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1

Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

Kim, Ki Su

2012-01-01

2

[The process of economic development and urbanization: a framework for the development of a simple model].  

PubMed

The first part of this paper presents a model-framework for explaining the urbanization and its relationship to the national development process which is relevant in the context of Indonesia and many other developing countries. Unlike most of the framework upon which an urbanization model is usually developed, the one presented here takes into consideration not only the urban and nonurban dimension but also the explicit separation of economic sectors (i.e., modern and traditional). The 2nd part of the paper deals with an alternative-model on urbanization in which the human attitudes of the prospective migrants are not treated as constant. In a sense, therefore, there is a stochastic element involved in the model. Such an approach is thought to be of great value ultimately for the human beings who made the decision about whether or not to migrate. Although a link between the framework (part 1) and the model (part 2) has been made, a more comprehensive and explicit model remains to be developed in the future. The main purpose of this paper is to invite an awareness that: a) any reasonable model on urbanization must relate a spatial phenomenon such as urbanization and overall economic development process by treating explicitly the separation of modern and traditional sectors; and b) such a model dealing with social phenomena and human decisions must therefore take human attitudes into account. (author's modified) PMID:12280275

Azis, I J

1985-06-01

3

Economic development and urbanisation.  

PubMed

Trends in urbanization in developing countries are analyzed, with a focus on the causes of rapid urbanization and particularly on the role of the division of labor. The impact of urbanization on the process of economic development is described. The role of government and of urban planning policies is also considered. PMID:12281551

Harris, N

1988-01-01

4

Economic development and fertility.  

PubMed

Two schools of theorists have been concerned with the effect of economic development on fertility. One school has contended that economic development has an inhibiting effect on fertility. The demographic transition which has occurred among the non-developed countries confirms their viewpoint. Another school of thought, including in its members Thomas Malthus, has believed that economic development promoted fertility. Much empirical evidence may also be brought to bear to support this viewpoint.The present paper attempts to reconcile these viewpoints. It is hypothesized that the direct effect of economic development is to increase fertility. However, various factors which usually accompany the process of economic development serve to reduce fertility. These include an increase in the level of education and a reduction in infant and childhood mortality. Making use of data for 41 nations pertaining to the decade of the 1950's, it is found that fertility is directly associated with per capita net national product when controls for other relevant variables are in8tituted. On the other hand, per capita newspaper circulation is inversely related to fertility, and infant mortality is directly related.If the hypothesis advanced in this paper is correct, relatively large governmental expenditures on health and education will enhance the reduction in fertility obtainable from an increase in national economic level alone. PMID:21318713

Heer, D M

1966-06-01

5

A process economic approach to develop a dilute-acid cellulose hydrolysis process to produce ethanol from biomass.  

PubMed

Successful deployment of a bioethanol process depends on the integration of technologies that can be economically commercialized. Pretreatment and fermentation operations of the traditional enzymatic bioethanol-production process constitute the largest portion of the capital and operating costs. Cost reduction in these areas, through improved reactions and reduced capital, will improve the economic feasibility of a large-scale plant. A technoeconomic model was developed using the ASPEN Plus modeling software package. This model included a two-stage pretreatment operation with a co-current first stage and countercurrent second stage, a lignin adsorption unit, and a cofermentation unit. Data from kinetic modeling of the pretreatment reactions, verified by bench-scale experiments, were used to create the ASPEN Plus base model. Results from the initial pretreatment and fermentation yields of the two-stage system correlated well to the performance targets established by the model. The ASPEN Plus model determined mass and energy-balance information, which was supplied to an economic module to determine the required selling price of the ethanol. Several pretreatment process variables such as glucose yield, liquid: solid ratio, additional pretreatment stages, and lignin adsorption were varied to determine which parameters had the greatest effect on the process economics. Optimized values for these key variables became target values for the bench-scale research, either to achieve or identify as potential obstacles in the future commercialization process. Results from this modeling and experimentation sequence have led to the design of an advanced two-stage engineering- scale reactor for a dilute-acid hydrolysis process. PMID:15304681

Nagle, N; Ibsen, K; Jennings, E

1999-01-01

6

Hazardous-chemical waste management: development of process technology, economics, and system-selection methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general methodology is developed for the solution of many hazardous-water problems, which accounts for technical, economic, and social considerations. The methodology includes five phases involving information base development, identifying alternatives using an expert system, consultation concerning the social aspects, a ranking of the results and development of preferential solutions. The IBM Expert System Environment is the shell utilized to

Ferrada

1987-01-01

7

Development of economical compact type wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process  

SciTech Connect

In the last quarter of this century Environmental Protection has become a major global issue. For the removal of SO{sub 2} emitted from thermal power plants, the wet limestone-gypsum process has widely been adopted. However, a more noteworthly economical method has been desired for its spreading. Under these circumstances, Babcock-Hitachi has developed a new compact type Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system by improving the conventional type wet limestone-gypsum process incorporating its advantages. The compact absorber was realized by increasing its gas velocity and the flue gas duct has been minimized by adopting a horizontal flow spray tower instead of a vertical flow spray tower which is commonly adopted in the conventional type. Through this a considerable reduction in construction costs have been achieved. The design study of this compact type FGD plant shows that it can be applied not only new plants but also existing power plants, Features of this compact type FGD, pilot plant test results and examples of the design study are introduced in this paper.

Kuroda, Hiroshi [Babcock-Hitachi, Tokyo (Japan); Nozawa, Shigeru [Kure Works, Hiroshima-ken (Japan); Kaku, Hiroyuki [Kure Research Lab., Hiroshima-ken (Japan)

1995-06-01

8

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777  

E-print Network

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

Almor, Amit

9

Wind Economic Development (Postcard)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

Not Available

2011-08-01

10

What economics courses are there? Economics and International Development  

E-print Network

Economics Essentials What economics courses are there? BA Economics Economics and International Development Economics and International Relations Economics and Politics Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) (p103) BSc Economics Economics and Management Studies Finance and Business (p46) Mathematics

Sussex, University of

11

Skills Needs Assessment Process To Support Economic Development. HRD & ALL Research Series. Paper 90-01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of skills-training needs-assessment is to identify what type of skills and knowledge are needed to support economic strategies and, as a result, improve organizational decisionmaking related to training investments and general work force development. This paper presents findings of 11 skills-retraining, needs-assessment,…

Geroy, Gary D.; Kaman, Vickie

12

Essays on development economics  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three independent papers in empirical development economics. The first chapter studies the effect of a family planning program in Bangladesh, which successfully reduced fertility, on ...

Ruthbah, Ummul Hasanath

2007-01-01

13

International Economic Development Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

14

Kaleidoscope Economies: The Processes of Cooperation, Competition, and Control in Regional Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional economies resemble a kaleidoscope. Just as the color and brilliance of pieces of glass in a kaleidoscope change with the angle of reflection, firms engage in relationships which profoundly influence the development potential of each individual or firm. In order to understand regional development as a self-generating process, this paper examines the evolution of cooperation among firms in regional

Jerry Patchell

1996-01-01

15

Professionalizing the Economic Developer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an emerging profession, economic development has standards of professionalism that are not yet completely defined. Demands for recognition and expectations of greater accountability are leading to necessary improvements in training and performance. Requirements of the profession include unique interdisciplinary skills (leadership, theoretical,…

Waterhouse, Mark D.

1997-01-01

16

Economic Development and Consortia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dallas (Texas)-based Alliance for Higher Education is a consortium of colleges, universities, corporations, hospitals, and other nonprofit organizations that strategically links business and higher education through distance education initiatives. The consortium has created an infrastructure that supports economic development in the…

Watson, Allan; Jordan, Linda

1999-01-01

17

Homopolar welding development and economics  

SciTech Connect

Homopolar welding (HPW) is a single-shot solid-state resistance forge welding process that is under development as a single-station pipe welding method. Weld quality issues have been addressed by a Joint Industry Program and the process economics favor commercial use. Fielding of a HPW system is dependent on process tooling design, the speed of the process, and the economics of the process. The HPW weld speed of three seconds makes weld advance times of 12 to 20 minutes possible and will result in a large reduction in overall pipeline construction costs. In addition, HPW is an inherently controllable process, so the weld power pulse will be tailorable to meet a variety of weld and material requirements.

Pappas, J.A.; Harville, M.W.; Weldon, J.M. [Parker Kinetic Designs, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Carnes, R.W.; Hudson, R.S.; Nichols, S.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Electromechanics

1996-09-01

18

Economics, Social Science and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development economics nowadays is mainstream economics applied to poor countries. An examination of the core principles of mainstream economics reveals tremendous strengths, but also tremendous weaknesses. Other disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology and political science, have complementary strengths that suggest a role for them as equal partners in development studies and policy. The argument for a partnership of disciplines is

Ravi Kanbur

2002-01-01

19

Software for Managing the Process of Manpower Training for Economic and Industrial Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the training capabilities, software, and related products of GTE Sylvania Training Operations (STO). With the rapid emergence and development of the Third World, the technical knowhow of large manufacturing industries has become a marketable commodity in the international transfer of technology. Manpower training and human…

Catoline, James E.

20

Separation Process Economics  

E-print Network

.J., Separation processes ~ McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971. I (2) Heist, J.A. and T.S. Barron, "Fre~ze Separation Processes - Energy Efficien~y by Flexibility", 5th Annual IECTC, I Houston, TX, April 17, 1983. 31 ESL-IE-85-05-07 Proceedings from the Seventh... reduce h??t tran.r.r. At 11' g~ .ia. eo.t. 52'.41 per 1??? qaUon. ot .olv.nt IftStall.d 'roc.a. Squlpaent r_owed to build .nd o.-rat.. In.rgy r.quir...nt or 191 U'h per 11?? gallon?? Coat (fS aillioQ., 4019") ottered c_rcblly by at 1.aU thr?? tir...

Barron, T. S.; Wrobel, P. J.

21

The Bologna Process and the Economic Impacts of Research and Development within the Context of Europeanization: The Case of Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education and public research play an important role in economic development, mainly in industrial research and development (R & D) and innovation through the manufacturing sector. Finland has taken great strides in this regard as it represents a Europeanization of a knowledge system in the European Union, being relevant at the…

Habti, Driss

2010-01-01

22

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

23

Frontiers and sustainable economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting new resource “frontiers,” such as agricultural land and mineral reserves, is a fundamental feature of economic\\u000a development in poor economies. Yet frontier-based development is symptomatic of a pattern of economy-wide resource exploitation\\u000a in developing economies that: (a) generates little additional economic rents, and (b) what rents are generated are not being\\u000a reinvested in other sectors. Such development is inherently

Edward B. Barbier

2007-01-01

24

Three essays in development economics  

E-print Network

This thesis seeks to analyze two questions central to the economic welfare of rural households in developing countries: the trade-offs between equity and efficiency induced by hybrid forms of property rights, and the ...

Leight, Jessica E. (Jessica Ellen)

2013-01-01

25

Essays in development economics  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 looks at the empirical estimation of the welfare impacts of bargaining. Bargaining for retail goods is common in developing countries, but rare in the developed world. The welfare implications of this difference ...

Keniston, Daniel Eben

2011-01-01

26

Sustainable Development: Environment and Economic Framework Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development is a multifaceted concept that has drawn on a number of disciplines including economics, ecology, ethics, sociology and political science. Sustainable development links the welfare of generations with the capacity of the biosphere to sustain life and has a policy focus. Sustainable development is not a fixed state but rather a process of change in which resource exploitation,

Basil M. H. Sharp

2001-01-01

27

Strategic Planning for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of postsecondary education to the economy in Ohio is discussed. Attention is focused on efforts of the Ohio Board of Regents and the Ohio Department of Development to foster economic development and revitalization. Information is included on the Ohio Board of Regents'"Master Plan for Higher Education," along with initiatives for…

Groff, Warren H.

28

Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As many cities have begin to grapple with their vast areas of brownfields that dot the urban landscape, the federal government has begun to step in and provide various financial assistance in order to assist with the redevelopment of abandoned, idled and underused industrial and commercial facilities. This website, provided by the U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, provides information about the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI), which is a competitive grant program that is meant to serve as a stimulus for local government and private sector parties to start the long redevelopment process. The site contains detailed information about the program, along with archived webcasts that talk about various success stories that have been funded with monies from the program thus far. Also on the site, information is provided about how brownfields are defined and how monies for the program have been distributed to various communities. Finally, visitors will want to take a look at the related publications available here, including those that detail various brownfields initiative and the potential long-term effects of environmental degradation.

29

Economics of enzymatic hydrolysis processes  

SciTech Connect

Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have the ability to produce high yields of sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. However, these systems have been plagued with yields, product concentrations, and reactions rates far below those that are theoretically possible. Engineering and economic analyses are presented on several fungal enzyme hydrolysis processes to illustrate the effects of the important process parameters, to quantify the progress that has been made to date, and to estimate the cost reductions that can be made through research improvements. All enzymatic hydrolysis processes require pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and enzyme production. The key effect of pretreatment is to allow access of the enzymes to the substrate. Pretreatments have been devised that make the biomass completely digestible that increase the xylose yield and concentration, and that integrate pretreatment with lignin utilization. Major improvements in enzyme activity and use of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) have greatly reduced the inhibition of the enzymes. It now appears that ethanol inhibition of the yeast is the limiting factor. Enzyme production costs have been dramatically reduced because use of SSF has reduced enzyme loading. However, further improvements may be possible by using soluble carbon sources for production. Over the past decade, the predicted cost of ethanol from such processes has dropped from more than $4.00/gallon to approximately $1.60. Research is currently under way in the United States and has the potential to reduce the projected cost to less than $1.00/gallon. 65 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Wright, J.D.

1988-02-01

30

Health economics in developing countries.  

PubMed

The interpretation of health economics chosen for this paper is broad. It includes the relation between economic and other factors in health development. This interpretation has been chosen lest the acceptance of a disciplinary approach in the commissioning of papers should have the unintended effect of excluding some key areas of research which require the consideration of crucial interrelationships between disciplines. The only justification for covering this area in a paper on economics rather than, for example, epidemiology is that increasingly there is and indeed has to be a heavy focus on costs in considering alternative paths to health development. The word 'research' is loosely interpreted and not restricted to the type of activity which could lead to the award of a PhD. The compilation of experience in many areas is, in the view of the author, a priority need, to plan where further research and experiment is needed. PMID:2503621

Abel-Smith, B

1989-08-01

31

ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sustainability became a watchword in recent years, the idea is by no means new. It has a long tradition in various domains ranging from a basic forestry principle, to economic growth and nature conservation objectives, and the present challenge of sustainable development. The latter does not only involve an extremely important transformation of the ecologically based concept of physical

Werner Hediger

1997-01-01

32

Research and Economic Development at  

E-print Network

by the committee and assignment of a protocol number. ANIMALS: All research using animals, whether or not it is funded, must be reviewed by the UCR Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Research canResearch and Economic Development at UC Riverside Michael Pazzani Vice Chancellor for Research

33

Center for Community and Economic Development  

E-print Network

Center for Community and Economic Development Building Prosperity through Innovative Development environments to support innovative learning in community and economic development; · Provide training enterprises, and public institutions; · Conduct and facilitate cutting-edge research to assist the development

34

Cogeneration Economics for Process Plants  

E-print Network

This paper presents the incentives for cogeneration, describing pertinent legislation and qualification requirements for cogeneration benefits, and indicates the performance and economic characteristics of combined cycle cogeneration applications...

Ahner, D. J.

35

Post-Keynesian economics and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the relationship between sustainable development and economics. Neoclassical economics with its current methodological approach is not well suited to understand or analyse the problem of sustainable development. Post-Keynesian economics - with its focus on macro and policy outcomes, the role of institutions, uncertainty, historical time, and its criticism of gross substitution and ergodicity - has elements

Richard P. F. Holt

2005-01-01

36

Michigan Economic Development Education Manual. Second Printing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual represents an educational program designed for public officials, interested citizens, and professionals interested in improving the economic climate of the municipality or region. Its purpose is to teach economic development skills, thus enabling participants to develop community economic growth plans. Focus is on four essential…

Conboy, Michael, Ed.; Guiles, Roger, Ed.

37

Assessing the economic impact of indirect liquefaction process improvements: Volume 1, Development of the integrated indirect liquefaction model and baseline case  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of an integrated indirect liquefaction system model, which processes input coal to refined liquid products, and the model's application in the analysis of a baseline case. The baseline case uses Shell gasification of coal followed by gas cleaning to produce a clean synthesis gas for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The raw liquid products are refined to produce gasoline and diesel. Costs of liquid products have been estimated for the baseline plant. The model also alloys many sensitivity studies to be performed so that the economic impacts of research and development advances can be quantified. When used in this manner, the model can provide research guidance for future indirect liquefaction studies. 18 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.C. (Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (USA). Civil Systems Div.)

1990-10-01

38

Essays on conflict, cooperation and economic development  

E-print Network

This dissertation consists of three chapters on topics relating to conflict, social cooperation and development economics. Several studies have identified the impact of adverse economic shocks on civil conflict using ...

Ralston, Laura R. (Laura Rosalind)

2013-01-01

39

Essays in experimental and development economics  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three essays on economic development and experimental economics. In Chapter 1, I present experimental evidence about how Thais treat information from domestic and foreign sources. Thai students ...

Healy, Andrew J

2005-01-01

40

THE NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS AND DEVELOPMENT Douglass C. North,  

E-print Network

1 THE NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS AND DEVELOPMENT by Douglass C. North, Washington Univesity, St (as I see it) to problems of development. I The new institutional economics is an attempt processes information, but cognitive science has made impressive strides in recent years. Individuals

Tesfatsion, Leigh

41

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

1988-01-01

42

Entrepreneurship in the field of development economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter aims to explore the role of entrepreneurship in the field of development economics. This is done in a twofold\\u000a manner. First, the chapter asks how the concept of entrepreneurship relates to the study field of development economics. Second,\\u000a the relationship between entrepreneurial activity and economic development is explored by providing a short overview of how\\u000a entrepreneurship differs between

Wim Naudé

43

Device Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Development Process The Device Development Process Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review Learn About ... Development Process The Device Development Process Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review + Learn About ...

44

Drug Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Development Process The Device Development Process Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review Learn About ... Development Process The Device Development Process Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review + Learn About ...

45

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

46

Environment, human development and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

2008-01-01

47

Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

2006-01-01

48

Environment, human development and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic

Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

2006-01-01

49

Tribal College Contributions to Local Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes some economic development efforts of the 32 tribal colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. Although the data needed for a comprehensive analysis of the economic impact of tribal colleges are not available, the report argues that the colleges affect local community development on many levels. Specific data…

Cunningham, Alisa Federico

50

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (Postcard)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.

Not Available

2011-08-01

51

Universities: A Focal Point for Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education can act as a focal point of economic development. The most widely recognized type of economic development entails an association between a university, its research facilities, and private industry. An example of this partnership is the one between Stanford University and the industries in the "Silicon Valley." (MLW)

Maidique, Modesto A.

1988-01-01

52

A Model for Rural Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers definitions and descriptions, and explores the dynamics, of "strategic grantseeking" as a means of supporting economic development programs. Strategic grantseeking is a natural and dynamic tool usable with any economic development program. It consists of a set of concepts, procedures, and tools which are integrated into a…

Rampp, Lary; Johnson, Deke

53

Bank community development corporation investments in community economic development.  

E-print Network

?? This dissertation analyzes best practices of bank-owned Community Development Corporation (CDC) investments in Community Economic Development (CED). Using documents from banking institutions, literature on… (more)

Prevo, Dwight J.

2009-01-01

54

Glen Weisbrod Economic Development Research Group, Inc.  

E-print Network

in monetary terms, expressed as a discounted present value. expressed as a discounted present value. Economic addedexpressed as activity (output), income (value added, wages) and associated jobs composition of affectedGlen Weisbrod Economic Development Research Group, Inc. www.edrgroup.com Workshop on Benefit

55

Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis  

PubMed Central

The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795

Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

2010-01-01

56

Essays in development economics and political economy  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on issues in economic development, with a focus ,on political economy and the labor market in India. Chapter 1] analyzes the effect of television coverage on political ...

Datta, Saugato

2007-01-01

57

Three essays on development economics in China  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three independent essays in empirical development economics using data from China. In the first two chapters, I examine the determinants of choices within the household. In the first ...

Qian, Nancy

2005-01-01

58

Aggregate dynamic economic - ecological models for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to formulate a general integrated aggregate dynamic model for sustainable development, that will be both simple in structure and able to deal with the main objectives, processes, and constraints applying to sustainable development in closed economic - ecological systems. General characteristics of models to be used for sustainable development are discussed. It turns out

J C J M van den Bergh; P Nijkamp

1991-01-01

59

Tourism and economic development: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the literature on tourism and economic development, identifying the contribution that tourism can make to development, including foreign currency, income and employment, and the costs that it entails. Single equation and system of equations models for estimating tourism demand are provided, indicating developing countries’ potential to benefit from increasing expenditure on tourism but their susceptibility to deterioration

M. Thea Sinclair

1998-01-01

60

Recognizing Constraints to Local Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on Kaufman's distinction between development in the community and development of the community, this paper discusses the constraints on local economic development associated with increased concentration of capital. The likelihood of successfully employing "import substitution" and other localization strategies without confronting issues of…

Fitzgerald, Joan; Meyer, Peter B.

