

    1992-12-31

    The MILDGAS process is capable of processing both eastern caking and western non-caking coals to yield a slate of liquid and solid products. The liquids can be processed to produce: feedstocks for chemicals; pitch for use as a binder for electrodes in the aluminum industry; and fuels. Depending on the feed coal characteristics and the operating conditions, the char can be used as an improved fuel for power generation or can be used to make form coke for steel-making blast furnaces or for foundry cupola operations. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. In this paper, the authors present the process design of the PDU facility, a description of the expected product distribution and the project test plan to be implemented in the program.

  8. Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1981-04-01

    Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

  9. Process Development Strategies in Plant Molecular Farming.

    PubMed

    Buyel, Johannes F

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based biopharmaceuticals are often produced in mammalian cell cultures, which are more expensive than microbial systems but capable of authentic post-translational modifications. The costs are lower if plants are used as an alternative platform to produce complex proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and enzymes. This review highlights recent advances that have been achieved in plant-based biopharmaceutical production platforms in terms of expression strategies, product yields and process development. The first generation of plant-derived pharmaceuticals now entering the market is also discussed. Finally, the review considers the downstream processing of plant-derived pharmaceuticals which can account for up to 80% of the production costs. In this context, recent improvements in clarification and integrated process methods will have a strong impact on the economic feasibility of production, especially if supported by and combined with process analytical technology as part of the quality-by-design initiative. PMID:26343135

  10. Home Economics: Child Development. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This document, a curriculum guide in home economics on child development, for secondary schools, is one of six guides developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson…

  11. Economic Development and Public Education: Strategies and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Eugene B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The literature shows a strong connection between education standards and economic development, but the mechanisms are many and complex. Four human capital development approaches are available: redesigning and rebuilding the foundation (scrapping the back-to-basics approach); stressing applications skills required by high-performance organizations;…

  12. Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Workforce Training and Economic Development Fund: 2014 Annual Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Workforce Training and Economic Development (WTED) Fund was established in 2003 as part of the Grow Iowa Values Fund and is currently funded through the Iowa Skilled Worker and Job Creation Fund. This fund has become an important source of financing for community college new program innovation, development, and capacity building, particularly…

  14. Learning to Grow? Connecting Higher Education and Economic Development 

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, Annabelle

    2014-09-19

    development at the U.S. state level. Using panel data from 1992-2006 on all 50 U.S. states, this paper examines whether the conferral of different types of college degrees leads to economic development and growth in U.S. states. The results indicate...

  15. A Regional Economic Development Partnership for Community-Based Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rick L.; Parker, Walter A.

    Florence-Darlington Technical College (FDTC) in Florence, South Carolina, has implemented the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling (ACCLAIM) community-based programming (C-BP) model for developing a regional economic development strategic plan. FDTC offers 27 associate degrees, 10 diplomas, and 9…

  16. http://edq.sagepub.com Economic Development Quarterly

    E-print Network

    Saxenian, AnnaLee

    Economic Development Quarterly AnnaLee Saxenian Silicon Valley's New Immigrant High-Growth Entrepreneurs DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY / February 2002Saxenian / SILICON VALLEY'S NEW IMMIGRANTS Silicon Valley's New Immigrant engineers were senior executives at one quar- ter of Silicon Valley's technology businesses. These immigrant

  17. [The Importance of Economic Growth to Developing Nations].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Alan

    This speech by the director of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), describes AID's purposes and responsibilities and challenges teachers to consider future economic conditions of the world. Population forecasts are presented indicating that, of the 25 world's largest cities in the year 2000, only six will be located in developed

  18. CO2 Storage and Sink Enhancements: Developing Comparable Economics

    E-print Network

    CO2 Storage and Sink Enhancements: Developing Comparable Economics B.R. Bock1 , R.G. Rhudy2 , and H technologies and practices under development for CO2 storage and sink enhancement, including options for storing captured CO2, such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal

  19. Economic Development Practices among Small/Rural Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbeck, Tim, Comp.; Falcone, Lisa, Ed.

    In developing this compendium of exemplary economic development practices among small and/or rural two-year colleges, the American Association of Community Colleges Commission on Small/Rural Community Colleges (CSMCC) sent out a call for program descriptions to all community colleges with less than 3,000 full-time employees or that were…

  20. Study of CETA Plans and Reservation Economic Development. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Ernest J., Jr.; Kelly, Patricia F.

    Field study and analysis of program documents were undertaken in the first phase of a multi-phased research effort to improve and strengthen the relationships between CETA programs and economic development activities on Indian reservations. Exploratory in nature, the study examined the approaches developed by 24 Indian reservations and Native…

  1. State and local economic development tools : how does the range of state-level economic development tools available to a locality influence the way local resources are deployed?

    E-print Network

    Piercy, Brett I. (Brett Ianthe)

    2010-01-01

    Patterns in Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) expenditures for economic development in selected states were analyzed to explore whether differences in economic development tools, policies and programs available at ...

  2. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  3. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

  4. 75 FR 49016 - County of Greenville, S.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Greenville County Economic Development Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...Exemption--Greenville County Economic Development Corporation The County of...acquire from Greenville County Economic Development Corporation (GCEDC) approximately...See Greenville County Economic Development...

  5. Developing an Internal Processing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFord, Diane

    1997-01-01

    The goal in Reading Recovery is to support children to develop "in the head" operations or strategies that aid them to solve problems as they read and write continuous text. To help children in organizing experience and correct any idiosyncratic or unreliable relationships, teachers must understand how children develop their internal processing

  6. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  7. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  8. Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

  9. 76 FR 7788 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Western Alaska Community Development Quota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program; Recordkeeping...fisheries of the exclusive economic zone off Alaska. The...language for recent developments. These changes would...operational flexibility. No economic impacts are...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means that the public...in parcels to users to advance the community's economic benefit. This type of...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means that the public...in parcels to users to advance the community's economic benefit. This type of...

  12. Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

  14. Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Tsunehiko

    The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…

  15. 76 FR 76491 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Review'', EDA published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 5501) requesting public comments on how... March 9, 2011; however, EDA published a second notice (76 FR 12616) on March 8, 2011 to extend the... December 7, 2011 Part II Department of Commerce Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts 300,...

  16. Economic--GNP per Capita Learning Module. Development Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' ability to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…

  17. Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

    2010-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

  18. School of Business and Economics Executive Development Programmes Referee Form

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    School of Business and Economics Executive Development Programmes ­ Referee Form Tel: +64 3 364 2657, www.exec.canterbury.ac.nz CONFIDENTIAL To the Referee The person whose name appears above has applied for the Master of Business Administration (MBA) or Graduate Diploma of Business Administration

  19. Population Explosion in Africa and its Implications for Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbode, Ade

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes patterns of population growth in Africa, accounts for the population explosion in certain parts of the continent, and discusses implications of the population growth for economic development. Seven tables and two maps are included in the article. (Author/DB)

  20. AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

  1. A Portfolio of Community College Initiatives in Rural Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    Community colleges across the United States have initiated programs that are making an impact on the productivity of rural America and its residents. Profiles of 20 community and technical college initiatives in rural economic development are contained in this report intended for use by community and technical college administrators. The programs…

  2. Race, Politics, and Economic Development: Community Perspectives. Haymarket Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, James, Ed.

    The underlying causes of black urban poverty are examined, and means are recommended to escape the cycle of violence it creates. Black activists and scholars analyze theoretical and practical problems facing the black community in the United States in the following papers: (1) "Towards a Theory and Strategy for Black Economic Development" (J.…

  3. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  4. Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ying Chu

    2004-01-01

    Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…

  5. Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. Ker

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

  6. Attracting, Developing, and Maintaining Human Capital: A New Model for Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development," a 2011 book by Timothy Bartik, Senior Economist at the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, provides a new evidence-based approach for effective economic development. This approach is designed to support business growth and job creation by improving worker…

  7. Research and Development and the Role of the Urban University in Strategic Economic Development Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Ronald J.

    Urban universities have a definite role to play within the context of strategic economic development. Coordination between state and local government, the private sector, and the academic community can lead to effective partnerships to formulate and implement economic development plans. Declining university enrollments and fewer dollars available…

  8. Population Growth and Economic Development: Lessons from Selected Asian Countries. Policy Development Studies, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; And Others

    The major findings of a research project on the relationship between population growth and economic development are summarized in this monograph. The study compares recent demographic and economic trends in Japan, Korea, Thailand, and Indonesia to worldwide experience as described by an econometric model of population and development. The study…

  9. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuels and materials recovery processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gershman, H.W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of various materials is demonstrated, using data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area as input. The processing facility, designed to handle 650 tpd of refuse, is described. Since materials revenues can be predicted with a higher degree of certainty than refuse fuel revenues, it is necessary to determine what revenues the sale of solid waste fuel will have to generate for projected economics to be the same as an alternative disposal practice. (1 diagram, 8 references, 6 tables)

  10. Development in Rural Texas: An Assessment of TEEX Economic Development Reports 

    E-print Network

    Calcaneo, Edgar Adrian; Cripe, Ramsey; Davis, Taylor; Gonzalez, Ramon; Grimes, Joshua; Hemby, Olivia; Humphrey, Colby; Keppy, Paul; Surgenor, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The Development in Rural Texas report provides an evaluation and assessment of economic development recommendations made by the Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX). Due to the nature of its work, TEEX seldom has ...

