Science.gov

Sample records for economic impact assessment

  1. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, J. K.

    2008-05-01

    Understanding the socio-economic impacts of weather provides a basis for prioritizing actions to mitigate and respond to weather events and understanding the value of improvements in weather forecasts. In this talk we discuss two studies of the economic impacts of weather: (1) an empirical study of the sensitivity of state-sector level economic activity to weather variability and (2) an assessment of the quality of data on storm damages in the US as primarily collected through the National Weather Service's Storm Data Program. In the first study, 24 years of state level sector economic data and historical weather observations are used to form a panel combining weather information with economic data. A translog function is estimated of sectoral sensitivity and vulnerability to weather variability. Eleven sectors are ranked based on their degree of sensitivity to weather, states more sensitive to weather impacts are identified, and the aggregate dollar amount of variation in U.S. economic activity attributable to weather variability is calculated. Estimates indicate that US economic output varies by about 3.4% due to weather variability. While considerably smaller than prior estimates, our estimate represents about 469 billion a year in 2007 dollars. In our work to update and revise damage data in the Extreme Weather Sourcebook (www.sip.ucar.edu/sourcebook), we have confronted issues concerning the depth, accuracy and consistency of storm damage data collection. This type of data has been used in many studies exploring changes in weather impacts over time but there has been little recognition of the quality of the data. In the second study reported here, we examine issues with weather induced damage data quality to prompt a dialogue about reliability of scattered and inconsistent data from multiple sources. We hope this will lead to efforts to reduce the error in reported damages and to better reporting and organization of storm damage data in the future. We advocate

  2. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  3. Integrated economic and climate projections for impact assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...

  4. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhjem, Henrik . E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao . E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong . E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne . E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun . E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon . E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian . E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu . E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

  5. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  6. Economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  7. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  8. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  9. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  10. Assessments of the economic impacts of natural hazards in Albania: application of DaLA methodology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Toto, Emanuela; Deda, Miranda; Prenci, Shemsi; Dhima, Maksimiljan

    2015-04-01

    Disaster loss datasets are built using economic assessments done by different parties and using different approaches which are in many cases inconsistent. This is observed in more than 75% of the Alabanian records with missing economic evaluations. To assess the economic impact of disasters at all scales in Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011 and 2013 has used the DaLA methodology that takes advantage of a common and homogeneous set of quantitative physical damage indicators contained in the disaster databases. These have to be taken as the lower bound of the damage, which in general is higher. The UN-ECLAC DaLA Methodology takes into account in its assessments the overall status of economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the country government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction. Similarly to national disaster loss databases DaLA assessments have a national level of observation and data produced at sub-national resolution, resulting in highly detailed and accurate data sets. In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. We applied the DaLa methodology to the Albanian database of impacts of natural disasters.

  11. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    SciTech Connect

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  12. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  13. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5′×5′ latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  14. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  15. Assessment of Economic and Water Quality Impacts of Land Use Change Using a Simple Bioeconomic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Gandhi; Srivastava, Puneet; Marzen, Luke; Hite, Diane; Hatch, Upton

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the economic and water quality impact of land use change in a small watershed in the Wiregrass region of Alabama. The study compares changes in water quality and revenue from agricultural and timber production due to changes in land use between years 1992 and 2001. The study was completed in two stages. In the first stage, a biophysical model was used to estimate the effect of land use change on nitrogen and phosphorus runoff and sediment deposition in the main channel; in the second stage, farm enterprise budgeting tools were used to estimate the economic returns for the changes in land use condition. Both biophysical and economic results are discussed, and a case for complex optimization to develop a decision support system is presented.

  16. Assessment of economic and water quality impacts of land use change using a simple bioeconomic model.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Gandhi; Srivastava, Puneet; Marzen, Luke; Hite, Diane; Hatch, Upton

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the economic and water quality impact of land use change in a small watershed in the Wiregrass region of Alabama. The study compares changes in water quality and revenue from agricultural and timber production due to changes in land use between years 1992 and 2001. The study was completed in two stages. In the first stage, a biophysical model was used to estimate the effect of land use change on nitrogen and phosphorus runoff and sediment deposition in the main channel; in the second stage, farm enterprise budgeting tools were used to estimate the economic returns for the changes in land use condition. Both biophysical and economic results are discussed, and a case for complex optimization to develop a decision support system is presented. PMID:18363053

  17. Health impacts and economic losses assessment of the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing area.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Carmichael, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Zirui; Stanier, Charles O; Saide, Pablo E; Yu, Man

    2015-04-01

    Haze is a serious air pollution problem in China, especially in Beijing and surrounding areas, affecting visibility, public health and regional climate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm) concentrations during the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing, and health impacts and health-related economic losses were calculated based on model results. Compared with surface monitoring data, the model results reflected pollution concentrations accurately (correlation coefficients between simulated and measured PM2.5 were 0.7, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in Beijing, Tianjin, Xianghe and Xinglong stations, respectively). Health impacts assessments show that the PM2.5 concentrations in January might cause 690 (95% confidence interval (CI): (490, 890)) premature deaths, 45,350 (95% CI: (21,640, 57,860)) acute bronchitis and 23,720 (95% CI: (17,090, 29,710)) asthma cases in Beijing area. Results of the economic losses assessments suggest that the haze in January 2013 might lead to 253.8 (95% CI: (170.2, 331.2)) million US$ losses, accounting for 0.08% (95% CI: (0.05%, 0.1%)) of the total 2013 annual gross domestic product (GDP) of Beijing. PMID:25585158

  18. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of

  19. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Model for Economy-Wide Climate Change Impact Assessment for Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Thurlow, J.; Diao, X.

    2008-12-01

    Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, with a total population of about 11 million and a total area of about 752 thousand square kilometers. Agriculture in the country depends heavily on rainfall as the majority of cultivated land is rain-fed. Significant rainfall variability has been a huge challenge for the country to keep a sustainable agricultural growth, which is an important condition for the country to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The situation is expected to become even more complex as climate change would impose additional impacts on rainwater availability and crop water requirements, among other changes. To understand the impacts of climate variability and change on agricultural production and national economy, a soil hydrology model and a crop water production model are developed to simulate actual crop water uses and yield losses under water stress which provide annual shocks for a recursive dynamic computational general equilibrium (CGE) model developed for Zambia. Observed meteorological data of the past three decades are used in the integrated hydro-economic model for climate variability impact analysis, and as baseline climatology for climate change impact assessment together with several GCM-based climate change scenarios that cover a broad range of climate projections. We found that climate variability can explain a significant portion of the annual variations of agricultural production and GDP of Zambia in the past. Hidden beneath climate variability, climate change is found to have modest impacts on agriculture and national economy of Zambia around 2025 but the impacts would be pronounced in the far future if appropriate adaptations are not implemented. Policy recommendations are provided based on scenario analysis.

  20. Assessment of the economic impacts of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Lee L; Tonsor, Glynn T

    2015-11-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which first emerged in the United States in 2013, spread throughout the U.S. hog population. Limited preemptive knowledge impeded the understanding of PEDV introduction, spread, and prospective economic impacts in the United States. To assess these impacts, this article reviews the timeline of PEDV in the United States and the corresponding impacts. PEDV is a supply-impacting disease and is not demand inhibiting, as pork demand remained strong since PEDV first appeared. Pig losses reached significant levels during September 2013 through August 2014, with the majority of pork production impacts occurring in 2014. PEDV had differing impacts for subsectors of the pork industry. A budget model demonstrates that producers could have had pig losses and decreases in productivity proportionally smaller than price increases, resulting in net returns above what was expected before the major outbreak of PEDV. Previous literature is reviewed to identify the potential main industry beneficiaries of the PEDV outbreaks in the United States. As a result of reduced volumes of available pig and hog supplies, reductions in annual returns likely occurred for packers, processors, distributors, and retailers. In addition, pork consumers who experienced reduced-supply-induced pork-price increases were likely harmed directly by higher prices paid for pork and indirectly as prices of competing meats were also likely strengthened by PEDV. This article also identifies future considerations motivated by the appearance of PEDV in the United States, such as discussions of industry-wide efficiency and competitive advantage, the future role of PEDV vaccines, enhancement in biosecurity measures, and consumer perceptions of food safety and insecurity. PMID:26641031

  1. Government use licenses in Thailand: an assessment of the health and economic impacts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Between 2006 and 2008, Thailand's Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) granted government use licenses for seven patented drugs in order to improve access to these essential treatments. The decision to grant the government use licenses was contentious both within and beyond the country. In particular, concerns were highlighted that the negative consequences might outweigh the expected benefits of the policy. This study conducted assessments of the health and economic implications of these government use licenses. Methods The health and health-related economic impacts were quantified in terms of i) Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) gained and ii) increased productivity in US dollars (USD) as a result of the increased access to drugs. The study adopted a five-year timeframe for the assessment, commencing from the time of the grant of the government use licenses. Empirical evidence gathered from national databases was used to assess the changes in volume of exports after US Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) withdrawal and level of foreign direct investment (FDI). Results As a result of the granting of the government use licenses, an additional 84,158 patients were estimated to have received access to the seven drugs over five years. Health gains from the use of the seven drugs compared to their best alternative accounted for 12,493 QALYs gained, which translates into quantifiable incremental benefits to society of USD132.4 million. The government use license on efavirenze was found to have the greatest benefit. In respect of the country's economy, the study found that Thailand's overall exports increased overtime, although exports of the three US GSP withdrawal products to the US did decline. There was also found to be no relationship between the government use licenses and the level of foreign investment over the period 2002 to 2008. Conclusions The public health benefits of the government use licenses were generally positive. Specifically, the policy

  2. An assessment of the regional and national socio-economic impacts of the 2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karl M; Wanyoike, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Although Rift Valley fever (RVF) has significant impacts on human health and livestock production, it can also induce significant (and often overlooked) economic losses among various stakeholders in the marketing chain. This work assesses and quantifies the multi-dimensional socio-economic impacts of the 2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya based on a rapid assessment of livestock value chains in the northeast part of the country and a national macroeconomic analysis. Although study results show negative impacts among producers in terms of food insecurity and reductions in income, we also found significant losses among other downstream actors in the value chain, including livestock traders, slaughterhouses, casual laborers, and butchers, as well as other, non-agricultural sectors. The study highlights the need for greater sensitivity and analyses that address the multitude of economic losses resulting from an animal disease to better inform policy and decision making during animal health emergencies. PMID:20682906

  3. Female participation in housing activities: some assessment of the socio-economic and cultural impact.

    PubMed

    Mujahid-mukhtar, E; Noor-ul-hassan

    1992-01-01

    Ordinary least squares techniques (logit and probit models yielded similar results) were used to assess the impact of sociocultural and economic conditions on women's physical or financial involvement in housing activities: construction, repairs, improvements, and additions in Pakistan. Explanatory variables were the number of men and women, family income, employment, literacy, extended family on the same or different budget, decision making by women, joint decision making, urbanization, and ethnic origin. Data were obtained from a survey undertaken by the AERC/World Bank in 1989 of 829 households (370 urban and 454 rural). A description is provided of women's role in housing, the nature of activities in which women participate, and the factors that influence their participation. Women's participation could involve decision making, contributions of assets or savings, and/or physical labor or supervision of physical construction of housing. The results indicated a uniform pattern in the performance of explanatory variables. Financially, urban women tended to participate more in financial dealings than rural women. Significant explanatory factors impacting on the proportion of women contributing financially toward housing were women's own income, their employment, their involvement in decision making for that activity, their nuclear household, and an urban location. A significant negative factor was family size. Literacy had no effect. Rural women tended to participate more in the physical construction of housing than urban women. Positive impacts on physical participation were a nuclear household, women's involvement in decision making, her employment, and a rural location. Literacy had a significant negative influence on physical participation. Unexpectedly, the number of adult females had a significant negative effect on physical or supervisory participation; the number of adult males was positive and insignificant. Factors influencing women's supervisory

  4. Economic impact of climate

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, A.

    1980-05-01

    This volume summarizes the first two of a series of six workshops to investigate the economic impact of climate. These two workshops dealt mainly with input-output and econometric models. Potential for introducing weather and climate variables was discussed. A listing of topics and authors follows: Economic Models and the Identification of Climatic Effects on Economic Processes, Stan Johnson; Economic Modeling, Jim Morgan; Econometric Modeling: State of the Arts for the US Agricultural Industry, Abner Womack; Regional Input-Output Models: Understanding Their Application, Charles Lamphear; Measuring Regional Economic Impact Associated With Unfavorable Conditions During Crop Production Periods: A concept Paper, Charles Lamphear; Possible Applications of Input-Output Models in Climatic Impact Analysis, William Cooter; and Aspects of Input-Output Analysis Pertinent to Climate-Economic Modeling: Three Short Notes, William Cooter. (PSB)

  5. Assessing bio-economic impacts and climate adaptation potential in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to Global Circulation Model predictions, Belgium is situated on a wedge between a wetter and drier climatic regime. Observed changes show an increase of 1.3°C during the past decade, a higher frequency of warm summer days and a 6% increase in rainfall with a pronounced rise in winter precipitation of about 25% as compared to the normal (1961-1990). Since agriculture is particularly sensitive to climate variability and occupies more than 61% of the land surface in Flanders, the rural landscape will be confronted with profound changes. A combination of climate scenarios, production models and economic evaluation was used to assess climate impacts on agricultural goods & services, adaptation costs due to production losses and adaptation options. Agro-ecosystems offer a wide range of productive, supporting, regulating and cultural services to society. Productive services relate to crop, animal and energy production, but will alter with climate change. Supporting services such as biodiversity, soil and water quality will be negatively affected by a higher climate variability, increasing erosion and sediment transport, enhancing the breakdown of soil organic matter, lowering soil quality and increasing runoff or leaching of agri-chemicals. The effect of a warmer climate on regulating services is an intensification of most nutrient cycles with increased emissions, which may be compensated for by carbon storage in faster and longer growing crops. The need for flooding areas may result in a net-reduction of the agricultural area. A higher probability of dry weather during summer time and a longer growing season may enlarge the attraction of recreating in rural areas. Knowledge on the interaction of agro-ecosystem services and climate change is required to formulate sustainable adaptation measures. Heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields

  6. Economic impacts study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  7. The socio-economic impact of noise: a method for assessing noise annoyance.

    PubMed

    Gjestland, Truls

    2007-01-01

    Norwegian authorities have developed and adopted a method for assessing the magnitude of noise impact on a community in quantitative terms. The method takes into account all levels of noise annoyance experienced by all the residents in an area and transforms these data into a single quantity that can also be expressed in monetary terms. This method is contrary to other commonly used assessment methods where only a certain fraction of the impacted people, e.g. those "highly annoyed," is considered. PMID:18025754

  8. Assessing economic impacts of China's water pollution mitigation measures through a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Changbo; Bressers, Hans T. A.; (Bob Su, Z.; Jia, Yangwen; Wang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.

  9. An assessment of the economic impact of heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection) and its control in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mukhebi, A W; Chamboko, T; O'Callaghan, C J; Peter, T F; Kruska, R L; Medley, G F; Mahan, S M; Perry, B D

    1999-04-01

    Heartwater, caused by the rickettsial organism Cowdria ruminantium, is a serious constraint to livestock development in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Traditionally, the disease has been controlled by the use of chemical acaricides to control the vector tick. The University of Florida/USAID-supported heartwater research project (based in Zimbabwe) is developing a new inactivated vaccine to control the disease. In order that the vaccine is used effectively, the project has been studying the epidemiology of the disease in different livestock production systems of Zimbabwe, and evaluating the economic impact of the disease and of its future control using a vaccine such as the one under development. Initially, field studies were conducted to characterise the communal and commercial livestock-productions systems at risk from heartwater and to understand the epidemiology of the disease. The data from these studies were then applied to an infection-dynamics model of heartwater, which was used to provide estimates of disease incidence and impact under various scenarios over a period of 10 yr. Two principal outputs of the epidemiological model (cumulative annual heartwater incidence and infection-fatality proportion) were key inputs into an economics model. The estimated total annual national losses amount to Z$ 61.3 million (US$ 5.6 million) in discounted value terms over 10 yr. Annual economic losses per animal in the commercial production system (Z$ 56 discounted values) are 25 times greater than the losses in the communal system (Z$ 2.2). The greatest component of economic loss is acaricide cost (76%), followed by milk loss (18%) and treatment cost (5%). Losses in outputs other than milk (beef, traction and manure) appear to be minimal. A new vaccine has the promise of a benefit: cost ratio of about 2.4:1 in the communal and 7.6:1 in the commercial system. A control strategy based on a new vaccine would yield additional non-financial benefits to farmers and the government

  10. Economic analysis and environmental impact assessment of three different fermentation processes for fructooligosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Aguiar, Luís M; Marinha, Mariana I; Jorge, Rita C; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2015-12-01

    Three different fermentation processes for the production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were evaluated and compared in terms of economic aspects and environmental impact. The processes included: submerged fermentation of sucrose solution by Aspergillus japonicus using free cells or using the cells immobilized in corn cobs, and solid-state fermentation (SSF) using coffee silverskin as support material and nutrient source. The scale-up was designed using data obtained at laboratory scale and considering an annual productivity goal of 200 t. SSF was the most attractive process in both economic and environmental aspects since it is able to generate FOS with higher annual productivity (232.6 t) and purity (98.6%) than the other processes; reaches the highest annual profit (6.55 M€); presents the lowest payback time (2.27 years); and is more favourable environmentally causing a lower carbon footprint (0.728 kg/kg, expressed in mass of CO2 equivalent per mass of FOS) and the lowest wastewater generation. PMID:26433793

  11. Economic impact of refugees

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J.; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees’ impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120–$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally. PMID:27325782

  12. Economic impact of refugees.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees' impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120-$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally. PMID:27325782

  13. Economic assessment of sludge handling and environmental impact of sludge treatment in a reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    The effect on the environment of the establishment and operation of a sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is quite limited compared to mechanical sludge dewatering, with its accompanying use of energy and chemicals. The assessment presented here of the investment, operation and maintenance costs of a typical STRB, and of the related environmental impact, is based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRB in Denmark. There are differences in the environmental perspectives and costs involved in mechanical sludge dewatering and disposal on agricultural land compared to STRB. The two treatment methods were considered for comparison based on a treatment capacity of 550 tons of dry solids per year and with land application of the biosolids in Denmark. The initial capital cost for STRB is higher than a conventional mechanical system; however, an STRB would provide significant power and operating-cost savings, with a significant saving in the overall cost of the plant over 20-30 years. The assessment focuses on the use of chemicals, energy and greenhouse gas emissions and includes emptying, sludge residue quality and recycling. STRB with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario and has the lowest environmental impact. A sludge strategy consisting of an STRB will be approximately DKK 536,894-647,636 cheaper per year than the option consisting of a new screw press or decanter. PMID:25945843

  14. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

    2011-04-01

    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  15. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  16. SEASAT economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, K.; Steele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The SEASAT program will provide scientific and economic benefits from global remote sensing of the ocean's dynamic and physical characteristics. The program as presently envisioned consists of: (1) SEASAT A; (2) SEASAT B; and (3) Operational SEASAT. This economic assessment was to identify, rationalize, quantify and validate the economic benefits evolving from SEASAT. These benefits will arise from improvements in the operating efficiency of systems that interface with the ocean. SEASAT data will be combined with data from other ocean and atmospheric sampling systems and then processed through analytical models of the interaction between oceans and atmosphere to yield accurate global measurements and global long range forecasts of ocean conditions and weather.