1986-01-01

61

FDI and Economic Development in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

FDI and Economic Development in Costa Rica: The Tico Tiger that hasn't..... Carnegie Endowment, MA, USA #12;FDI and Development in Costa Rica: The Power of Path Dependency and the Peril of Lack benefits #12;Costa Rica's (and LA's) Approach to Development: From ISI to Washington Consensus Trade

62

Process development and techno-economic analysis of a novel process for MeOH production from CO2 using solar-thermal energy.  

SciTech Connect

Mitigating and overcoming environmental problems brought about by the current worldwide fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure requires the creation of innovative alternatives. In particular, such alternatives must actively contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions via carbon recycling and a shift to the use of renewable sources of energy. Carbon neutral transformation of biomass to liquid fuels is one of such alternatives, but it is limited by the inherently low energy efficiency of photosynthesis with regard to the net production of biomass. Researchers have thus been looking for alternative, energy-efficient chemical routes inspired in the biological transformation of solar power, CO2 and H2O into useful chemicals; specifically, liquid fuels. Methanol has been the focus of a fair number of publications for its versatility as a fuel, and its use as an intermediate chemical in the synthesis of many compounds. In some of these studies, (e.g. Joo et al., (2004), Mignard and Pritchard (2006), Galindo and Badr (2007)) CO2 and renewable H2 (e.g. electrolytic H2) are considered as the raw materials for the production of methanol and other liquid fuels. Several basic PFD diagrams have been proposed. One of the most promising is the so called CAMERE process (Joo et al., 1999 ). In this process, carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen are fed to a first reactor and transformed according to: H2 + CO2 <=> H2O + CO Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) After eliminating the produced water the resulting H2/CO2/CO mixture is then feed to a second reactor where it is converted to methanol according to: CO2 + 3.H2 <=> CH3OH + H2O Methanol Synthesis (MS) CO + H2O <=> CO2 + H2 Water Gas Shift (WGS) The approach here is to produce enough CO to eliminate, via WGS, the water produced by MS. This is beneficial since water has been proven to block active sites in the MS catalyst. In this work a different process alternative is presented: One that combines the CO2 recycling of the CAMERE process and the use of solar energy implicit in some of the biomass-based process, but in this case with the potential high energy efficiency of thermo-chemical transformations.

Henao, Carlos (University of Wisconsin); Kim, Jiyong (University of Wisconsin); Johnson, Terry Alan; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin); Miller, James Edward

2010-11-01

63

Subsea completions improve development economics  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief historical account of the development of the offshore drilling and production sector of the oil and gas industries. The paper provides data showing the growth of offshore drilling and completion on a world-wide basis. The author attributes this to the increased reliability of subsurface production equipment showing that the new control systems have lowered the failure rate to less than two percent. The paper traces the early offshore field development and equipment used to the current floating production platforms and how they came into existence. Finally, the paper discusses the development of offshore standards for drilling, production, and control equipment.

Booth, D. (Subsea Data Services, Wimberly, TX (United States))

1993-10-01

64

[Policies of economic development and population].  

PubMed

This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of a watered down redistribution policy and a strong birth control policy may be the most promising. PMID:12179413

Aleman, J L

1974-01-01

65

WORKING GROUP ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

Vice President of Statewide Operations and Eco- nomic Development for the North Carolina Biotech: the NC Biotech Center and MCNC. Feldman compared the two entities in terms of orga- nizational structure.4 million, while the Biotech Center started with $843,000 in funding from the state. As Feldman explained

Engel, Jonathan

66

Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critique argues that the preponderance of theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence suggests a positive, first-order relationship between financial development and economic growth. The body of work would push even most skeptics toward the belief that the development of financial markets and institutions is a critical and inextricable part of the growth process and away from the view that the

Ross Levine

1997-01-01

67

Trade Pattern and Economic Development when Endogenous  

E-print Network

Trade Pattern and Economic Development when Endogenous and Exogenous Comparative Advantages Coexist Papers Center for International Development at Harvard University #12;CID Working Paper no. 3 Trade is divided between commercialized sector which trades with foreign country and self-sufficient sector which

68

New Potentials for Modern Indian Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently American Indians have experienced an unprecedented renaissance in community spirit. Capitalizing upon this spirit, Indian economic development should be directed toward particular community needs, utilizing Indian leadership to determine needed training and development programs. There is no question but that the majority of Indian…

Heath, Wallace G.

69

Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

70

Credit Constraints, Entrepreneurial Talent, and Economic Development  

E-print Network

Credit Constraints, Entrepreneurial Talent, and Economic Development Milo Bianchiy Paris School an e¢ cient matching between entrepreneurial talent and production technologies. We ...rst explore the role of ...nancial development in promoting such e¢ cient allocation of talent, which results in higher

Boyer, Edmond

71

Oman: Economic, social and strategic developments  

SciTech Connect

Oman is an important country for the West, both as an oil exporter and as a key ally strategically placed at the entrance to the Arab Gulf. This book provides an overview of recent economic, social and political developments in Oman. It begins by outlining the historical and geographical background, emphasising in particular the problems of geography and tribalism and the impact of the war against Marxist insurgents in Dhofar. It considers economic developments, both in the oil and non-oil sectors, and Oman's contribution to economic co-operation and integration in the region. It examines strategic developments, particularly Oman's relations with the United States, addressing the key question of how close an alliance between Oman and the US is likely and showing how this is influenced by internal politics in Oman. It also explores educational and cultural issues.

Pridham, B.R.

1986-01-01

72

Higher selection processes in evolutionary economic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all models of economic change are based on a Darwinian picture of a world where change is gradual, smooth, and where economic survival depends on being more efficient. This paper, drawing from current controversies in evolutionary biology, presents a broader interpretation of evolutionary change in which competitive selection is only one possible reason for economic survival. Economic change is

J. M. Gowdy

1992-01-01

73

Economic Development of British Colonial America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

Serena Zabin

74

Smart Transportation Economic Stimulation Infrastructure Investments That Support Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses factors to consider when evaluating transportation economic stimulation strategies. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. Expanding urban highways tends to stimulate motor vehicle travel and sprawl, exacerbating future transport problems and threatening future economic productivity. Improving alternative modes (walking and cycling conditions, and public transit service) tends to reduce total motor vehicle

Todd Litman

2009-01-01

75

Corrosion resistant process piping changes in economics  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the process piping industry has seen dramatic changes occur in corrosion resistant materials. Some changes have occurred in the form of new and modified materials becoming available. However, the most dramatic changes have occurred in the pricing of some older and well known materials. These economic changes have been dramatic and quick, so much so that the old established budget pricing ``rules of thumb`` used for many years to estimate piping projects are no longer valid. In many instances, the prices of some premium metals (titanium, for example) are now on a comparatively equal basis even with high alloys when all factors including densities, special fabrication requirements and service life are taken into account. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some commonly encountered corrosion resistant piping materials, a brief summary of their chemical and mechanical properties and usage. However, the focus of the paper presented will be economic. It will detail the current raw material prices for high alloys including duplex stainless steels, nickel and nickel alloys, Hastelloys+, as well as the reactive metals, zirconium and titanium. In addition, a typical fabricated piping spool in various diameters will be estimated for all of the above metals and the results plotted in graphical format for quick comparison. Last, a quick method will be presented to estimate as fabricated piping costs if the base material price for pipe is known.

Lain, E.H. Jr. [Phoenix, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-07-01

76

Global health funding and economic development  

PubMed Central

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

2012-01-01

77

Global health funding and economic development.  

PubMed

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

2012-01-01

78

Technological development in a dual economy: Alternative policy levers for economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although technological development is widely recognized as a function of human ingenuity and innovation and seen by many development scientists as an important means for achieving economic development, its actual use as a policy lever remains largely underutilized, since the process of its implementation is unclear. This paper attempts to identify operational instruments for supporting technological development so it can

Khalid Saeed; Ponthep Prankprakma

1997-01-01

79

Economically oriented process optimization in waste management.  

PubMed

A brief report on the development of novel apparatus is presented. It was verified in a commercial scale that a new concept of anaerobic fermentation followed by continuous pyrolysis is technically and economically feasible to manage previously enzymatically hydrolyzed waste haylage in huge volumes. The design of the concept is thoroughly described, documented in figures, and biochemically analyzed in detail. Assessment of the concept shows that subsequent pyrolysis of the anaerobically fermented residue allows among biogas to produce also high-quality biochar. This significantly improves the overall economy. In addition, it may be assumed that this applied research is consistent with previous theoretical assumptions stating that any kind of aerobic or anaerobic fermentation increases the microporosity of the biochar obtained. PMID:24584590

Maroušek, Josef

2014-06-01

80

Economics of health informatics in developing countries.  

PubMed

Health Informatics (HI) has become a world wide issue since 2005 when the WHO Health Metrics Network (HMN) was formed to encourage all of the developing countries (151) to get started in eHealth. Prior to this HMN initiative the only countries with HI in place were the developed countries (40) and a few developing countries (Jamaica, Malaysia, etc.) that were just getting started in HI with a very limited number of applications compared to the developed countries. This paper suggests that much of the experience in HI gained in the developed countries can be shared with the developing countries as 'lessons learnt' - as long as the issue of economics is kept front and foremost in the planning. PMID:21335705

Hébert, Ronald J

2011-01-01

81

Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

Smith, J P

1991-01-01

82

Development of an Economic Dashboard for the Flint Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project constructed an economic dashboard for Genesee County (Flint, Michigan) that identified, monitored, ranked, and compared key regional factors to other metro areas. The resulting dashboard enables economic development organizations and stakeholders in Genesee County to better focus their efforts by identifying the regional factors most associated with economic growth. Secondly, the dashboard allows economic development stakeholders to compare

Erickcek George A

2007-01-01

83

Supporting Local Economic Development in Post-Apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa's apartheid era has left a bitter legacy of retarded economic development. Local Economic Development has been identified by the South African government as a key strategy through which issues of development and, more importantly, poverty alleviation can be addressed by local governments. This paper reviews current Local Economic Development policy in South Africa, before proceeding to an examination

Tony Binns; Etienne Nel

2002-01-01

84

Unplanned Terminology Development: A Synchronic and Diachronic Study on Economic Terms in Turkish Newspapers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with unplanned terminology development in the subject field of economics within media discourse. It examines how economic terms in Turkish newspapers emerge, are used, and cease. This developmental process is also analyzed through productivity of economic terms and the factors affect them. The subject terms are also analyzed as a…

Karabacak, Erkan

2009-01-01

85

Is Your Community Ready for Economic Development?  

E-print Network

. Identify the tactics (projects) that are most feasible. 6. Assess the impact and risks. n Be honest now?will it really make a difference? n What is the risk? Usually the greater the pay-off, the greater the risk. 7. Develop action plans to implement each... tactic. n Make sure the tasks and responsibilities are clear. n Make sure they are do-able. 8. Implement. 9. Monitor. 10. Modify. 11. Celebrate! Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Acts of Congress...

Saldana, Luis

2003-03-30

86

Laser forming process development  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a summary of the activities performed for the process development of laser thermal forming sheet metal parts in support of rapid prototyping. A 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser and 50 watt desktop CO{sub 2} laser were used during initial process development. Several tool-assisted laser forming approaches were conceived during the development of the process, and simple fixtures for process development/understanding were used throughout all testing. Much of the actual forming was performed with the base material in an unfixtured state. CRES (304) was used for baseline development, but the effort was directed toward forming titanium (e.g., 6Al-4V, 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al). Several DOE (i.e., Design of Experiment) techniques were employed during development and a Neural Net Computer Model was conceived for process control. This program was a joint effort in cooperation with the American Welding Society under contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). A synopsis of the laser forming process development, future opportunities, and applications are presented.

Blake, R.J. [High Tech Images, Sheridan, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

87

Financial modeling of new product development economics  

E-print Network

Product design and development is a complex process that involves extensive engineering considerations as well as management decisions based on the overall vision for the product. Traditionally, most decision making in ...

Balasubramaniam, Anitha

2014-01-01

88

Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants' low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative

Xiu-fen WANG; Mao-song LI

2011-01-01

89

Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical or absolute geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A country’s location however not only determines its absolute geography, it also pins down its relative position on the globe vis-à-vis other countries. This paper assesses the importance of relative geography, and access to foreign markets in particular, in explaining the substantial income

Maarten Bosker; Harry Garretsen

2008-01-01

90

The primary objective of our study is to develop tools and understanding for complex systems of people and nature. Do socio-economic processes in conjunction with  

E-print Network

, their shoreline (riparian) systems, and the social and economic organizations of lake users. Our concept of lake-riparian-social systems views the lake edge (shoreline and littoral zone) as a nexus of interaction. Human activity affects riparian forests and the density of fallen trees (coarse woody debris, CWD) in the lake. In some

91

Study on Economic Sustainable Development in the Yangtze River Delta Region: Based on Transforming Economic Development Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yangtze River Delta region is one of the most rapid economic development areas in China. In fact, its economic growth still contains extensive features, which constrain economic sustainable development and international competition improvement of this region. Due to its inherent problems, extensive growth is unsustainable, while intensive growth contains sustainable development meaning and possesses conditions and foundation to realize

Shaoli Liu; Yuqi Lu

2010-01-01

92

Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Modelling for Regional Economic Development Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partridge M. D. and Rickman D. S. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelling for regional economic development analysis, Regional Studies. Despite their long-standing use in economic policy analysis generally, and increasing popularity in regional policy analysis, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have yet to become the dominant approach for analysis of regional economic development policies. This review discusses the likely reasons

Mark D. Partridge; Dan S. Rickman

2010-01-01

93

Beyond Responsiveness: Promoting Good Practice in Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the involvement of further education (FE) colleges in England and Wales in economic development and presents case studies of good practice in nine FE colleges. Chapter 1 addresses FE's role in economic development and measuring and planning economic growth. Chapter 2 contains the case studies: Lewisham College's Action for…

Hughes, Maria; Kypri, Photoula

1998-01-01

94

11.437 Financing Economic Development, Fall 2003  

E-print Network

Focuses on financing tools and program models to support local economic development. Includes an overview of private capital markets and financing sources to understand capital market imperfections that constrain economic ...

Seidman, Karl F.

95

JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly  

E-print Network

JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels, concentrating from industry norms), JEDI estimates the number of jobs and economic impacts to a local area (usually

96

Political freedom, economic freedom, and income convergence: Do stages of economic development matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature, theory and empirical evidence on the nexus of political freedom, economic freedom, and economic growth\\u000a are mixed. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the effect of political freedom on promoting economic growth is realized\\u000a and detectable at later stages of social and economic development. Using panel data for a sample of 104 countries between\\u000a 1970

Zhenhui Xu; Haizheng Li

2008-01-01

97

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

2013-04-01

98

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

2011-04-01

99

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

2012-04-01

100

Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

Bryson, Judy C.

101

Toward the Development of a Cultural Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which various economic specialties have incorporated or avoided cultural analyses is reviewed; problem areas where such studies might be most fruitful are suggested. It is indicated there now exists in embryo form an orientation deserving the name cultural economics''; its furture is speculated. (JB)

Boulding, Kenneth E.

1972-01-01

102

Experimental methods for environment and development economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many poor countries remain trapped in a cycle of poverty and environmental degradation. Understanding how people react to existing and proposed solutions most likely can be improved using the methods of experimental economics. Experiments provide researchers a method to test theory, look for patterns of behavior, testbed economic institutions and incentives, and to educate people. Herein we explore how experimental

MARIAH D. EHMKE; JASON F. SHOGREN

2008-01-01

103

Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

Zhang, Yu Aimee

2012-01-01

104

Is there an endogenous relationship between culture and economic development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from two communities suggests diverging paths of economic development; one which integrates culture into economic activities, and a second path which does not. If endogeneity cannot be assumed, does the relevance of culture for economic activities influence its stability and sustainability? Despite the predominance of culture in the former community, the social norms, ethnic cues and symbols are neither

Lauretta Conklin Frederking

2002-01-01

105

Industrial Districts and Regional Economic Development: A Regulation Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIGIOVANNA S. (1996) Industrial districts and regional economic developoment: a regulation approach, Reg. Studies30, 373–386. This paper examines the regulatory underpinnings of industrial districts. As many regional governments have been forced to accept greater responsibility for their own economic futures, the industrial district model has been presented as an attractive path to economic development. The underlying assumption among many policy

Sean Digiovanna

1996-01-01

106

Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries  

SciTech Connect

Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs.

El-Ashry, M.T. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

107

Essays in Development Economics and the Economics of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is a powerful tool to improve lives and enhance the prospect of innovation and development of nations. While primary school enrollment has increased considerably over the past few decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, learning and the retention rate have remained low. The first two chapters of this dissertation analyze two dimensions in a bid…

Blimpo, Moussa Pouguinimpo

2010-01-01

108

European Economic Review 45 (2001) 827}838 Natural Resources and Economic Development  

E-print Network

questions raised by the curse of natural resources. Is it true? If so, why? Section 1 discusses the evidenceEuropean Economic Review 45 (2001) 827}838 Natural Resources and Economic Development The curse of natural resources Je!rey D. Sachs, Andrew M. Warner* Center for International Development, Harvard

109

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

2013-04-01

110

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

2014-04-01

111

Technology and Economics Affecting Unconventional Reservoir Development  

E-print Network

-supported by government agencies and private organizations- and high commodity prices. In this work, the effect of technology and different economic events for selected unconventional oil and gas plays in the United States was evaluated according...

Flores Campero, Cecilia P.

2010-01-15

112

Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

1994-11-01

113

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

2007-01-01

114

A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to

Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck

1992-01-01

115

Ethanol processing coproducts - economics, impacts, sustainability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. is dramatically increasing; as is the quantity of coproducts generated from this processing sector. These streams are primarily utilized as livestock feed, which is a route that provides ethanol processors with a substantial revenue source and signif...

116

Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross E. Levine

2002-01-01

117

Tropics, germs, and crops: how endowments influence economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross Levine

2003-01-01

118

An Integrative Economic Optimization Approach to Systems Development Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant research progress on the problem of managing systems development risk, we are yet to see this problem addressed from an economic optimization perspective. Doing so entails answering the question: What mitigations should be planned and deployed throughout the life of a systems development project in order to control risk and maximize project value? We introduce an integrative economic

Michel Benaroch; James Goldstein

2009-01-01

119

Economic and Social Significance of Forests For Africa's Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

Economic and Social Significance of Forests For Africa's Sustainable Development Volume 25, Issue 2, Issue 2 Economic and social significance of forests for Africa's sustainable development Editor: Foday EcEE onomic and Social SignificSS ance of ForFF err sts For AFF fricA a's Sustainable Devtt elopment

120

The Missing Link in Navajo Indian Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although off-reservation economic development programs have been emphasized in the past, the Navajo Tribe also needs to emphasize on-reservation economic development in order to prevent the loss of well-educated Indian youth who leave frustrating on-reservation Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) jobs to aid outside enterprises in the mining of natural…

Billy, Bahe

121

Canada Research Chair, Tier II in Economics of Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

Canada Research Chair, Tier II in Economics of Sustainable Development The University of Winnipeg has designated a Tier II Canada Research Chair in the Economics of Sustainable Development within and enhanced research support. The Canada Research Chair program was established by the Government of Canada

Martin, Jeff

122

Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

123

Consumer & Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mt. San Antonio Community College District's Consumer/Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development Project was designed to provide activities to meet staff development and program improvement needs. The choice of activities was based on evaluation data from previous home economics projects, and priorities identified by the Consumer/Home…

McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

124

INSTITUTIONS, ENTREPRENEURSHIP, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EMERGING ECONOMIES (INTERACTIVE PAPER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurship literature offers that entrepreneurship is associated with a country’s economic development (Schumpeter, 1942); yet, there has been little direct evidence on under what conditions countries actually achieve their economic development via entrepreneurship. On the other hand, the institutional framework posits that at the most fundamental level, the supply and demand of entrepreneurship is at least shaped by a country’s

Yasuhiro Yamakawa

2008-01-01

125

Pollution prevention and its role in sustainable economic development  

SciTech Connect

The recent United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was the largest gathering of governments and heads of states to date. This paper describes the preparatory process for this meeting as well as the recommendations of UNCED. This Conference was essentially about changing behavior -- specifically economic behavior. The implications of sustainable development was among the subjects explored during the 9th World Clean Air Congress in Montreal in September 1992. At a plenary session on the topic, Professor de Lemos, President of Brazil's UNEP Institute, reported on the 1992 UNCED Conference and what it revealed about the impact of business, poverty, and population on the goals of sustainable development. His remarks are included in the article. 8 refs.