  11. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480

  12. Modeling Integrated Farm Systems: A Tool for Developing more Economically and Environmentally Sustainable Farming Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of models have been developed to represent farm systems, but only a few actually integrate all or most of the major biological, physical, and economic processes of a farm. Farm system models are used for decision support, education, and research purposes. Because of differences in the type ...

  13. The urban economic development impacts of ethnic entrepreneurship : a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in Lawrence, Massachusetts

    E-print Network

    Cheigh, Brian Chaneung

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines the process through which ethnic entrepreneurship impacts urban economic development. In many urban places across the United States, demographic change has led to the rise of ethnic communities and the ...

  14. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

  15. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  16. [The economic-industrial health care complex and the social and economic dimension of development].

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy. PMID:23250391

  17. 78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual Reporting AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION... Collection Title of Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative. OMB Approval...

  18. Rural People and Rural Economic Development. IIEP Seminar Paper: 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, M. J.

    Assuming development is a process that involves the generation, diffusion, and realization of new opportunities, this paper discusses the following: (1) The Development Process: Facts and Issues (re: visible unemployment; rural to urban migration; the dualism of labor markets in the less developed countries; population growth; and the…

  19. China's coastal population and economic development: summary of the symposium.

    PubMed

    Song, R

    1992-01-01

    China's coastal areas have led the rest of China in economic development and low fertility rates; migration from inland areas and urbanization are well advanced. A symposium on China's coastal population and economic development was conducted in 1990 by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Liaoning Population Institute, and the Dalian Population Institute at the request of the China Population Institute. There were 50 people in attendance representing major research institutes and family planning associations and media organizations. 26 papers were submitted. The opening speaker addressed developing the economy as a positive cycle of population and development, and accelerating change. Discussion focused on the following topics: the relationship between fertility rate changes and coastal economic development, population mobility and migration to coast areas, population urbanization, and related problems. In the summation by Professor Tian Xueyuan, 7 trends were identified: continued coastal population growth, a two-directional change in natural population growth, an increase in the rate of coastal population migration, rapid urban population growth, productive age population growth and changes in the employment structure, improvements in economic and technological progess and quality of life, and rapid population aging. The symposium was considered particularly timely in highlighting the current problems and strengths, integrating theorists with field workers, and maintaining an open exchange of ideas and information. Problems were identified as regional open areas in Heihai in Guangxi, Heihe in Heilongjiang, and Dalian in Liaoning Province. Although the population is considered professionally better qualified than in other regions, there is still a lack of technicians and skilled workers and an excess of untrained workers. Development is being slowed and mismanaged due to deficiencies in the job allocation and personnel selection systems; as a consequence, there has been a "slump" in the demand for qualified personnel; skilled persons are unable to make good use of their abilities. PMID:12317925

  20. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  1. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sale for economic development purposes? 102-75.900 Section 102-75.900 Public Contracts and Property... negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means... community's economic benefit. This type of negotiated sale is acceptable where the expected public...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sale for economic development purposes? 102-75.900 Section 102-75.900 Public Contracts and Property... negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means... community's economic benefit. This type of negotiated sale is acceptable where the expected public...

  4. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic, Reservation-Wide Economic... information collection. SUMMARY: The Division of Economic Development (DED), Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable economies on American...

  5. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  6. 24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Eligible Activities ...Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. The...

  7. USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

    2005-05-01

    To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

  8. The Important Role of Physics in Industry and Economic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Igor

    2012-10-01

    Good Physics requires good education. Good education translates into good Physics professionals. The process starts early with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education programs for Middle and High-School students. Then it continues with competitive higher education programs (2 years and 4 years) at colleges and universities designed to satisfy the needs of industry and academia. The research work conducted by graduate students in Physics (and Engineering Physics) frequently translates into new discoveries and innovations that have direct impact in society (e.g. Proton Cancer Therapy). Some of the major and largest scientific experiments in the world today are physics-centered (e.g. Large Hadron Collider-LHC) that generate employment and business opportunities for thousands of scientists, academic research groups and companies from around the world. New superconducting magnets and advanced materials that have resulted from previous research in physics are commonly used in these extreme experiments. But not all physicists will end up working at these large high-energy physics experiments, universities or National Laboratories (e.g. Fermilab); industry requires new generations of (industrial) physicists in such sectors as semiconductor, energy, space, life sciences, defense and advanced manufacturing. This work presents an industry perspective about the role of Physics in economic development and the need for a collaborative Academic-Industry approach for a more effective translational research. A series of examples will be presented with emphasis in the measurement, control, diagnostics and computing capabilities needed to translate the science (physics) into innovations and practical solutions that can benefit society as a whole.

  9. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Skamania County, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  10. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  11. Gravimelt Process development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This final report contains the results of a bench-scale program to continue the development of the TRW proprietary Gravimelt Process for chemically cleaning coal. This project consisted of two major efforts, a laboratory study aimed at identifying parameters which would influence the operation of a bench unit for desulfurization and demineralization of coal and the design, construction and operation of two types of continuous plug-flow type bench-scale fused caustic leachers. This present bench scale project has demonstrated modes for the continuous operation of fused caustic leaching of coal at coal throughputs of 1 to 5 pounds per hour. The remaining process unit operations of leach solutions regeneration and coal washing and filtration should be tested at bench scale together with fused caustic leaching of coal to demonstrate the complete Gravimelt Process. 22 figures, 11 tables.

  12. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  13. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  14. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  15. Final Report: Bioelectrochemical Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    EKECHUKWU, AMY

    2004-07-15

    Work performed under the Independent Research and Development project ''Bioelectrochemical Process Development'' using Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 henceforth MR-1, a model dissimilitory metal reducing (DMRB) bacteria successfully demonstrates the following: MR-1 transfers electrons by hydrogen oxidation to solid phase electrodes; MR-1 can act as an electron transfer agent when attached to a solid metal electrode surface - a modified electrode has been developed and tested; MR-1 transfers electrons from solution to a solid electrode. DMRB grow by transferring electrons to insoluble metals. When bacteria oxidize organic compounds or hydrogen this results in electron flow from the bacterial cell for the purpose of cellular energy production. Extracellular electron transfer to solid terminal electron acceptors permits coupling this oxidation process to electrodes. As a result, detection of organic compounds and hydrogen can be accomplished by bacterial contact to an electrode. The authors have designed a process that incorporates bacterial cells onto electrodes for the purpose of hydrogen detection. In addition, this type of bio-sensor also responds to the presence of FE III thereby providing potential utility as a Fe III sensor. Immediate uses of this technology include in-situ detection and quantification of organic compounds and hydrogen in the subsurface that provide energy for growth of indigenous bacteria.

  16. 76 FR 17662 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant Application AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION...: Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant Application. OMB Approval Number: 2506-0153....

  17. 2015 The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development A NATIONAL URBAN

    E-print Network

    a significant impact on economic development. Project Overview The Best Practices in Urban Innovation project enterprise development, financial services for low and moderate income communities (literacy and access© 2015 The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development A NATIONAL URBAN INNOVATION

  18. 13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7 Requirements...Economic Development Strategies. (a) General...dislocations due to global trade, competition...workforce investment strategies; and (ii) An identification...Planning Organization's successful development and...

  19. Microfiltration of thin stillage: Process simulation and economic analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plant scale operations, multistage membrane systems have been adopted for cost minimization. We considered design optimization and operation of a continuous microfiltration (MF) system for the corn dry grind process. The objectives were to develop a model to simulate a multistage MF system, optim...

  20. From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

  1. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility *

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Mosso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

  2. Winter Semester 2013/14 Development Economics III: Regional Perspectives on Economic Development

    E-print Network

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Report 1997, Ch. 2 3. World Bank: World Development Report 2004, Ch. 2., P. 33-45 4. * Dreze, Jean 12-14 am VG3.104 (deoending on demand, there might be a second tutorial on Tuesday 14-16 VG0 or enrolled in one of the two concurrently. Main Readings: World Bank. 2001. Can Africa Claim the 21st Century

  3. Child Development Is Economic Development. A Conversation with Economist Art Rolnick. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The public dollars spent to stimulate economic development would be more wisely invested in child development programs, according to two different streams of research. Brain research shows the impact of experiences and environments on the developing brain architecture, with weaker architecture leading to increased vulnerability to later problems…

  4. 24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nominations by Economic Development... ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 598.510 Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia. Any urban area nominated by an Economic Development...

  5. 76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program...) for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program. This announcement contains the names of the.... Williams, PhD, Director, Office of Rural Housing and Economic Development, Office of Community Planning...

  6. Economic on-line optimization for liquids extraction and treating in gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Gamez, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Significant changes in the gas processing industry are driving processors to become more dependent on their ability to adapt plant operations to respond to changing third party contracts, wide variability of inlet conditions, plus the volatile market pricing of NGL`s and residue gas in order to remain competitive and profitable. The need for flexible operations at each facility requires an on-line, real time supervisory controller/optimizer that manipulates the process to achieve its economic optimum. Economic optimum does not equal process optimum and the traditional approach of only meeting the control objectives is insufficient for today`s gas plant operations. Because gas plants have no storage of products or residue gas, lost opportunity is immediate with no means to regain lost profitability. The nonlinear characteristics of the process makes typical available control technologies unacceptable for these applications. A new solution that incorporates economics, process dynamics and the economic arrangements of the gas processor has been developed with the cooperation of industry, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and Continental Controls, Inc. (CCI). The objective function of this software solution is the maximization of profit for the plant and its co-owners. Thus, the optimum set of controlled variables is also dynamic, dependent on product price margins, variability of the inlet gas, and the cost of utilities. This simultaneous control and optimization solution has produced benefits that have paid for the project in as little as two and one half months and typically four to seven months depending on the gas throughput and its richness.