  17. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income

  18. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara

    2009-05-01

    The paper introduces the so-called climate change mainstreaming approach, where vulnerability and adaptation measures are assessed in the context of general development policy objectives. The approach is based on the application of a limited set of indicators. These indicators are selected as representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania. The conclusions of the paper confirm that climate risks can be reduced at relatively low costs, but the uncertainty is still remaining about some of the wider development impacts of implementing climate change adaptation measures.

  19. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  20. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  1. Development of an Impact-Oriented Quantitative Coastal Inundation forecasting and early warning system with social and economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.; Babel, Mukand S.; Kawasaki, Akiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Coastal inundations are an increasing threat to the lives and livelihoods of people living in low-lying, highly-populated coastal areas. According to a World Bank Report in 2005, at least 2.6 million people may have drowned due to coastal inundation, particularly caused by storm surges, over the last 200 years. Forecasting and prediction of natural events, such as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, inland flooding, and severe winter weather, provide critical guidance to emergency managers and decision-makers from the local to the national level, with the goal of minimizing both human and economic losses. This guidance is used to facilitate evacuation route planning, post-disaster response and resource deployment, and critical infrastructure protection and securing, and it must be available within a time window in which decision makers can take appropriate action. Recognizing this extreme vulnerability of coastal areas to inundation/flooding, and with a view to improve safety-related services for the community, research should strongly enhance today's forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities in order to improve the assessment of coastal vulnerability and risks and develop adequate prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. This paper tries to develop an impact-oriented quantitative coastal inundation forecasting and early warning system with social and economic assessment to address the challenges faced by coastal communities to enhance their safety and to support sustainable development, through the improvement of coastal inundation forecasting and warning systems.

  2. An assessment of the economic impact of the wind turbine supply chain in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J. Lon; Loomis, David G.; Payne, James

    2010-08-15

    The enormous growth of wind energy in Illinois and around the country has led to a shortage of wind turbines. Turbine manufacturers have sold out their capacity into 2010. To the extent that Illinois manufacturing can integrate itself into the wind turbine supply chain, Illinois can enjoy the economic benefits from both having wind farms and supplying the parts to build them. (author)

  3. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  4. Economic impact of explosive volcanic eruptions: A simulation-based assessment model applied to Campania region volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro, Giulio; Leone, Mattia Federico; Del Cogliano, Davide; Sgroi, Angelo

    2013-10-01

    PLINIVS Study Centre of University of Naples Federico II has developed a methodology that aims to estimate, in probabilistic terms, the direct and the indirect economic impacts of a Sub-Plinian I or Strombolian type eruption of Vesuvius. The economic model has been implemented as a complementary tool of the Volcanic Impact Simulation Model, a tool developed at PLINIVS Center available to the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) decision makers to quantify the potential losses consequent to a possible eruption of Vesuvius or Campi Flegrei. Along the expected time history of the eruptive event all the possible "direct costs" and the "factors" (indirect costs) impacting the economic growth in the event area have been identified. Each cost factor is built up through a specific algorithm that is fed by various providers, in order to run software that will estimate the global amount of economic damage from a volcanic event. The model does not include the economic evaluation of intangibles (e.g. human casualties), while the evaluation of damage to the local cultural heritage (historical buildings, archeological sites, monuments, etc.), is linked to the economic impact on tourism, estimated into indirect costs. The architecture of the model is based on a simulation logic, which allows an evaluation of different economic impact scenarios through input changes, allowing the model to be used as a tool to support the decision making process.

  5. The Economic Impact of University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fernand; Trudeau, Marc

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a study which used traditional input-output economic models merged with recent understandings of new growth theory to measure and assess both the static and dynamic economic impact of university research, especially in Canada. The study highlights were: (1) university research is a powerful stimulus for…

  6. UMASS/Boston: An Economic Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Barry

    This report assesses the economic impact of the University of Massachusetts at Boston (UMass/Boston) on the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with attention to three major economic contributions: (1) the additional income that UMass/Boston students generate within the state as a result of their university education; (2) the added state income and…

  7. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-02-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature of economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of economic impact from drought by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact with a model based on cost-and-benefit analysis. By using analysis of "with-and-without", profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis on a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified, and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained using an autoregressive error model to separate impact by disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free condition and disaster-hit condition, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote the reflections on economic equality among various economic bodies at the occurrence of natural disasters.

  8. The Economic Impacts of Maryland Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linthicum, Dorothy S.

    The problem addressed in this study is the identification of economic benefits generated by the 17 Maryland community colleges, and their associated costs. Figures for fiscal year 1977 are used to assess the statewide impact of the community colleges on the business sector, in terms of total impact of expenditures by the colleges and their staffs,…

  9. Montgomery College Economic Impact Study, FY 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, William E.; Linthicum, Dorothy S.

    A study was conducted to assess the economic impact of Montgomery College (MC) on local business, local government, and the job market in the surrounding community for fiscal year 1981. Using linear cash-flow equations designed for the American Council on Education and adapted for MC, the study assessed monies coming into the college from students…

  10. Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

  11. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. PMID:26439649

  12. Economic Impact of Stable Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic model was created to estimate the economic impact of stable flies on livestock production. Based upon a nationwide average of 10 stable flies per animal for 3 months per year, the model estimates the impact of stable flies to be $543 million to the dairy industry, $1.34 billion to pasture ...

  13. An assessment of the economic and employment impacts of the commercialization of renewable technologies in Washington/Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.A.; Harrison, I.S.; Reinertsen, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    DynCorp EENSP conducted an economic impact analysis for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, under contract to the Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies to explore the effects on the economy and employment by deploying renewable technologies. Two regions (Texas and Washington/Oregon) with abundant renewable resources were selected for their initial evaluation of the economy and employment. This analysis investigated changes in the level of employment, effects on various industries, and changes in economic activity by simulating the addition of renewable resources to the generation mix. An economic input-output model was used to predict future economic and employment changes that are driven by renewable energy deployment in selected regions. In Washington/Oregon, the construction, and operation and maintenance (O&M) for wind, biomass stoker, biomass IGCC, geothermal, combined cycle, and combustion turbine were modeled. In order to compare the relative benefits of renewable deployment, three technology adoption scenarios were also developed to allow for the broad comparison of the {open_quotes}expected{close_quotes} or currently planned resource additions to the region with scenarios that are more renewable intensive. The deployment scenarios chosen were: Business as Usual, Renewable Intensive, and Renewable Portfolio. The results indicate that installations of renewable technologies can have a positive impact on the state economy by creating primary and secondary employment benefits.

  14. Higher Education's Economic Impact in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.

    Direct and indirect contributions of nine Arkansas universities to the economic well-being of the state, as well as the expected rate of return from support of higher education, were assessed. In-state expenditures by the universities and local expenditures by university staff and students were measured. A major impact was the value of business…

  15. A method for the assessment of site-specific economic impacts of commercial and industrial biomass energy facilities. A handbook and computer model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    A handbook on ``A Method for the Assessment of Site-specific Econoomic Impacts of Industrial and Commercial Biomass Energy Facilities`` has been prepared by Resource Systems Group Inc. under contract to the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP). The handbook includes a user-friendly Lotus 123 spreadsheet which calculates the economic impacts of biomass energy facilities. The analysis uses a hybrid approach, combining direct site-specific data provided by the user, with indirect impact multipliers from the US Forest Service IMPLAN input/output model for each state. Direct economic impacts are determined primarily from site-specific data and indirect impacts are determined from the IMPLAN multipliers. The economic impacts are given in terms of income, employment, and state and federal taxes generated directly by the specific facility and by the indirect economic activity associated with each project. A worksheet is provided which guides the user in identifying and entering the appropriate financial data on the plant to be evaluated. The WLAN multipliers for each state are included in a database within the program. The multipliers are applied automatically after the user has entered the site-specific data and the state in which the facility is located. Output from the analysis includes a summary of direct and indirect income, employment and taxes. Case studies of large and small wood energy facilities and an ethanol plant are provided as examples to demonstrate the method. Although the handbook and program are intended for use by those with no previous experience in economic impact analysis, suggestions are given for the more experienced user who may wish to modify the analysis techniques.

  16. ECONOMICS OF BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the session was to describe procedures used in the estimation of economic cost of air pollution to agriculture in the U.S. and to present some examples of those estimates. In recent years, there has been great interest in the development of monetary estimates of ...

  17. Failure of Passive Immune Transfer in Calves: A Meta-Analysis on the Consequences and Assessment of the Economic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Raboisson, Didier; Trillat, Pauline; Cahuzac, Clélia

    2016-01-01

    Low colostrum intake at birth results in the failure of passive transfer (FPT) due to the inadequate ingestion of colostral immunoglobulins (Ig). FPT is associated with an increased risk of mortality and decreased health and longevity. Despite the known management practices associated with low FPT, it remains an important issue in the field. Neither a quantitative analysis of FPT consequences nor an assessment of its total cost are available. To address this point, a meta-analysis on the adjusted associations between FPT and its outcomes was first performed. Then, the total costs of FPT in European systems were calculated using a stochastic method with adjusted values as the input parameters. The adjusted risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for mortality, bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and overall morbidity in the case of FPT were 2.12 (1.43–3.13), 1.75 (1.50–2.03), 1.51 (1.05–2.17) and 1.91 (1.63–2.24), respectively. The mean (and 95% prediction interval) total costs per calf with FPT were estimated to be €60 (€10–109) and €80 (€20–139) for dairy and beef, respectively. As a result of the double-step stochastic method, the proposed economic estimation constitutes the first estimate available for FPT. The results are presented in a way that facilitates their use in the field and, with limited effort, combines the cost of each contributor to increase the applicability of the economic assessment to the situations farm-advisors may face. The present economic estimates are also an important tool to evaluate the profitability of measures that aim to improve colostrum intake and FPT prevention. PMID:26986832

  18. Failure of Passive Immune Transfer in Calves: A Meta-Analysis on the Consequences and Assessment of the Economic Impact.

    PubMed

    Raboisson, Didier; Trillat, Pauline; Cahuzac, Clélia

    2016-01-01

    Low colostrum intake at birth results in the failure of passive transfer (FPT) due to the inadequate ingestion of colostral immunoglobulins (Ig). FPT is associated with an increased risk of mortality and decreased health and longevity. Despite the known management practices associated with low FPT, it remains an important issue in the field. Neither a quantitative analysis of FPT consequences nor an assessment of its total cost are available. To address this point, a meta-analysis on the adjusted associations between FPT and its outcomes was first performed. Then, the total costs of FPT in European systems were calculated using a stochastic method with adjusted values as the input parameters. The adjusted risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for mortality, bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and overall morbidity in the case of FPT were 2.12 (1.43-3.13), 1.75 (1.50-2.03), 1.51 (1.05-2.17) and 1.91 (1.63-2.24), respectively. The mean (and 95% prediction interval) total costs per calf with FPT were estimated to be €60 (€10-109) and €80 (€20-139) for dairy and beef, respectively. As a result of the double-step stochastic method, the proposed economic estimation constitutes the first estimate available for FPT. The results are presented in a way that facilitates their use in the field and, with limited effort, combines the cost of each contributor to increase the applicability of the economic assessment to the situations farm-advisors may face. The present economic estimates are also an important tool to evaluate the profitability of measures that aim to improve colostrum intake and FPT prevention. PMID:26986832

  19. RIFLE: regional impact of facility location on the economy. User's guide, volume 2. Maryland economic, fiscal, and social impact assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, P.D.; Harms, P.L.

    1983-02-01

    This user's guide describes the non-computerized models in the RIFLE (Regional Impact of Facility Location on the Economy) system. The RIFLE system consists of seven computerized models and three non-computerized models which can be used to analyze the economic, demographic, and fiscal impacts of major facilities upon the counties in which they are located and adjacent counties. Volume II describes the non-computerized models in the RIFLE system. These models represent an alternative approach to estimating costs of providing government services to in-migrating households.

  20. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  1. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Mattah, Memuna M.; Armah, Frederick A.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  2. 77 FR 59397 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its economic impact procedures. A draft of the proposed economic impact procedures can be accessed at the following location:...

  3. Implementing an advanced waste separation step in an MBT plant: assessment of technical, economic and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Meirhofer, Martina; Piringer, Gerhard; Rixrath, Doris; Sommer, Manuel; Ragossnig, Arne Michael

    2013-10-01

    Heavy fractions resulting from mechanical treatment stages of mechanical-biological waste treatment plants are posing very specific demands with regard to further treatment (large portions of inert and high-caloric components). Based on the current Austrian legal situation such a waste stream cannot be landfilled and must be thermally treated. The aim of this research was to evaluate if an inert fraction generated from this waste stream with advanced separation technologies, two sensor-based [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), X-ray transmission (XRT)] and two mechanical systems (wet and dry) is able to be disposed of. The performance of the treatment options for separation was evaluated by characterizing the resulting product streams with respect to purity and yield. Complementing the technical evaluation of the processing options, an assessment of the economic and global warming effects of the change in waste stream routing was conducted. The separated inert fraction was evaluated with regard to landfilling. The remaining high-caloric product stream was evaluated with regard to thermal utilization. The results show that, in principal, the selected treatment technologies can be used to separate high-caloric from inert components. Limitations were identified with regard to the product qualities achieved, as well as to the economic expedience of the treatment options. One of the sensor-based sorting systems (X-ray) was able to produce the highest amount of disposeable heavy fraction (44.1%), while having the lowest content of organic (2.0% C biogenic per kg waste input) components. None of the high-caloric product streams complied with the requirements for solid recovered fuels as defined in the Austrian Ordinance on Waste Incineration. The economic evaluation illustrates the highest specific treatment costs for the XRT (€ 23.15 per t), followed by the NIR-based sorting system (€ 15.67 per t), and the lowest costs for the air separation system (€ 10.79 per t

  4. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  5. Lessons Learned about the Methodology of Economic Impact Studies: The NIST Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassey, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes ongoing economic impact assessment activities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for its Measurement and Standards Laboratory Program. Explores designing economic impact studies for integration into assessments of broader programmatic objectives. (SLD)

  6. [Assessment of the impact of socio-economic factors on the health state of the population of the Sverdlovsk region in the system of social-hygienic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Derstuganova, T M; VelichkovskiĬ, B T; Varaksin, A N; Gurvich, V B; Malykh, O L; Kochneva, N I; Iarushin, S V

    2013-01-01

    There was investigated the impact of socioeconomic factors on medical and demographic processes in working age population. For the assessment of the impact of living conditions and environmental factors on mortality rate in a population of the Sverdlovsk region factor-typological, correlation and regression analyzes were applied There was shown an availability of statistically significant correlation relationships between mortality of the population of working age and socio-economic characteristics (degree of home improvement, quality of medical care, the level of social tension, the level of the demographic load), as well as between their increments with taking into account the time shifts. The effect of the value of the purchasing power on the mortality rate of the working population has been established The purchasing power was shown to be connected with a mortality rate of working population from external causes more stronger than death from all causes. PMID:24624831

  7. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): A Long-Term Remote Sensing, Hydrologic, Ecologic, and Socio-Economic Assessment with Management Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto-Orta, M.; Ortiz, J.; Santiago, L.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Detres, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Coral reefs, for instance, have been impacted by sedimentation, increased eutrophication, and coastal water contamination. Here we present an overview of a new NASA project to study human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project uses an interdisciplinary approach that includes historic and recent remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change in coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves and sandy beaches. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. Methods include assessments of coral reefs benthic communities cover, monitoring of short- and long-term beach geomorphological changes associated with riverine and sediment input, calculation of the economical value of selected CMEs, establish permanent monitoring transects in never before studied coral reef areas, provide recommendations to enhance current coastal policy management practices, and disseminate the results to local stakeholders. This project will include imagery from the Operational Land Imager of Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Our results and the generality of the methodology will provide for its application to other similar tropical locations.

  8. Economic impact of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Elias S.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones have been rising in prevalence in the United States and worldwide, and represent a significant cost burden. Cost effectiveness research in this area may enable improvements in treatment efficiency that can benefit patients, providers and the healthcare system. There has been limited research in the cost effectiveness of surgical interventions for stone disease, despite the diverse treatment approaches that are available. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been shown to improve rates of stone passage for ureteral stones, and there is evidence that this practice should be liberalized from the standpoint of both clinical and cost effectiveness. While conservative treatment following a primary stone event appears to be cost effective, the economic impact of medical therapy for recurrent stone formers requires clarification despite its clinical efficacy. Future study regarding the cost effectiveness of prevention and interventions for stone disease are likely to improve both the quality and efficiency of care. PMID:26816777

  9. Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. Methods We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Findings The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384–4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641–251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181–4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861–1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. Conclusions This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru. PMID:21629731

  10. 78 FR 52761 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; One Year Assessment of the Social and Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Assessment of the Social and Economic Impacts of Hurricane Sandy on New Jersey and New York Commercial and... assessment of the social and economic impacts from Hurricane Sandy to the commercial and recreational...

  11. Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2007-06-01

    This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

  12. Integrating Land Conservation and Renewable Energy Goals in California: Assessing Land Use and Economic Cost Impacts Using the Optimal Renewable Energy Build-Out (ORB) Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. C.; Schlag, N. H.; Cameron, D. R.; Brand, E.; Crane, L.; Williams, J.; Price, S.; Hernandez, R. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and economic costs of potential renewable energy (RE) siting decisions that achieve ambitious RE targets. Such analyses are needed to inform policy recommendations that minimize potential conflicts between conservation and RE development. We use the state of California's rapid development of utility-scale RE as a case study to examine how possible land use constraints impact the total electricity land area, areas with conservation value, water use, and electricity cost of ambitious RE portfolios. We developed the Optimal Renewable energy Build-out (ORB) model, and used it in conjunction with the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Calculator, a RE procurement and transmission planning tool used by utilities within California, to generate environmentally constrained renewable energy potential and assess the cost and siting-associated impacts of wind, solar photovoltaic, concentrating solar power (CSP), and geothermal technologies. We find that imposing environmental constraints on RE development achieves lower conservation impacts and results in development of more fragmented land areas. With increased RE and environmental exclusions, generation becomes more widely distributed across the state, which results in more development on herbaceous agricultural vegetation, grasslands, and developed & urban land cover types. We find land use efficiencies of RE technologies are relatively inelastic to changes in environmental constraints, suggesting that cost-effective substitutions that reduce environmental impact and achieve RE goals is possible under most scenarios and exclusion categories. At very high RE penetration that is limited to in-state development, cost effectiveness decreases substantially under the highest level of environmental constraint due to the over-reliance on solar technologies. This additional cost is removed once the in-state constraint is lifted, suggesting that minimizing both negative

  13. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

  14. Images of a place and vacation preferences: Implications of the 1989 surveys for assessing the economic impacts of a nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Flynn, J.H.