Mattos, de Lemos, H. (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1992-12-01

126

Special Section: Approaches to Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four articles: "Estimating Economic Impacts of Programming: A Case Study of Forestry" (Marcouiller et al.); "Aquaculture Opportunities" (Snyder); "Starting a County Agricultural Marketing Program" (Vossen); and "A Multidisciplinary Model for Industry Support: Program Redirection Creates Missouri Textile Center" (Dillard et al.). (SK)

Marcouiller, David W.; And Others

1992-01-01

127

Sustainable Economic Development. A Paradigm Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the turn of the last decade a paradigm change in environmental policies became apparent. At the end of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 1980s, during the first environmental revolution, environmental problems were seen as a potential conflict between economic growth and the quality of the environment; since the end of the 1980s, however, the new concept

Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl

1995-01-01

128

Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

Lee, Alice

129

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

130

Techno-economic assessment of power production from the Wellman and BTG fast pyrolysis processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to present a design ev aluation and techno- economic assessment of two technologies being developed within an EU supported contract by Wellman Process Engineering Ltd. and the Biomass Technology Group b.v.. The work produced capital cost estimates and p roduction cost estimates for liquids from both processes and electricity production costs, at a range

G. V. C. Peacocke

131

A regional economic impact model for identifying the relationship between transportation investments and economic development  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering A REGIONAL ECONOMIC IMPACT MODEL FOR IDENTIFYING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENTS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A Thesis... the impacts of project and program expenditures by industry on regional output, earnings, and employment (U. S. Department of Commerce, 1981). The Harvard multiregional model (Cartright, Beemiller, and Gustely, 1982) developed for the U. S Department...

Freyre, German Eleodoro

1989-01-01

132

Community Economic Development Law: a Text for Engaged Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community development law has assumed pre-eminence among strategies to alleviate entrenched poverty and create sustainable economic and social change within low income communities. Despite the growing prominence of community development within graduate schools and the helping professions, there is no comprehensive textbook to date. This text provides that resource.\\u000aCommunity Economic Development Law: A Text for Engaged Learning provides a

Susan D. Bennett; Brenda Bratton Blom; Louise A. Howells; Deborah Kenn

2012-01-01

133

Meeting Summary, Economic Development Panel, Business Meeting No.31  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The objectives of the meeting were as follows: (1) Learn more about and discuss economic impacts of wind power development in the U.S, highlighting the NWCC report, ''Assessing the Economic Impacts of Wind Power Development''; (2) Learn more about and discuss wind integration costs and the impacts of recent studies on wind energy development; and (3) Review activities and products planned for FY 2004.

Kevin Bryan

2003-06-18

134

Economic Development, Population Ageing and Sustainability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most populous country in the world, China is enjoying unprecedented economic growth. However this growth is accompanied with population ageing and serious environmental degradation which has attracted global attention. The impact of China's environmental problems on the rest of world in the future will be as important as that of the country's rapid economic growth. Without a balanced development

Xiumei Guo; Dora Marinova

135

Economics of Training and Personnel Development in Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches to the economics of training and personnel development are reviewed, and results from an empirical survey of 450 Swedish training managers are summarized with regard to competence as a production factor. Preconditions for an economics of competence include a long-range perspective and combining qualitative and quantitative variables.…

Lundmark, Annika; Soderstrom, Magnus

1992-01-01

136

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization with 29 Member countries from North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific area. The OECD serves as a "forum for governments of the industrialized democracies to study and formulate the best policies possible in all economic and social spheres." Content is organized into activity sections such as development and co-operation, economics, environmental issues, transition economies, trade and transport. Within each activity, visitors can usually find related publications. The OECD site features a news and events page highlighting the latest OECD developments, and a guide to free on-line documents sorted by activity.

1999-01-01

137

What Can Tribes Do? Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development. American Indian Manual and Handbook Series No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of research papers focuses on conditions that affect self-determined economic development on American Indian reservations. Topics include obstacles that Indian nations face as they pursue their development goals; development of economic development corporations; effective tribal judicial systems; a model for processing land-use…

Cornell, Stephen, Ed.; Kalt, Joseph P., Ed.

138

Economic design of control charts considering process shift distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process shift is an important input parameter in the economic design of control charts. Earlier control chart designs considered constant shifts to occur in the mean of the process for a given assignable cause. This assumption has been criticized by many researchers since it may not be realistic to produce a constant shift whenever an assignable cause occurs. To overcome this difficulty, in the present work, a distribution for the shift parameter has been considered instead of a single value for a given assignable cause. Duncan's economic design model for chart has been extended to incorporate the distribution for the process shift parameter. It is proposed to minimize total expected loss-cost to obtain the control chart parameters. Further, three types of process shifts namely, positively skewed, uniform and negatively skewed distributions are considered and the situations where it is appropriate to use the suggested methodology are recommended.

Vommi, Vijayababu; Kasarapu, Rukmini V.

2014-09-01

139

From Economic Growth to Sustainable Development in a Globalized World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays it is important that developing countries tap themselves fully to a new philosophy of development that is specific to the European Union and widely shared worldwide – namely the philosophy of transition from economic growth to sustainable development. Thus, concrete targets are now pursued, designed to enable transition within a reasonable and realistic time to the development model generating

Craciun Liliana

2011-01-01

140

The NDT Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web systems are more complex every day. This has produced that the research community poses the neccesity of developing methodological\\u000a proposals which offer a suitable reference when a web information system is developed. Since the first proposal, HDM, was\\u000a published [5] a lot of other methodologies have been developed in this environment. This paper presents NDT (Navigational Development\\u000a Techniques) [3].

M. José Escalona; Manuel Mejías; Jesús Torres; Antonia M. Reina Quintero

2003-01-01

141

The Economics of Slums in the Developing World  

E-print Network

The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is ...

Marx, Benjamin

142

ED>Net: The California Community College Approach to Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes California's Educational Development Network (ED>Net), an experimental effort to use the existing community college infrastructure to enhance the state's economic development activities. Highlights ED>Net's focus on developing organization, process, and individual skills in the current workforce. Indicates that ED>Net is composed of…

Dozier, Ken E.

1996-01-01

143

A labor market based theory of regional economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The Borts and Stein (1964) theory of regional economic growth and development has been widely accepted and discussed in regional\\u000a economic development literature. Given their assumption that labor demand conditions are invariant between regions and that\\u000a the labor demand is highly wage elastic, they conclude that regional growth is primarily supply driven and differences in\\u000a growth among regions arise

Vijay K. Mathur; Frank M. Song

2000-01-01

144

Process/economic strategy for upgrading shale oil  

SciTech Connect

A prime difficulty with the production of transportation fuels from Western US shale oil is the high heteroatom content, especially nitrogen. Nitrogen containing molecules are known to have high market value for non-fuel uses. Selective extraction of nitrogen-containing molecules from shale oil recovers these potentially valuable components while upgrading the remaining shale oil for refining to transportation fuels. A thermodynamically logical separation process sequence consisting of primarily distillation and liquid-liquid extraction has been shown effective in selective isolation of polar heteroatom-containing molecules. The polar fraction may be processed for the production of chemical intermediates and specialty chemicals of high value. Projected material balances show an overall product split of 80% refinery feed and 20% polar products. Based on product values and composition, a preliminary economic analysis yields 30% internal rate of return. A summary of the economic strategy, process results and promising products will be presented.

Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Devineni, P.A.V.; Cogswell, D.E.; Wiser, J.W.

1994-12-31

145

A non-linear model of economic production processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

2003-06-01

146

LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

147

Preliminary Economic Feasibility Analysis of High Fructose Corn Syrup Processing in the United States with Emphasis on North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prefeasibility analysis directed at the HFCS industry was carried out under a short-term turnaround basis with the intent of accomplishing two objectives. First, provide a current economic overview of the United States HFCS industry; secondly, to develop some major HFCS processing plant operating benchmarks in an effort to provide a timely informational base for state economic development interests.

Scott M. Wulff; Delmer L. Helgeson

1987-01-01

148

Process-Based Quality (PBQ) Tools Development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort is to benchmark the development of process-based quality tools for application in CAD (computer-aided design) model-based applications. The processes of interest are design, manufacturing, and quality process applications. A study was commissioned addressing the impact, current technologies, and known problem areas in application of 3D MCAD (3-dimensional mechanical computer-aided design) models and model integrity on downstream manufacturing and quality processes. The downstream manufacturing and product quality processes are profoundly influenced and dependent on model quality and modeling process integrity. The goal is to illustrate and expedite the modeling and downstream model-based technologies for available or conceptual methods and tools to achieve maximum economic advantage and advance process-based quality concepts.

Cummins, J.L.

2001-12-03

149

World Development Report 1985. International Capital and Economic Development. World Development Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

150

Central Energy Systems - Applications to Economic Development  

E-print Network

objectives. The process utilizes two computer-aided programs to evaluate quickly and cost effectively the energy efficiency of new buildings. The City uses the Predesign Energy Program (PREP) to analyze efficiency in new individual buildings during...

Myers, M. S.; Diserens, S. E.

1985-01-01

151

E-Learning and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia's transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an…

Carey, Kelly; Blatnik, Stanko

2005-01-01

152

Population Growth and Economic and Social Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because evidence is clear that in many developing countries development will be postponed indefinitely unless slower population growth can be achieved soon, the international community must work together in a renewed effort to slow population growth. Assistance can be accomplished in three ways: (1) encouraging dialog aimed at forging…

Clausen, A. W.

153

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1981-01-01

154

Teaching Local Economic Development Using Problem-Based Service Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The course was a senior-level 3 credit seminar designed primarily for junior and senior economics majors and minors. This capstone-type course offered an opportunity for 18 students to learn about urban economics as it applies to local economic development while being actively involved in the actual practice of community and economic development through a partnership with Burlington's innovative Community and Economic Development Office (CEDO). Specifically, Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's economic development division: 1. Collected data to enable an up-to-date understanding of economic/demographic trends and conditions in Burlington and the region. CEDO has previously hired outside consultants to periodically produce a data rich document titled "Jobs and People." My students put together "Jobs and People IV." Key contributions unique to J&P IV were the construction of time series based on NAICS instead of SIC industry codes and the addition of variables to reflect Burlington's movement away from manufacturing to an economy based more on the arts, technology and sustainable agriculture. This report is now used throughout the state of Vermont. 2. Developed a dataset in excel with formulas and sources that makes it easy for CEDO staff to keep "Jobs and People" continuously updated and to modify the data and charts to meet their changing needs. CEDO will now need to rely less on expensive outside consultants. Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's community development division: 1. Conducted a survey of Burlington residents on their quality of life in the historical but economically challenged Old North End neighborhood. The survey was also designed to gather information about the types of supports residents want and to identify the role played by CEDO sponsored neighborhood associations in resident perceptions of quality of life.

Brooks, Nancy

155

Resilience Processes in Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do children and adolescents “make it“ when their development is threatened by poverty, neglect, maltreatment, war, violence,\\u000a or exposure to oppression, racism, and discrimination? What protects them when their parents are disabled by substance abuse,\\u000a mental illness, or serious physical illness? How do we explain the phenomenon of resilience-children succeeding in spite of\\u000a serious challenges to their development-and put

Margaret O’Dougherty Wright; Ann S. Masten

156

Moving Off the Straight Path in Economic Development Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a feminist economist who works on gender and development issues, I find that one key constraint to integrating economic and sexual justice is the way that development and international aid initiatives work to normalize gender and sexual identities. Political economy accounts of development often ignore the entrenched nature of heteronormativity in their thinking, in which reproductive heterosexuality is seen

Suzanne Bergeron

157

3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...investments in renewable fuels as needed to preserve...reducing our dependence on fossil fuels by providing, within...development and construction costs of demonstration-scale...to replace the use of fossil fuels in plant operations...

2010-01-01

158

Essays on social networks in development economics  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the role that social networks play in developing economies. The first two chapters analyze econometric issues that arise when researchers work with sampled network data. The final two chapters study ...

Chandrasekhar, Arun Gautham

2012-01-01

159

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

1977-01-01

160

Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions. PMID:18030342

Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

2007-01-01

161

Economic Development Web Site: State and Local Policy Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Development Web Site is maintained by the State and Local Policy Program, in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, at the University of Minnesota. The site provides various resources related to economic development at the regional level. Visitors may want to start with Understanding Your Industries -- A Framework for Industry Analysis, which will examine several different analytical tools (both quantitative and qualitative) that help to describe how key industries cluster in a particular area. Several examples of areas that include industry cluster in their development strategies are available. There are also "ten key principles for developing a cutting edge economic development strategy for your area" and links to both national and state data coupled with a description of the data.

162

Economics of Milk Products Processing Plants in Texas.  

E-print Network

BULLETIN 883 &@+; ' Economics of ~ilk'Pioducts " / @* !@ Processing Plants -i~*T&s Location of milk products manufacturing plants in Texas. by types of product. summer 1957. DECEMBER 1957 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS.... DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS ' Summary The 12,800 Texas farmers selling milk during 1957 marketed an estimated 260 million gallons of milk havigg a farm value of 115 million dollars and a retail value of more than 230 million dollars. The average...

Stelly, Randall

1957-01-01

163

Multisectoral economic models for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of the economies of many less developed countries (LDC's) is their heavy reliance for foreign exchange earnings on a few export commodities whose markets are characterised by low income elasticities on the demand side and whose supply is continually expanding under the influence of improved production technologies while remaining highly sensitive to year weather conditions. Given these commodity

David Vincent

1981-01-01

164

Feminist Economics of Inequality, Development, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines connections between intergroup inequality and macroeconomic outcomes, considering various channels through which gender, growth, and development interact. It upholds the salience not only of equality in opportunities but also equality in outcomes. The contribution argues that inequalities based on gender, race, ethnicity, and class undermine the ability to provision and expand capabilities, and it examines the macroeconomic

Günseli Berik; Yana van der Meulen Rodgers; Stephanie Seguino

2009-01-01

165

75 FR 10219 - Solicitation of Applications for the FY 2010 University Center Economic Development Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regional economic development by promoting a favorable business environment to attract private...Center Economic Development Program competition...federal economic development agenda by promoting...favorable business environment to attract...

2010-03-05

166

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2013-01-01

167

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2012-01-01

168

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2014-01-01

169

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2012-01-01

170

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2011-01-01

171

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2011-01-01

172

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 Section 303...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2013-01-01

173

Silicon Web Process Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

1978-01-01

174

Energy security, economic development and global warming: addressing short and long term challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security, economic development and averting global warming are conflicting objectives in a fossil fuel economy. In the long run, sustainable development requires a shift to renewable energy sources. In the short run it requires swift action (IPCC) and different strategies. The article analyses a negative carbon process to co-produce electricity while reducing carbon concentration in the atmosphere (Jones, 2008,

Graciela Chichilnisky; Peter Eisenberger

2009-01-01

175

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1980-01-01

176

Home Economics: Child Development. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, a curriculum guide in home economics on child development, for secondary schools, is one of six guides developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson…

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

177

Economic Development and the Escape from High Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — This paper studies the characteristic features of the escape from high mortality as re- corded from the historical experience of Northwestern Europe and from the current experience of less developed countries. The paper documents stylized facts of mortality change and measures the contribution of economic development, represented by income per capita, to the mortality decline during the second

Javier A. Birchenall

2007-01-01

178

Economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an introduction to this special issue of The Journal of Development Studies on economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, it outlines how the contributions fit into the extant literature. A series of regularities emerge across these studies. The poor consist of those who are always poor — poor

Bob Baulch; John Hoddinott

2000-01-01

179

Youth Employment and Neighborhood Economic Development: Case Studies and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The product of a study of urban Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs involving youths aged 16-22 that would result in real or potential job creation and community economic development, this report consists of 24 case studies and a series of recommendations pertaining to the development of similar programs in Illinois.…

Engbretson, William E.; Levine, Eugene A.

180

A Regional Economic Development Partnership for Community-Based Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Florence-Darlington Technical College (FDTC) in Florence, South Carolina, has implemented the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling (ACCLAIM) community-based programming (C-BP) model for developing a regional economic development strategic plan. FDTC offers 27 associate degrees, 10 diplomas, and 9…

Garrett, Rick L.; Parker, Walter A.

181

Leading Economic Development across Ontario: Achievements and Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has been developed by the Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario (ACAATO) to advance a strong college system that will continue to contribute to economic development in Ontario. Each year the colleges provide accessible quality career education and training in English and French to over one million adults. The…

Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

182

Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

1978-01-01

183

Helping the Discarded Generation: Youth Employment and Community Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains and illustrates features of community economic development (CDC) organizations using two Canadian examples (Learnxs Foundation, Inc., and Learning Enrichment Foundation). Proposes CDCs as a way to improve youth employment and community development. Discusses youth employment programs in Germany, Austria, Britain, and the United States and…

Shuttleworth, Dale

1984-01-01

184

AMERICAN INDIAN CASINO GAMBLING: ISSUES OF COMMUNITY VERSUS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antell, Blevins, and Jensen present a useful description of the policy conflicts between Indian casino gambling and tribal sovereignty. However, they fail to distinguish casino gaming as a form of community versus economic development in terms of general American Indian tribal community well-being. Legal tension certainly exists between the states (mandated by federal legislation to develop gambling compacts with the

Rebecca T. Richards

2000-01-01

185

Economic and Workforce Development. [Final Task Force Report].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the vision and priorities of Howard Community College's (HCC's) Economic and Workforce Development Task Force. The task force's commission was to identify the long- and short-term skills businesses will demand of the workforce in the Greater Baltimore area and what Howard Community College must do to continue developing…

Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD.

186

http://edq.sagepub.com Economic Development Quarterly  

E-print Network

Economic Development Quarterly AnnaLee Saxenian Silicon Valley's New Immigrant High-Growth Entrepreneurs DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY / February 2002Saxenian / SILICON VALLEY'S NEW IMMIGRANTS Silicon Valley's New Immigrant engineers were senior executives at one quar- ter of Silicon Valley's technology businesses. These immigrant

Saxenian, AnnaLee

187

State and local economic development tools : how does the range of state-level economic development tools available to a locality influence the way local resources are deployed?  

E-print Network

Patterns in Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) expenditures for economic development in selected states were analyzed to explore whether differences in economic development tools, policies and programs available at ...

Piercy, Brett I. (Brett Ianthe)

2010-01-01

188

Economic, organizational, and institutional impact of the survivability validation process  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses some of the key economic, organizational, and institutional issues associated with the development and use of survivability validation protocols. It discusses factors affecting protocols, considerations for protocol selection, test- bed/simulator/analysis tool availability, organizational issues affecting protocol use, deviations precluding adherence to validated protocols, and protocol advantages. Knowledge of these factors will assist developers of survivability validation protocols in designing more flexible protocols that can be tailored for differing circumstances without losing the fidelity or assurance that the protocol will produce the desired survivability level.

Brock, G. [Kaman Sciences Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

1993-08-01

189

Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

1982-01-01

190

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

191

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

192

Developing the JPL Engineering Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

2004-01-01

193

Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

1981-04-01

194

Community Economic Development Law : A Text For Engaged Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Economic Development Law: A Text for Engaged Learning provides a flexible set of materials that faculty can customize to meet the goals of the stand-alone community development class, or the pedagogical needs of community development law clinics. The text enables students to approach the substantive material as would problem-solving, community-based practitioners. They do so by entering the community of

Susan D. Bennett; Brenda Bratton Blom; Louise A. Howells; Deborah S. Kenn

2012-01-01

195

Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

2013-03-01

196

Economic prerequisites for the development of nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

The development of nuclear power, as no other field of human endeavor, has revealed the need for predicting the consequences of nuclear power not only in the production of energy itself, but also in the ecology, economics, and even politics. On the one hand, the future of nuclear power is determined by a society`s attitude toward nuclear power and depends on economic possibilities. On the other hand, the future society and the economic situation that will develop in the world will largely depend on the amount of energy accessible to mankind and the method used to obtain it, and therefore also the relative contribution of atomic energy to the total balance of energy production. In declaring its attitude toward nuclear power, society is now determining to a definite extent not only the future of nuclear power but also nuclear power itself. This article is an abstract of the entire report.

Chernilin, Y.F.

1995-10-01

197

Integrating developed and developing world knowledge into global discussions and strategies for sustainability. 2. Economics and governance.  