  7. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

  8. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  9. How to Reason with Economic Concepts: Cognitive Process of Japanese Undergraduate Students Solving Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Tadayoshi; Yamaoka, Michio

    2015-01-01

    The authors administered a Japanese version of the Test of Understanding in College Economics, the fourth edition (TUCE-4) to assess the economic literacy of Japanese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2009. These two test results were combined to investigate students' cognitive process or reasoning with specific economic concepts and principles…

  10. Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Stage, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis. PMID:20146767

  11. The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development*

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of capabilities. Both cognitive and noncognitive capabilities determine success in life but to varying degrees for different outcomes. An empirically determined technology of capability formation reveals that capabilities are self-productive and cross-fertilizing and can be enhanced by investment. Investments in capabilities are relatively more productive at some stages of a child’s life cycle than others. Optimal child investment strategies differ depending on target outcomes of interest and on the nature of adversity in a child’s early years. For some configurations of early disadvantage and for some desired outcomes, it is efficient to invest relatively more in the later years of childhood than in the early years. PMID:20209045

  12. The effects of economic development and international dependency levels on international conflict initiation 

    E-print Network

    Ramirez, Jason Alexander

    2000-01-01

    participated. I hypothesized that, for the years 1950 to 1992, economically developed or internationally non-dependent states would attack less developed or dependent states more often than states of similar economic status. I also hypothesized...

  13. 11.471 Targeting the Poor: Small Firms, Workers, and Local Economic Development, Fall 2004

    E-print Network

    Tendler, Judith

    Covers conditions under which public-sector policies, programs, and projects succeed in enhancing the economic activities of poorer groups and micro-regions in developing countries. Topics include local economic development; ...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). 1940.968 Section 1940.968 Agriculture...Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). (a) General....

  15. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). 1940.968 Section 1940.968 Agriculture...Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). (a) General....

  16. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). 1940.968 Section 1940.968 Agriculture...Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). (a) General....

  17. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). 1940.968 Section 1940.968 Agriculture...Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). (a) General....

  18. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). 1940.968 Section 1940.968 Agriculture...Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). (a) General....

  19. 7 CFR 25.502 - Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...economic development corporations. 25.502 Section 25.502 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.502 Nominations by State-chartered economic development...

  20. 7 CFR 25.502 - Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...economic development corporations. 25.502 Section 25.502 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.502 Nominations by State-chartered economic development...

  1. Civic Culture and Governmentality in the Politics of Growth and Local Economic Development in Lawrence, Kansas

    E-print Network

    Wipf, Justin

    2012-12-31

    Leading theories on the politics of local economic development have been anemic in their ability to explain variation among cities regarding economic development policies, priorities, and community support for such activities. ...

  2. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  3. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  4. Environment, health, and sustainable development: the role of economic instruments and policies.

    PubMed Central

    Warford, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in integrating environmental concerns into the mainstream of development policy and planning. Economic instruments designed explicitly for environmental purposes may help to achieve cost-effective solutions, and generate public revenues. Macroeconomic and sectoral policies may impact heavily upon the environment, and there is much scope for policy reforms that are justified in both economic and environmental terms. Progress in this area has been much more rapid than in the case of health objectives, even though the rationale for environmental improvement is often ultimately related to human health and well-being. It is proposed that lessons from recent experience in the use of economic instruments and policies to achieve environmental objectives are highly relevant for the health sector, which should seek and encourage support for measures that requires consumer and producers of environmentally degrading products to pay for the economic and social costs of the damage resulting from their use. Policy reform at the macroeconomic or sectoral level may yield cost-effective solutions to some health problems, and may even bring about improvements in health status that involve no net cost at all. The countrywide impact of such policies indicate that health agencies, including WHO, should develop the capacity to understand how economic policies and the adjustment process impact upon human health, not only direct through the effect on incomes, but also indirectly, via changes in the natural environment. Ability to conduct rigorous health impact assessment of economic policy reform, which requires a multidisciplinary effort, is a necessary condition if health ministries are to maximize their effectiveness in influencing overall government economic policy. PMID:7614671

  5. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...State rural economic development review panel. 1940.956 Section 1940.956 Agriculture...State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In order for a...State must have a rural economic development panel that meets all requirements of this...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...State rural economic development review panel. 1940.956 Section 1940.956 Agriculture...State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In order for a...State must have a rural economic development panel that meets all requirements of this...

  7. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...State rural economic development review panel. 1940.956 Section 1940.956 Agriculture...State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In order for a...State must have a rural economic development panel that meets all requirements of this...

  8. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...State rural economic development review panel. 1940.956 Section 1940.956 Agriculture...State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In order for a...State must have a rural economic development panel that meets all requirements of this...

  9. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...State rural economic development review panel. 1940.956 Section 1940.956 Agriculture...State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In order for a...State must have a rural economic development panel that meets all requirements of this...

  10. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

  11. 7 CFR 25.502 - Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nominations by State-chartered economic development... AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.502 Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations. Any rural area nominated by an economic development corporation chartered by a State...

  12. 13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility. 304.1 Section 304.1 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1 Designation...

  13. 13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility. 304.1 Section 304.1 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1 Designation...

  14. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

  15. 7 CFR 25.502 - Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nominations by State-chartered economic development... AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.502 Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations. Any rural area nominated by an economic development corporation chartered by a State...

  16. 24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nominations by economic development... ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.502 Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia. Any urban area nominated by an Economic...

  17. 77 FR 6517 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 310, 311, and 314 RIN 0610-XA08 Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. 75 FR 24781 - Task Force on Space Industry Workforce and Economic Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Workforce and Economic Development Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense the Secretary of Commerce the... local and Federal economic and workforce-development efforts through a Task Force composed of senior-level Administration officials from relevant agencies that will construct an economic development...

  19. Increasing the Economic Development Benefits of Higher Education in Michigan. Working Paper No. 04-106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers how a state such as Michigan can increase the economic development benefits of higher education. Research evidence suggests that higher education increases local economic development principally by increasing the quality of the local workforce, and secondarily by increasing local innovative ideas. These economic development

  20. The Development Data Book: A Guide to Social and Economic Statistics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheram, Katherine

    This data book presents satistics on countries with populations of more than one million. The statistics relate to economic development and the changes it is bringing about in the world. These statistics are measures of social and economic conditions in developing and industrial countries. Five indicators of economic development are presented,…

  1. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  2. Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol

    2012-01-01

    The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university model…

  3. Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, William J., Ed.; Gerity, Patrick E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges" is a compilation of best practice examples, which illustrate what it takes for community colleges to achieve their goal of helping people acquire education and skills, helping employers, supporting communities, and building the nation. The book is written…

  4. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  5. Environmental Processes, Social Perspectives and Economic Valuations of the Coast 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Amy M.

    2011-10-21

    to provide information on social, economic and environmental issues in Matagorda, Texas. The first study uses LIDAR (Light Image Detection-and-Ranging) scanning, a remote sensing methodology that uses laser pulses to collect X, Y, and Z coordinates...

  6. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  7. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  8. Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnucci, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year program to develop the processes required for low-energy ion implantation for the automated production of silicon solar cells are described. The program included: (1) demonstrating state-of-the-art ion implantation equipment and designing an automated ion implanter, (2) making efforts to improve the performance of ion-implanted solar cells to 16.5 percent AM1, (3) developing a model of the pulse annealing process used in solar cell production, and (4) preparing an economic analysis of the process costs of ion implantation.

  9. Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.

    1989-03-21

    It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums today over the apparent decline in global competitiveness of U.S. industry. The question is why does U.S. industry not succeed in the development and marketing of competitive products when they lead in the generation of new technology.

  10. Regional, economic, and environmental effects of traditional and biotechnologically enhanced ethanol production processes in Brazil

    E-print Network

    Guerrero Compeán, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Climate change, food security, and energy efficiency have become universal challenges for global economic development and environmental conservation that demand in-depth multidisciplinary research. Biofuels have emerged ...

  11. An approach to determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel and materials recovery processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, H. W.

    1980-06-01

    An approach for determining the economic feasibility of refuse-derived fuel production and the recovery of materials is presented. This information is based on data developed for the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area as input for the consideration of a regional resource recovery program which would eventually encompass 4000 t/day of municipal solid waste; it is designed to recover refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous and nonferrous metals, flint and color-mixed glass cullet, color-mixed glass fines, and waste newspapers. The planning process requires estimates of recovery product revenues and of process feasibility; since materials revenues can be predicted with a greater degree of certainty than RDF revenues, it becomes necessary to determine what revenues will be required from the sale of RDF so that predicted economics can be the same as the alternative disposal practice. A technique is described which will assist the decisionmaker in evaluating the economic feasibility of the proposed project by determining the RDF 'Indifference Value'.