    1990-11-01

    In July, 1989 the authors produced a report titled Perceived Risk, Stigma, and Potential Economic Impacts of a High-Level Nuclear-Waste Repository in Nevada (Slovic et al., 1989). That report described a program of research designed to assess the potential impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. It was concluded that adverse economic impacts potentially may result from two related social processes. Specifically, the study by Slovic et al. employed analyses of imagery in order to overcome concerns about the validity of direct questions regarding the influence of a nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain upon a person`s future behaviors. During the latter months of 1989, data were collected in three major telephone surveys, designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to replicate the results from the Phoenix, Arizona, surveys using samples from other populations that contribute to tourism, migration, and development in Nevada; (2) to retest the original Phoenix respondents to determine the stability of their images across an 18-month time period and to determine whether their vacation choices subsequent to the first survey were predictable from the images they produced in that original survey; (3) to elicit additional word-association images for the stimulus underground nuclear waste repository in order to determine whether the extreme negative images generated by the Phoenix respondents would occur with other samples of respondents; and (4) to develop and test a new method for imagery elicitation, based upon a rating technique rather than on word associations. 2 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs.

  16. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs. PMID:26743684

  17. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs. PMID:26743684

  18. AASA Survey: Impact of the Economic Downturn on School Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AASA, The School Superintendent's Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to gauge how school districts across the country are responding to the current economic downturn, the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) continues to assess various measures of economic impact. Earlier AASA surveys addressed trends in districts' initial responses to the downturn, districts'…

  19. Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

    2007-06-01

    Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

  20. The Economic Impact of Dutchess Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutchess Community Coll., Poughkeepsie, NY. Office of Planning and Institutional Research.

    In an effort to measure the economic impact of Dutchess Community College (DCC), in Poughkeepsie, New York, on Dutchess County, a study was undertaken of expenditures and jobs created in the county during fiscal year 1991-92. To measure the tangible economic impact, three major financial components were examined: direct expenditures by the college…

  1. 75 FR 148 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room 947, Washington, DC 20571, within...

  2. 78 FR 34660 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has... parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  3. 77 FR 3772 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue NW.,...

  4. 77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  5. 75 FR 48333 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States... may submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  6. 77 FR 53201 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has... may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811...

  7. 75 FR 27778 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room...

  8. 77 FR 23247 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

  9. 77 FR 6563 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  10. 77 FR 65686 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to...

  11. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  12. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  13. Assessment of the Impact of Stochastic Day-Ahead SCUC on Economic and Reliability Metrics at Multiple Timescales: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.; Ela, E.; Krad, I.; Florita, A.; Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Ibanez, E.; Gao, W.

    2015-03-01

    This paper incorporates the stochastic day-ahead security-constrained unit commitment (DASCUC) within a multi-timescale, multi-scheduling application with commitment, dispatch, and automatic generation control. The stochastic DASCUC is solved using a progressive hedging algorithm with constrained ordinal optimization to accelerate the individual scenario solution. Sensitivity studies are performed in the RTS-96 system, and the results show how this new scheduling application would impact costs and reliability with a closer representation of timescales of system operations in practice.

  14. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  15. Assessing the impacts of socio-economic and hydrological factors on urban water demand: A multivariate statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, George P.

    2014-10-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques conducted on quarterly water consumption data in Mytilene reveal valuable tools that could help the local authorities in assigning strategies aimed at the sustainable development of urban water resources. The proposed methodology is an innovative approach, applied for the first time in the international literature, to handling urban water consumption data in order to analyze statistically the interrelationships among the determinants of urban water use. Factor analysis of demographic, socio-economic and hydrological variables shows that total water consumption in Mytilene is the combined result of increases in (a) income, (b) population, (c) connections and (d) climate parameters. On the other hand, the per connection water demand is influenced by variations in water prices but with different consequences in each consumption class. Increases in water prices are faced by large consumers; they then reduce their consumption rates and transfer to lower consumption blocks. These shifts are responsible for the increase in the average consumption values in the lower blocks despite the increase in the marginal prices.

  16. Assessment of impacts of proposed coal-resource and related economic development on water resources, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming; a summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, Timothy Doak; Hillier, Donald E.

    1981-01-01

    Expanded mining and use of coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States will have substantial impacts on water resources, environmental amenities, and social and economic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a 3-year assessment of the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, where increased coal-resource development has begun to affect the environment and quality of life. Economic projections of the overall effects of coal-resource development were used to estimate water use and the types and amounts of waste residuals that need to be assimilated into the environment. Based in part upon these projections, several physical-based models and other semiquantitative assessment methods were used to determine possible effects upon the basin's water resources. Depending on the magnitude of mining and use of coal resources in the basin, an estimated 0.7 to 2.7 million tons (0.6 to 2.4 million metric tons) of waste residuals may be discharged annually into the environment by coal-resource development and associated economic activities. If the assumed development of coal resources in the basin occurs, annual consumptive use of water, which was approximately 142,000 acre-feet (175 million cubic meters) during 1975, may almost double by 1990. In a related analysis of alternative cooling systems for coal-conversion facilities, four to five times as much water may be used consumptively in a wet-tower, cooling-pond recycling system as in once-through cooling. An equivalent amount of coal transported by slurry pipeline would require about one-third the water used consumptively by once-through cooling for in-basin conversion. Current conditions and a variety of possible changes in the water resources of the basin resulting from coal-resource development were assessed. Basin population may increase by as much as threefold between 1975 and 1990. Volumes of wastes requiring treatment will increase accordingly. Potential problems associated

  17. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment... on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set forth in...

  18. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment... on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set forth in...

  19. SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

    2013-12-01

    were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

  20. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity: Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into three parts and covers: (1) overall economic impact of technological progress and its measurement; (2) technological progress and commercialization of communications satellites; and (3) knowledge additions and earth links from space crew systems.

  1. Cycling Promotion and Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Health Impact Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Cycling to Work or School in Florence

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Cristina; Gnesotto, Roberto; Forni, Silvia; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Vannucci, Andrea; Garofalo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer’s perspective. Design Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a ten-year period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Setting Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. Population All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Results Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Conclusions Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST. PMID:25928421

  2. Life assessments of a boiler economizer unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lichti, K.A.; Thomas, C.W.; Wilson, P.T.; Julian, W.

    1997-09-01

    An economizer which experienced pitting corrosion during a cleaning accident was subject to recurring corrosion fatigue failures. A condition assessment was undertaken to assess the risk of further failures through metallurgical assessment, extreme value pitting assessments, and on-site NDT condition assessment with on-site extreme value pitting analysis. This was followed by a fatigue life assessment in accordance with PD6493. Condition assessment work and lifetime prediction progressed from initial failure investigation through to final recommendations in a stepwise process. Each stage of the work was followed by a review of the findings and an economic assessment of the alternative options i.e. continue with assessment, full economizer replacement or partial replacement. Selective replacement of a portion of the economizer was recommended.

  3. The economic impact of educational training assessed by the Handling Questionnaire with three inhalation devices in asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Povero, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Background The usability of inhalation devices depends on several factors, eg, the drug to inhale, device handling, and patients’ training. Usability is then presumed to have economic consequences. Aim To assess and compare the cost of patients’ training for proper usability of Breezhaler and Genuair (both dry powder inhalers) and Respimat (a soft mist inhaler) in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outpatients. Methods The acceptance and handling of the three devices were investigated by means of the Handling Questionnaire. The time spent in specific training for ensuring a proper actuation and the corresponding costs were also calculated. Linear and logistic regressions were used in order to investigate the factors influencing proper handling of the devices. A significance level of P<0.05 was accepted. Results According to both the patients’ and the nurse’s judgments, Genuair and Respimat were perceived as the easiest devices to use, while Breezhaler required the highest number of attempts for achieving the first proper actuation (2.6 vs 1.6; P<0.0001). The total training cost per patient (including the nurse’s time for demonstration and that for attending the patients’ maneuvers) was €1.38±€1.21. Breezhaler was found to be the most expensive as the cost per patient was €2.35±€1.26, which was three to four times higher than that of Genuair and Respimat (both devices involved a cost of <€1 per patient, with negligible differences between each other). Asthma and COPD patients showed a similar trend, with better outcomes reported for asthma patients probably due to lower age. Conclusion Substantial differences were found to exist in patients’ acceptability and handling of the three devices. The economic impact of specific training was also different and strictly related to the comprehension of the procedure for actuation of each device. Respimat as a soft mist inhaler and Genuair as an metered-dose inhaler proved to be

  4. Global economic impacts of severe Space Weather.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte In Den Baeumen, Hagen; Cairns, Iver

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) strong enough to create electromagnetic effects at latitudes below the auroral oval are frequent events, and could have substantial impacts on electric power transmission and telecommunication grids. Modern society’s heavy reliance on these domestic and international networks increases our susceptibility to such a severe Space Weather event. Using a new high-resolution model of the global economy we simulate the economic impact of large CMEs for 3 different planetary orientations. We account for the economic impacts within the countries directly affected as well as the post-disaster economic shock in partner economies through international trade. For the CMEs modeled the total global economic impacts would range from US 380 billion to US 1 trillion. Of this total economic shock 50 % would be felt in countries outside the zone of direct impact, leading to a loss in global GDP of 0.1 - 1 %. A severe Space Weather event could lead to global economic damages of the same order as other weather disasters, climate change, and extreme financial crisis.

  5. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare or...

  6. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall...

  7. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall...

  8. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall...

  9. 25 CFR 225.23 - Economic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall...

  10. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches. PMID:16532301

  11. Community Impact Assessment Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Alberta Development Council, Peace River.

    This handbook is intended for communities that wish to undertake their own community impact assessment (CIA). The goal is to enable communities to plan for changes before they occur, so they can cope with changes when they do occur. CIA involves forecasting and evaluating the full range of unintended consequences for the community of development…

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)

  13. Economics and societal impacts of tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, Howard B.

    2011-08-01

    During the spring of 2011, there were a record number of unusually strong and devastating tornadoes in the United States, which killed more than 500 people, the most in the country since 1953. Tornadoes are responsible for more than $1 billion annually (adjusted to 2007 U.S. dollars) in property damage and for disrupting thousands of lives and businesses. The most notable tornado this past spring devastated Joplin, Mo.; tornadoes also struck such diverse locations as Springfield, Mass.; Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Raleigh, N. C.; communities near Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis, Minn.; central and east Texas; Philadelphia, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. It is therefore timely to assess the economic and societal impacts of tornadoes. In this book the authors use various statistical techniques to evaluate the cost of tornadoes to society. They begin by reviewing the methodologies of formulating a tornado climatology across diverse regions according to tornado intensity, deaths, injuries, and property damage, and they then provide a history of the U.S. National Weather Service's (NWS) public warning efforts, describe tornado shelters and how the public responds to warnings, and suggest ways to reduce tornado risk.

  14. The Economic Impact of Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.; Sanderson, Allen R.; McHenry, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This essay describes methodological approaches and pitfalls common to studies of the economic impact of colleges and universities. Such studies often claim local benefits that imply annualized rates of return on local investment exceeding 100 percent. We address problems in these studies pertaining to the specification of the counterfactual, the…

  15. Economic Impact: Methodology and Overall Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes five phases of a comprehensive Economic Impact Study conducted by the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (NCSSM) from 2009-2011. The methodology and assumptions of those analyses is summarized for those wishing to conduct similar studies. The paper also documents highlighted results, such as the school's…

  16. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  17. 78 FR 12316 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has... regions. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to...

  18. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank United is re-notifying this... United Kingdom. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to...

  19. 77 FR 26277 - Economic Impact Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... domestically in Iraq. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to...

  20. Nutrition economics – characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; van Ganse, E.; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.; Poley, M. J.; Salminen, S.; Nuijten, M. J. C.

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310

  1. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  2. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    PubMed

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market. PMID:26318590

  4. Assessment of Economic Impact Among In-Patients with Non-Communicable Diseases in a Private Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are currently responsible for tremendous economic impact on households. Aim This study was done to estimate the direct, indirect and total costs incurred by households of in-patients with non-communicable diseases admitted in a Private tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in a private tertiary care hospital of Mangalore city in June 2012 by interviewing 30 patients and their attenders using a validated interview schedule. Results Direct cost constituted 58.6% of the total expenses during the course of stay in the hospital. Mean direct cost was more among patients with cancers (p=0.049). Indirect cost was associated with educational status (p=0.04), occupational status (p<0.001) and socio economic status (ses) (p<0.001) of patients. Total cost was more among patients from upper middle ses households (p=0.012). Direct and indirect cost constituted 5-10% each and total cost > 20% of the annual income of majority of households. Medical insurance scheme was not availed by 26 (86.7%) patients due to ignorance. Conclusion Economic burden imposed by a single admission among inpatients with NCDs was tremendous on their households. Hence, information on various medical insurance schemes needs to be popularized among people to improve its utilization. Health care providers need to introduce more financial schemes to minimize health care costs among poor households. PMID:27504316

  5. Assessing the impacts of climate change and socio-economic changes on flow and phosphorus flux in the Ganga river system.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Whitehead, P G; Sarkar, S; Sinha, R; Futter, M N; Butterfield, D; Caesar, J; Crossman, J

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has impacted and will continue to impact the natural environment and people around the world. Increasing temperatures and altered rainfall patterns combined with socio-economic factors such as population changes, land use changes and water transfers will affect flows and nutrient fluxes in river systems. The Ganga river, one of the largest river systems in the world, supports approximately 10% global population and more than 700 cities. Changes in the Ganga river system are likely to have a significant impact on water availability, water quality, aquatic habitats and people. In order to investigate these potential changes on the flow and water quality of the Ganga river, a multi-branch version of INCA Phosphorus (INCA-P) model has been applied to the entire river system. The model is used to quantify the impacts from a changing climate, population growth, additional agricultural land, pollution control and water transfers for 2041-2060 and 2080-2099. The results provide valuable information about potential effects of different management strategies on catchment water quality. PMID:25892033

  6. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ainembabazi, John Herbert; Tripathi, Leena; Rusike, Joseph; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Manyong, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA). GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Objective To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Data Sources The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA. Analysis We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana. Results On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production. Conclusion The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries. PMID:26414379

  7. The Costs and Benefits of SNOMED CT Implementation: An Economic Assessment Model.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Rainer; Birov, Strahil; Piesche, Klaus; Højen, Anne Randorff; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Dewenter, Heike; Nejad, Reza Fathollah; Thun, Sylvia; Volkert, Pim; Kufrin, Vesna Kronstein; Stroetmann, Veli

    2016-01-01

    As part of its investigations, the EU-funded ASSESS CT project developed an Economic Assessment Model for assessing SNOMED CT's and other terminologies' socio-economic impact in a systematic approach. Methodology and key elements of the model are presented: cost and benefit indicators for assessing deployment, and a cost-benefit analysis tool to collect, estimate, and evaluate data. PMID:27577421

  8. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  9. History of Virtual Water , International Trade and Economic Metabolism at the Time Colonialism and a First Attempt to Assess Their Impact on Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, F.

    2008-12-01

    This research considers the historical impact of virtual water into the geophysical arena by considering it as a human-led phenomenon that impacts the hydrologic system and, consequently, the environment as a whole. This paper is in line with the idea of including the humans into the water-balance model, and it is deepening the idea that this has to be done not only at the light of each watershed, but globally, looking at the role of water-trade embedded in food and tradable goods. Starting from a definition of what virtual water is, this research explores the role of crops export in the early U.S. Colonial time. As early as 1630 a huge biomass from here was already exported to the UK (the fur trade). In 1700 the tobacco export started, along with cereals exports and timber. An entire ecosystem has been "exported" in terms of water-embedded-in-goods. This was the beginning of a massive depletion of bio-mass stocks and flows, a raise in nitrogen discharge into the environment and its impact on the hydrological systems ( CUAHSI Summer Institute findings). Immigration and its effects on the water balance is also considered in this work. The experiment of interdisciplinary work of CUAHSI Summer Institute 2008 has proven that there is space for a historical reconstruction of evidence of human-led changes to the hydrological systems. This has been possible through the analysis of material stocks and flows, water-balance analysis of these stocks and flows, including human-led changes like international trade and population growth. This proposal will argue that these changes can also be identified by the term of 'socio- economic metabolism', in which societies are trading their goods internationally but taking the primary resources, including water, locally. This work will put the basis for the history of virtual water and its implications on both socio-economic metabolism and local geophysical changes.

  10. Downscaling socio-economic prospective scenarios with a participatory approach for assessing the possible impacts of future land use and cover changes on the vulnerability of societies to mountain risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grémont, Marine; Houet, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the peculiarities of their landscapes and topography, mountain areas bring together a large range of socio-economic activities whose sustainability is likely to be jeopardised by projected global changes. Disturbance of hydro-meteorological processes will alter slope stability and affect mountain hazards occurrence. Meanwhile, socio-economic transformations will influence land use and cover changes (LUCC), which in turn will affect both hazards occurrence and hazards consequences on buildings, infrastructures and societies. Already faced with recurrent natural hazards, mountain areas will have to cope with increasing natural risks in the future. Better understanding the pathways through which future socio-economic changes might influence LUCC at local scale is thus a crucial step to assess accurately the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of societies to mountain risks in a global change context. Scientists face two main issues in assessing spatially explicit impacts of socio-economic scenarios in mountainous landscapes. First, modelling LUCC at local scale still faces many challenges related to past (observed) LUCC and those to consider in the future in terms of dynamics and processes. Second, downscaling global socio-economic scenarios so that they provide useful input for local LUCC models requires a thorough analysis of local social dynamics and economic drivers at stake, which falls short with current practices. Numerous socio-economic prospective scenarios have recently been developed at regional, national and international scales. They mostly rely on literature reviews and expert workshops carried out through global sectoral analysis (e.g. agriculture, forestry or industry) but only few of these exercises attempt to decline global scenarios at smaller scales confronting global vision with information gathered from the field and stakeholders. Yet, vulnerability assessments are more useful when undertaken at local scales that are relevant to

  11. Assessing the economic impact of indirect liquefaction process improvements: Volume 1, Development of the integrated indirect liquefaction model and baseline case

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.C. . Civil Systems Div.)

    1990-10-01

    This report documents the development of an integrated indirect liquefaction system model, which processes input coal to refined liquid products, and the model's application in the analysis of a baseline case. The baseline case uses Shell gasification of coal followed by gas cleaning to produce a clean synthesis gas for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The raw liquid products are refined to produce gasoline and diesel. Costs of liquid products have been estimated for the baseline plant. The model also alloys many sensitivity studies to be performed so that the economic impacts of research and development advances can be quantified. When used in this manner, the model can provide research guidance for future indirect liquefaction studies. 18 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Assessment of the regional economic impacts of catastrophic events: CGE analysis of resource loss and behavioral effects of an RDD attack scenario.