PubMed

Knowledge transfer from the developing to the developed world is described in the domain of economics and governance for sustainable development. Three system areas are explored: the structure of commons governance institutions, the process of community-based participatory action research, and the role of microfinance and microenterprise for the development, adoption, and diffusion of sustainable technologies. Case studies from both the developed and developing world demonstrate the effectiveness of social networks and community cooperative strategies in a wide range of sectors. Developing world experiences are shown to be particularly rich in the application of local knowledge and social capital toward sustainable development. PMID:17547158

Ramaswami, Anu; Zimmerman, Julie B; Mihelcic, James R

2007-05-15

198

Advanced process modeling at the BCL smelter: Improving economic and environmental performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1973 Bamangwato Concessions Limited (BCL) has operated a nickel-copper smelter in Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana. The smelter treats concentrates from local mines and various custom feed concentrates. The nickel throughput capacity of this smelter is constrained by a low nickel feed grade in its primary BCL concentrate. BCL contracted Xstrata Process Support (XPS) to assist in identifying key economic drivers to maximize revenue-generating opportunities. After the disclosure of essential BCL plant performance data XPS developed and utilized advanced metallurgical modeling techniques to identify production bottlenecks, calculate Ni, Cu, and Co recoveries, manage the slag volumes, increase the custom feed capacity, and perform various feasibility analyses for key unit process operations in the BCL smelter. The methodology for developing the process model and its application in contributing to the economic bottom line are outlined in this paper.

Tripathi, Nagendra; Peek, Edgar; Stroud, Milton

2011-01-01

199

The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

200

Regional distribution of China's science and technology and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional imbalance of economic development is one of the fundamental characteristics of China's national condition. A prevailing viewpoint is held that there is an increasingly widening gap in per capita GDP and per capita net income between individuals in China since the 1978 opening & reforming policy. To analyze the interrelationship between S&T and the economy as well as

Guisheng Wu; Jizhen Li

2001-01-01

201

Industrialization and Economic Development in Advanced Placement Human Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the industrialization and economic development section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, addressing four specific aspects: (1) the character of industrialization; (2) spatial aspects of the rise of industrial economies; (3) contemporary global patterns of industrialization and resource extraction; and (4) impacts of…

Bailey, Adrian J.

2000-01-01

202

Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…

Ng, Ying Chu

2004-01-01

203

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China  

E-print Network

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China Qiang He1 , Mark D. Bertness2 , John F Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China, 2 Department, Shanghai 200433, China, 5 Division of Climate Change Thermodynamics and Systems Ecology, College

204

Manpower Aspects of Recent Economic Developments in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examined economic growth and manpower policy and developments in Europe. Chapter I presents statistical data on labor force growth, trends in unemployment, occupational structure, and technological change for 1950-65 and made projections for 1965-80. The second chapter is an analysis of the relationship of manpower policy to general…

International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

205

The New Economic Development Role of the Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the broadened role of the community college in workforce preparation and economic development over the last 20 years, describing its main contours, explaining why and how it arose, and assessing its impact on students, firms, and community colleges. As part of the study, questions were raised about the costs, as well as…

Dougherty, Kevin, J.; Bakia, Marianne, F.

206

Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of articles which have been selected to provide insight into different aspects of the relationship between the two most pressing and challenging issues of the current time. The first is the need to achieve a just level of economic development for two-thirds of the world's population that live in poverty. The second is the…

Gold, Howard, Ed.

207

Economic Development Program Funding Plan: 1992-93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1988, the Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges (CCC) established an Economic Development Program (EDP) to support community colleges' efforts to provide education, training, and technical services to business and industry. The EDP's mission was to establish model programs, demonstration projects, and college/business…

Stanley, Pat; Prentiss, John

208

International Outreach: Auburn University's Role in Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights Auburn University's (Alabama) human-resource and economic-development programs in other countries, including an exchange of agricultural leaders with Germany and Hungary, a faculty exchange program with Haiti, student and faculty agricultural and aquacultural exchanges with China, and a number of programs in other countries. (MSE)

Guthrie, Richard L.

1998-01-01

209

UNL Research & Economic Development Growth Initiative DRAFT Summary  

E-print Network

understand UNL's scholarly strengths and relative market position among other research universitiesPage 1 UNL Research & Economic Development Growth Initiative 2012-2017 DRAFT Summary Introduction The University of Nebraska-Lincoln is ranked as one of the top U.S. universities in research growth over the last

Powers, Robert

210

A Portfolio of Community College Initiatives in Rural Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges across the United States have initiated programs that are making an impact on the productivity of rural America and its residents. Profiles of 20 community and technical college initiatives in rural economic development are contained in this report intended for use by community and technical college administrators. The programs…

Thomas, Margaret G.

211

Public Policy for Economic Development: The Two-Edged Sword.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a national survey of state directors of community college education, which examined state legislation affecting community colleges. Examines trends toward the formation of a public policy framework for economic development. Summarizes findings with respect to legislative actions affecting groups, programs, structures, incentives, and…

Martorana, S. V.; Garland, Peter H.

1984-01-01

212

Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

Ferguson, W. Ker

2011-01-01

213

AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

214

RETRAINING AND MIGRATION AS FACTORS IN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REPORT, PREPARED FOR THE OFFICE OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, FEATURES A REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH ON RETRAINING AND MIGRATION AS INDEPENDENT AND INTERACTING FACTORS IN REGIONAL ECONOMIES. FINDINGS ARE ALSO RELATED TO CURRENT UNITED STATES MANPOWER POLICY AND TO RETRAINING AND RELOCATION SCHEMES IN WESTERN EUROPE. IN THE UNITED STATES,…

SOMERS, GERALD G.

215

Behavioural Development Economics: Lessons from Field Labs in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations of poverty, growth and development depend on the assumptions made about individual preferences and the willingness to engage in strategic behaviour. Economic experiments, especially those conducted in the field, have begun to paint a picture of economic agents in developing communities that is at variance with the traditional portrait. We review this growing literature with an eye towards preference-related

Juan Camilo Cardenas; Jeffrey Carpenter

2008-01-01

216

Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health yesterday released this 210-page report on the role of health in global economic development. The Commission, which was established in January of last year, finds "that extending the coverage of crucial health services, including a relatively small number of specific interventions, to the world's poor could save millions of lives each year, reduce poverty, spur economic development, and promote global security." The report recommends an effort on the part of developing and developed nations alike and argues that millions of lives would be saved annually if cooperating countries invested one tenth of one percent of national income. At the site, users can download the report in full or by section.

2001-01-01

217

Consolidating Local Economic Development in Post-Apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the release in 2006 of a national coordinated framework, a new policy maturity has emerged in South Africa around the\\u000a planning of local economic development (LED). In this article, key issues are explored for the consolidation of LED as an\\u000a important aspect of development planning in postapartheid South Africa. Five significant themes are identified as central\\u000a to the consolidation

Christian M. Rogerson

2008-01-01

218

Modeling Integrated Farm Systems: A Tool for Developing more Economically and Environmentally Sustainable Farming Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of models have been developed to represent farm systems, but only a few actually integrate all or most of the major biological, physical, and economic processes of a farm. Farm system models are used for decision support, education, and research purposes. Because of differences in the type ...

219

Automating the training development process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Training Development System (ATDS) was developed as a training tool for the JPL training environment. ATDS is based on the standard for military training programs and is designed to develop training from a system perspective, focusing on components in terms of the whole process. The principal feature of ATDS is data base maintainability. Everything is contained and maintained within the data base, and, if properly developed, it could be a training component of a software delivery and provided to CM as a controlled item. The analysis, development, design, presentation, and reporting phases in the ATDS instructional design method are illustrated.

Scott, Carol J.

1993-01-01

220

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01

221

Natural selection, rational economic behavior, and alternative outcomes of the evolutionary process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implicit assumption that an economic natural selection process will lead to rational behavior has been key to much of modern economic theory. However, when the process of natural selection as it would apply to economic markets is thought through, it does not necessarily lead to rational behavior, nor to behavior that appears “as if” it is rational. It is

Joshua Frank

2003-01-01

222

Warped Geographies of Development: The Internet and Theories of Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is frequently touted as the engine of a new revolution that can eliminate poverty and bring prosperity to producers of crafts and commodities in economically impoverished areas of the world. 'E-commerce', 'commodity chains', the 'digital divide', and 'disintermediation' are all inherently geographical ideas, as well as being integral components to many theories of economic develop- ment. However, despite

Mark Graham

2008-01-01

223

Modeling the economics of landfilling organic processing waste streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector are many examples of various liquid, sludge, and solid biological and organic waste streams that require remediation. Alternative disposal methods for food and other bio-organic manufacturing waste streams are increasingly being investigated. Direct shipping, blending, extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human food, animal feed, industrial products, and components ready for further manufacture. Landfilling, the traditional approach to waste remediation, however, should not be dismissed entirely. It does provide a baseline to which all other recycling and reprocessing options should be compared. This paper discusses the implementation of a computer model designed to examine the economics of landfilling bio-organic processing waste streams. Not only are these results applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm would benefit from examining the trends discussed here.

Rosentrater, Kurt A.

2005-11-01

224

Recent developments in decision-analytic modelling for economic evaluation.  

PubMed

The past few years have seen rapid changes in the methods of decision-analytic modelling of healthcare programmes for the purposes of economic evaluation. This paper focuses on four developments in modelling that have emerged over the past few years or have become more widely used. First, no one optimal method for extrapolating outcomes from clinical trials has yet been established. Modellers may draw from a set of varied assumptions about survival extrapolation that encompass a range of possibilities from highly optimistic to extremely cautious. Secondly, the practicality and appeal of microsimulation as a method for analysing healthcare decision problems has increased dramatically with the speed of computing technology. Individual instantiations of a system are generated by using a random process to draw from probability distributions a large number of times (also known as Monte Carlo or probabilistic simulation). Microsimulation is moving in new directions, such as discrete-event simulations that simulate sequences of events by drawing directly from probability distributions of event times; this approach is now being broadly applied to model situations where populations of patients interact with healthcare delivery systems. Microsimulation modelling of transmission systems at the population level is also rapidly developing. Thirdly, model calibration is emerging as a new tool that may offer health scientists a means of generating important fundamental knowledge about disease processes. Model calibration allows evidence synthesis in which observations on observable quantities are used to draw inferences about unobservable quantities. The methodology of model calibration has advanced considerably, drawing on theories of numerical analysis and mathematical programming such as gradient methods, intelligent grid search algorithms, and many more. As a fourth issue, an area of extraordinary activity is in the use of transmission models to analyse interventions for infectious diseases, including population-wide effects of vaccination. Transmission models use differential equations to simulate, deterministically for the most part, transitions among infection-related health states. Only recently have modelling methodologies been combined so that cost-effectiveness analyses can consider explicitly not only the patient-level benefits of interventions but also the secondary benefits through transmission dynamics. Advances in technology allow more realistic and complex healthcare models to be simulated more rapidly. However, decision makers will not readily accept results from models unless they can understand them intuitively and explain them to others in relatively simple terms. The challenge for the next generation of modellers is not only to harness the power available from these newly accessible methods, but also to extract from the new generation of models the insights that will have the power to influence decision makers. PMID:17067190

Weinstein, Milton C

2006-01-01

225

Tourism's Impact on Economic Growth and Development in Spain  

E-print Network

Tourism's Impact on Economic Growth and Development in Spain Jessica Dennis #12;Spanish Civil War,500,000,000 International Tourism Receipts 1960-2008 (US$ in year 2000) #12;$0 $200,000,000,000 $400,000,000,000 $600 (US$ in the year 2000) #12;0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% International Tourism Receipts

New Hampshire, University of

226

USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

2005-05-01

227

The Important Role of Physics in Industry and Economic Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good Physics requires good education. Good education translates into good Physics professionals. The process starts early with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education programs for Middle and High-School students. Then it continues with competitive higher education programs (2 years and 4 years) at colleges and universities designed to satisfy the needs of industry and academia. The research work conducted by graduate students in Physics (and Engineering Physics) frequently translates into new discoveries and innovations that have direct impact in society (e.g. Proton Cancer Therapy). Some of the major and largest scientific experiments in the world today are physics-centered (e.g. Large Hadron Collider-LHC) that generate employment and business opportunities for thousands of scientists, academic research groups and companies from around the world. New superconducting magnets and advanced materials that have resulted from previous research in physics are commonly used in these extreme experiments. But not all physicists will end up working at these large high-energy physics experiments, universities or National Laboratories (e.g. Fermilab); industry requires new generations of (industrial) physicists in such sectors as semiconductor, energy, space, life sciences, defense and advanced manufacturing. This work presents an industry perspective about the role of Physics in economic development and the need for a collaborative Academic-Industry approach for a more effective translational research. A series of examples will be presented with emphasis in the measurement, control, diagnostics and computing capabilities needed to translate the science (physics) into innovations and practical solutions that can benefit society as a whole.

Alvarado, Igor

2012-10-01

228

A techno-economical comparison of three processes for the production of ethanol from pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study comprises a technical and economic comparison of three different processes for the production of fuel ethanol from pine. The processes were based on the same technical and economic assumptions. The main difference between the processes lies in the front end of each process, i.e. in the pretreatment of the raw material and in the hydrolysis of the hemicellulose

Margareta von Sivers; Guido Zacchi

1995-01-01

229

Developability studies before initiation of process development  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies constitute a robust class of therapeutic proteins. Their stability, resistance to stress conditions and high solubility have allowed the successful development and commercialization of over 40 antibody-based drugs. Although mAbs enjoy a relatively high probability of success compared with other therapeutic proteins, examples of projects that are suspended due to the instability of the molecule are not uncommon. Developability assessment studies have therefore been devised to identify early during process development problems associated with stability, solubility that is insufficient to meet expected dosing or sensitivity to stress. This set of experiments includes short-term stability studies at 2?8 þC, 25 þC and 40 þC, freeze-thaw studies, limited forced degradation studies and determination of the viscosity of high concentration samples. We present here three case studies reflecting three typical outcomes: (1) no major or unexpected degradation is found and the study results are used to inform early identification of degradation pathways and potential critical quality attributes within the Quality by Design framework defined by US Food and Drug Administration guidance documents; (2) identification of specific degradation pathway(s) that do not affect potency of the molecule, with subsequent definition of proper process control and formulation strategies; and (3) identification of degradation that affects potency, resulting in program termination and reallocation of resources. PMID:23883920

Yang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Wei; Dukleska, Svetlana; Benchaar, Sabrina; Mengisen, Selina; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Cheung, Jason; Mann, Leslie; Babadjanova, Zulfia; Rowand, Jason; Gunawan, Rico; McCampbell, Alexander; Beaumont, Maribel; Meininger, David; Richardson, Daisy; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

2013-01-01

230

Economic development: poverty solution for the rural South  

SciTech Connect

The 1970 census showed the South to have 41.3% of the US rural population and 44% of the poor with only 31% of the population. Economic development in the rural South has been limited by a lack of financial and physical capital and by a tradition of discriminatory and conservative institutional practices that restrict development. An experimental Federal program of low-interest loans recognized these problems in the Area Redevelopment Act (ARA) of 1961, later replaced by the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 and the Rural Development Act of 1972. Each of these assumed an infrastructure for job creation and failed to provide for human resource development. The search for an acceptable policy alternative to this approach may find an answer in community and development corporations (CDCs), which transcend political boundaries and allow local people to own and control the businesses they organize or attract, but which are bound by the local financial capability. The authors feel that, until policies recognize the need to have a national balance of urban and rural life, Federal intervention should be confined to a supportive role. 23 references. (DCK)

Briggs, V.M. Jr. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Rungeling, B.

1980-10-01

231

The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries  

PubMed Central

The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricultural land must be weighed against the decision to abandon this land and migrate to environmentally fragile areas. Economic factors play a critical role in determining these relationships. Poverty, imperfect capital markets and insecure land tenure may reinforce the tendency towards short-term time horizons in production decisions, and may bias land use decisions against long-term land management strategies. In periods of commodity booms and land speculation, wealthier households generally take advantage of their superior political and market power to ensure initial access to better quality resources, in order to capture a larger share of the resource rents. Poorer households are confined either to marginal environmental areas where resource rents are limited, or only have access to resources once they are degraded and rents dissipated.
Overall trends in land degradation and deforestation are examined, followed by an overview of rural households' resource management decisions with respect to land management, frontier agricultural expansion, and migration from existing agricultural land to frontiers. Finally, the discussion focuses on the scope for policy improvements to reduce economic constraints to effective land management.

Barbier, E. B.

1997-01-01

232

Reproductive health, population growth, economic development and environmental change.  

PubMed

World population will increase by 1000 million, or by 20%, within 10 years. Ninety-five per cent of this increase will occur in the South, in areas that are already economically, environmentally and politically fragile. Morbidity and mortality associated with reproduction will be greater in the current decade than in any period in human history. Annually, 40-60 million pregnancies will be terminated and 5-10 million children will die within one year of birth. AIDS-related infections, e.g. tuberculosis, will undermine health care in Africa (and elsewhere) and in places AIDS-related deaths will decimate the work-force. The growth in population and associated morbidity will inhibit global economic development and spawn new problems. The key issues are migration, the spread of disease, the supply of water and the degradation of land, and fiscal policies with respect to family planning, pharmaceuticals and Third-World debt. Full education, particularly of women, and more effective family planning in the South have the power to unlock the problem. Failure will see the developed countries, with their 800 million population, swamped by the health, economic and environmental problems of the South, with its projected population of 5400 million people for the year 2000. PMID:8222991

Lincoln, D W

1993-01-01

233

From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation  

SciTech Connect

This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

Koester, S.K.

1986-01-01

234

The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility.  

PubMed

This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

Heckman, James J; Mosso, Stefano

2014-08-01

235

Microfiltration of thin stillage: Process simulation and economic analyses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In plant scale operations, multistage membrane systems have been adopted for cost minimization. We considered design optimization and operation of a continuous microfiltration (MF) system for the corn dry grind process. The objectives were to develop a model to simulate a multistage MF system, optim...

236

Techno-economic analysis of dimethylfuran (DMF) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) production from pure fructose in catalytic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techno-economic studies of processes for production of dimethyl-furan (DMF) and hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) from fructose are performed based on published laboratory results. The early stage of technology development necessitates use of simplified process models to analyze a conceptual bio-refinery producing fuel and chemical intermediates. HMF and DMF production processes are divided into four and six processing areas respectively that include synthesis

Feroz Kabir Kazi; Akshay D. Patel; Juan Carlos Serrano-Ruiz; James A. Dumesic; Robert P. Anex

2011-01-01

237

Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

2011-01-01

238

Child Development Is Economic Development. A Conversation with Economist Art Rolnick. Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public dollars spent to stimulate economic development would be more wisely invested in child development programs, according to two different streams of research. Brain research shows the impact of experiences and environments on the developing brain architecture, with weaker architecture leading to increased vulnerability to later problems…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

2006-01-01

239

Botnet economics and devising defence schemes from attackers’ own reward processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on botnet economics and design of defensive strategies. It takes the view that by combining scarce information on the attackers’ business models, with rational economic analysis of these business processes, one can identify design rules for economic defense mechanisms which the target can implement, often in a cheap way in addition to technical means. A short survey

Louis-François Pau

2010-01-01

240

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01

241

Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.  

PubMed

This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates. PMID:22066128

Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter

2011-01-01

242

Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis. PMID:20146767

Stage, Jesper

2010-01-01

243

11.471 Targeting the Poor: Small Firms, Workers, and Local Economic Development, Fall 2004  

E-print Network

Covers conditions under which public-sector policies, programs, and projects succeed in enhancing the economic activities of poorer groups and micro-regions in developing countries. Topics include local economic development; ...

Tendler, Judith

244

The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development*  

PubMed Central

Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of capabilities. Both cognitive and noncognitive capabilities determine success in life but to varying degrees for different outcomes. An empirically determined technology of capability formation reveals that capabilities are self-productive and cross-fertilizing and can be enhanced by investment. Investments in capabilities are relatively more productive at some stages of a child’s life cycle than others. Optimal child investment strategies differ depending on target outcomes of interest and on the nature of adversity in a child’s early years. For some configurations of early disadvantage and for some desired outcomes, it is efficient to invest relatively more in the later years of childhood than in the early years. PMID:20209045

Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

2009-01-01

245

Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

1997-01-21

246

Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor market theory, it is argued that economic theories not only provide a foundation

Greg G. Wang; Elwood F. Holton

2005-01-01

247

Environment, health, and sustainable development: the role of economic instruments and policies.  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen considerable progress in integrating environmental concerns into the mainstream of development policy and planning. Economic instruments designed explicitly for environmental purposes may help to achieve cost-effective solutions, and generate public revenues. Macroeconomic and sectoral policies may impact heavily upon the environment, and there is much scope for policy reforms that are justified in both economic and environmental terms. Progress in this area has been much more rapid than in the case of health objectives, even though the rationale for environmental improvement is often ultimately related to human health and well-being. It is proposed that lessons from recent experience in the use of economic instruments and policies to achieve environmental objectives are highly relevant for the health sector, which should seek and encourage support for measures that requires consumer and producers of environmentally degrading products to pay for the economic and social costs of the damage resulting from their use. Policy reform at the macroeconomic or sectoral level may yield cost-effective solutions to some health problems, and may even bring about improvements in health status that involve no net cost at all. The countrywide impact of such policies indicate that health agencies, including WHO, should develop the capacity to understand how economic policies and the adjustment process impact upon human health, not only direct through the effect on incomes, but also indirectly, via changes in the natural environment. Ability to conduct rigorous health impact assessment of economic policy reform, which requires a multidisciplinary effort, is a necessary condition if health ministries are to maximize their effectiveness in influencing overall government economic policy. PMID:7614671

Warford, J. J.