  12. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

    PubMed

    Okpala, A O

    1990-12-01

    The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture. PMID:12284704

  13. Energy consumption and economic development in West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Chima, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the commercial energy sector of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Presently, an economic union exists between the 16 countries of West Africa that are members of ECOWAS. Although the ECOWAS region has plentiful resources of commercial energy, it faces problems in this sector for two reasons. First is the problem resulting from the diminishing traditional energy resources such as wood fuel and charcoal. Second, most ECOWAS members, except Nigeria, are net importers of commercial energy, and hence face a high import burden for oil. Liquid petroleum is the dominant form of commercial energy used in the ECOWAS despite the availability of other resources. This author basically argues that the best policy and strategy solution for dealing with energy problems is through a combination of regional cooperative effort, and a more-intensive country level. The intensity-of-use hypothesis is tested with case studies of Ghana, the Ivory Coast, and Nigeria. The results indicate that newly developing countries can deviate from the expectations of the hypothesis.

  14. Join us this year for "Regionalism and Economic Development,"

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    Speaker: Mr. John Stoltzfus Managing Director and Chief Market Strategist, Oppenheimer Asset Management. Robert Eisenstadt Professor, Economics and Director, Center for Business and Economic Research University Speaker Sponsor Oppenheimer Asset Management Corporate Sponsors CenturyLink, Inc. Centric Federal Credit

  15. Evaluation of indirect loss from hypothetical catastrophes in two regions with different economic development levels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Liu, X.-Q.

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates and compares the indirect economic loss (IEL) resulting from two hypothetical catastrophes occurring in China - in developed Shanghai and in less-developed Sichuan - to provide new measures of disaster reduction. IEL was divided into indirect economic loss due to the disruption of production process (IEL I) and indirect economic loss induced by the disturbance of industrial lines (IEL II). An input-output model was used to assess these two types of IEL. The study showed that (1) developed regions may be more vulnerable with respect to IEL; (2) IEL II is the primary factor contributing to total IEL; (3) decision makers need to focus on IEL II beside IEL I which is usually the main disaster-reduction target after a disaster; and (4) tradeoff between economic growth and disaster prevention is needed to achieve regional sustainable development.

  16. Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2004-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) has developed a spreadsheet-based wind model (Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI)) that incorporates economic multipliers for jobs, income, and output. Originally developed with state-specific parameters, it can also be used to conduct county and regional analyses. NREL has enlisted the Wind Powering America (WPA) State Wind Working Groups (SWWGs) to conduct county-specific economic impact analyses and has encouraged them to use JEDI if they do not have their own economic model. The objective of the analyses is to identify counties within WPA target states, and preferably counties with a significant agricultural sector, that could economically benefit from wind development. These counties could then explore opportunities to tap into the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Bill Section 9006 grants and loans to stimulate wind development. This paper describes the JEDI model and how i t can be used. We will also summarize a series of analyses that were completed to fulfill a General Accounting Office (GAO) request to provide estimates of the economic development benefits of wind power.

  17. 77 FR 12792 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for...and grants under the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant (REDLG...Opportunity Type: Rural Economic Development Loans and Grants....

  18. 76 FR 8334 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for...and grants under the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant (REDLG...Opportunity Type: Rural Economic Development Loans and Grants....

  19. 78 FR 38006 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for...and grants under the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant (REDLG...Opportunity Type: Rural Economic Development Loans and Grants....

  20. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...creation and economic development activities? 287...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE...creation and economic development activities? (a...program, Workforce Development Boards, One-Stop...economic and employment studies for the area in...

  1. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...creation and economic development activities? 287...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE...creation and economic development activities? (a...program, Workforce Development Boards, One-Stop...economic and employment studies for the area in...

  2. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...creation and economic development activities? 287...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE...creation and economic development activities? (a...program, Workforce Development Boards, One-Stop...economic and employment studies for the area in...

  3. World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

  4. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and... the Under Secretary for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and... Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be exercised only during the absence...

  5. 31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purchase of shares in economic... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma... Burma of shares of ownership, including an equity interest, in the economic development of...

  6. 31 CFR 537.412 - Investments in entities involved in economic development projects in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economic development projects in Burma. 537.412 Section 537.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.412 Investments in entities involved in economic... economic development of resources located in Burma is prohibited by § 537.204 where the company's...

  7. Allocation of Talent in Society and Its Effect on Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strenze, Tarmo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in psychology and economics have demonstrated that the average cognitive ability (talent) of people living in a society affects the economic development of the society. There is, however, reason to expect that the economic development of societies depends not just on the average level of talent but also on the allocation of talent…

  8. Economic "Growth" vs. "Development" of Rural Communities: It Means the Difference between Local and Outside Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Maria

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth increases the amount of money in a community but does not increase the community's capacity to steer its own direction as economic development can. The accomplishments of Rio Arriba County (New Mexico) offer a rare example of successful economic development. Sustainable environmentalism, instead of conservation, considers people as…

  9. Challenges and successes with economic and business development models at the local level: The Quatsino experience

    E-print Network

    !)*+#&,+( In this case study, I examine the economic development and business development experiences of the Quatsino goals and human resource development, continued use of the development corporation to separate politicsChallenges and successes with economic and business development models at the local level

  10. Economic development and the structure of the demand for commerial energy

    E-print Network

    Judson, Ruth A.; Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.

    To deepen understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the Engel curves that relate per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors to per-capita GDP. Panel ...

  11. Economic development and the structure of the demand for commerial energy

    E-print Network

    Judson, Ruth A.

    To deepen the understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the Engel curves that relate per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors to per-capita GDP. Panel ...

  12. Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

  13. Aqaba's Old Town : proposed model for community development within the Aqaba Special Economic Zone

    E-print Network

    Al-Husseini, Dalia Z. (Dalia Zuehir)

    2007-01-01

    As a recently designated Special Economic Zone in 2001 and Jordan's only port, Aqaba has been experiencing a major economic boom and rapid development at a scale previously unprecedented in Jordan. Under the governance of ...

  14. Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  15. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  16. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-11-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  17. Community Development Assistance Pilot Project, Kansas Department of Economic Development Completion Report, June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Darrel; And Others

    A product of the Kansas Planning and Community Development (CD) Division within the Kansas Department of Economic Division, the Kansas CD Assistance Pilot Project was created to meet the more technical needs of small and principally rural communities (up to 20,000 in population). Funded from July 1, 1974 through October 31, 1975, the Project…

  18. Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingguo

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental disaster. That is by adopting a policy of sustainable development to protect the already damaged environment. The study is centered by a case study of Yunnan Biomass-to-Electricity (BTE) Program, which is a joint research effort between American and Chinese institutions to implement biomass energy projects in rural areas of Yunnan province, China. By integrating energy production and environmental protection, the BTE Program could serve both the environmental and economic needs of the local regions. Therefore, the Yunnan BTE program can serve as a model of sustainable development. Furthermore, because the Yunnan BTE program was a cooperative research effort involving Chinese and American institutions, it also provides an opportunity to study and assess international joint policy implementation efforts. In this case study, we developed an analytical model that contains key factors, both constraints and opportunities, which may have affected the implementation of the BTE program. We explore the role of environmental policy and relationships among various relevant Chinese and American institutions involved in the BTE program. Through careful examination of these factors, and their roles in the process, we establish which facilitate and inhibit program implementation. The study of Mengpeng BTE project showed that all the factors in the analytical model influenced the outcome of the project implementation. Some played more vital roles while others were just minor players. The study demonstrated that preferential environmental policy and sound institutional setting are essential for the success of environmental program implementation in China. From this study, we have learned that it takes more than advanced technology and funding to implement sustainable development. We need not only good environmental policy, but also effective environmental policy. It was not that China lacked environmental policies to support sustainable development. It was rather that these policies were not thoroughly implemented. This case showed that the Chinese institutional setting posed problems for environmental policy implementation in China.

  19. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    PubMed Central

    Shabaruddin, Fatiha H; Fleeman, Nigel D; Payne, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response) or safety (avoidance of adverse events). The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are interlinked: the need to adapt available evaluation methods and identifying who is responsible for generating evidence for these technologies. PMID:26309416

  20. University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist

    E-print Network

    Rev. 5/09 University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist The University Policy Office (UPO) has designed the Policy Development Checklist to assist you develop or revise university policy practices. #12;University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist Page 2 of 6 University policies may

  1. Environmental planning as a tool for economic development: The black brook watershed experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ryner, P.C.; Heller, G.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Keene, New Hampshire Planning Department has attempted to use environmental planning as a tool to facilitate industrial development of the Black Brook Watershed. The City has established detailed modeling of drainage, floodplains and groundwater, and has placed that information on accurate computer-based maps. When provided to developers at the beginning of the development process, this environmental information expidites design and permitting while also improving the likelihood of protecting sensitive environmental areas. Starting in 1987 as part of a Master Plan revision process, the Planning Department decided to concentrate on the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern Keene as a target area for a new approach to economic development and environmental protection. The entire watershed was chosen as the boundary for this study area and detailed studies were conducted. During this effort the City formulated a new Economic Development Master Plan which called for the creation of approximately 300 acres of new industrial development within the next ten years. The Black Brook basin was identified as the preferred site. Because of pro-active environmental planning, the City is now able to work in active, cooperative partnership with the private sector in the development of this area. It is clear from this first specific development project that the project development and permitting process will be shortened by at least 60 days, and a minimum of $5,000 to $10,000 in preliminary site information costs will be saved. The availability of good information on wetlands and floodplains has already had a dramatic impact upon proposed site design and has achieved the desired objective of avoiding these sensitive areas whenever possible. The City is now working on the design of an Industrial Design and Permitting System which will be applied to the entire City, based upon what has been learned from this effort.