    PubMed

    Giesecke, J A; Burns, W J; Barrett, A; Bayrak, E; Rose, A; Slovic, P; Suher, M

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the regional economic consequences of a hypothetical catastrophic event-attack via radiological dispersal device (RDD)-centered on the downtown Los Angeles area. We distinguish two routes via which such an event might affect regional economic activity: (i) reduction in effective resource supply (the resource loss effect) and (ii) shifts in the perceptions of economic agents (the behavioral effect). The resource loss effect relates to the physical destructiveness of the event, while the behavioral effect relates to changes in fear and risk perception. Both affect the size of the regional economy. RDD detonation causes little capital damage and few casualties, but generates substantial short-run resource loss via business interruption. Changes in fear and risk perception increase the supply cost of resources to the affected region, while simultaneously reducing demand for goods produced in the region. We use results from a nationwide survey, tailored to our RDD scenario, to inform our model values for behavioral effects. Survey results, supplemented by findings from previous research on stigmatized asset values, suggest that in the region affected by the RDD, households may require higher wages, investors may require higher returns, and customers may require price discounts. We show that because behavioral effects may have lingering long-term deleterious impacts on both the supply-cost of resources to a region and willingness to pay for regional output, they can generate changes in regional gross domestic product (GDP) much greater than those generated by resource loss effects. Implications for policies that have the potential to mitigate these effects are discussed. PMID:21232064

  14. Social and economic impacts of climate.

    PubMed

    Carleton, Tamma A; Hsiang, Solomon M

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact. For example, we compute that temperature depresses current U.S. maize yields by ~48%, warming since 1980 elevated conflict risk in Africa by ~11%, and future warming may slow global economic growth rates by ~0.28 percentage points per year. In general, we estimate that the economic and social burden of current climates tends to be comparable in magnitude to the additional projected impact caused by future anthropogenic climate changes. Overall, findings from this literature point to climate as an important influence on the historical evolution of the global economy, they should inform how we respond to modern climatic conditions, and they can guide how we predict the consequences of future climate changes. PMID:27609899

  15. The economic impacts of the tobacco settlement.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Gruber, Jonathan; Hartman, Raymond S; Landrum, Mary Beth; Newhouse, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2002-01-01

    Recent litigation against the major tobacco companies culminated in a master settlement agreement (MSA) under which the participating companies agreed to compensate most states for Medicaid expenses. Here the terms of the settlement are outlined and its economic implications analyzed using data from Massachusetts. The financial compensation to Massachusetts (and other states) under the MSA is substantial. However, this compensation is dwarfed by the value of the health impacts induced by the settlement. Specifically, Medicaid spending will fall, but only by a modest amount. More importantly, the value of health benefits ($65 billion through 2025 in 1999 dollars) from increased longevity is an order of magnitude greater than any other impacts or payments. The net efficiency implications of the settlement turn mainly on a comparison of the value of these health benefits relative to a valuation of the foregone pleasure of smoking. To the extent that the value of the health benefits is not offset by the value of the pleasure foregone, the economic impacts of the MSA will include a share of these health benefits. PMID:11887906

  16. Solar Heating and Cooling: An Economic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Arthur E.

    This study serves as an introduction to the important economic considerations that are necessary for an assessment of the potential for solar heating and cooling in the United States. The first chapter introduces the technology that is used to tap solar energy for residential and commercial applications and illustrates the potential significance…

  17. The NASA Lewis Research Center: An Economic Impact Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), established in 1941, is one of ten NASA research centers in the country. It is situated on 350 acres of land in Cuyahoga County and occupies more than 140 buildings and over 500 specialized research and test facilities. Most of LeRC's facilities are located in the City of Cleveland; some are located within the boundaries of the cities of Fairview Park and Brookpark. LeRC is a lead center for NASA's research, technology, and development in the areas of aeropropulsion and selected space applications. It is a center of excellence for turbomachinery, microgravity fluid and combustion research, and commercial communication. The base research and technology disciplines which serve both aeronautics and space areas include materials and structures, instrumentation and controls, fluid physics, electronics, and computational fluid dynamics. This study investigates LeRC's economic impact on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures LeRC's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. To fully explain LeRC's overall impact on the region, its contributions in the areas of technology transfer and education are also examined. The study uses a highly credible and widely accepted research methodology. First, regional economic multipliers based on input-output models were used to estimate the effect of LERC spending on the Northeast Ohio economy. Second, the economic models were complemented by interviews with industrial, civic, and university leaders to qualitatively assess LeRC's impact in the areas of technology transfer and education.

  18. The Economic Impact of the Long Beach Community College District, Fiscal 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, William N.

    The study described in this report employed the Caffrey and Isaacs model to assess the economic impact of the Long Beach Community College District on the local community. Following a summary of research findings, the report reviews the Caffrey and Isaacs model and two additional economic impact studies. Next, the report considers the relationship…

  19. The economic impact of AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, A W

    2000-09-01

    The experience of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africa is very different from that in the developed world. In the West, AIDS affects few people, and for those who are infected, it is an increasingly manageable illness. In Africa, huge numbers of people are being infected - mainly young adults through sexual intercourse. This is having a dramatic effect on key demographic indicators. Child mortality in some countries has doubled, while up to 25 years of life expectancy have been lost. The economic impact of AIDS is difficult to establish, but it is certainly leading to increased poverty in African families and communities. Development advances are being reversed, but the impact is incremental rather than catastrophic. PMID:11185534

  20. Economic impact analysis of proposed effluent standards and limitations for the coil coating industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The report provides an identification and analysis of the economic impacts which are likely to result from the promulgation of EPA's effluent regulations on the Coil Coating Industry. The primary economic impact variables assessed in the study include the costs of the proposed regulations and potential for these regulations to cause plant closures, price changes, unemployment, changes in industry profitability, structure and competition, shifts in the balance of foreign trade, new source impacts, and impacts on small businesses.

  1. Economic Impact of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587

  2. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series 4: Celiac disease in Canada. Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Richard N; Switzer, Connie M; Bridges, Ron J

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning celiac disease. PMID:22720277

  3. Assessment of the Economic Impact of Belimumab for the Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the Italian Setting: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of belimumab, a new biological treatment specifically developed for the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), in the Italian setting. SLE is a chronic non-organ specific autoimmune disease characterized by a disregulation of the immune system that involves many organs and systems. Methods A cost-effectiveness micro-simulation model with a lifetime horizon originally developed for the UK was adapted to the Italian setting. The analysis compared Standard of Care (SoC) alone vs belimumab plus SoC from a National Healthcare Service (NHS) and societal perspective. Health-economic consequences of treatments and organ damage progression were calculated. When available, Italian data were used, otherwise UK costs were converted using Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs). Utility values were based on the EQ-5D™ assessments in the belimumab clinical trials (BLISS 52 and 76). Results were discounted with 3% for costs and effects. A maximum belimumab treatment duration of 6 years was assumed and wastage costs were considered. Results Cost per life year gained (Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio, ICER) and cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) (Incremental Cost-Utility Ratio, ICUR) were €22,990 and €32,859, respectively. These values reduced to €20,119 and €28,754, respectively, when indirect costs were included. Conclusions It may be concluded that in the Italian setting and according to the guidelines of the Italian Association of Health Economics (IAHE), belimumab was shown to be cost-effective, in terms of both ICER and ICUR, (€25–40,000/QALY). PMID:26488751

  4. The economic impact of revision otologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nadimi, Sahar; Leonetti, John P; Pontikis, George

    2016-03-01

    Revision otologic surgery places a significant economic burden on patients and the healthcare system. We conducted a retrospective chart analysis to estimate the economic impact of revision canal-wall-down (CWD) mastoidectomy. We reviewed the medical records of all 189 adults who had undergone CWD mastoidectomy performed by the senior author between June 2006 and August 2011 at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Ill. Institutional charges and collections for all patients were extrapolated to estimate the overall healthcare cost of revision surgery in Illinois and at the national level. Of the 189 CWD mastoidectomies, 89 were primary and 100 were revision procedures. The total charge for the revision cases was $2,783,700, and the net reimbursement (collections) was $846,289 (30.4%). Using Illinois Hospital Association data, we estimated that reimbursement for 387 revision CWD mastoidectomies that had been performed in fiscal year 2011 was nearly $3.3 million. By extrapolating our data to the national level, we estimated that 9,214 patients underwent revision CWD mastoidectomy in the United States during 2011, which cost the national healthcare system roughly $76 million, not including lost wages and productivity. Known causes of failed CWD mastoidectomies that often result in revision surgery include an inadequate meatoplasty, a facial ridge that is too high, residual diseased air cells, and recurrent cholesteatoma. A better understanding of these factors can reduce the need for revision surgery, which could have a positive impact on the economic strain related to this procedure at the local, state, and national levels. PMID:26991218

  5. Economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Harry; Cavill, Nick; Racioppi, Francesca; Dinsdale, Hywell; Oja, Pekka; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Increasing regular physical activity is a key public health goal. One strategy is to change the physical environment to encourage walking and cycling, requiring partnerships with the transport and urban planning sectors. Economic evaluation is an important factor in the decision to fund any new transport scheme, but techniques for assessing the economic value of the health benefits of cycling and walking have tended to be less sophisticated than the approaches used for assessing other benefits. This study aimed to produce a practical tool for estimating the economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling. The tool was intended to be transparent, easy to use, reliable, and based on conservative assumptions and default values, which can be used in the absence of local data. It addressed the question: For a given volume of cycling within a defined population, what is the economic value of the health benefits? The authors used published estimates of relative risk of all-cause mortality among regular cyclists and applied these to levels of cycling defined by the user to produce an estimate of the number of deaths potentially averted because of regular cycling. The tool then calculates the economic value of the deaths averted using the "value of a statistical life." The outputs of the tool support decision making on cycle infrastructure or policies, or can be used as part of an integrated economic appraisal. The tool's unique contribution is that it takes a public health approach to a transport problem, addresses it in epidemiologic terms, and places the results back into the transport context. Examples of its use include its adoption by the English and Swedish departments of transport as the recommended methodologic approach for estimating the health impact of walking and cycling. PMID:23253656

  6. Impact of uncertainty in economic projections for stabilization scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, N. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Scenarios for the stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations typically take economic and technological growth, and thus the 'background', no-controls emissions trajectory, as essentially given, most commonly based on one or more of the IPCC SRES scenarios. One limitation of this set of scenarios is that they postulate a rather small range of future economic growth rates, based on extrapolation from recent experience as well as assumed tendencies such as international 'convergence'. Because there is no validated theoretical or empirical method to reliably predict long-term (decade to century) changes in the size and composition of the world economy, the uncertainty in economic path is large and likely understated by any measure derived from the ensemble of SRES scenarios. Considering a wider range of economic trajectories complicates stabilization scenarios. In particular, slow economic growth would imply that future generations will be relatively less able to invest in emissions controls or adapt to detrimental impacts of climate change. I show with a simple integrated assessment model that taking into consideration the possibility of economic slowdown generally heightens the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas emissions now, rather than in future decades, for stabilizing radiative forcing or welfare damage at a given target.

  7. Net Resource Assessment (NetRA): A Collaborative Effort Between USGS Science and Decisions Center, the Science Impact Laboratory for Policy and Economics (University of New Mexico) and Sandia National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookshire, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Adhikari, D. R.; Babis, C.; Broadbent, C. D.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2015-12-01

    Department of Interior Secretarial Order No. 3330, "… establishes a Department-wide mitigation strategy that will ensure consistency and efficiency in the review and permitting of infrastructure development projects and in conserving our Nation's valuable natural and cultural resources." The USGS Organic Act authorizes resource assessments to estimate the in-place potential capacity of energy, mineral, hydrologic, and biologic resources (20 Stat. 394; 43 U.S.C. 31) and later amendments. These two statements form the basis for the development of the Net Resources Assessment (NetRA) framework. NetRA is a policy-relevant, interdisciplinary approach to assessing natural resources availability in examining the regional-scale interrelationships between energy or mineral extraction and impact on ecosystem services. The systems dynamics approach (SD) emphasizes the interdependence of natural resource development and its effect on collocated ecosystem services over space and time. The example of the NetRA that will be presented focuses on tradeoffs associated with land management decisions in the West. The Piceance Basin, CO example that will be discussed involves development of a continuous gas deposit and its impact on Mule Deer and water quality. The SD is the hub for generating a range of simulated landscape outcomes. The probabilistic model provides an economic indicator as to the expected net societal benefit of economic development and biophysical indicators for ecosystem services affected in the region. Both natural and economic indicators are associated with each outcome via a tradeoff analysis the can be used for risk analysis. The NetRA also retains map attributes for before and after map comparisons to specific alternatives for an existing baseline. The model has three stages: map-based scenario development with slider bars (choice variables), side-by-side extraction and ecosystem services sub-models, and integrated multiple resource trade-off outcomes.

  8. Scoping for Social Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Ross, Helen

    2000-12-01

    Social assessment combines research, analytic, and participatory processes to identify, describe, and interpret changes in the ?human environment? that result from any of a wide variety of change agents -- projects, policies, or planning activities. Scoping for social impact assessment draws upon these same three processes - research, analysis, and participation - to: - Disclose information about the proposed action, preliminary estimates of impacts, and plans for the decision making and assessment effort - Initiate dialogue with the interested and potentially affected publics and decision makers - Establish the focus and level of detail of the assessment, identify particular issues that need to be addressed, and clarify how potentially affected publics will be consulted and involved. This chapter describes the function and key objectives of the scoping process, explains the assessment framework and the conventions and issues that set the context for the scoping process, provides some suggestions about how to plan and conduct scoping for a social assessment, and discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in designing an effective scoping process for social impact assessment. Our approach recognises that social scientists may be involved in assessment tasks that involve other disciplinary areas. This may be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA, the analysis of the impacts of policies or plans, or the combination of impact assessment with planning), or a planning process.

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  10. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

  11. Health and economic impacts of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, S D; Solomon, S L; Blake, P A

    1987-01-01

    For comparison of the impacts of infections due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria with those of infections due to antimicrobial-susceptible strains of the same bacteria, data were evaluated from 175 published and unpublished reports of investigations of nosocomial and community-acquired infections with selected bacteria. The evaluation of outcomes of hospital-acquired infections with resistant organisms was often confounded by risk factors also associated with poor outcomes. Nevertheless, for both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, the mortality, the likelihood of hospitalization, and the length of hospital stay were usually at least twice as great for patients infected with drug-resistant strains as for those infected with drug-susceptible strains of the same bacteria. Poor outcomes could be attributed both to the expected effects of ineffective antimicrobial therapy and to the unexpected occurrence of drug-resistant infections complicated by prior antimicrobial therapy for other medical problems. Although the adverse economic and health effects of drug-resistant bacterial infections can only be roughly quantified, it is concluded that antimicrobial resistance is an important health problem and an economic burden to society. PMID:3321356

  12. The Economic Impact of Weight Regain

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Caroline E.; Lester, Erica L. W.; Chuck, Anderson W.; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the direct costs of obesity and primary bariatric surgery, the rate of weight recidivism and surgical revision, and any costs therein. Results. The quoted cost of obesity in Canada was $2.0 billion–$6.7 billion in 2013 CAD. The median percentage of bariatric procedures that fail due to weight gain or insufficient weight loss is 20% (average: 21.1% ± 10.1%, range: 5.2–39, n = 10). Revision of primary surgeries on average ranges from 2.5% to 18.4%, and depending on the procedure accounts for an additional cost between $14,000 and $50,000 USD per patient. Discussion. There was a significant deficit of the literature pertaining to the cost of revision surgery as compared with primary bariatric surgery. As such, the cycle of weight recidivism and bariatric revisions has not as of yet been introduced into any previous cost analysis of bariatric surgery. PMID:24454339

  13. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  14. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  15. Multi-basin, Multi-sector Drought Economic Impact Model in Python: Development and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenson, J. L.; Zhu, L.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Bearden, B.; Johnson, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most economically disastrous natural hazards, one whose impacts are exacerbated by the lack of abrupt onset and offset that define tornados and hurricanes. In the United States, about 30 billion dollars losses is caused by drought in 2012, resulting in widespread economic impacts for societies, industries, agriculture, and recreation. And in California, the drought cost statewide economic losses about 2.2 billion, with a total loss of 17,100 seasonal and part-time jobs. Driven by a variety of factors including climate change, population growth, increased water demands, alteration to land cover, drought occurs widely all over the world. Drought economic consequence assessment tool are greatly needed to allow decision makers and stakeholders to anticipate and manage effectively. In this study, current drought economic impact modeling methods were reviewed. Most of these models only deal with the impact in the agricultural sector with a focus on a single basin; few of these models analyze long term impact. However, drought impacts are rarely restricted to basin boundaries, and cascading economic impacts are likely to be significant. A holistic approach to multi-basin, multi-sector drought economic impact assessment is needed.In this work, we developed a new model for drought economic impact assessment, Drought Economic Impact Model in Python (PyDEM). This model classified all business establishments into thirteen categories based on NAICS, and using a continuous dynamic social accounting matrix approach, coupled with calculation of the indirect consequences for the local and regional economies and the various resilience. In addition, Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model was combined for analyzing drought caused soil erosion together with agriculture production, and then the long term impacts of drought were achieved. A visible output of this model was presented in GIS. In this presentation, Choctawhatchee-Pea-Yellow River Basins, Alabama

  16. Economic impact of syndesmosis hardware removal.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Trapper A J; Matthews, Leslie J; Hanselman, Andrew E; Hubbard, David F; Bramer, Michelle A; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Ankle syndesmosis injuries are commonly seen with 5-10% of sprains and 10% of ankle fractures involving injury to the ankle syndesmosis. Anatomic reduction has been shown to be the most important predictor of clinical outcomes. Optimal surgical management has been a subject of debate in the literature. The method of fixation, number of screws, screw size, and number of cortices are all controversial. Postoperative hardware removal has also been widely debated in the literature. Some surgeons advocate for elective hardware removal prior to resuming full weightbearing. Returning to the operating room for elective hardware removal results in increased cost to the patient, potential for infection or complication(s), and missed work days for the patient. Suture button devices and bioabsorbable screw fixation present other options, but cortical screw fixation remains the gold standard. This retrospective review was designed to evaluate the economic impact of a second operative procedure for elective removal of 3.5mm cortical syndesmosis screws. Two hundred and two patients with ICD-9 code for "open treatment of distal tibiofibular joint (syndesmosis) disruption" were identified. The medical records were reviewed for those who underwent elective syndesmosis hardware removal. The primary outcome measurements included total hospital billing charges and total hospital billing collection. Secondary outcome measurements included average individual patient operative costs and average operating room time. Fifty-six patients were included in the study. Our institution billed a total of $188,271 (USD) and collected $106,284 (55%). The average individual patient operating room cost was $3579. The average operating room time was 67.9 min. To the best of our knowledge, no study has previously provided cost associated with syndesmosis hardware removal. Our study shows elective syndesmosis hardware removal places substantial economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system

  17. Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

  18. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  19. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-06-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  20. Economics Framework for the 2006 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Stephen; Melican, Claire

    2006-01-01

    This document provides a guide for the development of the 2006 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Economics Assessment. The framework is designed to assess the outcomes of student education in and understanding of economics in grade 12 as part of NAEP. Economic literacy is defined as the ability to identify, analyze, and evaluate…

  1. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  2. The Economic Impact of the Community College System on the State of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Scott M.

    In an effort to assess the economic impact of the Florida Community College System (FCCS) on the state, two theoretical models were utilized. The first model determines the FCCS's total expenditures in supplies and services, and then applies to these figures a mathematical multiplier to account for the additional economic business generated by…

  3. What Does the Impact Statement Say About Economic Impacts? Coping With Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Ronald C.