1995-01-01

248

76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket...Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic...Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform...NOFA) for the Rural Housing and Economic...INFORMATION: The Rural Housing and Economic...Affairs, Housing and Urban Development and...

2011-02-18

249

Doctoral Education and Economic Development: The Flow of New Ph.D.s to Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doctoral education in science and engineering is critical to the university’s role in fostering economic development. One aspect of this is the placement of recent graduates with firms. Despite the role Ph.D.s play in this process, little work has documented and analyzed these firm placements. This article takes a first step at rectifying this deficiency, using data from the 1997-1999

Paula E. Stephan; Albert J. Sumell; Grant C. Black; James D. Adams

2004-01-01

250

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

251

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

252

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

253

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

254

National Use of Asbestos in Relation to Economic Development  

PubMed Central

Background National disparities in asbestos use will likely lead to an unequal burden of asbestos diseases. Objectives As economic status may be linked to asbestos use, we assessed, globally, the relationship between indicators of national economic development and asbestos use. Methods For the 135 countries that have ever used asbestos, per capita asbestos use (kilograms per capita per year) was compared with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 1990 Geary–Khamis dollars (GKD) for the period 1920–2003. Countries were grouped into three income levels (high, middle, and low) that were adapted from the 2003 World Bank categories. Results The historical pattern of asbestos use followed the environmental Kuznets curve in which use by high-income countries peaked when incomes attained 10,000–15,000 GKD and essentially ceased at income levels over 20,000 GKD. Currently, middle- and low-income countries are increasing their use of asbestos, closely following the paths once traced by higher income countries. Conclusions Developing countries have the opportunity to eliminate asbestos use sooner than high-income countries and thus reduce the future burden of asbestos diseases. PMID:20056590

Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken; Karjalainen, Antti; Delgermaa, Vanya; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Miyamura, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Sugio; Higashi, Toshiaki; Pan, Guowei; Wagner, Gregory

2010-01-01

255

Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

Shaw, Eric J.

1998-01-01

256

Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Linking Workforce Development to Economic Development: A Casebook for Community Colleges" is a compilation of best practice examples, which illustrate what it takes for community colleges to achieve their goal of helping people acquire education and skills, helping employers, supporting communities, and building the nation. The book is written…

Rothwell, William J., Ed.; Gerity, Patrick E., Ed.

2008-01-01

257

Private Capital Flows, Financial Development, and Economic Growth in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important issue in the debate over the desirability of freer capital mobility for developing countries is whether capital flows have significant effects on economic growth. Proponents of capital account liberalization cite the growth-promoting attributes of capital inflows as a key benefit of financial integration for developing countries. Unfortunately, there is little empirical evidence to confirm or refute this claim,

Jeannine N. Bailliu

2000-01-01

258

Higher Education Development in Korea: Western University Ideas, Confucian Tradition, and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The features of Korean higher education development are related to sociocultural tradition (Confucian tradition), the model university ideas, and economic development in Korea. The modern university ideas adopted in Korean are based on the German model which was established by the Japanese colonial government and drawing on the US university model…

Shin, Jung Cheol

2012-01-01

259

Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

Elam, Jeffrey W.

2015-01-01

260

Regional, economic, and environmental effects of traditional and biotechnologically enhanced ethanol production processes in Brazil  

E-print Network

Climate change, food security, and energy efficiency have become universal challenges for global economic development and environmental conservation that demand in-depth multidisciplinary research. Biofuels have emerged ...

Guerrero Compeán, Roberto

2008-01-01

261

Information Design for "Weak Signal" detection and processing in Economic Intelligence: A case  

E-print Network

Information Design for "Weak Signal" detection and processing in Economic Intelligence: A case of "Information Design" applied to detect and profit from weak signals in economic intelligence (EI) or business intelligence (BI). The field of the information design (ID) applies to the process of translating complex

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Exploring the linkages between socio-economic & ecological processes in rangeland landscapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecological and socio-economic processes are driving land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) on many of the world’s rangelands, but we have a poor understanding of the mechanisms by which these processes are linked to each other. This is largely because data for socio-economic and ecological factors a...

263

Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development  

PubMed Central

The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

2014-01-01

264

Economic development as a determinant of injury mortality - a longitudinal approach.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have produced clear inverted U-shaped curves between injury mortality and economic development; yet, this does not mean that single countries will necessarily follow similar curves as they grow richer over time. This study was conducted to examine whether previous cross-sectional findings can be verified using a longitudinal approach. Data for both injury mortality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita were obtained from an official health database for the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for the period of 1960-1999. Regression models were then used to examine the longitudinal relationship between these two variables. Substantial improvements in injury mortality were observed in all income categories in the selected countries. For higher and middle high-income countries, injury mortality rates (all causes) increased until 1972, peaking in 1972 and then declining. For industrialized countries with relatively low GDP, injury mortality rates increased until 1977 and then declined. Using cubic regression lines for injury mortality rates, for all income categories, injury mortality rates increased up to a GDP per capita of USD 3,000-USD 4,000, then decreased significantly. The rising trends of suicide and homicide rates were observed until countries attained a GDP per capita of around USD 13,000-USD 14,000 for all income categories. It is noteworthy that compared to the intentional injury categories, mortality due to road traffic accidents and injuries from falls declined earlier on in the economic development process. Longitudinal analysis among high-income countries confirms earlier cross-sectional findings; that is, most injury categories seem to follow inverted U-shaped trend lines, with declining trends after peaking at various stages of temporal and economical development. A comparison between time and economy suggests that differences in peaking time between countries for the same injury category is partly a reflection of temporal differences in economic development. PMID:18308440

Moniruzzaman, Syed; Andersson, Ragnar

2008-04-01

265

Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan  

SciTech Connect

The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future.

Cain, M. (U.C.W., Aberystwyth (United Kingdom)); Yousif, M.A.R. (General Petroleum Corp., Khartoum (Sudan))

1991-01-01

266

Energy consumption and economic development in West Africa  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the commercial energy sector of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Presently, an economic union exists between the 16 countries of West Africa that are members of ECOWAS. Although the ECOWAS region has plentiful resources of commercial energy, it faces problems in this sector for two reasons. First is the problem resulting from the diminishing traditional energy resources such as wood fuel and charcoal. Second, most ECOWAS members, except Nigeria, are net importers of commercial energy, and hence face a high import burden for oil. Liquid petroleum is the dominant form of commercial energy used in the ECOWAS despite the availability of other resources. This author basically argues that the best policy and strategy solution for dealing with energy problems is through a combination of regional cooperative effort, and a more-intensive country level. The intensity-of-use hypothesis is tested with case studies of Ghana, the Ivory Coast, and Nigeria. The results indicate that newly developing countries can deviate from the expectations of the hypothesis.

Chima, C.M.

1987-01-01

267

Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) has developed a spreadsheet-based wind model (Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI)) that incorporates economic multipliers for jobs, income, and output. Originally developed with state-specific parameters, it can also be used to conduct county and regional analyses. NREL has enlisted the Wind Powering America (WPA) State Wind Working Groups (SWWGs) to conduct county-specific economic impact analyses and has encouraged them to use JEDI if they do not have their own economic model. The objective of the analyses is to identify counties within WPA target states, and preferably counties with a significant agricultural sector, that could economically benefit from wind development. These counties could then explore opportunities to tap into the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Bill Section 9006 grants and loans to stimulate wind development. This paper describes the JEDI model and how i t can be used. We will also summarize a series of analyses that were completed to fulfill a General Accounting Office (GAO) request to provide estimates of the economic development benefits of wind power.

Sinclair, K.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

2004-03-01

268

Pervaporation-based hybrid process: a review of process design, applications and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation is one of the developing membrane technologies that can be used for various industrial applications but for a predefined task, the optimal process design is unlikely to consist solely of pervaporation. Often the optimised solution becomes a hybrid process combining pervaporation with one or more other separation technologies. A distinction will be made between hybrid and integrated processes. Hybrid

Frank Lipnizki; Robert W Field; Po-Kiong Ten

1999-01-01

269

Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Process Development Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Thermochemical Process is a means of producing hydrogen via water-splitting through a combination of chemical reactions and electrochemistry. Energy is supplied to the system as high temperature heat (approximately 900 C) and electricity. Advanced nuclear reactors (Generation IV) or central solar receivers can be the source of the primary energy. Large-scale hydrogen production based on this process could be a major contributor to meeting the needs of a hydrogen economy. This project's objectives include optimization of the HyS process design, analysis of technical issues and concerns, creation of a development plan, and laboratory-scale proof-of-concept testing. The key component of the HyS Process is the SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Studies were performed that showed that an electrolyzer operating in the range of 500-600 mV per cell can lead to an overall HyS cycle efficiency in excess of 50%, which is superior to all other currently proposed thermochemical cycles. Economic analysis indicated hydrogen production costs of approximately $1.60 per kilogram for a mature nuclear hydrogen production plant. However, in order to meet commercialization goals, the electrolyzer should be capable of operating at high current density, have a long operating lifetime , and have an acceptable capital cost. The use of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) technology, which leverages work for the development of PEM fuel cells, was selected as the most promising route to meeting these goals. The major accomplishments of this project were the design and construction of a suitable electrolyzer test facility and the proof-of-concept testing of a PEM-based SDE.

Summers, William A.; Buckner, Melvin R.

2005-07-21

270

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

271

Democracy and Economic ReformsDeveloping Underdeveloped Political Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early 1980s many African countries were compelled by bad economic circumstances and poor economic prospects to adopt structural adjustment programs dictated by their external creditors. By the late 1980s, it had become clear that these economic reform programs were failing to achieve their objectives. This factor as well as the effective disintegration of the Soviet empire enabled the

Ufo Okeke Uzodike

1996-01-01

272

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at... TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...

2010-01-01

273

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at... TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...

2011-01-01

274

Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit operations, utilizing high sulfidity green liquor pretreatment, PSAQ with auto-causticization, or converting the process to mini-sulfide sulfite-AQ.

Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

275

Land of My Fathers? Economic Development, Ethnic Division and Ethnic National Identity in 32 Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the reasons why some people, and some countries, place greater or lesser emphasis on the idea that membership of a nation is tied to ancestry. We test the influence of two key factors - economic development and ethnic division. Economic development is strongly associated with support for the ancestry criterion of national membership. Those who are more economically

Robert Ford; James Tilley; Anthony Heath

2011-01-01

276

New highways as economic development tools: An evaluation using quasi-experimental matching methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulating economic growth and development in rural and economically lagging regions is the goal of several federal and state highway programs. This paper examines the effectiveness of highway investment as an economic development tool. A quasi-experimental matching method is used to examine the effects of interstate highways on counties which obtained links during the period 1963-75 or are in close

Terance Rephann; Andrew Isserman

1994-01-01

277

World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

1993-01-01

278

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

Tegen, S.

2012-06-01

279

Aqaba's Old Town : proposed model for community development within the Aqaba Special Economic Zone  

E-print Network

As a recently designated Special Economic Zone in 2001 and Jordan's only port, Aqaba has been experiencing a major economic boom and rapid development at a scale previously unprecedented in Jordan. Under the governance of ...

Al-Husseini, Dalia Z. (Dalia Zuehir)

2007-01-01

280

Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sketches a theory of the secular decline in morbidity and mortality that takes account of changes in human physiology since 1700. The synergism between technological and physiological improvements has produced a form of human evolution, much more rapid than natural selection, which is still ongoing in both OECD and developing countries. Thermodynamic and physiological aspects of economic growth

ROBERT WILLIAM FOGEL

1994-01-01

281

Modeling of Integrated Product Development Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development process has to be modeled and documented for its reengineering and continuous improvement. A development process model is the basis for how a system will be designed. Due to the special nature of integrated product devel- opment processes, a method for process modeling has to be able to support and easily map the high interconnectivity between processes of

Herbert Negele; Ernst Fricke; Lutz Schrepfer; Nicole Härtlein; BMW AG; München Germany

282

When Child Development Meets Economic Game Theory: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Investigating Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game theory has been one of the most prominent theories in the social sciences, influencing diverse academic disciplines such as anthropology, biology, economics, and political science. In recent years, economists have employed game theory to investigate behaviors relating to fairness, reciprocity, and trust. Surprisingly, this research has not found much resonance in psychological research on social development, even though the

Michaela Gummerum; Yaniv Hanoch; Monika Keller

2008-01-01

283

Development of an on-site ex-situ unsaturated-flow remediation process for trace metal contaminated soils.  

E-print Network

??Innovative means and methods were tested to develop an economical, pragmatic and environmentally sustainable soil remediation process for heavy metal contaminated soils. An unsaturated-flow soil… (more)

Andrade, Marc-David

2005-01-01

284

Development in Rural Texas: An Assessment of TEEX Economic Development Reports  

E-print Network

, the organization should work towards tying the local economic and political conditions of the community with the report, particularly in cases dealing with site-specific development. Additionally, it is recommended that TEEX provide information detailing... and political conditions of the community with the report, particularly in cases dealing with site-specific development. Additionally, it is recommended that TEEX provide information detailing potential limitations to the recommendations given. The Capstone...

Calcaneo, Edgar Adrian; Cripe, Ramsey; Davis, Taylor; Gonzalez, Ramon; Grimes, Joshua; Hemby, Olivia; Humphrey, Colby; Keppy, Paul; Surgenor, Ken

2012-01-01

285

Shot noise process and pricing of extreme insurance claims in an economic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the classical Compound Poisson model of insurance risk for extreme events, with the additional economic assumption of a positive interest rate. We note a duality result relating the accumulated aggregate claims and the shot noise process so we apply the piecewise deterministic Markov processes theory. It is assumed that the claim arrival process follows the Poisson process and

Ji-Wook Jang; Yuriy Krvavych

2003-01-01

286

Spatial and Temporal Dynamics: Residential Development Process  

E-print Network

leapfrog, contagious and infill development patterns?? or ?how do types of land development patterns contribute to the growth process?? have never been studied in terms of neighborhood development patterns and processes with planning concerns... development patterns associated with it: leapfrog development (Hasse and Lathrop 2003, Heim, 2001), contagious development (Weitz and Moore, 1998) and infill development (Steinacker, 2003). Leapfrog development is often cited as a trigger for urban...

Park, Joung Im

2012-02-14

287

Designing an Economic-driven Evaluation Framework for Process-oriented Software Technologies  

E-print Network

is quite difficult as the added value is influenced by many drivers. This paper sketches an economic-driven eval- uation models, added value, costs, benefits 1. PROBLEM OVERVIEW Enterprises craveDesigning an Economic-driven Evaluation Framework for Process-oriented Software Technologies Bela

Ulm, Universität

288

Results from a Faculty Development Program in Teaching Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teaching Innovations Program (TIP) was a six-year project funded by the National Science Foundation that gave economics instructors the opportunity to learn interactive teaching strategies for use in undergraduate economics courses. TIP participants first attended a teaching workshop that presented various teaching strategies. They then could…

Walstad, William B.; Salemi, Michael K.

2011-01-01

289

Rural Economic Development: What Makes Rural Communities Grow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies local factors that foster rural economic growth. A review of the literature revealed potential indicators of county economic growth, and those indicators were then tested against data for nonmetro counties during the 1980s using multiple regression analysis. The principal variables examined included demographic and labor…

Aldrich, Lorna; Kusmin, Lorin

290

The University of Georgia Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development  

E-print Network

, and 11.1% of value added in the Georgia economy for 2011. #12;1 Economic Importance of Food and Fiber, and value added. Economic Sectors of the Georgia Food and Fiber System Sector data applied in this analysis Georgia economy. Food and fiber made up 16% of output in terms of sales value and 12% of value added

Hall, Daniel

291

The University of Georgia Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development  

E-print Network

, and 11.2% of value added in the Georgia economy for 2010. #12;1 Economic Importance of Food and Fiber, and value added. Economic Sectors of the Georgia Food and Fiber System Sector data applied in this analysis Georgia economy. Food and fiber made up 16% of output in terms of sales value and 12% of value added

Scott, Robert A.

292

An Evaluation of California's Community College Based Economic Development Programs (ED>Net).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes economic outcomes of California's ED>Net (California Community College Economic Network) program, an alliance between community colleges and California businesses. ED>Net's purpose is to advance the state's economic growth by providing job-related education and services to businesses and organizations. This report develops…

Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

293

From Growth to Poverty Reduction: A New Conceptual Framework in Development Economics  

E-print Network

From Growth to Poverty Reduction: A New Conceptual Framework in Development Economics Alice: sindzingre@wanadoo.fr. International Conference "Poverty and Misery in the History of Economic Thought-4Dec2011 Author manuscript, published in ""Poverty and Misery in the History of Economic Thought

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Drain Water Heat Recovery  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Drain Water Heat Recovery of a project/report". #12;Drain Water Heat Recovery A review of performance, economics, practical issues the economics of Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR), more specifically the performance of a horizontal DWHR device

295

Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

2005-01-01

296

The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ? or â??mixed methodâ? research methodology was employed for each case study.

Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

2013-02-11

297

A preliminary process design and economic assessment of a catalyst rejuvenation process for waste disposal of refinery spent catalysts.  

PubMed

Spent hydroprocessing catalysts from refineries have been classified as hazardous solid waste by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), refiners must find a viable but economical solution to solve this serious environmental issue. Catalyst rejuvenation is an attractive option for minimizing the environmental problems associated with spent catalysts. In this study, a preliminary design for such a process and the corresponding economic analysis are performed to assess the proposed catalyst rejuvenation process for metal-fouled spent catalysts generated in residue hydroprocessing units. The scenarios used in the economic assessment are based on three options of process synthesis and two operator modes. It is found that the option of rejuvenating medium and lightly fouled spent catalyst produced by the refinery will be the best solution for refiners, both environmentally and economically. PMID:17316960

Marafi, Meena; Stanislaus, Antony; Kam, Ezra

2008-03-01

298

Participation of Culturally, Linguistically and Economically Diverse Parents in the Special Education Planning Process  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Although federal law governing the education of students with disabilities recognizes the important role parents play in the special education planning process, there is considerable evidence that culturally, linguistically and economically...

Klein, Janet

2009-12-17

299

Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints, and short term objectives) as well. In the models operating rules represent different models of human behavior, and the objective of the modeling is to find rules for human behavior that perform well in terms of long term human objectives. The conceptual model used to represent human behavior incorporates economic multi-objective optimization for surrogate objectives, and rules that set those objectives based on current conditions and accounting for uncertainty, at least implicitly. The author asserts that real world operating rules follow this form and have evolved because they have been perceived as successful in the past. Thus, the modeling efforts focus on human behavior in much the same way that economic models focus on human behavior. This paper illustrates the above concepts with real world examples.

Sheer, D. P.

2008-12-01

300

U.S. Development of Offshore Aquaculture: Regulatory, Economic, and Political Factors.  

E-print Network

??University of Washington Abstract U.S. Development of Offshore Aquaculture: Regulatory, Economic, and Political Factors Lisa E. Buck Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Professor Thomas Leschine… (more)

Buck, Lisa E.

2013-01-01

301

Research on the Coordination of Social Security and Economic Development in Hubei Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that maintaining stable coordination of social security and economic development is absolutely necessary for Hubei province, so how to analyze the coordination becomes an important content in Hubei economic development. In this paper, using factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, the author try to evaluate the regional level of social security and economic develop in Hubei province. The results indicate that Hubei need to take measures to promote social security level and balanced development. At the end of this article, some economic suggestions are given to deal with uncoordinated problem.

Rong, Cao

302

Social and Policy Sciences Undergraduate BSc (Hons) International Development with Economics  

E-print Network

Social and Policy Sciences Undergraduate BSc (Hons) International Development with Economics www.bath.ac.uk/study © Dr Roy Maconachie International Development with Economics is a broad social science subject looking: This stream focuses on the social dynamics of development, including gender, class, and ethnicity

Burton, Geoffrey R.

303

The economics of future membrane desalination processes and applications  

E-print Network

Seawater desalination, the desalination of waters flowing back from hydraulic fracturing processes and brackish water desalination constitute important desalination applications. These have a combined market size in excess ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

2014-01-01

304

24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 597.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2011-04-01

305

24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 598.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2011-04-01

306

24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 598.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2012-04-01

307

24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 598.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2014-04-01

308

24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 597.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2013-04-01

309

24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 597.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2014-04-01

310

24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 597.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2012-04-01

311

24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia...Section 598.510 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2013-04-01

312

Process development of specialty chemicals.  

E-print Network

??The chemical processing industries have shifted their attention from commodity chemicals to high-value-added specialty chemicals in recent decades. Specialty chemicals always serve as major ingredients… (more)

Fung, Ka Yip

2006-01-01

313

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

314

13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.120 Economic...