  2. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State rural economic development review panel. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In... development panel that meets all requirements of this subpart. Each designated State will establish a...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State rural economic development review panel. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In... development panel that meets all requirements of this subpart. Each designated State will establish a...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State rural economic development review panel. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In... development panel that meets all requirements of this subpart. Each designated State will establish a...

  5. 7 CFR 1940.956 - State rural economic development review panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true State rural economic development review panel. 1940... Rural Development Programs § 1940.956 State rural economic development review panel. (a) General. In... development panel that meets all requirements of this subpart. Each designated State will establish a...

  6. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

  7. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein) respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for significant ethanol cost reductions exist in increasing pentose fermentation efficiency and reducing biomass and enzyme costs. The results demonstrated the importance of addressing the tradeoffs in capital costs, pretreatment and downstream processing technologies. PMID:21892958

  8. Universities and Colleges as Economic Drivers: Measuring Higher Education's Role in Economic Development. Critical Issues in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jason E., Ed.; Johnstone, D. Bruce, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Local, state, and national economies are facing unprecedented levels of international competition. The current fiscal crisis has hampered the ability of many governments in the developed world to directly facilitate economic growth. At the same time, many governments in the developing world are investing significant new resources into local…

  9. The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) together with students and faculty works to create wealth in urban communities

    E-print Network

    The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) together with students and faculty works to create wealth in urban communities The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic for how universities operating in urban areas can facilitate economic development to revitalize cities

  10. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    E-print Network

    population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal

  11. Results from a Faculty Development Program in Teaching Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.; Salemi, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The Teaching Innovations Program (TIP) was a six-year project funded by the National Science Foundation that gave economics instructors the opportunity to learn interactive teaching strategies for use in undergraduate economics courses. TIP participants first attended a teaching workshop that presented various teaching strategies. They then could…

  12. Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Indian Experience of Reforms and Development

    E-print Network

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Indian Experience of Reforms and Development Panchanan Das suggest that the faster economic growth causes higher incidence of poverty and inequality. Income inequality across regions is rising at an alarming rate due to higher economic growth during the reform

  13. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.410 Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic... supervision and guarantee of another person's performance of a contract that includes the economic...

  14. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  15. Development process of automotive microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William C.

    1995-05-01

    The phased product development approach can be applied advantageously to develop and manufacture automotive microsensors. The phased approach involves a multifunctional team from innovation to development to eventual production and maintenance phases. The key advantage of this approach is the shortened development cycle and fast product introduction, while minimizing waste of resources and lowering risk of product failure. When applied to the product cycles of automotive sensors based on micromachining technology, this approach elucidates several critical considerations. In particular, since industrial application of micromachining technology is still at the infant stage, standards and design rules are not firmly established. Therefore, several important activities must be initiated simultaneously from the start of the innovation phase, which proves to be crucial to the prudent decision of technology alternatives and sensor system configuration. The use of a multifunctional team, as mandated in the phased approach, enables coherent development and optimization of the sense element, the fabrication technology, the packaging approach, the interface circuit configuration, and design features that allow efficient test and assembly flow. Also, with intermediate milestones within each phase, risk assessment and necessary midcourse adjustment to technology trade- offs can be both timely and accurate. Accelerometers, one of the most developed micromachined sensors, serve as representative examples that illustrate how the phased approach can benefits the commercialization of the newly established and rapidly expanding field of micromechanics.

  16. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

  17. Conference Proceedings, 2011 Low Impact Development Symposium, Submitted, March 2012 Economic and Adaptation Benefits of Low Impact Development

    E-print Network

    Conference Proceedings, 2011 Low Impact Development Symposium, Submitted, March 2012 1 Economic and Adaptation Benefits of Low Impact Development Robert M. Roseen M.ASCE 1 , Todd V. Janeski2 , Michael Simpson3 a range of case studies illustrating the advantages of Low Impact Development (LID) in economic terms

  18. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit. [MILDGAS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  19. 26 CFR 1.924(d)-1 - Requirement that economic processes take place outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...that economic processes take place outside the United States. 1.924(d)-1 Section...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED...that economic processes take place outside the United States. (a) In...

  20. A preliminary process design and economic assessment of a catalyst rejuvenation process for waste disposal of refinery spent catalysts.

    PubMed

    Marafi, Meena; Stanislaus, Antony; Kam, Ezra

    2008-03-01

    Spent hydroprocessing catalysts from refineries have been classified as hazardous solid waste by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), refiners must find a viable but economical solution to solve this serious environmental issue. Catalyst rejuvenation is an attractive option for minimizing the environmental problems associated with spent catalysts. In this study, a preliminary design for such a process and the corresponding economic analysis are performed to assess the proposed catalyst rejuvenation process for metal-fouled spent catalysts generated in residue hydroprocessing units. The scenarios used in the economic assessment are based on three options of process synthesis and two operator modes. It is found that the option of rejuvenating medium and lightly fouled spent catalyst produced by the refinery will be the best solution for refiners, both environmentally and economically. PMID:17316960

  1. EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of process designs and retrofits to provide simple and quick economic and environmental evaluations simultaneously. The method focuses attention onto those streams and components that have the largest monetary values and...

  2. Developing Science Process Skills through Directed Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germann, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    The Directed Inquiry Approach to Learning Science Process Skills and Scientific Problem Solving [DIAL(SPS)2] is described. Concept mapping, advance organizers, Vee diagrams, the theme approach, and focusing are used to help students develop science process skills. (KR)

  3. Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints, and short term objectives) as well. In the models operating rules represent different models of human behavior, and the objective of the modeling is to find rules for human behavior that perform well in terms of long term human objectives. The conceptual model used to represent human behavior incorporates economic multi-objective optimization for surrogate objectives, and rules that set those objectives based on current conditions and accounting for uncertainty, at least implicitly. The author asserts that real world operating rules follow this form and have evolved because they have been perceived as successful in the past. Thus, the modeling efforts focus on human behavior in much the same way that economic models focus on human behavior. This paper illustrates the above concepts with real world examples.

  4. The economics of future membrane desalination processes and applications

    E-print Network

    McGovern, Ronan Killian

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination, the desalination of waters flowing back from hydraulic fracturing processes and brackish water desalination constitute important desalination applications. These have a combined market size in excess ...

  5. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Rongbing Zhang

    E-print Network

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Rongbing Zhang UBC Civil and Biological Building Life Cycle Assessment Rongbing Zhang ( #12;Executive Summary The whole building life

  6. Profiles in Rural Economic Development: A Guidebook of Selected Successful Rural Area Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This guidebook presents 64 profiles of successful economic development initiatives in the small towns and rural areas of 37 states. Intended for use by rural and small town leaders and rural economic development specialists, the guide provides ideas, encouragement, and an "insider perspective" on alternative rural development strategies. Each…

  7. 24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 598.510 Nominations by Economic Development...

  8. 24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 598.510 Nominations by Economic Development...

  9. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  10. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  11. Novel anaerobic digestion process with sludge ozonation for economically feasible power production from biogas.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, K; Yasui, H; Goel, R; Li, Y Y; Noike, T

    2011-01-01

    A novel process scheme was developed to achieve economically feasible energy recovery from anaerobic digestion. The new process scheme employs a hybrid configuration of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion with sludge ozonation: the ozonated sludge is first degraded in a thermophilic digester and then further degraded in a mesophilic digester. In small-scale pilot experiments of the new process scheme, degradation of VSS improved by 3.5% over the control (mesophilic-only configuration) with 20% less ozone consumption. Moreover, biogas conversion also improved by 7.1% over the control. Selective enrichment of inorganic compounds during centrifugation produced a dewatered sludge cake with very low water content (59.4%). This low water content in the sludge cake improved its auto-thermal combustion potential during incineration and added to the overall energy savings. We conducted a case study to evaluate power generation from biogas for a municipal wastewater treatment plant with an average dry weather flow of 43,000 m3/d. Electricity production cost was 5.2 ˘/kWh for the advanced process with power generation, which is lower than the current market price of 7.2 ˘/kWh. The new anaerobic digestion scheme with power generation may reduce greenhouse gas emissions by about 1,000 t-CO(2)/year compared with the conventional process without power generation. PMID:21508552

  12. Development of a micromolding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Wayne N. P.; Yuan, Shu; Lee, E. C. W.; Ali, Mohammad Y.

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the simulating and experimental results of a micromolding process for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) microcomponents. The maskless process utilizes a micro electrical discharging system for bulk machining, then finish machining using focused-ion beam to sputter the mold microcavity, which is then filled with various types of plastics. Simulation using commercially available software reveals possible problems in micromolding, and the simulation results of microgears ((phi) 100 - 1000 micrometer diameter, 1:1 aspect ratio) are compared with those from actually molded microgears. Although the software prohibits modeling of a stand-alone microgear with diameter below (phi) 1000 micrometer when using a 2.5 D model and (phi) 220 micrometer for a 3D model, the simulation succeeds upon integrating a microgear of (phi) 100 micrometer with a larger base. Selecting the polymers from the built-in data bank, the simulation pinpoints locations for trapped gas, predicts filling time, volumetric shrinkage, uniformity, and distribution of pressure, shear rate, stress... It correctly predicts underfilling of the cavity when the mold temperature is below a threshold, but fails to locate the weld lines. Minimum channel sizes for proper flow of several plastics are presented, and the mold temperature must be controlled for proper flow of polymer into a microcavity. The measured viscosity of tested polymers compliments the experimental and simulating results.