    Local public officials may be confronted with the use of economic multipliers when asked to react to project proposals, to environmental impact statements, or to other studies containing economic impact analyses. Employment, income, and output multipliers are tools for estimating private sector economic impacts of a new development within a local…

  4. 40 CFR 225.3 - Procedure for invoking economic impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 33 CFR 209.120 and 209.145. (b) If the decision of the Chief of Engineers is that ocean... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedure for invoking economic impact... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.3 Procedure for invoking economic impact....

  5. 40 CFR 225.3 - Procedure for invoking economic impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 33 CFR 209.120 and 209.145. (b) If the decision of the Chief of Engineers is that ocean... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure for invoking economic impact... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.3 Procedure for invoking economic impact....

  6. 40 CFR 225.3 - Procedure for invoking economic impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 33 CFR 209.120 and 209.145. (b) If the decision of the Chief of Engineers is that ocean... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedure for invoking economic impact... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.3 Procedure for invoking economic impact....

  7. 40 CFR 225.3 - Procedure for invoking economic impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 33 CFR 209.120 and 209.145. (b) If the decision of the Chief of Engineers is that ocean... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure for invoking economic impact... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.3 Procedure for invoking economic impact....

  8. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted by DOE/MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the paper is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs.

  9. Defense Economic Impact Modeling System (DEIMS). A New Concept in Economic Forecasting for Defense Expenditures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, David L.

    The Defense Economic Impact Modeling System (DEIMS) analyzes the economic effect of defense expenditures on the United States economy by using a consistent, reliable framework of economic models and government policy assumptions. Planning information on defense requirements is also provided to private sector firms. The DEIMS allows the Department…

  10. The Impact of High School Economics on the College Principles of Economics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasfield, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 1,119 students in introductory college economics courses to determine the impact of high school economics on student achievement. Finds that prior high school economics was positively and significantly related to students grades in both introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics courses. (CFR)

  11. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining.

    PubMed

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case study landfill as greater environmental benefits are foreseen in several impact categories compared to the landfill's current situation (the 'Do-nothing' scenario). Among the considered processes, the thermal treatment process dominates both the environmental and economic performances of ELFM. Improvements in the electrical efficiency of thermal treatment process, the calorific value of refuse derived fuel and recovery efficiencies of different waste fractions lead the performance of ELFM towards an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible direction. Although the environmental and economic profiles of ELFM will differ from case to case, the results of this analysis can be used as a benchmark for future ELFM projects. PMID:25708403

  12. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility

    PubMed Central

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Coble, Keith H.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Szmania, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms. PMID:26114546

  13. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility.

    PubMed

    Pendell, Dustin L; Marsh, Thomas L; Coble, Keith H; Lusk, Jayson L; Szmania, Sara C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms. PMID:26114546

  14. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products. PMID:27123173

  15. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products. PMID:27123173

  16. The Economic Impact of Organized Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

    1982-01-01

    Organized camping for youth and adults has demonstrated economic benefits for many communities. A questionnaire was sent to various agencies and private individuals to collect information on the economic feasibility of organized camps. The data indicated that 300 organized camps in Wisconsin contributed approximately $51 million to the state's…

  17. The Economic Impact of Autism in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarbrink, Krister; Knapp, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This study estimated the economic consequences of autism in the United Kingdom based on published evidence and the reanalysis of data holdings at the Centre for the Economics of Mental Health. Annual societal cost was estimated to exceed 1 billion pounds. The individual lifetime cost exceeded 2.4 million pounds. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  18. Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.

  19. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  20. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  1. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    S. Hendrickson; S.Tegen

    2009-12-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local(usually state) level. First developed by NREL's Wind Powering America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels,concentrating solar power, coal, and natural gas power plants.

  2. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

  3. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  4. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  5. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs. PMID:27174614

  6. The Economic Impact of Georgian Court College on the Local Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Edwarda

    This analysis initiates Georgian Court College administrative effort to assess the impact of the college on the local economy. As sources of economic impact, specific attention is given to: number of persons employed by the college; amount of money expended by the college (salaries, locally delivered goods and services, and locally produced…

  7. The Economic Impact of Jefferson College on the Community and the State, FY 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson Coll., Hillsboro, MO.

    This document is a report on the economic impact of Jefferson College on Jefferson County and the State of Missouri. The information from the this study can be used to support the community college's effectiveness, assessment, public relations, and accreditation efforts. Results show that: (1) the community college impacts the county economically…

  8. The Economic Impact of Schenectady County Community College on Schenectady County, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Erma Ruth

    This report on the economic impact of Schenectady County Community College (SCCC) uses a modification of the Caffrey and Isaacs model to assess SCCC-related local business volume, SCCC costs and benefits to the Schenectady County government, and the likely impact on the county if SCCC did not exist. Part I provides background to the study,…

  9. Economic impact study of consumer product efficiencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-30

    The economic impact study of household appliance efficiencies is briefly reported. Task I, Direct Impact on Industry, contains 4 subtasks: materials, labor inputs, energy inputs, and investment. Task II, Direct Impact on Consumers, contains 3 subtasks: life-cycle cost to the consumer, usage patterns, and long-term demand forecast and analysis. The 2 subtasks in Task III, Energy Savings and Impact on Utilities, are residential energy savings and cost and impact on utility generating capacity.

  10. Energy/economic model analysis. Macroeconomic impacts of research and development in gas supply and end use technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettle, R. J., IV; Hudson, E. A.

    1980-06-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) needs to consider the economic impact of the various technologies whose research and development is supported by GRI funding. Three energy-economic models are useful for such a technology assessment. These models are: Energy Economic Modeling System, Energy Policy Model, and Time Stepped Energy System Optimization/Long Term Inter-Industry Transaction Model. These three models were used to help in the economic impact evaluation of various GRI research and development programs.

  11. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  12. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  13. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

    2014-01-15

    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions. PMID:24374467

  14. Economic impacts of invasive species in forests: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas P; Aukema, Juliann E; Von Holle, Betsy; Liebhold, Andrew; Sills, Erin

    2009-04-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally eradicated the American chestnut across eastern North America. Assessments of the economic costs and losses induced by nonnative forest pests are required for policy development and need to adequately account for all of the economic impacts induced by rare, highly damaging pests. To date, countrywide economic evaluations of forest-invasive species have proceeded by multiplying a unit value (price) by a physical quantity (volume of forest products damaged) to arrive at aggregate estimates of economic impacts. This approach is inadequate for policy development because (1) it ignores the dynamic impacts of biological invasions on the evolution of prices, quantities, and market behavior, and (2) it fails to account for the loss in the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem services, such as landscape aesthetics, outdoor recreation, and the knowledge that healthy forest ecosystems exist. A review of the literature leads one to anticipate that the greatest economic impacts of invasive species in forests are due to the loss of nonmarket values. We proposed that new methods for evaluating aggregate economic damages from forest-invasive species need to be developed that quantify market and nonmarket impacts at microscales that are then extended using spatially explicit models to provide aggregate estimates of impacts. Finally, policies that shift the burden of economic impacts from taxpayers and forest landowners onto parties responsible for introducing or spreading invasives, whether through the imposition of tariffs on products suspected of imposing unacceptable risks on native forest ecosystems or by requiring

  15. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume II: economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an economic assessment of the specialized study areas, reviewing recommendations from the specialized studies in relation to each other and to the GOJ's 5-year Development and Energy Sector Plans. After analyzing the effects of these recommendations on Jamaica's energy situation and economy, the recommendations are integrated and prioritized in a proposed Combined Energy Program (CEP) which is recommended for immediate GOJ implementation. Highest priority items include research, testing, training, and tax structures to encourage solar hot water and agricultural drying systems; installation of small- and medium-size biogas plants; and negotiating joint port usage for a possible coal-fired electricity plant.

  16. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 227.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall...

  17. Climate Change Impacts for the Conterminous USA: An Integrated Assessment Part 7. Economic Analysis of Field Crops and Land Use with Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, Ronald D.; Edmonds, James A.

    2005-03-01

    PNNL's Agriculture and Land Use (AgLU) model is used to demonstrate the impact of potential changes in climate on agricultural production and land use in the United States. AgLU simulates production of four crop types in several world regions, in 15-year time steps from 1990 to 2095. Changes in yield of major field crops in the United States, for 12 climate scenarios, are obtained from simulations of the EPIC crop growth model. Results from the HUMUS model are used to constrain crop irrigation, and the BIOME3 model is used to simulate productivity of unmanaged ecosystems. Assumptions about changes in agricultural productivity outside the United States are treated on a scenario basis, either responding in the same way as in the United States, or not responding to climate.

  18. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold

    SciTech Connect

    Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

    2007-06-01

    The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

  19. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  20. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  1. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  2. Economic impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Gianessi, Leonard P

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant crops have been widely planted since their introduction in 1996. Growers have numerous choices for herbicide treatments and have chosen to plant glyphosate-resistant crops on the basis of economic factors. The economic effects of the widespread planting of glyphosate-resistant crops have included reductions in herbicide expenses, increases in seed costs, increased yield and changes in the relative profitability of crops that has resulted in changes in which crops are planted. In addition, non-pecuniary benefits have accrued as a result of the simplicity of weed management in the glyphosate-resistant crop systems. PMID:18181242

  3. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product ‘Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  4. Climate impact assessment, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This report considers unusual or abnormal meteorological or geophysical events (unusual in time, location, intensity, frequency or persistence) that will likely have an impact on societal or economic activities in a special and significant manner. This report considers: 1) violent meteorological events such as damaging thunderstorms, tornadoes, and tropical and winter storms, 2) non-violent meteorological events, including mild, unusually pleasant weather, lack of precipitation, and temperature extremes, 3) meteorologically related events, particularly drought, floods, forest fires and ice jams, and 4) geophysical events such as avalanches, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamies, waves, tides and shoreline erosion.

  5. Economic impact of large public programs: The NASA experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginzburg, E.; Kuhn, J. W.; Schnee, J.; Yavitz, B.

    1976-01-01

    The economic impact of NASA programs on weather forecasting and the computer and semiconductor industries is discussed. Contributions to the advancement of the science of astronomy are also considered.

  6. Biogrouting compared to jet grouting: environmental (LCA) and economical assessment.

    PubMed

    Suer, Pascal; Hallberg, Niklas; Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Holm, Goran

    2009-03-01

    In order to predict consequences of replacing jet grouting with biogrouting, and identify major contributors to the cost of both technologies, a large road project in Stockholm, Sweden, was used as a case study. Jet grouting had been used to seal the contact between sheet piling and bedrock, biogrouting for the same function was computed. A comparative environmental and economical assessment was carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA). The results show that biogrouting was cheaper than jet grouting and would have had lower environmental impact. The major difference was the transport and use of heavier equipment for jet grouting. Biogrouting also used less water and produced less landfilled waste. However, the production of urea and CaCl(2) for biogrouting required much energy. PMID:19184701

  7. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The findings are reported of research into the relationships between technological progress and economic development, with emphasis on several ways in which NASA research and development has aided in the accumulation and commercial application of new or improved scientific and technological knowledge.

  8. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  9. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  10. Impacts of a Warming Arctic - Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    2004-12-01

    The Arctic is now experiencing some of the most rapid and severe climate change on earth. Over the next 100 years, climate change is expected to accelerate, contributing to major physical, ecological, social, and economic changes, many of which have already begun. Changes in arctic climate will also affect the rest of the world through increased global warming and rising sea levels. Impacts of a Warming Arctic is a plain language synthesis of the key findings of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), designed to be accessible to policymakers and the broader public. The ACIA is a comprehensively researched, fully referenced, and independently reviewed evaluation of arctic climate change. It has involved an international effort by hundreds of scientists. This report provides vital information to society as it contemplates its responses to one of the greatest challenges of our time. It is illustrated in full color throughout.

  11. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  12. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  13. Assessing economic impacts to coastal recreation and tourism from oil and gas development in the Oregon and Washington Outer Continental Shelf. Inventory and evaluation of Washington and Oregon coastal recreation resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.M.; Johnson, N.S.; Chapman, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the three-part study was to assist Materials Management Service (MMS) planners in evaluation of the anticipated social impact of proposed oil and gas development on the environment. The purpose of the report is primarily to analyze the econometric models of the Dornbusch study. The authors examine, in detail, key aspects of the gravity, consumer surplus, and economic effects (input-output) models. The purpose is two-fold. First, the authors evaluate the performance of the model in satisfying the objective for which it was developed: analyzing economic impacts of OCS oil and gas development in California. Second, the authors evaluate the applicability of the modeling approach employed in the Dornbusch study for analyzing potential OCS development impacts in Washington and Oregon. At the end of the report, the authors offer suggestions for any future study of economic impacts of OCS development in Washington and Oregon. The recommendations concern future data gathering procedures and alternative modeling approaches for measuring economic impacts.

  14. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

  15. The economic impact of NASA R and D spending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    The economic impact of R and D spending, particularly NASA R and D spending, on the U. S. economy was evaluated. The crux of the methodology and hence the results revolve around the fact that it was necessary to consider both the demand effects of increased spending and the supply effects of a higher rate of technological growth and a larger total productive capacity. The demand effects are primarily short-run in nature, while the supply effects do not begin to have a significant effect on aggregate economic activity until the fifth year after increased expenditures have taken place. The short-term economic impact of alternative levels of NASA expenditures for 1975 was first examined. The long-term economic impact of increased levels of NASA R and D spending over a sustained period was then evaluated.

  16. Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

  17. Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

  18. The Economic Impact of Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Blenda J.

    2005-01-01

    New England colleges and universities impact their local and regional economies in many ways. They are often major employers and purchasers. They construct new facilities, attract visitors, provide cultural and intellectual enrichment for the community and boost property values. The knowledge produced by New England's higher education institutions…

  19. Estimating the economic impacts of ecosystem restoration—Methods and case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Skrabis, Kristin; Sidon, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    This analysis estimates the economic impacts of a wide variety of ecosystem restoration projects associated with U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) lands and programs. Specifically, the report provides estimated economic impacts for 21 DOI restoration projects associated with Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration cases and Bureau of Land Management lands. The study indicates that ecosystem restoration projects provide meaningful economic contributions to local economies and to broader regional and national economies, and, based on the case studies, we estimate that between 13 and 32 job-years4 and between $2.2 and $3.4 million in total economic output5 are contributed to the U.S. economy for every $1 million invested in ecosystem restoration. These results highlight the magnitude and variability in the economic impacts associated with ecosystem restoration projects and demonstrate how investments in ecosystem restoration support jobs and livelihoods, small businesses, and rural economies. In addition to providing improved information on the economic impacts of restoration, the case studies included with this report highlight DOI restoration efforts and tell personalized stories about each project and the communities that are positively affected by restoration activities. Individual case studies are provided in appendix 1 of this report and are available from an online database at https://www.fort.usgs.gov/economic-impacts-restoration.

  20. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  1. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

  2. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, S; Merrill, S

    2011-08-31

    Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President's commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and

  3. The High School Economics Course and Its Impact on Economic Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Norris A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study using a switching regression model to correct for biases in assessing the gain in economic knowledge from high school economic courses. Explains that regressors used included geometry, civics, female, African-American, college, twelfth, and dummy variables. Reports substantial differences between students who elect…

  4. Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Frances C.; Diaz, Delavane B.

    2015-02-01

    Integrated assessment models compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth rates in the DICE model through two pathways, total factor productivity growth and capital depreciation. This damage specification, even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, substantially slows GDP growth in poor regions but has more modest effects in rich countries. Optimal climate policy in this model stabilizes global temperature change below 2 °C by eliminating emissions in the near future and implies a social cost of carbon several times larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of climate change impacts on economic growth, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages and GDP are three critical uncertainties requiring further research. In particular, optimal mitigation rates are much lower if countries become less sensitive to climate change impacts as they develop, making this a major source of uncertainty and an important subject for future research.

  5. The economic impact of obesity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ross A; Levine, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US), more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of economic impact linked with the obesity epidemic: direct medical costs, productivity costs, transportation costs, and human capital costs. We review current evidence on each set of costs in turn, and identify important gaps for future research and potential trends in future economic impacts of obesity. Although more comprehensive analysis of costs is needed, substantial economic impacts of obesity are identified in all four categories by existing research. The magnitude of potential economic impact underscores the importance of the obesity epidemic as a focus for policy and a topic for future research. PMID:21437097

  6. Using Economic Impact Models as an Educational Tool in Community Economic Development Programming: Lessons from Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Martin; Deller, Steven C.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines an educational process designed to help provide communities with economic, social, and political information using community economic impact modeling. Describes the process of community meetings using economic impact, community demographics, and fiscal impact modules and the local preconditions that help make the process successful. (SK)

  7. Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2000-08-10

    The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas. PMID:10989923

  8. The economic impact of AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wehrwein, P

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the economic repercussions for families and communities affected with AIDS in Africa. It was reported that one-quarter of the working population in Africa have been inflicted with AIDS and the money saved for basic necessities and investment in the children's future is used up to cover the high cost of medical expenses. An annual health care expenditure by the government of less than $100 is not enough to cover the cost of antiretroviral therapy of $10,000-20,000 per individual. When these patients die, the government must bear the burden of caring for the orphaned children and elderly. Also, the increasing number of HIV infection has taken a toll on the medical resources thus resulting to a rise in the price of medical services. Gross Domestic Product (GNP) has been used to evaluate the effect of AIDS in the region's productivity but was found out that it is the wrong way of measuring the effect. A larger context of human welfare must be considered and nations must realize that they lost 10-20 productive years due to a single disease. An estimate of just an annual decrease of 1.5% in the incidence of AIDS could increase the GNP by 56% in that same period. These figures are used as measures on a massive representation of human suffering and tragedy but they do not measure the agony of the survivors and ignore the loss of the dead and the dying. PMID:12322292

  9. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Skamania County, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  10. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  11. Economic impacts of ethanol fuels from crops

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Richardson, J.

    1981-08-01

    This paper presents selected results of simulations of agricultural production of ethanol feedstocks from grains and sugar crops. Production levels of up to 5 billion gallons per year were simulated using various combinations of corn, high energy sorghum, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets. Major results include (1) at up to 2 billion gallons per year of ethanol, impacts on the agricultural sector are mild; (2) beyond 2 billion gallons per year, diversification away from corn appears to be necessary to avoid major feed price inflation; (3) farm income unambiguously rises in response to higher crop prices; and (4) exports of food grains are affected differently by alternative feedstocks, and high-energy sorghum shows a good potential for competing with food grains.

  12. Economic Impact of Pharmacy Graduates on a Regional Economy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Robert; Bozman, Carl S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the impact of recent pharmacy graduates on a local economy. Methods Input-output analysis was applied to data from Spokane County, Washington, in 2006 and the findings were reviewed and conclusions were drawn. Results The local college of pharmacy added nearly $1 million (in 2006) directly to the local economy. New pharmacists added nearly $400,000 in direct value. However, because the graduates alleviated a shortage of pharmacists in the area, thereby avoiding both the tangible and intangible (eg, human health) economic costs of a continued shortage, the true economic impact may have been even greater. Conclusions Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) graduates entering the workforce add substantial value, both to the local retail pharmacy industry specifically and the local economy in general. Thus, the economic impact of the pharmacy practice program training these students is also substantial. PMID:19564989

  13. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  14. Health economics of dengue: a systematic literature review and expert panel's assessment.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Mark E; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I; Shepard, Donald S; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S; Kuritsky, Joel N

    2011-03-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  15. Report on the Economic Impact of American Indians in the State of Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Margaret Abudu; And Others

    This report assesses the economic impact created by the presence of American Indians in Oklahoma. In 1980, American Indians in Oklahoma numbered 169,459, or 5.6% of the state's population. Most Indians lived in central and eastern counties. Compared to the general population, Indians were younger, less educated, and had higher unemployment and…

  16. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  17. Economic Impacts of the Category 3 Marine Rule on Great Lakes Shipping

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a scenario-based economic assessment of the impacts of EPA’s Category 3 Marine Diesel Engines Rule on certain cargo movements in the Great Lakes shipping network. During the proposed phase of the rulemaking, Congress recommended that EPA conduct such a study, and EPA wil...