2014-01-01

315

13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.120 Economic...

2011-01-01

316

13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.120 Economic...

2013-01-01

317

Opportunities for technological and economic development policy in Brazil  

E-print Network

Brazil's transformation from an agriculturally-based colonial economy to an industrial republic spans seven decades - from the 1930s to the present - with three rapid growth phases which were each followed by economic and ...

Dalquist, Stephanie K. (Stephanie Kay), 1981-

2005-01-01

318

Entrepreneurship and economic development : From classical political economy to economic sociology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct economic reasoning on entrepreneurship from the perspective of its institutional content, thus underlining the aspects of power relations and leadership, which are related with the organisational and technological dimensions of innovation and coordination as entrepreneurial functions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In reconstructing the theory of entrepreneurship in a range from classical political

Alexander Ebner

2005-01-01

319

The Economics of Inequality in Education. Studies in Economic Development and Planning, No. 44.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the various economic facets of inequality in education in India. The specific focus is on inter-group inequalities, such as inequality between males and females and between backward and advanced castes. It is hypothesized that returns to education accrue differently to different groups of population and…

Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

320

Oil in the economic development of Nigeria (optimum utilization of oil revenues in economic growth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's economy experienced stunted growth in 1973-84 period in spite of the huge inflow of oil revenues. This dissertation addresses the issue of optimal utilization of oil revenues to promote Nigeria's economic growth. The study begins by reviewing the behavior of the oil market and the experiences of some industrialized oil-exporting countries (Netherlands, Britain and Norway), focusing on the general

Nnaji

1987-01-01

321

Environmental-economic evaluation of the filling and reclamation process in the bay of Santander, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical development of a process of reclamation of intertidal areas in an estuary has been quantitatively studied by means of old engravings, maps, navagation charts, and aerial photographs. These show that about 83 percent of the natural coastline of the estuary has disappeared, nearly two-thirds of its intertidal area has been covered, and over 40 percent of its volume has been lost. The rate of this artificial process is several tens of times faster than that of the natural sedimentation. Extrapolation of the observed trends shows that, if these continue, the intertidal areas would disappear completely in 31 to 105 years. Theoretical calculations based on comparisons with other estuaries show that the accumulated loss in the productivity of living matter (in the form of primary producers), since the process started about 140 years ago, could reach 1.5·1010 kg. This could represent, considering several possible food chains, the equivalent of the food necessary to sustain several thousand people for life. An economic analysis of the impact of the process has been made by considering, first, the decrease in fish and shellfish catches in the bay (using historical data and data about present clam productivity) and the decrease in its aesthetic quality and recreational potential. These were determined by means of interviews with the population to obtain a “demand curve” for the willingness to pay for the preservation and use of the bay. Second, the price of the man-made land obtained was considered. The data obtained show that the economic losses would offset the benefits within 10 to 30 years.

Cendrero, A.; Díaz de Terán, J. R.; Salinas, J. M.

1981-11-01

322

The Role of Economic Strain on Adolescent Delinquency: A Microsocial Process Model  

PubMed Central

The current study examines the role of economic strain as a moderator of the microsocial processes influencing younger siblings’ delinquency (externalizing behavior and substance use) in a longitudinal design. The younger siblings (122 younger brothers and 122 younger sisters) were from 244 families with same-sex biological siblings. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine a process model whereby mothers’ harsh/inconsistent parenting and older sibling delinquency influence younger siblings’ delinquent behavior via sibling aggression and delinquent peer affiliation. Findings suggest that indirect mechanisms vary as a function of economic strain, with sibling aggression having a stronger, more detrimental effect on adolescent delinquency in economically strained families. Data suggest that familial economic conditions contextualize the relative roles of parenting, sibling, and peer processes in the transmission of risk to adolescent delinquency. PMID:22709262

Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Shortt, Joann Wu

2013-01-01

323

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for

A. Aden; M. Ruth; K. Ibsen; J. Jechura; K. Neeves; J. Sheehan; B. Wallace; L. Montague; A. Slayton; J. Lukas

2002-01-01

324

The implementation of the triple helix model of industry-university-government relations in Puerto Rico to promote knowledge-based regional economic development  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, has long sought to develop a high-tech economy and has struggled in the process. Two initiatives, Puerto Rico TechnoEconomic Corridor (PRTEC) and the Eastern Central Technological ...

Ramos-Maltés, Ana Lorena

2010-01-01

325

Optimal biorefinery product allocation by combining process and economic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrated biorefinery has the opportunity to provide a strong, self-dependent, sustainable alternative for the production of bulk and fine chemicals, e.g. polymers, fiber composites and pharmaceuticals as well as energy, liquid fuels and hydrogen. Although most of the fundamental processing steps involved in biorefining are well-known, there is a need for a methodology capable of evaluating the integrated processes

N. E. Sammons Jr; W. Yuana; M. R. Eden; B. Aksoy; H. T. Cullinan

2008-01-01

326

Causality between financial development and economic growth: a case study on selected middle eastern countries  

E-print Network

CAUSALITY BETWEEN FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: A CASE STUDY ON SELECTED MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES A Thesis by MASSA W. ALRAYES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Economics CAUSALITY BETWEEN FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: A CASE STUDY ON SELECTED MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES A...

Alrayes, Massa Waddah

2005-08-29

327

An economic analysis of the development potential of the Texas blue crab industry  

E-print Network

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF THE TEXAS BLUE CRAB INDUSTRY A Thesis CHARLOTTE LUCIERME MILLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the reguirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major subject: Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF THE TEXAS BLUE CRAB INDUSTRY A Thesis CHARLOTTE LUCIENNE MILLER Approved as to style and content by: John P. Nichols Chairman...

Miller, Charlotte Lucienne

1983-01-01

328

Recent developments in the environment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EnvIRONment process, invented by Prof. H.K. Worner, has been developed to treat metallurgical and organic wastes using pyrometallurgical technology. Developed at the University of Wollongong, the process successfully overcomes many of the technical challenges of processing ferruginous waste. Composite pellets of ferruginous, typically steelworks dust, and organic waste are bath smelted in a DC arc furnace, utilising a deep

G. A. Brooks; H. K. Worner

1997-01-01

329

Limits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: an examination of the environmental impact of economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the relationship between economic development and the environment has been discussed since the 1960s, yet opinion remains divided. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation and begins by reviewing the largely theoretical discussions from the 'limits to growth' debate of the 1970s to the advent of sustainable development in

Matthew A. Cole

1999-01-01

330

Advanced hybrid mask process development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CPL technology is one of the powerful methods for Resolution Enhancement Technology. With high NA and strong off-axis illumination CPL has a very high resolution and is capable of printing complex 2D patterns. Image using off-axis illumination with an attenuated phase shift mask can also improve process latitude. We can combine two technologies in one mask with same off-axis illumination condition to have more flexible application. Normally CPL technology is applied in binary mask and Qz is etched for 180 degree phase. To fulfill this hybrid mask we can apply Qz etch in current normal attenuate PSM blank and E-Beam 2nd writing is also can be applied for the zebra structure. To form the different application in different area we use 5 times writing in this hybrid mask process. Also the Qz etching process is very important because the Qz etching is strongly related to the Cr-Mosi-Qz three layer profile. So a L9 DOE has been applied for Qz etching parameter fine tuning. We will optimize the phase uniformity, phase linearity, profile, CD linearity and CD proximity through the DOE.

Lin, Orson; Chou, Jomarch; Fu, K. K.; Lee, Booky; Lu, Richard; Lu, Jerry; Shi, Chiang-Lin

2006-05-01

331

Fuzzy Decision Modeling of Product Development Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Product development has become a focus of competition in many industries. Due to decreasing product life cycle, it is important\\u000a to reduce the time and cost of product development. The product development process includes six main phases: product planning,\\u000a concept development, system-level design, detailed design, testing and refinement, and production ramp-up [34]. Concept development process consists of four stages: identifying

Juite Wang; Andrew Kusiak

332

Rural Business, Economic Development, and Employment in New York State: A Preliminary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The First Statewide Legislative Symposium on Rural Development assessed New York's rural business, economic development, and employment potential. Growth in the economic potential of communities, favorable quality of life, and geographic accessibility have supported a decade-long influx of new residents to New York's 44 rural counties. The state…

New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

333

Coalmining cities' economic growth mechanism and sustainable development analysis based on logistic dynamics model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coalmining city is a unique city economic type that relies on the exploitation and utilization of coalmine resources for its economic and social development. Under the restraint of coalmining resource reserve and the influence of exploitation of the resources, the development of a coalmining city generally undergoes four stages: the starting period, the growth period, the maturity period and

Zhou Min; Wang Bang-jun; Ji Feng

2009-01-01

334

ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH OF INDIAN STATES AFTER LIBERALISATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth does not necessarily ensure environmental sustainability for a country. The relationship between the two is far more complicated for developing countries like India, given the dependence of a large section of the population on natural resources for livelihood. Under this backdrop, the current study attempts to analyze the relationships among Environmental Quality (EQ), Human Development (HD) and Economic

Sacchidananda Mukherjee; Debashis Chakraborty

335

Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth after Liberalisation : An Analysis of Indian States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth does not necessarily ensure environmental sustainability for a country. The relationship between the two is far more complicated for developing countries like India, given the dependence of a large section of the population on natural resources for livelihood. Under this backdrop, the current study attempts to analyze the relationships among Environmental Quality (EQ), Human Development (HD) and Economic

Sacchidananda Mukherjee; Debashis Chakraborty

2007-01-01

336

Deploying Community Colleges to Strengthen State Economic Development: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State governments across the nation are engaging community colleges as cornerstones of their comprehensive economic development strategies. This report summarizes the efforts of 10 states, recommended by national experts, to deploy community colleges in support of state economic development priorities. The 10 states are: Florida, Mississippi,…

Cleary, Jennifer; Fichtner, Aaron

2005-01-01

337

Deploying Community Colleges to Strengthen State Economic Development: A National Study. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State governments across the nation are engaging community colleges as cornerstones of their comprehensive economic development strategies. This executive summary summarizes the efforts of 10 states, recommended by national experts, to deploy community colleges in support of state economic development priorities. The 10 states are: Florida,…

Cleary, Jennifer; Fichtner, Aaron

2005-01-01

338

Social and Economic Wellbeing in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: Building an Enlarged Human Development Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper calculates a human Wellbeing Composite Index (WCI) for 42 countries, belonging to the European Economic Space, North Africa and the Middle East, as an alternative to the shortcomings of other well-known measures of socio-economic development (i.e. Gross Domestic Product per head and Human Development Index). To attain this goal,…

Reig-Martinez, Ernest

2013-01-01

339

Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

Tegen, S.

2014-11-01

340

The Interrelationship of Urban Economic and Cultural Development: the Case of Greek Museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is the pinpointing of the role and importance of museums in the cultural and economic development of cities. The starting point is a critical analysis of the international, mainly European, experience, which, especially in the last decade, demonstrates the weight of the cultural factor in urban development focusing on the economic dimension. In the course

Alex Deffner; Theodoros Metaxas

2003-01-01

341

Reliving the 50s: the Big Push, Poverty Traps, and Takeoffs in Economic Development1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic narrative of economic development -- poor countries are caught in poverty traps, out of which they need a Big Push involving increased aid and investment, leading to a takeoff in per capita income -- has been very influential in development economics since the 1950s. This was the original justification for foreign aid. The narrative lost credibility for a

William Easterly

342

LEARNING ABOUT WOMEN. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a recent semester-long stay in India, students from Xavier University (Cincinnati, Ohio) learned about a variety of social and economic development issues, with an emphasis on the role and status of women. This study describes and assesses the impact and effectiveness of their learning with a particular focus on their exposure to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), one economic development

NANCY BERTAUX; ELAINE CRABLE

2007-01-01

343

Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

Pike, Patricia

2014-01-01

344

Rural Job Creation. Case Studies of CETA Linkage with Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains 20 case studies illustrating some of the contributions Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs have made to economic development and job creation efforts in rural areas. The collection is a companion volume to the monograph entitled "Rural Job Creation--a Study of CETA Linkages with Economic Development

Bruno, A. Lee; Wright, L. M., Jr.

345

Research, Innovation & Economic Development at North Carolina State University ReseaRch Impetus  

E-print Network

Atkins, who heads Wake County Economic Development, says this change demonstrates NC State's commitment to job creation, adding, "As we grow our technology-based industry clusters and recruit talent, ourresults Research, Innovation & Economic Development at North Carolina State University XI, NO. 2

Langerhans, Brian

346

Technical assistance and the transfer of remote sensing technology. [for economic development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transfer of technology from industrialized countries to the third world is a very complicated process and one that requires a great deal of research and development. The political and social obstacles to this transfer are generally greater than the technical obstacles, but technical assistance programs have neither the competence nor the inclination to deal with these factors adequately. Funding for technical assistance in remote sensing is now expanding rapidly, and there is a growing need for institutions to study and promote the effective use of this technology for economic development. The United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development and the Canadian technical assistance agencies take different approaches to the problem and deal with the political pressures in different ways.

Chipman, R.

1977-01-01

347

A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.  

PubMed

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

348

A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower  

PubMed Central

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

349

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

350

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

351

Economics of Concentration Processes in the Food Industry  

E-print Network

-ess in Refrigeration Science amd TechnoloS't, 1, (1973). Thijssen, H. A. C., Van Oyen. N. S. H.? "Analysis and Ecanomtc Evaluation of Concentration ATte,."atlves for LiquId Food" Journal of Food Process Engineering. I (1977). Van Pelt. W. H., "'Dutch Proces'i Cut...

Renshaw, T. A.; Sapakie, S. F.; Hanson, M. C.

1983-01-01

352

Agricultural Trade Networks and Patterns of Economic Development  

PubMed Central

International trade networks are manifestations of a complex combination of diverse underlying factors, both natural and social. Here we apply social network analytics to the international trade network of agricultural products to better understand the nature of this network and its relation to patterns of international development. Using a network tool known as triadic analysis we develop triad significance profiles for a series of agricultural commodities traded among countries. Results reveal a novel network “superfamily” combining properties of biological information processing networks and human social networks. To better understand this unique network signature, we examine in more detail the degree and triadic distributions within the trade network by country and commodity. Our results show that countries fall into two very distinct classes based on their triadic frequencies. Roughly 165 countries fall into one class while 18, all highly isolated with respect to international agricultural trade, fall into the other. Only Vietnam stands out as a unique case. Finally, we show that as a country becomes less isolated with respect to number of trading partners, the country's triadic signature follows a predictable trajectory that may correspond to a trajectory of development. PMID:22768310

Shutters, Shade T.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

2012-01-01

353

The Lummi Indians - Economic Development and Social Continuity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing upon the developmental changes that have taken place among the Lummis of Washington between 1966 and the present, this case study of an American Indian tribe experiencing an economic renaissance emphasizes the fact that success can and does bring unintended risks. Specifically, this study presents information re: (1) the present (emphasis…

Stein, Barry

354

The Economic Development Experience of Kuwait: Some Useful Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuwait is a typical example of an oil-based economy. The oil sector contributes over one-third of GDP and over 90 per cent of exports. Economic diversification for Kuwait means reducing the heavy dependency on the oil sector. It also implicitly includes reducing the direct role of the public sector while increasing private sector activities and hence the private sector's size

Mohamed Nagy Eltony

2007-01-01

355

Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

Bartik, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

356

Patterns of Economic Development and the Formation of Clubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the sources of heterogeneity across a worldwide set of countries. Unspecified ex ante and unanticipated cultural (Protestant versus Catholic), geographical (continents), and institutional (OECD versus non-OECD) clubs emerge endogenously and naturally as homogeneous classes on the basis of their economic structure. The dynamics both within and across the identified groups of countries are consistent with multiple equilibrium-growth

Alain Desdoigts

1999-01-01

357

The Economics of Software Development by Pair Programmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that pair programmers–two programmers working collaboratively on the same design, algorithm, code, or test–perform substantially better than the two would working alone. Improved quality, teamwork, communication, knowledge management, and morale have been among the reported benefits of pair programming. This paper presents a comparative economic evaluation that strengthens the case for pair programming. The evaluation builds on the

Hakan Erdogmus; Laurie Williams

2003-01-01

358

The impact of Nigeria's external debt on economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the impact of huge external debt with its servicing requirements on economic growth of the Nigerian economy so as to make meaningful inference on the impact of the debt relief which was granted to the country in 2006. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The neoclassical growth model which incorporates external sector, debt indicators and some macroeconomic

Esther O. Adegbite; Folorunso S. Ayadi; O. Felix Ayadi

2008-01-01

359

DEVELOPING A PRACTICAL MODEL FOR CALCULATING THE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Economic Value Added (EVA) concept is a registered trademark (1990) of the US firm Stern Stewart & Co. and it is viewed as a measure of financial performance and also as potential main part of an integrated financial management system, leading to decentralized decision making and to maximize the shareholders' wealth. Our paper provides a synoptic survey of the

Bernard MORARD; Florentina-Olivia BALU

360

High Economic Growth, Equity and Sustainable Energy Development of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been experiencing sustained high economic growth in the recentyears. However, there exists substantial amount of unacceptable poverty among the people in the country. The expressions of symptoms of such poverty include among others inadequate educational and health attainment of the people and lack of access to basic amenities like modern clean energy, safe water and sanitation which are

Ramprasad Sengupta

2007-01-01

361

Economic Development from Gigawatt-Scale Wind Deployment in Wyoming (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation provides an overview of economic development in Wyoming from gigawatt-scale wind development and includes a discussion of project context, definitions and caveats, a deployment scenario, modeling inputs, results, and conclusions.

Lantz, E.

2011-05-23

362

Input-Output as a Method of Evaluahon of the Economic Impact of Water Resources Development  

E-print Network

In this report the results of a study of the use of input-output analysis to evaluate the economic impact of water resources development are presented. Blackburn Crossing reservoir on the Upper Neches river was the subject development...

Canion, R. L.; Trock, W. L.

363

Techno-economic comparison of process technologies for biochemical ethanol production from corn stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This techno-economic study compares several process technologies for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, based on a 5- to 8-year time frame for implementation. While several previous techno-economic studies have focused on future technology benchmarks, this study examines the short-term commercial viability of biochemical ethanol production. With that goal, yields (where possible) were based on publicly available experimental data

Feroz Kabir Kazi; Joshua A. Fortman; Robert P. Anex; David D. Hsu; Andy Aden; Abhijit Dutta; Geetha Kothandaraman

2010-01-01

364

Novel cost allocation framework for natural gas processes: methodology and application to plan economic optimization  

E-print Network

NOVEL COST ALLOCATION FRAMEWORK FOR NATURAL GAS PROCESSES: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION TO PLAN ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION A Dissertation by WON-HYOUK JANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION A Dissertation by WON-HYOUK JANG Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by...

Jang, Won-Hyouk

2004-09-30

365

EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1646 Smith*, R.L. Evaluating the Economics and Environmental Friendliness of Newly Designed or Retrofitted Chemical Processes. Clean Products and Processes (Springer-Verlag) 3:383-391 (2002). 10/22/2001 This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of ...

366

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A SODIUM/LIMESTONE DOUBLE-ALKALI FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comparison of results from a recent forced-oxidation limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process evaluation and those from a conceptual design and economic evaluation of a sodium/limestone double-alkali FGD process, based on recent EPA-sponsored...

367

Understanding technology development processes theory & practice  

E-print Network

Technology development is hard for management to understand and hard for practitioners to explain, however it is an essential component of innovation. While there are standard and predictable processes for product development, ...

Oswald, W. Andrew (William Andrew)

2013-01-01

368

The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) together with students and faculty works to create wealth in urban communities  

E-print Network

& Economic Development Rutgers Business School ­ Business, Science, and Technology continued > Instructor La jobs. Graduateswillhavetheskillstolaunchnewbusinesses,ortake on business development and otherThe Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) together with students

Lin, Xiaodong

369

Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

1988-09-01

370

Rural Economic Development for the 90's: A Presidential Initiative. The Findings and Recommendations of the Economic Policy Council Working Group on Rural Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In March 1989 this working group explored how the federal government might better address rural America's problems. The WGRD consisted of key officials from relevant federal departments and agencies, who came together to explore the following areas of rural development programming: (1) rural education and training; (2) rural economic development

Economic Policy Council, Washington, DC.

371

Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and process economics of the fluid milk process.  

PubMed

Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process-related electrical energy in the plant would be more effective in lowering energy use and CO2e emissions than fuel-related energy reductions. The model also predicts process-related water usage, but this portion of the model was not validated due to a lack of data. The simulator model can serve as a benchmarking framework for current plant operations and a tool to test cost-effective process upgrades or evaluate new technologies that improve the energy efficiency and lower the carbon footprint of milk processing plants. PMID:23522681

Tomasula, P M; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Bonnaillie, L M

2013-05-01

372

Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.  