  13. 76 FR 76491 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...collaboration also is essential; and Regions that work together to leverage resources...EDA's goal is to help communities and Regions transform their economies towards economic...unique qualities of all communities and Regions. See proposed revisions to Sec....

  14. Opportunities for technological and economic development policy in Brazil

    E-print Network

    Dalquist, Stephanie K. (Stephanie Kay), 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Brazil's transformation from an agriculturally-based colonial economy to an industrial republic spans seven decades - from the 1930s to the present - with three rapid growth phases which were each followed by economic and ...

  15. Comparing Product Development Processes and Managing Risk

    E-print Network

    Unger, Darian W.

    Product Development Processes (PDPs) require careful design to reduce development time, create better products and manage the risks of bringing new products to market. This paper investigates the relationship between product ...

  16. Understanding technology development processes theory & practice

    E-print Network

    Oswald, W. Andrew (William Andrew)

    2013-01-01

    Technology development is hard for management to understand and hard for practitioners to explain, however it is an essential component of innovation. While there are standard and predictable processes for product development, ...

  17. The implementation of the triple helix model of industry-university-government relations in Puerto Rico to promote knowledge-based regional economic development

    E-print Network

    Ramos-Maltés, Ana Lorena

    2010-01-01

    Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, has long sought to develop a high-tech economy and has struggled in the process. Two initiatives, Puerto Rico TechnoEconomic Corridor (PRTEC) and the Eastern Central Technological ...

  18. Managing the Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubelczky, Jeffrey T.; Parra, Amy

    1999-01-01

    The goal of any software development project is to produce a product that is delivered on time, within the allocated budget, and with the capabilities expected by the customer and unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved. However, a properly managed project in a mature software engineering environment can consistently achieve this goal. In this paper we provide an introduction to three project success factors, a properly managed project, a competent project manager, and a mature software engineering environment. We will also present an overview of the benefits of a mature software engineering environment based on 24 years of data from the Software Engineering Lab, and suggest some first steps that an organization can take to begin benefiting from this environment. The depth and breadth of software engineering exceeds this paper, various references are cited with a goal of raising awareness and encouraging further investigation into software engineering and project management practices.

  19. Tapping State College Research and Development Capacity in Support of State Economic Development. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Applied research and development activities at regional state colleges and universities bolster their primary mission of undergraduate education as well as contribute to local and statewide economic growth. As states boost efforts to fund and stimulate research as part of an integrated economic development strategy, they should seek to fully…

  20. Technical assistance and the transfer of remote sensing technology. [for economic development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of technology from industrialized countries to the third world is a very complicated process and one that requires a great deal of research and development. The political and social obstacles to this transfer are generally greater than the technical obstacles, but technical assistance programs have neither the competence nor the inclination to deal with these factors adequately. Funding for technical assistance in remote sensing is now expanding rapidly, and there is a growing need for institutions to study and promote the effective use of this technology for economic development. The United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development and the Canadian technical assistance agencies take different approaches to the problem and deal with the political pressures in different ways.

  1. Number 159 August 1, 2002 Development of technically and economically viable processes for the conversion and utilization of fossil fuels is a major objective of both the DOE Fossil

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    for the conversion and utilization of fossil fuels is a major objective of both the DOE Fossil Energyprogramand and components among the communities interested in the development of fossil energy systems. In This Issue Long & Components in Fossil Energy Applications A newsletter of the U. S. Department of Energy Advanced Research

  2. Number 158 June 1, 2002 Development of technically and economically viable processes for the conversion and utilization of fossil fuels is a major objective of both the DOE Fossil

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    for the conversion and utilization of fossil fuels is a major objective of both the DOE Fossil Energy program in the development of fossil energy systems. In This Issue ODS alloy heat exchangers for solid-fuel thermal systems..................................................................p. 16 Materials & Components in Fossil Energy Applications A newsletter of the U. S. Department

  3. Number 157 April 1, 2002 Development of technically and economically viable processes for the conversion and utilization of fossil fuels is a major objective of both the DOE Fossil

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    for the conversion and utilization of fossil fuels is a major objective of both the DOE Fossil Energy program in the development of fossil energy systems. In This Issue Operating experience and issues with HRSGs in Fossil Energy Applications A newsletter of the U. S. Department of Energy Advanced Research

  4. ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

    1992-01-01

    ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

  5. Process Centered Software Development on Mobile Hosts

    E-print Network

    processes for different projects. Marvel is a process centered software development environment in which the process is defined by a set of condition/activity/effects rules [9]. Marvel is constructed around. Marvel objects map to a file repository, and each object corresponds to a directory containing file

  6. Economic analysis of materials processing in space: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Space processing concepts investigated included an unmanned space factory, and a permanently launched factory. Product lines chosen for analysis were: (1) turbine blades, (2) tungsten targets for X-ray machines, (3) 1 sub G subclass separation by electrophoresis, and (4) high-price exotic crystals. The turbine blade, and 1 sub G products are considered promising candidates.

  7. DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

  8. DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

  9. Development of novel microencapsulation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Weisi

    This thesis is for encapsulating additives into polymer particles using different techniques including emulsification/solvent evaporation, compressed carbon dioxide based microencapsulation, and encapsulation with porous polymer particles. Such microencapsulations can be applied to a vast range of areas, for example bio-labeling, controlled release, drug delivery, and printing. Fluorescent CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were incorporated into polyisoprene (PI) particles by emulsification/solvent evaporation. The simple method results in QDs encapsulated into the particle core without requiring chemical modification of the QDs. The fluorescence spectra of mixtures of two different-sized QDs change in PI as compared to their solution spectra, suggesting energy transfer between QDs due to their aggregation during the encapsulation. However, different emission peaks were clearly resolved, indicating that the particles are suitable for multicolor coding. The polyisoprene is easily cross-linked, and the cross-linking was shown to greatly enhance the fluorescence stability of the encapsulated QDs. Ionic dyes were successfully encapsulated in polystyrene (PS) particles by CO2-based microencapsulation. The water-soluble dyes were made hydrophobic by forming ion pairs with alkyl quaternary ammonium cations. The hydrophobic ion pairs were then encapsulated in preexisting size monodisperse PS particles dispersed in water. High-pressure carbon dioxide swelled and plasticized PS and thus facilitated mass transport of the dye into the particles. The results show that the particles maintain their size and morphology after exposure to CO2, and that ion-paired dyes have significantly higher loading in the polymer particles than the original dyes. Addition of water-miscible cosolvents was shown to further enhance the incorporation of the hydrophobic ion pairs into the polymer colloids. To encapsulate water-soluble additives, porous polymer particles were made by freeze-drying droplets of polymer solution suspended in water or from a spray. Hollow PS particles were obtained by swelling PS latex with solvent, freezing in liquid nitrogen, and drying in vacuum. It is shown that the particle morphology is due to phase separation in the polymer emulsion droplets upon freezing in liquid nitrogen, and that morphological changes are driven largely by lowering interfacial free energy. The dried hollow particles were resuspended in a dispersing media and exposed to a plasticizer, which imparts mobility to polymer chains, to close the surface opening and form microcapsules surrounding an aqueous core. The interfacial free energy difference between the hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside surfaces is the major driving force for closing the hole on the surface. A controlled release biodegradable vehicle for drug was made by encapsulating procaine hydrochloride, a water-soluble drug, into the core of poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) microcapsules, which were made by the freeze-drying and subsequent closing process. The encapsulation efficiency is affected by the hollow particle morphology, amount of closing agent, exposure time, surfactant, and method of dispersing the hollow particles in water. Controlled release of procaine hydrochloride from the microcapsules into phosphate buffer was observed. The use of benign solvents dimethyl carbonate in spray/freeze-drying and CO2 for closing would eliminate concerns of residual harmful solvent in the product. The ease of separation of CO2 from the drug solution may also enable recycling of the drug solution to increase the overall encapsulation efficiency using these novel hollow particles.

  10. 3 CFR - Task Force on Space Industry Workforce and Economic Development

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Task Force on Space Industry Workforce and Economic Development Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 3, 2010 Task Force on Space... local and Federal economic and workforce-development efforts through a Task Force composed of...

  11. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Life Cycle Assessment: Aspenware Biodegradable Cutlery

    E-print Network

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Life Cycle Assessment This study was sponsored by UBC SEEDS, Social Ecological Economic Development Studies, a program which aims the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;Life Cycle Assessment: Aspenware

  12. 31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. 537.413 Section 537.413 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in...