  18. Economic impacts of climate change on water resources in the coterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A national-scale simulation-optimization model was created to generate estimates of economic impacts associated with changes in water supply and demand as influenced by climate change. Water balances were modeled for the 99 assessment sub-regions, and are presented for 18 water r...

  19. Animal Genetic Resource Trade Flows: Economic Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout human history, livestock producers have relied on a vibrant international exchange of genetic resources to achieve improvements in the quality and productivity of their animals. In recent years, however, some observers have argued that changes in the legal, technological, and economic env...

  20. Economic impact profiling of CBRN events: focusing on biological incidents.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence. PMID:25048832

  1. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  2. Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct). A software tool for rapidly approximating economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Loose, Verne William; Starks, Shirley J.; Ellebracht, Lory A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct) analysis tool that has been in use for the last 5 years to rapidly estimate approximate economic impacts for disruptions due to natural or manmade events. It is based on and derived from the well-known and extensively documented input-output modeling technique initially presented by Leontief and more recently further developed by numerous contributors. REAcct provides county-level economic impact estimates in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment for any area in the United States. The process for using REAcct incorporates geospatial computational tools and site-specific economic data, permitting the identification of geographic impact zones that allow differential magnitude and duration estimates to be specified for regions affected by a simulated or actual event. Using these data as input to REAcct, the number of employees for 39 directly affected economic sectors (including 37 industry production sectors and 2 government sectors) are calculated and aggregated to provide direct impact estimates. Indirect estimates are then calculated using Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers. The interdependent relationships between critical infrastructures, industries, and markets are captured by the relationships embedded in the inputoutput modeling structure.

  3. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  5. Mapping coal quality parameters for economic assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.; Smith, C.J.; Ashton, K.C.; McColloch, G.H. Jr.

    1988-08-01

    This study recommends mapping procedures for a data base of coal quality parameters. The West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey has developed a data base that includes about 10,000 analyses of coal samples representing most seams in West Virginia. Coverage is irregular and widely spaced; minimal sample spacing is generally greater than 1 mi. Geologists use this data base to answer public and industry requests for maps that show areas meeting coal quality specifications.

  6. Gainesville Junior College Community Impact Study/Needs Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Barbara; And Others

    Procedures, methodology, and findings are reported for a six-part study undertaken by Gainesville Junior College (GJC) to: assess the economic impact of the college on its service area; determine community attitudes concerning the degree to which GJC has met stated goals and objectives; and identify needed services and programs that GJC has yet to…

  7. An approach to integrate impact scoping with environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Alan J.; Ross, William A.

    1992-07-01

    Impact scoping is the process of identifying important issues of a proposal and focusing the environmental impact assessment (EIA) on the high-priority issues. Although impact scoping in one form or another has been inherent to EIA for some time, documentation of its development and discussion of refinements to impact scoping processes have not been forthcoming. This article traces the development of impact scoping through time and highlights the need for such processes in EIA. A focused environmental assessment (FEA) approach to impact scoping that is suitable for implementation in an EIA is presented here and advantages of its use are delineated. FEA is a three-staged process that encourages impact scoping through progressive steps including impact identification, assessment and management planning. FEA combines a suite of EIA methods including: issues matrices, impact hypotheses, valued ecosystem components, and stakeholder participation sessions to effectively integrate impact scoping with EIA.

  8. Methodology for the economic assessment of PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Brikman, Inna; Kishore, Sheel; Kundel, Harold L.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    1994-05-01

    Most economic studies of Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) to date, including our own, have focused on the perspective of the radiology department and its direct costs. However, many researchers have suggested additional cost savings that may accrue to the medical center as a whole through increased operational capacity, fewer lost images, rapid simultaneous access to images, and other decreases in resource utilization. We describe here a new economic analysis framework we have developed to estimate these potential additional savings. Our framework is comprised of two parallel measurement methods. The first method estimates the cost of care actually delivered through online capture of charge entries from the hospital's billing computer and from the clinical practices' billing database. Multiple regression analyses will be used to model cost of care, length of stay, and other estimates of resource utilization. The second method is the measurement of actual resource utilization, such as technologist time, frequency and duration of film searches, and equipment utilization rates. The costs associated with changes in resource use will be estimated using wage rates and other standard economic methods. Our working hypothesis is that, after controlling for the underlying clinical and demographic differences among patients, patients imaged using a PACS will have shorter lengths of stay, shorter exam performance times, and decreased costs of care. We expect our analysis framework to explain and resolve some of the conflicting views of the cost-effectiveness of PACS.

  9. Assessment of the Undergraduate Economics Major: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Steven C.; Nelson, Michael A.; Stratton, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Economics departments are faced with growing demands to document what their graduates have learned on completion of the undergraduate major. The results of a national survey of economics department chairs in the United States reveal that nearly two-thirds of the departments have a formal assessment plan. There is substantial agreement on the most…

  10. Economic impact of fuel properties on turbine powered business aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to estimate the economic impact on the turbine-powered business aviation fleet of potential changes in the composition and properties of aviation fuel. Secondary objectives include estimation of the sensitivity of costs to specific fuel properties, and an assessment of the directions in which further research should be directed. The study was based on the published characteristics of typical and specific modern aircraft in three classes; heavy jet, light jet, and turboprop. Missions of these aircraft were simulated by computer methods for each aircraft for several range and payload combinations, and assumed atmospheric temperatures ranging from nominal to extremely cold. Five fuels were selected for comparison with the reference fuel, nominal Jet A. An overview of the data, the mathematic models, the data reduction and analysis procedure, and the results of the study are given. The direct operating costs of the study fuels are compared with that of the reference fuel in the 1990 time-frame, and the anticipated fleet costs and fuel break-even costs are estimated.

  11. Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; Bianchi, Alessandra; Dottori, Francesco; Burek, Peter

    2016-06-01

    River floods generate a large share of the socio-economic impact of weather-driven hazards worldwide. Accurate assessment of their impact is a key priority for governments, international organization, reinsurance companies and emergency responders. Yet, available databases of flood losses over large domains are often affected by gaps and inconsistencies in reported figures. In this work, a framework to reconstruct the economic damage and population affected by river floods at continental scale is applied. Pan-European river flow simulations are coupled with a high-resolution impact assessment framework based on 2-D inundation modelling. Two complementary methods are compared in their ability to estimate the climatological average flood impact and the impact of each flood event in Europe between 1990 and 2013. The event-based method reveals key features, such as the ability to include changes in time of all three components of risk, namely hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Furthermore, it skilfully reproduces the socio-economic impact of major flood events in the past two decades, including the severe flooding hitting central Europe in June 2013. On the other hand, the integral method is capable of reproducing the average flood losses which occurred in Europe between 1998 and 2009. Strengths and limitations of the proposed model are discussed to stress the large potential for filling in the gaps of current datasets of flood impact.

  12. Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

  13. The Economic Impact of Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Selby, Ed.; Ferrier, Fran, Ed.

    This document contains papers from a conference on the economic impact of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Australia and elsewhere. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (C. Selby Smith, Fran Ferrier); "Opening Address" (Peter LeP. Darvall); "Trends and Issues in Vocational Education and Training: A Perspective from Europe"…

  14. 40 CFR 225.3 - Procedure for invoking economic impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 33 CFR 209.120 and 209.145. (b) If the decision of the Chief of Engineers is that ocean... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.3 Procedure for invoking economic impact. (a) When a District Engineer's determination to issue a Dredged Material Permit for the dumping of...

  15. Retirement In-Migration Study: Attractive Features, Economic & Social Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne; And Others

    This study helps local leaders to identify attractions that entice people to relocate upon retirement, and to estimate the potential economic and social impact of in-migrating retirees. A group of 249 retirees from communities in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and eastern Texas completed questionnaires between June 1992 and February 1993. Although income and…

  16. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  17. Value Added: The Economic Impact of Public Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This monograph reports the results of a survey of the economic impact on state and local economies of the 194 member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. Analysis of responses (from 111 institutions) is reported in text and graphs. An introductory section notes that the recent emphasis on cutting…

  18. Impact of the Economic Downturn on Schools. Report of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Robert S.; Ellerson, Noelle M.; Jordan, K. Forbis; Jordan, Teresa; Lemons, Richard; Mattocks, T. C.; Melver, Toby; Orr, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    In Fall 2008, in response to the recent economic downturn, as evidenced in state budget shortfalls, federal buy-outs and interventions, and a series of additional events characterizing a slowing, stagnant economy, AASA examined the impact on school districts across the nation. While there are regional differences, the findings of AASA's…

  19. Economic impact of public sector spending on health care.

    PubMed

    Hy, Ronald John

    2011-01-01

    Public sector spending on health care clearly has a positive economic impact on local communities. Not only does such spending provide residents with better health care, but it is widely recognized as an investment that returns continual dividends in the form of better jobs, higher incomes, and additional state and local tax revenues. The results of a static input/output model shows that public sector spending on health care of approximately $46 billion (in 2009 dollars) in the state of Texas yields over 588,000 jobs, $74.2 billion in total output, $26.3 billion in personal income, $22 billion in employee compensation, and $1.8 billion in state and local taxes; it clearly has a considerable positive economic impact on local economies and their quest for economic development. PMID:22106548

  20. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  1. A programme for Health Impact Assessment in Brighton and Hove.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Thomas J; Lawrence, Lydie; Blair-Stevens, Terry; Nichols, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    HIA is based on the theory of health determinants, which recognizes that well-being is determined by a wide range of economic, social and environmental factors, by heredity and medical intervention. The intended HIA procedure represents a new approach to the evaluation of all local authority policies in order to assess their potential health impacts and to improve the quality of governmental decisions, through recommendations to enhance predicted positive health impacts and minimize negative ones. PMID:17191538

  2. The economic impact of failed back surgery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a generalised disorder that is characterised by chronic pain in the lower back and/or legs that persists or recurs following anatomically successful spinal surgery. This paper aims to (1) assess the burden of failed back surgery in terms of its epidemiology, impact on health outcomes and costs and (2) summarise the evidence base for the cost-effectiveness of interventions for the management of FBSS. A narrative review based on a search of MEDLINE (PubMed) up to August 2012 was undertaken. Despite advances in technology and surgical techniques and increasing rates of spine surgery, a proportion of individuals continue to suffer from FBSS. Estimates from randomised controlled trials indicate that 5–50% of patients may have an unsuccessful outcome following lumbar spinal surgery. The understanding of the epidemiology and burden of FBSS remains poor and further research is needed in this area. The impact of FBSS on an individual’s health-related quality of life and its economic cost to society are considerable and more disabling than other common chronic pain and chronic medical conditions, such as heart failure and motor neuron disease. There is a substantive body of evidence in FBSS patients showing spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to be cost-effective (<£10,000 per quality-adjusted life year). In 2008, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommended SCS as a treatment option for FBSS, either as an alternative to further lumbar surgery or as an adjunct to conservative medical management. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of SCS in the subgroup of those with FBSS receiving workers’ compensation remains less clear. Intrathecal morphine pumps may also be a potentially cost-effective strategy for FBSS. The findings of this review emphasise the importance of identifying strategies to prevent the development of FBSS and effective guidelines for the management of established FBSS. The continued development

  3. Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, A.

    1977-01-01

    Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

  4. Rapid regional-scale assessments of socio-economic vulnerability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erin F.; Lieske, Scott N.; Keys, Noni; Smith, Timothy F.

    2016-03-01

    Assessing socio-economic vulnerability to climate change impacts to support regional decision-making is conceptually and practically challenging. We report on research that tested a rapid assessment approach of socio-economic vulnerability in Australia’s natural resource management regions. The approach focuses on regionally important economic sectors, identified using existing datasets, which are likely to be sensitive to climate change impacts. Disaggregated spatial representations of factors known to be associated with vulnerability function as multiple lines of evidence for highlighting intra-regional hotspots of high potential vulnerability. Our results show that a small number of factors based upon contextually relevant empirical evidence offers a low-cost, rapid assessment process, which is readily transferable across regions and provides end-users with guidance for interpreting the results within the context of regional conditions.

  5. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  6. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-15

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  7. Impact of Gender, Ethnicity, Year in School, Social Economic Status, and State Standardized Assessment Scores on Student Content Knowledge Achievement when Using Vee Maps as a Formative Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoron, Andrew C.; Myers, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council has recognized the challenge of assessing laboratory investigation and called for the investigation of assessments that are proven through sound research-based studies. The Vee map provides a framework that allows the learners to conceptualize their previous knowledge as they develop success in meaningful learning…

  8. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  9. Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, S.; Bernardara, P.; Donat, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is under way and impacts can already be observed and have to be expected for the future, even if mitigation measures can be implemented. A number of economical and industrial activities are influenced by or even depend on the climatic conditions. Hence, changing climate has implications for those activities, and adaptation to the changing environmental conditions may be required. This presentation gives an overview of different studies investigating climate change impacts on the economical and industrial sector, as well as related adaptation actions. This includes investigations of climate impacts on agriculture, tourism, insurance risk,design of protection of industrial utilities against flood, and electricity production. Further studies investigate the mitigation of CO2 emissions by using renewable energy generation and the use of alternative building materials.

  10. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  11. [The economic impact of tobacco consumption in Africa].

    PubMed

    de Beyer, Joy

    2005-01-01

    The economic contributions from tobacco cultivation and sales of products are often noted - jobs and incomes for farmers and employees, tax revenues for governments and enormous profits for cigarette companies, and for some countries, foreign exchange from net exports and foreign investment These are of course important. But set against these economic gains, there are also large economic losses that are less visible and less talked about, but also need to be counted. Many of these economic losses arise from the adverse health effects of tobacco use, but there are others too that affect a much wider group of citizens, and in particular, may exacerbate poverty among smokers and their families. This paper looks at the economic impact of tobacco use from the perspective of families, and at national level, for developing countries, providing a framework for considering the specific situations in Francophone African countries. Set against the economic benefits from tobacco, there are substantial economic costs. Annual health care costs are higher for smokers, and the burden of these costs falls on families, the public purse and employers/insurers. Earnings and productivity losses because of tobacco-related illness and premature death can be huge, and are borne by employers and employees. Illness is a major precipitating cause of poverty. Lit cigarettes cause thousands of fires and lost lives. Environmental damage to the soil from tobacco growing, pesticides and fertilizer, and deforestation resulting from firewood use to cure tobacco, can impose high economic losses. And there is the insidious, often overlooked cost of harm to the well-being of poor families whose scarce resources are used for cigarettes and other tobacco products instead of food and other necessities. We conclude that reducing tobacco use is good for health, good economics, and good for development PMID:16190256

  12. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  13. Economic impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for plastics molding and forming industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued effluent limitations and standards in December, 1984, for the Plastics Molding and Forming Industry. The report estimates the economic impacts associated with pollution control costs. Plant-specific treatment costs for 20 percent of the impacted plants are compared to estimated pre-tax plant income to assess the impact of treatment costs on plant liquidity. Then a closure analysis is performed, comparing the current salvage value of the plant's assets with the present value of the plant's cash flow plus the terminal value of its assets. The results are extrapolated to the 558 plants which, as direct dischargers, would be impacted. The results of this plant-level analysis are used to assess the indirect impacts of the regulation, e.g., price changes, unemployment and shifts, in the balance of foreign trade.

  14. Office of Economic Impact and Diversity 2003 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report covers a one-year period in which the Office successfully completed several major activities. The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (ED) is responsible for the development and implementation of Department-wide polices in the areas of small business, diversity and minority economic development. ED oversees civil rights laws, rules, and regulations, and establishes Department-wide civil rights policy. Additionally, ED promotes excellence in the workplace and adheres to the objectives stated below relative to the President’s Management Agenda (PMA): Strategic management of human capital; Competitive sourcing; Improved financial performance; Expanded electronic government, and Budget and performance integration

  15. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-02-15

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  16. Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bay Area Economics

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

  17. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    least more open distribution of information about human enterprises in space, too.However, the "public concerned" in space activities may cover the entire humanity, which would most likely direct the possible spatial EIA procedures into the auspices of the UN, with states representing their portion of the "public". Despite the peculiarities in assessing the potential impacts of space activities, Environmental Impact Assessment, modified to answer thes e particular features, would seem as a tool worth considering for the above objectives of enhanced environmental protection and public involvement. This is particularly true, as any adverse environmental impacts of space activities are highly difficult to mitigate, once they have materialized. For the above mentioned reasons, and for the fact that space activities are regulated for a major part on policy level, particularly Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) would seem a viable option. As distinct from the project EIA, the SEA means carrying out EIAs of plans themselves, i.e. it directly addresses the environmental implications of proposed strategies and policies. Formerly, the governmental authorities tended to regard SEA with suspicion because of the public interest groups involvement in policy making that the SEA entails. However, currently the SEA is a highly topical issue in the international arena, particularly because of the ongoing discussions within the United Nations Economic Commision for Europe about adopting a Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment to amend the Espoo Convention, and of the recent EU Directive (2001/42/EC) on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on t he environment. These instruments could also serve as feasible models for SEA in the outer space environment.

  19. Intangible and Economic Impacts of Hendra Virus Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S-J; Ward, M P

    2016-08-01

    Hendra virus (HeV), a potentially fatal zoonotic disease spread by flying foxes, to date has always infected humans via a spillover event from equine HeV infection. In a theoretical case study, we compared the impacts of two different HeV prevention strategies - vaccination and flying fox roost removal - using a recently developed framework that considers different stakeholder group perspectives. The perspectives of the four selected stakeholder groups regarding intangibles were inferred from public discussions and coverage in the media. For all stakeholder groups, the option to vaccinate horses was found to add value to the economic results when the intangible impacts were included in the analysis, while the option for roost removal unanimously detracted from economic analysis value when the intangible impacts were included. Both the mean and median stakeholder-adjusted value ratios (2.25 and 2.12, respectively) for vaccination were inflated when intangible impacts were included, by value-adding to the results of a traditional economic analysis. In the roost removal strategy, these ratios (1.19 and 1.16, respectively) were deflated when intangible impacts were included. Results of this theoretical study suggest that the inclusion of intangible impacts promotes the value of a two-dose initial vaccination protocol using a subunit vaccination considered to offer complete protection for horses, as a strategy to control HeV, whereas roost removal becomes an even more costly strategy. Outcome of the analysis is particularly sensitive to the intangible value placed on human health. Further evaluation - via sociological methods - of values placed on intangibles by various stakeholder groups is warranted. PMID:26558882

  20. Economic Impact of Advanced Pediatric Cancer on Families

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Kira; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, Russ; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Despite emerging evidence of substantial financial distress in families of children with complex illness, little is known about economic hardship in families of children with advanced cancer. Objectives To describe perceived financial hardship, work disruptions, income losses and associated economic impact in families of children with advanced cancer stratified by federal poverty level (FPL). Methods This is a cross-sectional survey of 86 parents of children with progressive, recurrent or non-responsive cancer at three children’s hospitals. Seventy-one families with complete income data (82%) are included in this analysis. Results Parental work disruptions were prevalent across all income levels, with 67 (94%) families reporting some disruption. At least one parent quit a job because of the child’s illness in 29 (42%) families. Nineteen (27%) families described their child’s illness as a great economic hardship. Income losses due to work disruptions were substantial for all families; families at or below 200% FPL, however, were disproportionately affected. Six (50%) of the poorest families lost more than 40% of their annual income as compared with two (5%) of the wealthiest families (P=0.006). As a result of income losses, nine (15%) previously non-poor families fell from above to below the 200% FPL. Conclusion The economic impact of pediatric advanced cancer on families is significant at all income levels, although poorer families suffer disproportionate losses. Development of ameliorative intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:23870843

  1. Economics and terminal area environmental impact of STOL transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of short takeoff and landing aircraft in meeting the needs of short haul transportation systems is analyzed. The objectives of the short haul system are evaluated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) service to the passenger, (2) economic viability, and (3) terminal area environment conditions caused by community noise, ground and air decongestion, and air pollution. Data are presented in the forms of tables, charts, and graphs. An itemization of the conclusions reached after the preliminary investigation is included.