PubMed

Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338

Chang, K S

1991-07-01

373

Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to inform policymakers, local government officials, and Wyoming residents about the jobs and economic development activity that could occur should new infrastructure investments in Wyoming move forward. The report and analysis presented is not a projection or a forecast of what will happen. Instead, the report uses a hypothetical deployment scenario and economic modeling tools to estimate the jobs and economic activity likely associated with these projects if or when they are built.

Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

2011-03-01

374

The African-American Urban Milieu and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic disparity between urban white America and urban black America is becoming more pronounced, whether in central cities, suburbs, or edge cities. African-American employment prospects have declined in central cities, increased slightly in suburbs, and increased substantially for the few African Americans living and working in edge cities. William Julius Wilson cites the decline in stable, higher-paying, blue-collar employment in

Lenneal J. Henderson

1994-01-01

375

Development of the Concise Data Processing Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Concise Data Processing Assessment (CDPA) was developed to probe student abilities related to the nature of measurement and uncertainty and to handling data. The diagnostic is a ten question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pre-test and post-test. A key component of the development process was interviews with students, which…

Day, James; Bonn, Doug

2011-01-01

376

Usability Requirements in Agile Development Processes  

E-print Network

Usability Requirements in Agile Development Processes Lars Lynge Nielsen Kongens Lyngby 2011 #12, Denmark Phone +45 45253351, Fax +45 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk #12;Abstract Agile usability can be integrated more tightly into agile software development processes. The examination

377

Course Development: Industrial or Social Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of course materials at the Open Learning Institute, British Columbia, Canada, is examined from two perspectives: as an industrial process and as a social process. The public institute provides distance education through paced home-study courses. The course team model used at the Institute is a system approach. Course development…

Kaufman, David

378

ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

1992-01-01

379

ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

1992-05-01

380

Integration options for high energy efficiency and improved economics in a wood-to-ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently a steady increase in the use of wood-based fuels for heat and power production in Sweden. A major proportion of these fuels could serve as feedstock for ethanol production. In this study various options for the utilization of the solid residue formed during ethanol production from spruce, such as the production of pellets, electricity and heat for district heating, were compared in terms of overall energy efficiency and production cost. The effects of changes in the process performance, such as variations in the ethanol yield and/or the energy demand, were also studied. The process was based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment, which was followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. A model including all the major process steps was implemented in the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus, the model input was based on data recently obtained on lab scale or in a process development unit. Results For the five base case scenarios presented in the paper the overall energy efficiency ranged from 53 to 92%, based on the lower heating values, and a minimum ethanol selling price from 3.87 to 4.73 Swedish kronor per litre (0.41–0.50 EUR/L); however, ethanol production was performed in essentially the same way in each base case scenario. (Highly realistic) improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significantly lower production costs for all scenarios. Conclusion Although ethanol was shown to be the main product, i.e. yielding the major part of the income, the co-product revenue had a considerable effect on the process economics and the importance of good utilization of the entire feedstock was clearly shown. With the assumed prices of the co-products, utilization of the excess solid residue for heat and power production was highly economically favourable. The study also showed that improvements in the ethanol yield and reductions in the energy demand resulted in significant production cost reductions almost independently of each other. PMID:18471311

Sassner, Per; Zacchi, Guido

2008-01-01

381

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02

382

EUV mask process specifics and development challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

Nesladek, Pavel

2014-07-01

383

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-06-01

384

Economic development perspectives of post- disaster infrastructure reconstruction in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Sri Lanka was found to be a disaster prone country in the recent past. The impact is more severe when,developing countries are faced to various,natural or man-made,disasters. Impact appears in many forms; loss of lives and property, economic impact, social impact etc. As a developing country, Sri Lanka is much more concerned with the country’s economic development. Therefore, it

Roshani Palliyaguru; Dilanthi Amaratunga; Richard Haigh

385

The National Forum on Family Security: Social Economic Factors and Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and economic influences significantly affect the development of competence, health, and well-being in modern society. During periods of profound social and economic change, such as the present, some sectors of society are often at very high risk of encountering a decline of social support and hence inadequate nurturance of developmental…

Keating, D.; Mustard, J. Fraser

386

Economics Education at the Post Secondary Level: Its Development and Research Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the research in economics education at the postsecondary level, discussing the kinds of research, summarizing the conclusions, and suggesting areas for further research. Economics education developed in three phases. From 1865-1900 political economy was incorporated into the curriculum. In 1900-1930 the emphasis was on…

Weidenaar, Dennis J.

387

Sustainable Development Versus Economic Growth: A Case Study on Natural Disaster in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicaragua suffers from a severe institutional and geographic vulnerability to natural disasters, which has been further intensified in the past decade due to the effects of global warming. In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch had a severe impact on Nicaragua's economic and environmental development. Although Nicaragua has instituted many economic policies at the request of international lending institutions, the positive implications

2000-01-01

388

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF ECONOMIC REFORM IN GHANA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT by  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAP, by design, encourages the more rapid exploitation of the natural environment. The difficulty of dealing with the environment-development problem is, therefore, obvious. The question whether the joint pursuit of economic growth and environmental sustainability is possible in Ghana is still worth exploring. What this paper has demonstrated is that the Economic Recover Program of Ghana, as a strategy of

Abdul-Nashiru Issahaku

389

Economic growth, the environment and employment: challenges for sustainable development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been heralded as the fastest growing economy in the world. However, this growth has been achieved significantly at the expense of its environment. Conventional measures of economic performance such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) do not take into account environmental damages, and thus may be biased towards an unsustainable development path. In this paper, we compare China's economic

Dodo J. Thampapillai; Xun Wu; Lawrence R. Sunderaj

2007-01-01

390

The Role of Natural Heritage in Rural Development: An Analysis of Economic Linkages in Scotland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing recognition of the important role played by natural heritage in rural economic development, but limited empirical work as yet to inform this debate. This paper examines the nature and strength of local economic linkages associated with the natural heritage in four case study areas in Scotland, differentiated in terms of their…

Courtney, Paul; Hill, Gary; Roberts, Deborah

2006-01-01

391

Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Indian Experience of Reforms and Development  

E-print Network

Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Indian Experience of Reforms and Development Panchanan Das economy since the 1970s has affected the incidence of poverty at the regional level and income suggest that the faster economic growth causes higher incidence of poverty and inequality. Income

Krivobokova, Tatyana

392

The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic…

Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

393

Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

Canon, P.

1980-06-01

394

The Role and Spread of Mass Media and Its Impact on Economic Development of Underdeveloped Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study delineates the role and spread of mass media and its impact on economic development of underdeveloped countries. Some definitions about mass communication are given, followed by a brief description of how the mass media in the countries of the world operate under four major theories. An examination is made of the economic…

Gavitt, Alexander R., Jr.

395

Climate Change and Costs: Investigating Students' Reasoning on Nature and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tensions between environmental protection and economic growth are critical to future well-being, and it is therefore important to understand how young people conceptualize these tensions. The aim of the present study is to explore students' solutions to the dilemma of economic development and mitigating climate change, with regard to societal…

Sternang, Li; Lundholm, Cecilia

2012-01-01

396

Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of

S. Reategui; S. Hendrickson

2011-01-01

397

Rural Education and Economic Development in China, Mexico, Japan, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the histories of rural education and rural technology in four countries. Suggests that the economic function of education is the transmission of technologically relevant skills, and that technologically appropriate curricula are a necessary part of economic development policy. 30 references. (SV)

Ranson, Baldwin

1988-01-01

398

Another Misadventure of Economists in the Tropics? Social Diversity, Cohesion, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several prominent economists have recently argued that ethnic and other forms of social diversity lead to economic failure. Apparently, serious social frictions caused by diverse preferences do not create conditions for the development of endogenous institutions that enhance good economic policies. Others, however, have shown that diversity reduces transaction costs within and between groups absent good public institutions, because of

Indra de Soysa

2011-01-01

399

In Good Company: About Agency and Economic Development in Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses some evidence, based on a review of new literature on economic history, about what is coined the Sen-hypothesis, that increasing human agency (of both men and women) is a key factor in economic development. It briefly discusses various dimensions of agency (or its absence): slavery (as the absolute suppression of human agency), access to markets, agency concerning

Jan Luiten van Zanden

2012-01-01

400

Beyond Technology Transfer: Us State Policies to Harness University Research for Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the recent history of State-level policies in the United States for knowledge-based economic development, and identifies an emerging model based on technology creation. This new model goes beyond traditional investments in technology transfer and prioritizes cutting-edge scientific research in economically relevant fields. As…

Geiger, Roger L.; Sa, Creso

2005-01-01

401

ADDENDUM to Economic and Community Development Research Initiative RFP  

E-print Network

and revolving loan funds? Research topics related to new enterprise formation and private sector job related to existing small and medium-sized firms: · What knowledge, management processes in improving firm performance? And, which of these performance improvement processes

Shyy, Wei

402

Solid waste from aluminum recycling process: characterization and reuse of its economically valuable constituents.  

PubMed

Due to economic advantages, many companies in Brazil recover Al from the process of crushing and water-leaching of secondary aluminum dross. Wastes from this process (non-metallic products and salts) are usually landfilled or disposed without treatment, causing many environmental damages. The purpose of this work is to investigate, in a recycling company sited in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil), the potential use of the non-metallic product (NMP) in the production of concrete blocks and to evaluate the presence of important chemical compounds that may be useful for other applications. Chemical and mineralogical analyses revealed that NMP is composed of refractory and abrasive oxides (alpha-Al2O3, MgAl2O4, SiO2) and an important source of transition alumina: alpha-Al(OH)3. Concrete blocks were made by adding two parts of NMP to one part of cement and four parts of sand. The blocks were tested according to the Brazilian standard (NBR7173/1982) and they passed dimension, humidity and absorption tests but not compressive strength tests. However, particular NMP constituents have accelerated the strength rate development of the blocks, thus decreasing working time. The commercial use of NMP can reduce the amount of discarded wastes contributing to environmental preservation. PMID:15681177

Shinzato, M C; Hypolito, R

2005-01-01

403

Consumer Economic Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the concept of consumer economic socialization as it has developed in the literature. Specifically,\\u000a it covers the context in which the following have been studied: economic socialization; children and adolescents’ developmental\\u000a competencies in understanding and participating in economic and consumer processes; and major agents of economic socialization,\\u000a including culture, media, schools, peers, and families. Needs for further

Beutler Ivan; Lori Dickson

404

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Assessing the Sustainability of the UBC Campus  

E-print Network

scale. The group has developed a tool by which sustainability of the UBC campus may be periodically defined "sustainable development as `development that meets the needs of the present without compromisingUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Assessing

405

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...

2012-01-01

406

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...

2014-01-01

407

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development...value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...

2013-01-01

408

The "Out of Africa" Hypothesis, Human Genetic Diversity, and Comparative Economic Development  

E-print Network

This research argues that deep-rooted factors, determined tens of thousands of years ago, had a significant effect on the course of economic development from the dawn of human civilization to the contemporary era. It ...

Ashraf, Quamrul

2011-05-05

409

The Utility-Industry Partnership for Economic Development: A Troubled Marriage?  

E-print Network

THE UTILITY-INDUSTRY PARTNERSIDP FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A TROUBLED MARRIAGE? M. Hossein Haeri Principal Barakat & Chamberlin, Inc. Portland, ME ABSTRACT The electric utilities' relationship with their industrial customers...

Haeri, M. H.; Shaffer, S.

410

3 CFR - Task Force on Space Industry Workforce and Economic Development  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...men and women who work in Florida's aerospace industry are some of the most talented...and other opportunities for affected aerospace workers so they are equipped to contribute...economic development opportunities for aerospace communities and workers affected...

2011-01-01

411

Key Economic Drivers Impacting Eagle Ford Development from Resource to Reserves  

E-print Network

, condensate liquids, and oil; the rapid improvement of long horizontal lateral drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing completion technologies; and a long-term period of sustained high oil prices. This study develops a probabilistic before-tax economic...

Del Busto Pinzon, Andres Mauricio

2013-11-25

412

The duality of innovation : implications for the role of the university in economic development  

E-print Network

The university is increasingly seen as an engine of regional economic development. Since the 1980s the university's role has been framed in terms of its contribution to industrial innovation. The conventional wisdom views ...

Martínez Vela, Carlos Andrés, 1973-

2007-01-01

413

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Charlie Zhang, Kevin Shen, Pouya Memar  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Charlie Zhang, Kevin Shen Investigation into Blankets to Replace Personal Heaters in Offices Pouya Memar Charlie Zhang Kevin Shen November

414

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Botanical Garden Stormwater Management Project  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Botanical Garden Botanical Garden: Stormwater Management Project, includes a preliminary conceptual design, data analysis" explores alternatives to solving stormwater management issues in the UBC Botanical Gardens. Options

415

76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EDA's Performance Review Board are set forth below by organization: 1. Barry Bird, Chief Counsel for Economic Development, EDA, career, serves as Chair. 2. John C. Connor, Director, Office of White House Liaison, Office of the...

2011-10-17

416

ESD.126 Energy Systems and Economic Development, Spring 2001  

E-print Network

A team-based policy research subject focused on evaluation of energy technologies and their implementation within developing countries. Focuses on one or more specific nations, carries out a resource assessment, and develops ...

Tabors, Richard D.

417

LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT AS A MAGNET FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

of stations Before and after the opening of the Blue Line in 2004 #12;Method Hedonic pricing model Access whether development is actually taking place. Neighborhood revitalization: new development, infill

Minnesota, University of

418

Socio-economic development, environmental and health perspectives in Malaysia.  

PubMed

With Malaysia independence in 1957, development in the country changed from system maintenance to development planning. Environmental and health perspectives are discussed in relation to current development as reflected in the Second Malaysia Plan 1971--1975 and the Third Malaysia Plan 1976--1980. PMID:538507

DeWitt, G F; Sekarajasekaran, A; Wan, K C

1979-12-01

419

Sustainable community development: integrating environmental, economic, and social objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to stimulate and inform discussion about the community role in sustainable development and to broaden our understanding of the opportunities for sustainable community development activity. It begins with an overview of sustainable development, questioning its focus on poverty as a major source of environmental degradation, and suggesting instead that both poverty and environmental degradation

Mark Roseland

2000-01-01

420

Economic assessment of membrane processes for water and waste water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane processes are increasingly being considered as an alternative to conventional water and waste water treatment methods in anticipation of future demands for high standards and reduced environmental impact. However, the use of membranes for these applications is currently limited by the high capital and operating costs with which they are associated. This paper looks at the economics of membrane

G. Owen; M. Bandi; J. A. Howell; S. J. Churchouse

1995-01-01

421

Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

1984-01-01

422

Optimal Selection of Sensors & Controller Parameters for Economic Optimization of Process Plants  

E-print Network

Optimal Selection of Sensors & Controller Parameters for Economic Optimization of Process Plants and nuc,dof = 0 (Existing) Design sensor networks using conven- tional methods such as maximizing precision, etc. If active constraints are perfectly controllable and nuc,dof > 0 (Obj. 1) Design sensor

Skogestad, Sigurd

423

Effect of biomass species and plant size on cellulosic ethanol: A comparative process and economic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of five different biomass species and their chemical composition on the overall process efficiency and economic performance considering feedstock availability and feedstock costs to manufacture ethanol from lignocellulose were studied. First is a comparison of ethanol production and excess electricity generated between different biomass species. Results show that, at the same feedstock rate of 2000Mgday?1, aspen wood has

Hua-Jiang Huang; Shri Ramaswamy; Waleed Al-Dajani; Ulrike Tschirner; Richard A. Cairncross

2009-01-01

424

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed

Yu, Qian

425

Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

Goldberg, M.

2013-12-31

426

Regional studies program. Forecasting the local economic impacts of energy resource development: a methodological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emphasis is placed on the nature and magnitude of socio-economic impacts of fossil-fuel development. A model is described that identifies and estimates the magnitude of the economic impacts of anticipated energy resource development in site-specific areas and geographically contiguous areas of unspecified size. The modeling methodology was designed to assist industries and government agencies complying with recent federal and state

Stenehjem

1975-01-01

427

Impacts of Federal Tax Laws and Economic Developments on the Texas Cattle Industry.  

E-print Network

Tooe Z TA245.7 8873 NO.1590 Impacts of Federal Tax Laws and Economic Developments on the Texas Cattle Industry { ~ iDi .=l?l=?=-.AA~PC AGRICULTURAL & FOOD POLICY CENTER 8-1590 r 1987 The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station/Neville P... income from other sources. ? Investment tax credit is eliminated. ? Increase in first-year expensing deduction for depreciable assets. ? Reduction in the number and level of tax rate brackets. Economic and Market Developments Impacting Texas Beef...

Conner, J.R.; Dietrich, R.A.; Richardson, J.W.; Nixon, C.J.; Davis, E.E

1987-01-01

428

The Impact of the Dutch Biopharmaceutical Industry on Regional Economic Development in the Randstad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of economic development in advanced and developing economies alike has changed dramatically during the last generation as high-technology\\/knowledge-intensive industries have had a profound impact upon the way that people work and live. As The Economist has noted: “America gets more than half its economic growth from industries that barely existed a decade ago—such is the power of innovation,

Michael Sable

2005-01-01

429

Coal gasification in a process development unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained from operation of a 40kg\\/h Process Development Unit (PDU) of the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process are reported. The unit was operated at commercial design conditions feeding bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal catalyzed with KOH. All reactions necessary to convert coal to methane and COâ, the major reaction products, are carried out in a single reactor. Alkali

C. A. Jr. Euker; R. D. Wesselhoft

1981-01-01

430

Process Consultation: Its Role in Organization Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume focuses on the process by which the consultant builds readiness for organizational development (OD) programs, actually conducts training, and works with the key individuals of an organization as part of an OD program. Part I describes in some detail the human processes in organizations--communication, functional roles of group members,…

Schein, Edgar H.

431

Teaching Information Systems Development via Process Variants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquiring the knowledge to assemble an integrated Information System (IS) development process that is tailored to the specific needs of a project has become increasingly important. It is therefore necessary for educators to impart to students this crucial skill. However, Situational Method Engineering (SME) is an inherently complex process that…

Tan, Wee-Kek; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

2010-01-01

432

Development of automated photovoltaic module manufacturing processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

New automated processes and equipment are being developed at Spire Corporation for photovoltaic module, production, under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. These processes apply to both crystalline and thin film modules, and address the assembly and testing steps after solar cell lamination. Currently, most module manufacturers use little or no automation for these tasks. The

M. J. Nowlan; J. M. Murach; S. F. Sutherland; S. B. Moore; D. C. Miller; S. J. Hogan

2002-01-01

433

Agile Development: Good Process or Bad Attitude?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agile development methods are gaining adherents in a wide variety of industries. Agile proponents and those who support traditional\\u000a process improvement have been equally vocal in their disdain for each other. However, it is unclear whether or not agile methods\\u000a constitute an improvable „process.” This paper discusses the relationship between agile methods and process improvement goals\\u000a and values and evaluates

Richard Turner

2002-01-01

434

Public Libraries and Community Economic Development: Partnering for Success. Rural Research Report. Volume 18, Issue 10, Winter 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade, economic development experts have moved away from traditional approaches to economic development that have relied upon recruiting or attracting large businesses with offers of tax breaks, financial incentives, and other subsidies. Increasingly, communities are focusing their economic development resources on supporting the…

Hamilton-Pennell, Christine

2008-01-01

435

Cyclic Economic Development and the Labor Market in Bulgaria 1990-2010 (cause-effect relations, realities and challenges)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the relation between the economic cycle and the labor market development in different periods of the economic cycle in the years 1990-2010. The impacts of the cyclic economic development on the forming and developing of the labor market is traced through evaluations of the degree of balancing of the labor demand and supply, employment restructuring, labor force

Iskra Beleva

2011-01-01

436

Development of an economic evaluation of diagnostic strategies: the case of monogenic diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the development process for defining an appropriate model structure for the economic evaluation of test–treatment strategies for patients with monogenic diabetes (caused by mutations in the GCK, HNF1A or HNF4A genes). Design Experts were consulted to identify and define realistic test–treatment strategies and care pathways. A systematic assessment of published diabetes models was undertaken to inform the model structure. Setting National Health Service in England and Wales. Participants Experts in monogenic diabetes whose collective expertise spans the length of the patient care pathway. Primary and secondary outcomes A defined model structure, including the test–treatment strategies, and the selection of a published diabetes model appropriate for the economic evaluation of strategies to identify patients with monogenic diabetes. Results Five monogenic diabetes test–treatment strategies were defined: no testing of any kind, referral for genetic testing based on clinical features as noted by clinicians, referral for genetic testing based on the results of a clinical prediction model, referral for genetic testing based on the results of biochemical and immunological tests, referral for genetic testing for all patients with a diagnosis of diabetes under the age of 30?years. The systematic assessment of diabetes models identified the IMS CORE Diabetes Model (IMS CDM) as a good candidate for modelling the long-term outcomes and costs of the test–treatment strategies for monogenic diabetes. The short-term test–treatment events will be modelled using a decision tree which will feed into the IMS CDM. Conclusions Defining a model structure for any economic evaluation requires decisions to be made. Expert consultation and the explicit use of critical appraisal can inform these decisions. Although arbitrary choices have still been made, decision modelling allows investigation into such choices and the impact of assumptions that have to be made due to a lack of data. PMID:23793674

Peters, Jaime L; Anderson, Rob; Hyde, Chris

2013-01-01

437

Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4  

SciTech Connect

Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

DeLong, M.M.