  13. Social Capital and Economic Development in Regional Australia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study of social capital and economic development conducted in two towns in regional Australia between 2001 and 2002. The hypothesis driving the research states that a town displaying a high level of social capital will also display a high level of economic development, while a town with a low level of…

  14. The Roles of Higher Education in Economic Development: Challenges and Prospects of Nigerian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, Chimezie; Anyanwu, Jerome; Kaegon, Lies Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper was on the roles of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) especially universities in economic development, paying particular attention to the challenges and prospects of the Nigerian Universities. The role of higher education as a major driver of economic development is well established, and this role will increase as…

  15. Rural Business, Economic Development, and Employment in New York State: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    The First Statewide Legislative Symposium on Rural Development assessed New York's rural business, economic development, and employment potential. Growth in the economic potential of communities, favorable quality of life, and geographic accessibility have supported a decade-long influx of new residents to New York's 44 rural counties. The state…

  16. Social and Economic Wellbeing in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: Building an Enlarged Human Development Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reig-Martinez, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates a human Wellbeing Composite Index (WCI) for 42 countries, belonging to the European Economic Space, North Africa and the Middle East, as an alternative to the shortcomings of other well-known measures of socio-economic development (i.e. Gross Domestic Product per head and Human Development Index). To attain this goal,…

  17. Pathway to Self-Sufficiency: Social and Economic Development Strategies of Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…

  18. Community Economic Development Strategies in Rural Washington: Toward a Synthesis of Natural and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Jessica A.

    2006-01-01

    Routes to economic development attract considerable attention in community and rural sociology. Social scientists draw increasingly on studies of social capital and environmental surroundings as they examine the factors that facilitate and inhibit economic development. However, few empirical analyses exist that analyze the impact of the…

  19. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  20. 31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. The sale to a foreign person of a U.S. person's equity or income interest in a development project...

  1. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  2. Analyzing the alignment of incentives, control, and economics in development agreements between private developers and mission-driven institutions

    E-print Network

    Reiche, F. Samuel (Ford Samuel)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines and analyzes the alignment of incentives, project control, and economics in development agreements between private developers and mission-driven institutions. Mission-driven institutions, such as ...

  3. Method for technical, economic and environmental assessment of advanced sludge processing routes.

    PubMed

    Svanström, Magdalena; Bertanza, Giorgio; Bolzonella, David; Canato, Matteo; Collivignarelli, Carlo; Heimersson, Sara; Laera, Giuseppe; Mininni, Giuseppe; Peters, Greg; Tomei, Maria Concetta

    2014-01-01

    The legislative framework in force in Europe entails restrictive effluent standards for sensitive areas, and quite severe restrictions on the properties of residual sewage sludge, both for landfill disposal and for agricultural use. Several technologies and management strategies have been proposed and applied in wastewater treatment plants to minimise sludge production and contamination. However, their techno-economic and environmental performance has to be carefully evaluated. The ROUTES project, funded within the EU Seventh Framework programme, aims to find new routes for wastewater treatment and sludge management and thereby guide EU members in their future choices. Within this project, the authors have developed and applied a procedure for techno-economic-environmental assessment of new wastewater and sludge processing lines in comparison to reference plants. The reference plants are model conventional plants that experience different types of problems and the new plants are modified plants in which different innovative technologies have been added to solve these problems. The procedure involves a rating of selected technical issues, estimates of operating costs and an assessment of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. This paper reports on the procedure and shows examples of results. PMID:24960001

  4. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  5. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  6. Controlled comparison of advanced froth flotation process technology and economic evaluations for maximizing BTU recovery and pyritic sulfur rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.; Ferris, D.D. ); Kosky, R.M. ); Warchol, J.J.; Musiol, W.F.; Shiao, S.Y. ); Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this round robin project was to select the most efficient, as determined by the efficiency index, cost effective, as determined by the annual cost per ton of SO{sub 2} removed, advanced flotation device available. This machine was to process ultra fine coal, maximize Btu recovery and maximize pyritic sulfur rejection. The device will first be installed as a one hundred pound per hour capacity unit and, subject to the outcome of Task 6 of the Engineering Development Contract, increased to a 3 ton per hour capacity unit for installation into a proof-of-concept preparation plant. All of the technical and economic results were submitted to the TST for consideration. The TST members evaluated the data and determined to rank each of the participants 50% on technical merit and 50% on economic merit. The technical merit was to be the efficiency index. The economical merit was to be the annual dollars per ton of clean coal corrected for carrying capacity and frother concentration and the results of Test No. 4. This factor does not penalize a particular technology for not meeting a 90% pyritic sulfur rejection and therefore leaves something to be desired as the only economic basis for decision. A second economic evaluation criteria was required that considered the $/ton of sulfur dioxide removed. The technical and economic factors were calculated and added together for the final evaluation ranking. The technical factor was calculated by multiplying the efficiency index for each participant by 0.5. The two economic factors were calculated by dividing 1000 by the $/ton of clean coal and multiplying by 0.5 and by dividing 10,000 by the $/ton of sulfur dioxide removed and multiply by 0.5. The 1000 and 10,000 are numbers selected such that when divided by their economic factors, respective numbers resulted in a two digit number. The results of these calculations are discussed. 4 refs., 18 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Processes = Protocols + Policies A Methodology for Business Process Development

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    approach for business pro- cess modeling and enactment, which is based on a combination of protocolsProcesses = Protocols + Policies A Methodology for Business Process Development Nirmit Desai}@ncsu.edu Department of Computer Science North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7535, USA ABSTRACT Business

  8. The Lummi Indians - Economic Development and Social Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Barry

    Focusing upon the developmental changes that have taken place among the Lummis of Washington between 1966 and the present, this case study of an American Indian tribe experiencing an economic renaissance emphasizes the fact that success can and does bring unintended risks. Specifically, this study presents information re: (1) the present (emphasis…

  9. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Lexical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Esther; Peppe, Sue; Gibbon, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    The British Picture Vocabulary Scale, second edition (BPVS-II), a measure of receptive vocabulary, is widely used by speech and language therapists and researchers into speech and language disorders, as an indicator of language delay, but it has frequently been suggested that receptive vocabulary may be more associated with socio-economic status.…

  10. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  11. Preschool and Economic Development. Employment Research. Volume 13, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    "Employment Research" is published quarterly by the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment and Research. Issues appear in January, April, July, and October. This issue of "Employment Research" presents an article that summarizes the author's study of the effects of high-quality universal preschool education when it is treated as an economic

  12. Education and Rural Economic Development: Strategies for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Agriculture and Rural Economy Div.

    The 1980s found the U.S. economy vulnerable in the global marketplace. Many observers have argued that workforce education and skill levels are too low, particularly in rural areas. In this book, four studies examine the education crisis, the relationship between the education shortfall and rural economic stagnation, the importance of local…

  13. The Need Is Now: University Engagement in Regional Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    At a time when many regions are grappling with economic challenges and universities are struggling to demonstrate their public value, the question of how regions and universities might partner effectively begs to be addressed. This qualitative case study examines the engagement of six land-grant institutions in regions not proximate to their…

  14. Economic Development from Gigawatt-Scale Wind Deployment in Wyoming (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2011-05-23

    This presentation provides an overview of economic development in Wyoming from gigawatt-scale wind development and includes a discussion of project context, definitions and caveats, a deployment scenario, modeling inputs, results, and conclusions.

  15. Achieving community economic development in New York City : lessons from the Kingsbridge Armory

    E-print Network

    Tishman, Maggie Bancale

    2014-01-01

    New York City spends over two billion dollars each year in the name of economic development. Much of this money goes to subsidize private developers in order to create jobs. However, these projects often fail to produce ...

  16. Culture and commerce in China's Special Economic Zone : an experiment in design and development

    E-print Network

    Lee, Joyce See-yin

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the real estate environment in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone have been conducive to development and foreign investment. Based on a projected market demand, a mixed-use development in the theme of a ...

  17. 13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (1) A background of the economic development situation of the Region with a discussion of the economy, population, geography, workforce development and use, transportation access, resources, environment and other pertinent information;...

  18. Indigenous Gaming: Economic Resources for Social Policy Development in First Nations Country

    E-print Network

    Chenault, Venida

    2000-09-01

    reference points for the development of social policy in First Nation communities. The availability of economic resources in communities with successful Indigenous gaming ventures creates unique opportunities for the development of social policy and programs...

  19. 24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.502 Nominations by economic...

  20. 24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.502 Nominations by economic...

  1. Input-Output as a Method of Evaluahon of the Economic Impact of Water Resources Development 

    E-print Network

    Canion, R. L.; Trock, W. L.

    1968-01-01

    In this report the results of a study of the use of input-output analysis to evaluate the economic impact of water resources development are presented. Blackburn Crossing reservoir on the Upper Neches river was the subject development...

  2. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and process economics of the fluid milk process.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, P M; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Bonnaillie, L M

    2013-05-01

    Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process-related electrical energy in the plant would be more effective in lowering energy use and CO2e emissions than fuel-related energy reductions. The model also predicts process-related water usage, but this portion of the model was not validated due to a lack of data. The simulator model can serve as a benchmarking framework for current plant operations and a tool to test cost-effective process upgrades or evaluate new technologies that improve the energy efficiency and lower the carbon footprint of milk processing plants. PMID:23522681

  3. Parallel processing for large-scale nonlinear control experiments in economics

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, H.M. ); Kendrick, D.A. . Dept. of Economics)

    1991-01-01

    In general, the econometric models relevant for purposes of evaluating economic policy contain a large number of nonlinear equations. Therefore, in applying optimal control techniques, computational difficulties are encountered. This paper presents the most common algorithm for computing nonlinear control problems and investigates the degree to which vector processing and parallel processing can facilitate optimal control experiments.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model for Economic Controlled Variable Selection

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model for Economic operation conducted on an activated sludge process model based on the test-bed benchmark simulation model no. 1 (BSM1) and the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). The objective is to search for a control

  5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A SODIUM/LIMESTONE DOUBLE-ALKALI FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of results from a recent forced-oxidation limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process evaluation and those from a conceptual design and economic evaluation of a sodium/limestone double-alkali FGD process, based on recent EPA-sponsored...