  2. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-11-15

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  3. Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

  4. Understanding the economic impacts of disruptions in water service.

    PubMed

    Heflin, Colleen; Jensen, Jennifer; Miller, Kathleen

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decade, there has been much attention focused on community readiness for catastrophic emergency events, such as major natural disasters or terrorist attacks. However, though the economic costs associated with experiencing such an event are high, the probability of such events occurring is quite low. At the same time, less catastrophic events that temporarily disrupt essential services to local areas, such as water and electricity, are quite common. However, there is little research that documents residents' actual economic costs when their water service is disrupted. In this paper, we contribute to the growing literature assigning economic value to residential water service by documenting the economic costs residents report from routine, small-scale water disruptions through focus groups and in-person interviews. We find that residential impacts ranged from over $1400 in savings (from working more hours than usual and eating out less than usual) to a cost of over $1000, with an overall average of $93.96. These costs, particularly when multiplied over a substantial population, become quite significant and demonstrate the importance of studying the economic costs of such events. PMID:24950018

  5. Impact of solar-energy development. The aggregate impact on basic economic objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

    Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative programs are presented. Short run and long run impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing rock are distinguished. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficienty, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense.

  6. Understanding the impact of economic evidence on clinical decision making: a discrete choice experiment in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Torbica, Aleksandra; Fattore, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the impact of cost-effectiveness information on clinical decision making using discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire administered to Italian cardiologists in June 2007 (n = 129 respondents, 1143 observations). The questionnaire asked clinicians to make choices between paired scenarios, across which three key dimensions were identified and varied: (1) quality of clinical evidence, (2) size of health gain (reduction of relative and absolute risk), and (3) economic impact (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio). A random effects probit model was used to estimate clinicians' preferences for the different dimensions, while the heterogeneity of preferences was tested in a model with interaction terms. Dominance tests were used to assess the consistency of responses. The results indicate that Italian cardiologists regard economic impact (cost-effectiveness) as an important factor in their decision making. Economic evidence is valued more highly among clinicians with a higher self-assessed level of knowledge regarding economic evaluation techniques, as well as among younger professionals (age<45). While relevant study limitations should be acknowledged, our results suggest that DCEs can be used to elicit clinicians' decision-making criteria and to inform the allocation of resources for future research in a logical manner. Italian cardiologists appear to take cost-effectiveness information into account when deciding whether to use new treatments. PMID:20207466

  7. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1) cost components included in the estimation; (2) the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies. PMID:19939238

  8. Enhancing impact: visualization of an integrated impact assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Gary R; Bouchard, Michel A; de Sa, Isabel Marques; Paris, Isabelle; Balge, Zachary; Williams, Dane; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-05-01

    The environmental impact assessment process is over 40 years old and has dramatically expanded. Topics, such as social, health and human rights impact are now included. The main body of an impact analysis is generally hundreds of pages long and supported by countless technical appendices. For large, oil/gas, mining and water resources projects both the volume and technical sophistication of the reports has far exceeded the processing ability of host communities. Instead of informing and empowering, the reports are abstruse and overwhelming. Reinvention is required. The development of a visual integrated impact assessment strategy that utilizes remote sensing and spatial analyses is described. PMID:22639133

  9. Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

  10. Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  11. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  12. 77 FR 14726 - Information Collection Request; Economic Assessment of Conservation Reserve Program Lands for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection Request; Economic Assessment of... with the Economic Assessment of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Lands for Hunting. DATES: We will... Hyberg, Agricultural Economist, Economic and Policy Analysis Staff, Farm Service Agency,...

  13. The Impact of Feminism in Economics: Beyond the Pale? A Discussion and Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albelda, Randy

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 213 economists to determine the role feminism has played in economics and economic views. Finds that, although the number of women studying economics has increased, feminism has little impact on scholarship in economics. Discusses the reasons for this lack of impact. (CFR)

  14. Handbook for value-impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Burnham, J.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Mullen, M.F.; Nesse, R.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Triplett, M.B.; Weakley, S.A.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

    1983-12-01

    The basic purpose of this handbook is to document a set of systematic procedures for providing information that can be used in performing value-impact assessments of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory actions. The handbook describes a structured but flexible process for performing the assessment. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the value-impact assessment process. Chapter 2 describes the attributes most frequently affected by proposed NRC actions, provides guidance concerningthe appropriate level of effort to be devoted to the assessment, suggests a standard format for documenting the assessment, and discusses the treatment of uncertainty. Chapter 3 contains detailed methods for evaluating each of the attributes affected by a regulatory action. The handbook has five appendixes containing background information, technical data, and example applications of the value-impact assessment procedures. This edition of the handbook focuses primarily on assessing nuclear power reactor safety issues.

  15. "Economics with Training Wheels": Using Blogs in Teaching and Assessing Introductory Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. The author of this article describes and evaluates a blog assignment used in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics course. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four…

  16. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  17. Organisational impact: Definition and assessment methods for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational impact has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational impact in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the impact of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational impact. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational impact. This work shows that taking organisational impact into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle. PMID:27080633

  18. Basin-wide Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystems and Biodiversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mekong ecosystems are under pressure from a number of "drivers", including rapid economic development, population growth, unsustainable resource use, and climate change. Ecological modeling can help assess vulnerability and impacts of these drivers on the Lower Mekong Basin.

  19. The impact of economic recession on infection prevention and control.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, M; Fitzpatrick, F

    2015-04-01

    The economic recession that began in 2007 led to austerity measures and public sector cutbacks in many European countries. Reduced resource allocation to infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is impeding prevention and control of tuberculosis, HIV and vaccine-preventable infections. In addition, higher rates of infectious disease in the community have a significant impact on hospital services, although the extent of this has not been studied. With a focus on quick deficit reduction, preventive services such IPC may be regarded as non-essential. Where a prevention programme succeeds in reducing disease burden to a low level, its very success can undermine the perceived need for the programme. To mitigate the negative effects of recession, we need to: educate our political leaders about the economic benefits of IPC; better quantify the costs of healthcare-associated infection; and evaluate the effects of budget cuts on healthcare outcomes and IPC activities. PMID:25639208

  20. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  1. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  2. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  3. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country’s productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country’s productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. PMID:27560133

  4. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth.

    PubMed

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. PMID:27560133

  5. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  6. The economic impact of Mexico City's smoke-free law

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero López, Carlos Manuel; Jiménez Ruiz, Jorge Alberto; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic impact of Mexico City's 2008 smoke-free law—The Non-Smokers' Health Protection Law on restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Material and methods We used the Monthly Services Survey of businesses from January 2005 to April 2009—with revenues, employment and payments to employees as the principal outcomes. The results are estimated using a differences-in-differences regression model with fixed effects. The states of Jalisco, Nuevo León and México, where the law was not in effect, serve as a counterfactual comparison group. Results In restaurants, after accounting for observable factors and the fixed effects, there was a 24.8% increase in restaurants' revenue associated with the smoke-free law. This difference is not statistically significant but shows that, on average, restaurants did not suffer economically as a result of the law. Total wages increased by 28.2% and employment increased by 16.2%. In nightclubs, bars and taverns there was a decrease of 1.5% in revenues and an increase of 0.1% and 3.0%, respectively, in wages and employment. None of these effects are statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions There is no statistically significant evidence that the Mexico City smoke-free law had a negative impact on restaurants' income, employees' wages and levels of employment. On the contrary, the results show a positive, though statistically non-significant, impact of the law on most of these outcomes. Mexico City's experience suggests that smoke-free laws in Mexico and elsewhere will not hurt economic productivity in the restaurant and bar industries. PMID:21292808

  7. Community Level Impact Assessment--Extension Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Mike D.; Doeksen, Gerald A.

    Using the Oklahoma State University (OSU) computerized community simulation model, extension professionals can provide local decision makers with information derived from an impact model that is dynamic, community specific, and easy to adapt to different communities. The four main sections of the OSU model are an economic account, a capital…

  8. Economic impact of applying advanced technologies to transport airplanes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carline, A. J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Various technologies have been studied which could have application to the design of future transport airplanes. These technologies include the use of supercritical aerodynamics, composite materials, and active control systems, together with advanced engine designs that provide lower noise and pollutant levels. The economic impact of each technology is shown for a typical fleet of 195-passenger, transcontinental commercial transports cruising at both 0.9M and 0.98M. Comparisons are made with conventional transports cruising at 0.82M. Effects of combining the technologies are discussed. An R & D program aimed at bringing the technologies to fruition is outlined.

  9. Geomagnetic storms: Potential economic impacts on electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1991-03-20

    Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A very severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the 1990s because of the trend of transmitting large amounts of power over long distance to meet the electricity demands of this region. A comprehensive research program and a warning satellite to monitor the solar wind are needed to enhance the reliability of electric power systems under the influence of geomagnetic storms. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The economic impact of NASA R and D spending Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    Seven appendices related to a previous report on the economic impact of NASA R and D spending were presented. They dealt with: (1) theoretical and empirical development of aggregate production functions, (2) the calculation of the time series for the rate of technological progress, (3) the calculation of the industry mix variable, (4) the estimation of distributed lags, (5) the estimation of the equations for gamma, (6) a ten-year forecast of the U.S. economy, (7) simulations of the macroeconomic model for increases in NASA R and D spending of $1.0, $.0.5, and 0.1 billions.

  11. [Economic dimension and environmental impact of beef production in France].

    PubMed

    Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2011-11-01

    Following recent publication of data on its environmental impact, beef production is being strongly challenged. However, these data concern global ruminant production, which is highly diverse and does not necessarily correspond to the European and French situations. While it is undeniable that ruminant production contributes to global warming, there are several ways of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, and permanent pastures serve as carbon sinks. Beef production is also a vital economic sector for many regions, where it would not be possible to produce cereals or to develop intensive animal production systems. Beef production also contributes to many collective services, justifying its continued financial support. PMID:22844743

  12. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  13. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

  14. Reassessment of the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grisi, Laerte; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Andreotti, Renato; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; León, Adalberto Angel Pérez de; Pereira, Jairo Barros; Villela, Humberto Silva

    2014-01-01

    The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers. PMID:25054492

  15. Arctic Cities and Climate Change: A Geographic Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic climate change is a concern for the engineering community, land-use planners and policy makers as it may have significant impacts on socio-economic development and human activities in the northern regions. A warmer climate has potential for a series of positive economic effects, such as development of maritime transportation, enhanced agricultural production and decrease in energy consumption. However, these potential benefits may be outwaited by negative impacts related to transportation accessibility and stability of existing infrastructure, especially in permafrost regions. Compared with the Arctic zones of other countries, the Russian Arctic is characterized by higher population, greater industrial development and urbanization. Arctic urban areas and associated industrial sites are the location of some of intense interaction between man and nature. However, while there is considerable research on various aspects of Arctic climate change impacts on human society, few address effects on Arctic cities and their related industries. This presentation overviews potential climate-change impacts on Russian urban environments in the Arctic and discusses methodology for addressing complex interactions between climatic, permafrost and socio-economic systems at the range of geographical scales. We also provide a geographic assessment of selected positive and negative climate change impacts affecting several diverse Russian Arctic cities.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CAMD works with research scientists and organizations in the academic community to assess and better understand the impacts of atmospheric deposition of power sector pollutant emissions on terrestrial and aquatic (including freshwater and marine) ecosystems. See peer review pr...

  17. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  18. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  19. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    PubMed

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades. PMID:24360916

  20. Economic benefit risk assessment of controlling land subsidence in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zuo; Tiezhu, Liu; Xinhong, Lin

    1993-08-01

    Land subsidence, a major and well-known geological hazard in Shanghai, has caused serious losses. Based on past studies, the cost and benefit of the Shanghai's land subsidence hazard control were assessed and forecasted by risk assessment. An economic benefit-risk assessment was taken in order to control completely land subsidence and make rational safety elevations of the flood control wall. The result of risk assessment shows that the present 6.9-m elevation of the floodwall is not sufficient for the standard of “occurring only once in a thousand years.∝ After 200 years, the spring tide hazardous risk losses caused by land subsidence would amount to 49.73 million yuan per year. The proportion of expense in thoroughly controlling land subsidence to the economic benefit is 1∶:41.44; to construct the flood control wall to an elevation that would prevent inundation from a flood event, to reach the standard of “occurring only once in a thousand years,∝ and to avoid tide losses, the ratio of the investment of reducing tide hazard to the economic benefit should be 1∶:53.24.

  1. Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Ralph A.

    1975-01-01

    The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

  2. Social and economic assessment: A technical report used in amending the Rocky Mountain regional guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the Socio-economic Assessment is threefold in nature: to describe the socio-economic forces at work within the rural and urban areas throughout the Rocky Mountain Region (the Region); to develop social and economic profiles for the Region as a whole and each of its eight subregions; and, finally, to describe the potential impacts of the above mentioned forces on the Region and to make recommendations for developing future strategies to facilitate coordination between the Forest Service, the various state, local, and other federal agencies, and Native American Indian tribes. This project involved the analysis of various social and economic variables in an attempt to determine the social and economic situation in the Rocky Mountain Region, and how it has been altered over the last three decades. To this end, data was collected on demographic changes, income growth, employment and unemployment, payrolls, number and size of firms, and SIC industrial breakdowns for various industries within each subregion and economic impact area.

  3. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nghiem, Le T. P.; Soliman, Tarek; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Tan, Hugh T. W.; Evans, Theodore A.; Mumford, John D.; Keller, Reuben P.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Corlett, Richard T.; Carrasco, Luis R.

    2013-01-01

    Harmful non-indigenous species (NIS) impose great economic and environmental impacts globally, but little is known about their impacts in Southeast Asia. Lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the problem hinders the allocation of appropriate resources for NIS prevention and management. We used benefit-cost analysis embedded in a Monte-Carlo simulation model and analysed economic and environmental impacts of NIS in the region to estimate the total burden of NIS in Southeast Asia. The total annual loss caused by NIS to agriculture, human health and the environment in Southeast Asia is estimated to be US$33.5 billion (5th and 95th percentile US$25.8–39.8 billion). Losses and costs to the agricultural sector are estimated to be nearly 90% of the total (US$23.4–33.9 billion), while the annual costs associated with human health and the environment are US$1.85 billion (US$1.4–2.5 billion) and US$2.1 billion (US$0.9–3.3 billion), respectively, although these estimates are based on conservative assumptions. We demonstrate that the economic and environmental impacts of NIS in low and middle-income regions can be considerable and that further measures, such as the adoption of regional risk assessment protocols to inform decisions on prevention and control of NIS in Southeast Asia, could be beneficial. PMID:23951120

  4. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive. PMID:17530329

  5. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, Mårten Mörtberg, Ulla Balfors, Berit

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  6. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  7. Economic assessment of the construction industry: A construction-economics nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Herbert Marion, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an economic assessment of the construction industry. More specifically, this study addresses ambiguities within the literature that are associated with the construction-economics nexus. The researcher 1) investigated the relationships between economic indicators and stock prices of U.S. construction equipment manufacturers, 2) investigated the relationships between energy production, consumption, and corruption, and 3) determined the economic effect electricity generation and electricity consumption has on economies of scale. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics in this study and determined that economists, researchers, policy-makers, and others should have predicted the 2007-08 world economic collapse 5-6 years prior to realization of the event given that construction indices and GDP grossly regressed from statistically acceptable trends as early as 2002 and perhaps 2000. Substantiating this claim, the effect of the cost of construction materials and labor, i.e. construction index, on GDP was significant for years leading up to the collapse (1970-2007). Additionally, it was determined that energy production and consumption are predictors of governmental corruption in some countries. In the Republic of Botswana, for example, the researcher determined that energy production and consumption statistically jointly effected governmental corruption. In addition to determining statistical effect, a model for predicting governmental corruption was developed based on energy production and consumption volumes. Also, the researcher found that electricity generation in the 25 largest world economies had a statistically significant effect on GDP. Electricity consumption also had an effect on GDP, as well, but not on other economic indicators. More importantly than the quantitative findings, the researcher concluded that the construction-economics nexus is far more complex than most policy-makers realize. As such

  8. Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

  9. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. PMID:27243040

  10. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  11. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. PMID:27243040

  12. Limits on use of health economic assessments for rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Hyry, H I; Stern, A D; Cox, T M; Roos, J C P

    2014-03-01

    Funding of expensive treatments for rare (orphan) diseases is contentious. These agents fare poorly on 'efficiency' or health economic measures, such as the quality-adjusted life years, because of high cost and frequently poor gains in quality of life and survival. We show that cost-effectiveness assessments are flawed, and have only a limited role to play in reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs and beyond. PMID:24453281

  13. Hibernia: An interim audit of socio-economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, K.; Shrimpton, M.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Hibernia offshore oil field, on the Grand Banks of New- foundland in eastern Canada, was discovered in 1979. Following public review in 1985, the project was approved and work on the construction of the concrete gravity base offshore production platform began in 1990. This paper uses the analysis of issues and concerns presented in the 1985 Hibernia Development Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) as a baseline against which to review the actual socioeconomic effects of the development phase of the project. The construction of platform has been one of, if not the, largest construction projects in North America in the 1990s and it seems likely to be remembered as one of the few that have successfully avoided the negative social and economic impacts normally associated with the superimposition of very large projects on rural environments. In comparison with most other large construction projects, Hibernia stands out as a case in which potential impacts were adequately identified, optimization measures determined and implemented, and the negative consequences avoided or mitigated.