1995-10-01

438

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for this description); (6) Aiding rural development; (7) Increasing productivity and competitiveness (retooling, robotics, modernization, competition with imports); (8) Modernizing or upgrading facilities to meet health, safety, and...

2014-01-01

439

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for this description); (6) Aiding rural development; (7) Increasing productivity and competitiveness (retooling, robotics, modernization, competition with imports); (8) Modernizing or upgrading facilities to meet health, safety, and...

2011-01-01

440

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for this description); (6) Aiding rural development; (7) Increasing productivity and competitiveness (retooling, robotics, modernization, competition with imports); (8) Modernizing or upgrading facilities to meet health, safety, and...

2010-01-01

441

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for this description); (6) Aiding rural development; (7) Increasing productivity and competitiveness (retooling, robotics, modernization, competition with imports); (8) Modernizing or upgrading facilities to meet health, safety, and...

2012-01-01

442

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for this description); (6) Aiding rural development; (7) Increasing productivity and competitiveness (retooling, robotics, modernization, competition with imports); (8) Modernizing or upgrading facilities to meet health, safety, and...

2013-01-01

443

Techno-economic analysis of biocatalytic processes for production of alkene epoxides.  

PubMed

A techno-economic analysis of two different bioprocesses was conducted, one for the conversion of propylene to propylene oxide (PO) and other for conversion of styrene to styrene epoxide (SO). The first process was a lipase-mediated chemo-enzymatic reaction, whereas the second one was a one-step enzymatic process using chloroperoxidase. The PO produced through the chemo-enzymatic process is a racemic product, whereas the latter process (based on chloroperoxidase) produces an enantio-pure product. The former process thus falls under the category of high-volume commodity chemical (PO); whereas the latter is a low-volume, high-value product (SO).A simulation of the process was conducted using the bioprocess engineering software SuperPro Designer v6.0 (Intelligen, Inc., Scotch Plains, NJ) to determine the economic feasibility of the process. The purpose of the exercise was to compare biocatalytic processes with existing chemical processes for production of alkene expoxides. The results show that further improvements are needed in improving biocatalyst stability to make these bioprocesses competitive with chemical processes. PMID:18478407

Borole, Abhijeet P; Davison, Brian H

2007-04-01

444

Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas  

SciTech Connect

Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

2011-08-01

445

Labor resources and the current economic development of the USSR.  

PubMed

The key task in creating balanced employment in the Soviet Union at the present time involves reducing the number of jobs to a level that corresponds to the actual potential for filling them. Such a step will serve as the basis for a more systematic organization of all aspects of the socialist expanded reproduction of labor power and of general social and economic progress. In the future, however, the mass release of workers from material production as a result of the scientific-technological revolution may create a manpower surplus. The labor shortage should be eliminated by the year 2000, and the working age population will have expanded, requiring expanded employment opportunities. The socialist system of employment must guarantee the systematic employment of the able-bodied population at any qualitative level of social production. The experience of other European socialist countries suggests several guidelines for employment policy. Bringing payroll costs closer to the actual cost of reproduction of labor power can be an important factor in the saving and release of workers in conjunction with the technical and organizational improvement of production. A special system must be formed in advance for the retraining, material support, and redistribution of released workers. Finally, cadres must by psychologically prepared for a much higher level of labor mobility. PMID:12341229

Kotliar, A

1987-04-01

446

Cognitive Process of Development in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

Boddington, Eulalee N.

2009-01-01

447

The role of education in development: an educationalist’s response to some recent work in development economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper delves beneath the widespread belief that education (often repackaged as human capital) is important in development to consider the role that the discipline of education plays in shaping the wider discourses of development. In particular, it will explore recent texts by important figures in development economics (Collier, Easterly, Sachs and Stiglitz) to see what they say (and don’t

Simon McGrath

2010-01-01

448

How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public participation in decision-making processes is recommendable. Another conclusion based on perceived medium to low professional competencies to cope with new topics, that there is lack of confidence and need for professional support in decisionmaking processes.

Vuleti?, Dijana; Poto?i?, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletkovi?, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Gali?, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijaši?, Dragan; Zupani?, Matjaž; Simon?i?, Primož; Vacik, Harald

2010-12-01

449

ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

Swisher, Bill

1992-01-01

450

ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

Swisher, Bill

1992-12-01

451

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; ,; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

2011-01-02

452

Preform Characterization in VARTM Process Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is a Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process where both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 kPa or less. Originally developed over a decade ago for marine composite fabrication, VARTM is now considered a viable process for the fabrication of aerospace composites (1,2). In order to optimize and further improve the process, a finite element analysis (FEA) process model is being developed to include the coupled phenomenon of resin flow, preform compaction and resin cure. The model input parameters are obtained from resin and fiber-preform characterization tests. In this study, the compaction behavior and the Darcy permeability of a commercially available carbon fabric are characterized. The resulting empirical model equations are input to the 3- Dimensional Infiltration, version 5 (3DINFILv.5) process model to simulate infiltration of a composite panel.

Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal; Loos, Alfred C.; Kellen, Charles B.; Jensen, Brian J.

2004-01-01

453

Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

454

Unequal Economic Development in China: Spatial Disparities and Regional Policy Reconsideration, 1985-1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZHAO X. B. and TONG S. P. (2000) Unequal economic development in China: spatial disparities and regional policy reconsideration, 1985-1995, Reg. Studies 34 , 549-561. Almost two decades into the implementation of Deng Xiaoping's 'get rich first' policy and 'coastal development strategy', income inequality and an imbalance in regional development have emerged as two of the most disturbing factors affecting

X. B. Zhao; S. P. Tong

2000-01-01

455

The Economics and Psychology of Inequality and Human Development. NBER Working Paper No. 14695  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of…

Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

2009-01-01

456

Computer-aided software development process design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

1989-01-01

457

76 FR 76491 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...development and business leaders with an understanding...governors, board of managers, or executive board...anticipates making large loans relative to the...officials, community leaders, private individuals...officials, community leaders, representatives...

2011-12-07

458

14.772 Development Economics: Macroeconomics, Spring 2009  

E-print Network

This course emphasizes dynamic models of growth and development. Topics covered include: migration, modernization, and technological change; static and dynamic models of political economy; the dynamics of income distribution ...

Kremer, Michael

459

Business Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process Management Tools and Technologies  

E-print Network

challenges have been made to traditional business practices. Rapid market changes such as electronic commerceBusiness Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process, the paradigm of Business Process Management contrasts with traditional information system development, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

Moving Towards Sustainable Development? Integrating Economic Development and the Environment in Local Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent growth of interest in sustainable development has led to the incorporation of the concept into policy making at a variety of scales. In all cases particular emphasis is placed upon the local scale as the focus for the implementationof policy and initiatives and especially upon local authorities as the major contributor to this process. There has been little

David Gibbs

1996-01-01

461

Low cost solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using silane-to-silicon process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and installation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) were analyzed. Supporting research and development were performed to provide an information data base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economical analysis for potential scale-up of the process. Iterative economic analyses were conducted for the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000-MT/Yr.

1980-01-01

462

Development of a Robust Computational Design Simulator for Industrial Deformation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of this continuing DMII-funded NSF project, computationally rigorous gradient-based optimiza- tion methodologies are being addressed for a virtual materials process design that is based on quantified product quality and accounts for process targets and constraints including economic aspects. Computa- tional design techniques will be developed that can be used to select the necessary sequence of forming and intermediate

Nicholas Zabaras

2002-01-01

463

The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.  

PubMed

It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies. PMID:23552649

Barth, Jannette M

2013-01-01

464

Community banking and economic development: Lessons from Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAmong the changes in the field of community development is the growing importance of microfinance, both to provide access to credit and as a vehicle for empowerment. Community banks are recognized for their role in meeting these goals, although they remain controversial, as the goals of microfinance are not always agreed upon, with government officials and community members emphasizing different

Greg Andranovich; Ali Modarres; Gerry Riposa

2007-01-01

465

PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Programme name MSc Development Economics  

E-print Network

practice and policy analysis. 3) Understand the long run determinants of poverty. 4) Analyse the issues fashion to issues related to human development. Take responsibility for the design of a research project will be expected to be able to: Knowledge and understanding: Understand the long run determinants of poverty

Weyde, Tillman

466

ABOUT THE JOURNAL A multidisciplinary journal of development economics,  

E-print Network

not available Online $300 300 x 250 pixels 2013 ADVERTISING DEADLINES Issue Space Art January Oct 5 Nov 15 April researchers focusing on developing countries. 2013 ADVERTISING RATES Position Rate Specs Full Page $650 4 ½ x Jan 8 Feb 15 July Apr 7 May 15 October Jul 7 Aug 15 Color Options: Color ad space may be available

Mateo, Jill M.

467

Biogas plants in Denmark: technological and economic developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas plants are one of the important elements in the Danish energy-policy of having reduced CO2 emissions by 20% by 2005. Since 1984, development efforts concerning centralised biogas plants in Denmark have been carried out, and Denmark now has approximately 20 large centralised biogas plants. All Danish biogas plants have increased gas production as a result of admixing industrial organic

H. Mæng; H. Lund; F. Hvelplund

1999-01-01

468

Technical and Economic Potentials of Renewable Energy Development in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption of Thailand has been continually increasing whereas the government policy to import those conventional energy seems to be limited. To sustainably overcome this problem, the development of renewable energy projects are important keys. Among them, bio- fuels projects seem to be the most promising one because of abundant reserves available in the domestic. There have been two groups

Watchara Permchart; Somporn Tanatvanit

469

Recent developments in laser material processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First research in laser technology had been initiated at the beginning of 60th of the last century. Since then great achievements had been gained in different laser types development, understanding of laser beams interaction with matter, simulation of the processes, development of wide range of operations of material processing and different devices to monitor the working conditions. In spite of unique results obtained in very short historic period this dynamic technology has still a lot of problems to be solved. Lasers itself had to be more efficient transformers of energy, the range of wavelength had to be broaden both in far infrared region and to near ultra violet and X-ray fields. Laser systems must be more compact and versatile, equipped with the whole variety of control and monitoring devices for the processing. Still needs the solution the problem of development the fast and precise techniques for non-destruction testing of processing results. As nearest and further prospects in laser technology it is possible already to expect the advent of more sophisticated type of laser with possibilities to change in wide range both wavelength of radiation and duration of the pulses. It will be simpler to get very short and ultra short pulses and to use them for the realization of different processes based on material ablation. High power CW highly efficient laser will be developed and implemented into industry. Many new hybrid laser processing may appear with wide integration of information technologies. The main goal in further laser processing development will be the achievement of higher quality of the product at possibly lower cost, improvement in maintaining of the laser systems and increasing their reliability.

Kovalenko, Volodymyr

2004-06-01

470

The Relation of Economic Status to Subjective Well-Being in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least…

Howell, Ryan T.; Howell, Colleen J.

2008-01-01

471

Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance. It may also support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. However, there is a need for a theoretically sound method for assessing the economic impacts of wind power development. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. Northwest Economic Associates (NEA), under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), investigated three case study areas in the United States where wind power projects were recently developed. The full report, ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power,'' is available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. The methodology used for that study is summarized here in order to provide guidance for future studies of the economic impacts of other wind power developments. The methodology used in the NEA study was specifically designed for these particular case study areas; however, it can be generally applied to other areas. Significant differences in local economic conditions and the amount of goods and services that are purchased locally as opposed to imported from outside the will strongly influence results obtained. Listed below are some of the key tasks that interested parties should undertake to develop a reasonable picture of local economic impacts that may accrue from existing or future wind development.

NWCC Economic Development Work Group

2003-12-17

472

Transmission Line Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are freely available, user-friendly tools that estimate the potential economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The Transmission Line JEDI model can be used to field questions about the economic impacts of transmission lines in a given state, region, or local community. This Transmission Line JEDI User Reference Guide was developed to provide basic instruction on operating the model and understanding the results. This guide also provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data contained in the model.

Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-10-01

473

45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287... § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic...

2012-10-01

474

45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287... § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic...

2013-10-01

475

45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287... § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic...

2011-10-01

476

Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

2007-06-01

477

Institutions, Natural Resources, and Economic Development in the MENA Countries  

E-print Network

resource rent as a percentage of the GDP during the period from 1970 to 2101 is about 56% in Iraq, 49% in Kuwait, 46% in Qatar, 45% in Saudi Arabia, and 44% in Oman. This dependence on natural resources means that the economies in MENA countries... and developing economies respectively. The United Arab Emirates has the largest percent of FDI outflows in the MENA region on average with 29% then Qatar with 26% and Kuwait with 10 %. The countries in the MENA region with the smallest FDI outflows...

Alsayaary, Salah Saeed A.

2013-12-31

478

Urbanization and economic development: a bias toward large cities?  

PubMed

"We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per capita, population, and export orientation reduce primacy. Political factors, such as whether a country's largest city is also its capital, affect primacy. Our results do not seem to imply that developing-country urbanization today differs fundamentally from urbanization in the past." PMID:12292335

Moomaw, R L; Shatter, A M

1996-01-01

479

Process development for a field emission structure  

E-print Network

and patience when things were not going well. I also thank Mark Stewart for his assistance and continuation of this work. I thank Alton Christensen for his insight and discussions during the cermet deposition process development. I would also like to thank... was taken by Christensen [11]. His solution to the re- quirement of high applied potentials was to develop a. low work function material that was also less susceptible to contamination and would thus survive in a, poorer vacuum (approximately 10 torr...

Legg, James Derek

1990-01-01

480

Developments in abatement technology for MOCVD processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly developed technical solution has been developed for hydride gas abatement that utilizes a new material. The ULTIMA-Sorb™ material provides high capacity but low heat of reaction with the hydride gases. The new technology results in a low cost of ownership (COO) with stable operation and also reduces the cost and quantity of waste disposal. This can be significant benefit for device manufacturers since it provides a viable and cost effective solution without any risk of arsenic leakage that is a primary concern with wet chemical scrubber systems. The contents of this paper will discuss the technical and economic benefits of the newly developed material in comparison to conventional abatement materials and systems. The capacity of the dry abatement materials significantly influences both COO relating to cash outflow and the cost of lost production. High capacity materials enable significant savings in cost of lost production in cases of low and high factory utilization conditions. Capacity of the abatement material appears to be the largest single factor to reduce COO of dry abatement systems.

Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Olander, Karl; Watanabe, Tadaharu; Tomita, Nobuyasu; Orlando, Gary; Torres, Robert

2004-12-01

481

Schumpeterian process competition, welfare and laissez-faire: An experiment in artificial economic evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A simulation model is used to construct a regime of artificial economic evolution, where Schumpeterian process competition\\u000a prevails, in the presence of technological uncertainty and bounded rationality. The output decision of the firm is represented\\u000a by a behavioural algorithm, which allows for the presence of collusive behaviour. The purpose of the experiments is to go\\u000a some way towards addressing

Timothy M. Wakeley

1998-01-01

482

Economic Value Added versus Traditional Performance Metrics in the Czech Food-Processing Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between Economic Value Added, traditional performance measures (Return on Assets ‘ROA’ and Return on Equity ‘ROE’) and their ability to measure the creation of shareholder wealth in food-processing firms in the Czech Republic. To assess the relationship, a simple regression test was used and the following hypothesis were tested: •

Gabriela Chmelikova

2008-01-01

483

UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Social Sustainability 2  

E-print Network

UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Social Sustainability 2, one closely tied to conservation. Sustainable development has been famously defined by the Brundtland The Oxford English Dictionary defines `Sustainable' as, "able to be upheld or defended; able to be maintained

484

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Weicen Wang  

E-print Network

­ the UBC LCA Project ­ which aims to support the development of the field of life cycle assessment (LCA at rob.sianchuk@gmail.com #12;Weicen Wang LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT - Wesbrook Building CIVL 498C November 18UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Weicen Wang LIFE CYCLE

485

Using Level 1 E-Learning to Support Socio-Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most developed, progressive, and economically stable countries in the world are those that are technologically advanced. Technological change and the building of human capabilities are interrelated: each requires the development of the other for success and the "rethinking [of] educational systems to meet the new challenges of technology."…

Edmundson, Andrea

2007-01-01

486

STIMULATION OF U.S. SUPERCOMPUTER DEVELOPMENT 1) Background and Basic Economics  

E-print Network

STIMULATION OF U.S. SUPERCOMPUTER DEVELOPMENT 1) Background and Basic Economics The risk incurred in supercomputer development is simply too great to attract funds in today's U.S. investment environment. The front to supply "production" rather than "experimental" computers. The users of supercomputers today expect far

Janssen, Michel

487

APORDE -African Programme on Rethinking Development Economics 5 -19 May 2011, Johannesburg, South Africa  

E-print Network

Africa Supported by the Department of Trade and Industry of South Africa (the dti), the French Development Agency (AFD), and the French Embassy in South Africa, with the French Institute of South Africa Development Economics APORDE) will be held in Johannesburg (South Africa) from the 5th to the 19th of May 2011

Wagner, Stephan

488

The ecological traces of growth: economic growth, liberalization, increased consumption—and sustainable urban development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the development of the building stock and physical infrastructure as an example, this article highlights the difficulties in combining continuous economic growth in wealthy countries with the requirements of environmentally sustainable development. There are clear limits as to how far we can get by means of ‘eco-efficiency’, and the effect of a transition to less environmentally harmful types of

Karl Georg Høyer; Petter Næss

2001-01-01

489

Private Schooling in Less Economically Developed Countries: Asian and African Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased marketisation and privatisation of schooling in economically developing countries struggling to achieve Education for All and Millennium Development Goals warrants a focused examination of the phenomenon. However, there is little work on the nature and extent of private provision in countries that, on the one hand, are striving to…

Srivastava, Prachi, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

2007-01-01

490

A Case Study on Collaboration: Sharing the Responsibility of Economic Development in Juniata Valley, Pennsylvania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to better understand the need and importance of the community college's role in economic development, this article takes a closer look at how collaboration in the Juniata Valley of Pennsylvania between Industrial Development Corporations (IDCs) of Mifflin and Juniata counties, career and technical centers, and other agencies is…

Ward, Shakoor A.; Clark, Robert W.

2013-01-01

491

Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

2006-01-01

492

A Theoretical Framework for Analysis of Community Economic Development Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, developers have placed near total reliance on increased productivity in agriculture, greater exploitation of natural resources, and the addition of new manufacturing industries as strategies for community economic development in nonmetropolitan areas. The concentration on expanding goods producing industries is unnecessarily…

Pulver, Glen C.

493

ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

494

Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes

Christovam Barcellos; Patrícia Feitosa; Giseli N Damacena; Marco A Andreazzi

2010-01-01

495

Cross-Border Higher Education: Global and Local Tensions within Competition and Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.

Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.

2014-01-01

496

Misplaced Expectations? The Experience of Applied Local Economic Development in Post-Apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hallmark of post-apartheid South Africa has been the introduction of bold and innovative policy in areas ranging from the national Constitution to resource management policy. In line with this approach, there has been a clear commitment to principles of decentralization and participatory development, with Local Economic Development (LED) featuring prominently in national, provincial and local government pronouncements and planning.

Etienne Nel; Tony Binns; David Bek

2009-01-01

497

Local economic development and urban poverty alleviation: the experience of post-apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban poverty is a policy issue of growing significance in post-apartheid South Africa. In terms of the new Constitution the developmental role of local governments is given considerable attention. Against a background analysis of the best practice of local anti-poverty strategies in the developing world, this paper reviews the experience of eight case studies of local economic development (LED) initiatives.

C. M Rogerson

1999-01-01

498

EDUCATION, GENDER EQUALITY, SOCIAL WELL-BEING AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AMERICAN COUNTRIES, 2000-2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the important role of education in economic development and social wellbeing of American countries, including indicators of gender opportunities for development as part of social well-being. In this regard we select some indicators which usually have a great importance for reaching improvements in social well-being such as Government effectiveness and voice of citizens, among Governance Indicators, and the

Maria-Carmen GUISAN; Eva AGUAYO

2010-01-01

499

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Customer Awareness off and Participation in Sustainability  

E-print Network

sustainability initiatives, working with UBC Food Services and AMS Food Services to develop and conduct marketUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Customer Awareness off and Participation in Sustainability Mandy Cheng, Sara Harrison, Andria Lam, Cristina Machial, Lena Syrovy, Diana

500

Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

America, Carina

2014-01-01