  6. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  7. Economical in-situ processing for orbital debris removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes and develops the first description of a concept for the removal of large pieces of orbital debris. After a brief discussion of the growing importance of the general problem of orbital debris, the idea of utilizing local resources for clearing the debris is introduced. A description of the initial terrestrially working hardware and future projections for this Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris concludes this paper.

  8. Economics of spray-dryer FGD system: the two-stage open-loop processes

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.A.; O'Brien, W.E.

    1981-06-01

    Preliminary economics of the Rockwell International Corporation - Wheelabrator Frye, Inc., (RI/WF) two-stage open-loop flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process were determined for both lime and soda ash absorbents. This two-stage open-loop process is a throwaway system in which the alkali raw material (as a solution or slurry) is sprayed into the flue gas stream, dried by the latent heat in the hot flue gas, and collected as dry particulate matter in a baghouse. The fly ash is also collected in the baghouse as an inherent part of the process. An economic evaluation of a limestone slurry FGD process with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for particulate matter removal was included for comparison. The basis was a 500-MW power plant burning 3.5% sulfur, 16% ash coal with 90% SO/sub 2/ removal and 0.1 lb/MBtu particulate matter emission. The economic evaluations were made using both TVA and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) economic premises. Cost differences between the two-stage open-loop lime and soda ash versions are largely the result of different waste disposal and raw material costs. Both RI/WF versions are more economical than limestone in most process elements except raw material costs. Cost differences between the TVA- and EPRI-based estimates are the result of different methods of estimating indirect costs, levelizing operating costs, and different raw material costs.

  9. The behavioral- and neuro-economic process of temporal discounting: A candidate behavioral marker of addiction.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Warren K; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Moody, Lara; Wilson, A George

    2014-01-01

    Addiction science would benefit from the identification of a behavioral marker. A behavioral marker could reflect the projected clinical course of the disorder, function as a surrogate measure of clinical outcome, and/or may be related to biological components that underlie the disorder. In this paper we review relevant literature, made possible with the early and sustained support by NIDA, to determine whether temporal discounting, a neurobehavioral process derived from behavioral economics and further explored through neuroeconomics, may function as a behavioral marker. Our review suggests that temporal discounting 1) identifies individuals who are drug-dependent, 2) identifies those at risk of developing drug dependence, 3) acts as a gauge of addiction severity, 4) correlates with all stages of addiction development, 5) changes with effective treatment, and 6) may be related to the biological and genetic processes that underlie addiction. Thus, initial evidence supports temporal discounting as a candidate behavioral marker. Additional studies will be required in several areas for a more conclusive determination. Confirmation that temporal discounting functions as a behavioral marker for addiction could lead to 1) a screen for new treatments, 2) personalization of prevention and treatment interventions, and 3) the extension of temporal discounting as a behavioral marker for other etiologically similar disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23806805

  10. The Behavioral- and Neuro-Economic Process of Temporal Discounting: A Candidate Behavioral Marker of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Moody, Lara; Wilson, A. George

    2013-01-01

    Addiction science would benefit from the identification of a behavioral marker. A behavioral marker could reflect the projected clinical course of the disorder, function as a surrogate measure of clinical outcome, and/or may be related to biological components that underlie the disorder. In this paper we review relevant literature, made possible with the early and sustained support by NIDA, to determine whether temporal discounting, a neurobehavioral process derived from behavioral economics and further explored through neuroeconomics, may function as a behavioral marker. Our review suggests that temporal discounting 1) identifies individuals who are drug-dependent, 2) identifies those at risk of developing drug dependence, 3) acts as a gauge of addiction severity, 4) correlates with all stages of addiction development, 5) changes with effective treatment, and 6) may be related to the biological and genetic processes that underlie addiction. Thus, initial evidence supports temporal discounting as a candidate behavioral marker. Additional studies will be required in several areas for a more conclusive determination. Confirmation that temporal discounting functions as a behavioral marker for addiction could lead to 1) a screen for new treatments, 2) personalization of prevention and treatment interventions, and 3) the extension of temporal discounting as a behavioral marker for other etiologically similar disorders. PMID:23806805

  11. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  12. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  13. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, Eric; Tegen, Suzanne

    2011-03-31

    This report is intended to inform policymakers, local government officials, and Wyoming residents about the jobs and economic development activity that could occur should new infrastructure investments in Wyoming move forward. The report and analysis presented is not a projection or a forecast of what will happen. Instead, the report uses a hypothetical deployment scenario and economic modeling tools to estimate the jobs and economic activity likely associated with these projects if or when they are built.

  14. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2011-03-01

    This report is intended to inform policymakers, local government officials, and Wyoming residents about the jobs and economic development activity that could occur should new infrastructure investments in Wyoming move forward. The report and analysis presented is not a projection or a forecast of what will happen. Instead, the report uses a hypothetical deployment scenario and economic modeling tools to estimate the jobs and economic activity likely associated with these projects if or when they are built.

  15. An economic analysis of the Jim Bridger Power Plant carbon dioxide mineralization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Mikol Hans

    Concerns for rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have lead to a myriad of schemes to reduce emissions. Many of these are complicated, expensive, and untried. Coal-fired electrical generation accounts for about 49 percent of U.S. electricity generation. Shifting generation capacity away from coal is the goal of many, yet as this statistic shows, the U.S. has a heavy dependency on coal-fired base-load generation. What is needed is a way to retrofit existing coal fired power plants to mitigate at least some of the giga-tonnes of CO2 released annually. Carbon Capture and Storage in association with greenhouse gases are a major concern in the world today. This thesis is an outgrowth of a research partnership between the University of Wyoming and the Jim Bridger Power Plant (Rocky Mountain Power) to develop a process for capture and mineralization of flue gas carbon dioxide (CO 2) using an accelerated mineral carbonization process with fly ash particles as the absorbent. This process may have several advantages over other approaches because it is an environmentally acceptable, single step process occurring at near ambient pressures and temperatures that can compliment conventional CCS processes. In addition the use of fly ash particles as an absorbent avoids the costs of processing or engineering an absorbent. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the mineralization process. Two models were used to estimate the capture costs and economic feasibility of the Jim Bridger Power Plant CO2 Mineralization Project (JBP). The first was a cost of capture model which was used to estimate CO2 capture costs and how changes in the CO2 to ash capture ratio and quantities of CO2 captured affect capture costs. The second was a financial feasibility model which considered the time value of money. This second model considered the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) for the process using different pricing scenarios and processing parameters. The analysis was based on a full size reactor system capable of capturing 90 percent of the CO2 emitted by Unit 2 of the Jim Bridger Power Plant. Unit 2 is a 530 megawatt pulverized coal-fired generator which emits 4.9 million tones of CO2 annually. The cost estimates for the full size reactor system were developed by scaling up from a pilot project currently being conducted at the plant. The results show estimates that range from 7.37 to 27.30 per metric tonne of CO2 captured. This range compares favorably with other estimates in the literature. Furthermore, since this system could be retrofitted to an existing power plant, added costs would be considerably less per installed kilowatt-hour. Our preliminary estimates place this cost at $94 per installed kilowatt hour. This thesis will introduce the process, give an update on the project and present our preliminary findings.

  16. Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other. PMID:18471311

  17. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

  18. Process engineering and economic evaluations of diaphragm and membrane chlorine cell technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The chlor-alkali manufacturing technologies of (1), diaphragm cells (2), current technology membrane cells (3), catalytic cathode membrane cells (4), oxygen-cathode membrane cells and to a lesser extent several other related emerging processes are studied. Comparisons have been made on the two bases of (1) conventional industrial economics, and (2) energy consumption. The current diaphragm cell may have a small economic advantage over the other technologies at the plant size of 544 metric T/D (600 T/D). The three membrane cells all consume less energy, with the oxygen-cathode cell being the lowest. The oxygen-cathode cell appears promising as a low energy chlor-alkali cell where there is no chemical market for hydrogen. Federal funding of the oxygen-cathode cell has been beneficial to the development of the technology, to electrochemical cell research, and may help maintain the US's position in the international chlor-alkali technology marketplace. Tax law changes inducing the installation of additional cells in existing plants would produce the quickest reduction in power consumption by the chlor-alkali industry. Alternative technologies such as the solid polymer electrolyte cell, the coupling of diaphragm cells with fuel cells and the dynamic gel diaphragm have a strong potential for reducing chloralkali industry power consumption. Adding up all the recent and expected improvements that have become cost-effective, the electrical energy required to produce a unit of chlorine by 1990 should be only 50% to 60% of that used in 1970. In the United States the majority of the market does not demand salt-free caustic. About 75% of the electrolytic caustic is produced in diaphragm cells and only a small part of that is purified. This study indicates that unless membrane cell costs are greatly reduced or a stronger demand develops for salt-free caustic, the diaphragm cells will remain competitive. (WHK)

  19. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Human Development. Module III-E-1: Characteristics of Economically Depressed Areas Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on characteristics of economically depressed area families is the first in a set of three modules on human development in economically depressed areas (EDA). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  20. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Human Development. Module III-E-2: The Child and the Economically Depressed Area Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boogaert, John

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on the child and the economically depressed area family is the second in a set of three modules on human development in economically depressed areas (EDA). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…