  14. An ecological and economic assessment methodology for coastal ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Ana M

    2009-07-01

    An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR (DeltaDPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The aim of the DeltaDPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation of the present approach is to provide an explicit link between ecological and economic information related to the use and management of a coastal ecosystem within a specific timeframe. The application of DeltaDPSIR is illustrated through an analysis of developments in a Southwest European coastal lagoon between 1985 and 1995. The value of economic activities dependent on the lagoon suffered a significant reduction (ca. -60%) over that period, mainly due to a decrease in bivalve production. During that decade the pressures from the catchment area were managed (ca. 176 million Euros), mainly through the building of waste water treatment plants. Notwithstanding this, the ecosystem state worsened with respect to abnormal clam mortalities due to a parasite infection and to benthic eutrophication symptoms in specific problematic areas. The negative economic impacts during the decade were estimated between -565 and -315 million Euros, of which 9-49% represent the cost of environmental externalities. Evaluation of these past events indicates that future management actions should focus on reducing the limitation on local clam seeds, which should result in positive impacts to both the local socio-economy and biodiversity. PMID:19471999

  15. An Ecological and Economic Assessment Methodology for Coastal Ecosystem Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, Ana M.

    2009-07-01

    An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR (ΔDPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The aim of the ΔDPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation of the present approach is to provide an explicit link between ecological and economic information related to the use and management of a coastal ecosystem within a specific timeframe. The application of ΔDPSIR is illustrated through an analysis of developments in a Southwest European coastal lagoon between 1985 and 1995. The value of economic activities dependent on the lagoon suffered a significant reduction (ca. -60%) over that period, mainly due to a decrease in bivalve production. During that decade the pressures from the catchment area were managed (ca. 176 million Euros), mainly through the building of waste water treatment plants. Notwithstanding this, the ecosystem state worsened with respect to abnormal clam mortalities due to a parasite infection and to benthic eutrophication symptoms in specific problematic areas. The negative economic impacts during the decade were estimated between -565 and -315 million Euros, of which 9-49% represent the cost of environmental externalities. Evaluation of these past events indicates that future management actions should focus on reducing the limitation on local clam seeds, which should result in positive impacts to both the local socio-economy and biodiversity.

  16. Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

    2003-12-01

    Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to

  17. The Use of Economic Impact Studies as a Service Learning Tool in Undergraduate Business Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misner, John M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the use of community based economic impact studies as service learning tools for undergraduate business programs. Economic impact studies are used to measure the economic benefits of a variety of activities such as community redevelopment, tourism, and expansions of existing facilities for both private and public producers.…

  18. Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India

    PubMed Central

    Kathage, Jonas; Qaim, Matin

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread adoption of genetically modified crops in many countries, heated controversies about their advantages and disadvantages continue. Especially for developing countries, there are concerns that genetically modified crops fail to benefit smallholder farmers and contribute to social and economic hardship. Many economic studies contradict this view, but most of them look at short-term impacts only, so that uncertainty about longer-term effects prevails. We address this shortcoming by analyzing economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Building on unique panel data collected between 2002 and 2008, and controlling for nonrandom selection bias in technology adoption, we show that Bt has caused a 24% increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and a 50% gain in cotton profit among smallholders. These benefits are stable; there are even indications that they have increased over time. We further show that Bt cotton adoption has raised consumption expenditures, a common measure of household living standard, by 18% during the 2006–2008 period. We conclude that Bt cotton has created large and sustainable benefits, which contribute to positive economic and social development in India. PMID:22753493

  19. Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Kathage, Jonas; Qaim, Matin

    2012-07-17

    Despite widespread adoption of genetically modified crops in many countries, heated controversies about their advantages and disadvantages continue. Especially for developing countries, there are concerns that genetically modified crops fail to benefit smallholder farmers and contribute to social and economic hardship. Many economic studies contradict this view, but most of them look at short-term impacts only, so that uncertainty about longer-term effects prevails. We address this shortcoming by analyzing economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Building on unique panel data collected between 2002 and 2008, and controlling for nonrandom selection bias in technology adoption, we show that Bt has caused a 24% increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and a 50% gain in cotton profit among smallholders. These benefits are stable; there are even indications that they have increased over time. We further show that Bt cotton adoption has raised consumption expenditures, a common measure of household living standard, by 18% during the 2006-2008 period. We conclude that Bt cotton has created large and sustainable benefits, which contribute to positive economic and social development in India. PMID:22753493

  20. Economic analysis of outreach assessment clinics in breast screening programmes.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, M M; Cairns, J A; Gilbert, F J; Hendry, P J

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for the economic evaluation of outreach assessment clinics following screening and used to identify the cost-minimizing strategy for assessing women from three island communities in the Scottish Breast Screening Programme (SBSP). There are four options of interest depending on: whether the women are assessed on the mainland or at outreach assessment clinics; and whether all women have two view screening rather than only those being screened for the first time. The benefits of outreach assessment are assumed to be solely in terms of convenience to women and reductions in the time and travel costs of women recalled for assessment. The costs are modelled in order to compare outreach and no outreach options. The results show that for the numbers of women currently screened outreach assessment is the cost-minimizing strategy. The model provides useful guidance with respect to screening policy and is readily applied to the case of outreach assessment in mainland communities outwith major population centres and to breast and other screening programmes in other countries. PMID:10351680

  1. Assessing research impact in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot impact indicators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research assessment, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic impact. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic impact of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine impact indicators and criteria. Methods The impact indicators proposed in the 2010 REF impact pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research impact in clinical medicine in a given university are assessed. Twenty impact indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research impact across different cases in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing impact

  2. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  3. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  4. Economic impacts of the ShakeOut scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, A.; Wei, D.; Wein, A.

    2011-01-01

    For the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario, we estimate $68 billion in direct and indirect business interruption (BI) and $11 billion in related costs in addition to the $113 billion in property damage in an eight-county Southern California region. The modeled conduits of shock to the economy are property damage and lifeline service outages that affect the economy’s ability to produce. Property damage from fire is 50% greater than property damage from shaking because fire is more devastating. BI from water service disruption and fire each represent around one-third of total BI losses because of the long duration of service outage or long restoration and reconstruction periods. Total BI losses are 4.3% of annual gross output in the affected region, an impact far larger than most conventional economic recessions. These losses are still much lower than they potentially could be due to the resilience of the economy.

  5. Economic impact from unrestricted spread of potato cyst nematodes in australia.

    PubMed

    Hodda, M; Cook, D C

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACT Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) (Globodera spp.) are quarantine pests with serious potential economic consequences. Recent new detections in Australia, Canada, and the United States have focussed attention on the consequences of spread and economic justifications for alternative responses. Here, a full assessment of the economic impact of PCN spread from a small initial incursion is presented. Models linking spread, population growth, and economic impact are combined to estimate costs of spread without restriction in Australia. Because the characteristics of the Australian PCN populations are currently unknown, the known ranges of parameters were used to obtain cost scenarios, an approach which makes the model predictions applicable generally. Our analysis indicates that mean annual costs associated with spread of PCN would increase rapidly initially, associated with increased testing. Costs would then increase more slowly to peak at over AUD$20 million per year approximately 10 years into the future. Afterward, this annual cost would decrease slightly due to discounting factors. Mean annual costs over 20 years were $18.7 million, with a 90% confidence interval between AUD$11.9 million and AUD$27.0 million. Thus, cumulative losses to Australian agriculture over 20 years may exceed $370 million without action to prevent spread of PCN and entry to new areas. PMID:19900005

  6. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G.; Schexanyder, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  7. Whole farm environmental and economic assessments of manure application methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-level whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating the potential impacts of alternative production strategies without cost or risk to the producer. When the performance of simulated systems is supported through field measurements, a more accurate assessment is obtained. The Integrate...

  8. Hypervelocity impact damage assessment for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coronado, Alex R.; Gibbins, Martin N.; Stern, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    To inhibit damage and limit the probability of penetration of the Space Station pressure wall by micrometeoroids and orbital debris, a shield placed away from the wall is used to form a double wall. To determine shield effectiveness and assess impact damage, existing test data were reviewed and additional testing was performed for Space Station double wall designs. Empirical spallation and penetration functions derived from the data show that shield thickness and impact angle affect the damage to the wall. Thick shields reduce wall damage for low angle impacts but increase damage for oblique impacts. Multilayer insulation between the shield and wall reduces impact damage to the wall. A relationship between impact velocity and spall damage to the wall is demonstrated. Preliminary test results on Li-Al shield material indicate possible improved effectiveness over Al shields.

  9. The Impact of Population Density on the Likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) Clients Becoming Economically Self-Sufficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendixen-Noe, Mary K.; And Others

    The impact of population density on the likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) clients becoming economically self-sufficient was examined through a study of 2,647 ADC recipients referred to a total of 8 comprehensive vocational assessment centers (CVACs) for ADC clients that were established in Ohio in 1992. Of the CVACs, two were from each…

  10. The Impact on Growth of Higher Efficiency of Public Spending on Schools. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 547

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonand, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on economic growth of increased efficiency of public spending in primary and lower-secondary education. Higher efficiency in public spending in schools can bolster growth through two main channels. On the one hand, it can allow a transfer of labour from the public sector to the business sector at unchanged…

  11. Economic Impact of Dengue: Multicenter Study across Four Brazilian Regions

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Parente, Mirian Perpetua Palha Dias; Zara, Ana Laura de Sene Amancio; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Pimenta, Fabiano Geraldo; Cortes, Fanny; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bahia, Luciana Ribeiro; Mendes, Marcia Costa Ooteman; da Rosa, Michelle Quarti Machado; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Constenla, Dagna; de Souza, Wayner Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasing public health concern in Brazil. There is a need for an updated evaluation of the economic impact of dengue within the country. We undertook this multicenter study to evaluate the economic burden of dengue in Brazil. Methods We estimated the economic burden of dengue in Brazil for the years 2009 to 2013 and for the epidemic season of August 2012- September 2013. We conducted a multicenter cohort study across four endemic regions: Midwest, Goiania; Southeast, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro; Northeast: Teresina and Recife; and the North, Belem. Ambulatory or hospitalized cases with suspected or laboratory-confirmed dengue treated in both the private and public sectors were recruited. Interviews were scheduled for the convalescent period to ascertain characteristics of the dengue episode, date of first symptoms/signs and recovery, use of medical services, work/school absence, household spending (out-of-pocket expense) and income lost using a questionnaire developed for a previous cost study. We also extracted data from the patients’ medical records for hospitalized cases. Overall costs per case and cumulative costs were calculated from the public payer and societal perspectives. National cost estimations took into account cases reported in the official notification system (SINAN) with adjustment for underreporting of cases. We applied a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations with 90% certainty levels (CL). Results We screened 2,223 cases, of which 2,035 (91.5%) symptomatic dengue cases were included in our study. The estimated cost for dengue for the epidemic season (2012–2013) in the societal perspective was US$ 468 million (90% CL: 349–590) or US$ 1,212 million (90% CL: 904–1,526) after adjusting for under-reporting. Considering the time series of dengue (2009–2013) the estimated cost of dengue varied from US$ 371 million (2009) to US$ 1,228 million (2013). Conclusions The economic burden

  12. Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoble, Rosa; Dickson, Keith; Hanney, Steve; Rodgers, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of socio-economic impact is an emerging theme for publicly-funded academic research. Within this context, the paper suggests that the concept of institutional research capital be expanded to include the capture and evaluation of socio-economic impact. Furthermore, it argues that understanding the typology of impacts and the tracking…

  13. Elements of an Economic Impact Study (Or Building on the ACE Model). AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Diane H.

    Requirements of a study of a school's economic impact on the community are reviewed and adjustments to the American Council on Education, or Caffrey-Issacs, model of economic impact studies suggested, based on the experiences of the University of Pittsburgh. Revisions to sections of the model dealing with tax loss to local governments, impacts on…

  14. Economic Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties

    SciTech Connect

    J., Brown; B., Hoen; E., Lantz; J., Pender; R., Wiser

    2011-07-25

    The objective is to address the research question using post-project construction, county-level data, and econometric evaluation methods. Wind energy is expanding rapidly in the United States: Over the last 4 years, wind power has contributed approximately 35 percent of all new electric power capacity. Wind power plants are often developed in rural areas where local economic development impacts from the installation are projected, including land lease and property tax payments and employment growth during plant construction and operation. Wind energy represented 2.3 percent of the U.S. electricity supply in 2010, but studies show that penetrations of at least 20 percent are feasible. Several studies have used input-output models to predict direct, indirect, and induced economic development impacts. These analyses have often been completed prior to project construction. Available studies have not yet investigated the economic development impacts of wind development at the county level using post-construction econometric evaluation methods. Analysis of county-level impacts is limited. However, previous county-level analyses have estimated operation-period employment at 0.2 to 0.6 jobs per megawatt (MW) of power installed and earnings at $9,000/MW to $50,000/MW. We find statistically significant evidence of positive impacts of wind development on county-level per capita income from the OLS and spatial lag models when they are applied to the full set of wind and non-wind counties. The total impact on annual per capita income of wind turbine development (measured in MW per capita) in the spatial lag model was $21,604 per MW. This estimate is within the range of values estimated in the literature using input-output models. OLS results for the wind-only counties and matched samples are similar in magnitude, but are not statistically significant at the 10-percent level. We find a statistically significant impact of wind development on employment in the OLS analysis for

  15. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  16. Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power--Case Studies Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Economic Development Work Group

    2003-12-17

    OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance (O&M). It may also add to the supply of electric power in the area and support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. While there is a growing body of information about the local impacts of wind power, the economic impacts from existing wind power developments have not been thoroughly and consistently analyzed. Northwest Economic Associates, under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), conducted a study and produced a report entitled ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power.'' The primary objective of the study was to provide examples of appropriate analyses and documentation of economic impacts from wind power development, using case studies of three existing projects in the United States. The findings from the case studies are summarized here; more detail is available in the report, available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. It should be noted that specific results presented apply only to the respective locales studied and are not meant to be representative of wind power in general. However, qualitative findings, discussed below, are likely to be replicated in most areas where wind

  17. Thermal simulation and economic assessment of unglazed transpired collector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D.N.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1996-10-01

    Unglazed transpired collectors (UTCs) have recently emerged as a new solar air heating technology. They are relatively inexpensive, efficient, and particularly suited to applications in which a high outdoor air requirement must be met. A TRNSYS model has been created for UTC systems. Annual simulations are performed for several representative buildings. The statewide economic potential of UTC systems is assessed for Wisconsin. UTC systems on existing buildings are competitive with electric heating systems but not with gas or oil heating. Electric heating is not widely used in most buildings that are well-suited for UTC systems, with the exception of large apartment buildings. Therefore, there is no significant statewide economic potential for retrofit of UTC systems on existing buildings except in the residential sector. However, UTC systems are cost effective for new buildings because their low first cost allows them to compete with gas and oil heating.

  18. Incidence and economic impact of rabies in the cattle population of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have extensive economic impacts at household and country levels, in addition to the effects on human health. This study presents estimates of the direct economic impact of rabies at herd level in two representative subsistence cattle-farming systems in Ethiopia, the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems. The economic impacts were assessed by a structured questionnaire administered to 532 cattle-owning households. These households were selected from four districts within two administrative zones; each zone representing a cattle production system. Rabies incidence rates of 21% and 11% at herd level were calculated for the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems, respectively. The incidence rate at cattle level was the same in both systems., i.e. 2%. Herd-level incidence rates were higher in the mixed crop-livestock system than in the pastoral system (P<0.05). Average economic losses per herd due to rabies were estimated at 49 USD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system; whereas in affected herds the average losses per year were 228 USD (range 48-1016 USD) in the mixed crop-livestock system, and 477 USD (range 173-1140 USD) in the pastoral system. The average herd-level economic losses were not significantly different between the farming systems; however once the herd was affected, the losses were significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the mixed crop-livestock system (P<0.01). The losses due to rabies in cattle are relatively high for pastoral households, due to their complete dependency on livestock for their livelihoods. Although the current estimates only account for the direct losses

  19. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  20. Untapped potential of health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to “green economy” and “institutional framework” strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century’s sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  1. Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Stickle, A.; Barnouin, O.; Ernst, C.; Atchison, J.; Pravec, P.; Richardson, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid and (ii) to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The AIDA target will be the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, with the deflection experiment to occur in late September, 2022. The DART impact on the secondary member of the binary at ~7 km/s is expected to alter the binary orbit period by about 4 minutes, assuming a simple transfer of momentum to the target, and this period change will be measured by Earth-based observatories. The AIM spacecraft will characterize the asteroid target and monitor results of the impact in situ at Didymos. The DART mission is a full-scale kinetic impact to deflect a 150 m diameter asteroid, with known impactor conditions and with target physical properties characterized by the AIM mission. Predictions for the momentum transfer efficiency of kinetic impacts are given for several possible target types of different porosities, using Housen and Holsapple (2011) crater scaling model for impact ejecta mass and velocity distributions. Results are compared to numerical simulation results using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code of Jutzi and Michel (2014) with good agreement. The model also predicts that the ejecta from the DART impact may make Didymos into an active asteroid, forming an ejecta coma that may be observable from Earth-based telescopes. The measurements from AIDA of the momentum transfer from the DART impact, the crater size and morphology, and the evolution of an ejecta coma will

  2. Economic impacts of carbon dioxide and methane released from thawing permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Chris; Schaefer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic is warming roughly twice as fast as the global average. If greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase at current rates, this warming will lead to the widespread thawing of permafrost and the release of hundreds of billions of tonnes of CO2 and billions of tonnes of CH4 into the atmosphere. So far there have been no estimates of the possible extra economic impacts from permafrost emissions of CO2 and CH4. Here we use the default PAGE09 integrated assessment model to show the range of possible global economic impacts if this CO2 and CH4 is released into the atmosphere on top of the anthropogenic emissions from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenario A1B (ref. ) and three other scenarios. Under the A1B scenario, CO2 and CH4 released from permafrost increases the mean net present value of the impacts of climate change by US$43 trillion, or about 13% (5-95% range: US$3-166 trillion), proportional to the increase in total emissions due to thawing permafrost. The extra impacts of the permafrost CO2 and CH4 are sufficiently high to justify urgent action to minimize the scale of the release.

  3. Developing perturbations for Climate Change Impact Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    Following the 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report [TAR; IPCC, 2001], and the paucity of climate change impact assessments from developing nations, there has been a significant growth in activities to redress this shortcoming. However, undertaking impact assessments (in relation to malaria, crop stress, regional water supply, etc.) is contingent on available climate-scale scenarios at time and space scales of relevance to the regional issues of importance. These scales are commonly far finer than even the native resolution of the Global Climate Models (GCMs) (the principal tools for climate change research), let alone the skillful resolution (scales of aggregation at which GCM observational error is acceptable for a given application) of GCMs.Consequently, there is a growing demand for regional-scale scenarios, which in turn are reliant on techniques to downscale from GCMs, such as empirical downscaling or nested Regional Climate Models (RCMs). These methods require significant skill, experiential knowledge, and computational infrastructure in order to derive credible regional-scale scenarios. In contrast, it is often the case that impact assessment researchers in developing nations have inadequate resources with limited access to scientists in the broader international scientific community who have the time and expertise to assist. However, where developing effective downscaled scenarios is problematic, it is possible that much useful information can still be obtained for impact assessments by examining the system sensitivity to largerscale climate perturbations. Consequently, one may argue that the early phase of assessing sensitivity and vulnerability should first be characterized by evaluation of the first-order impacts, rather than immediately addressing the finer, secondary factors that are dependant on scenarios derived through downscaling.

  4. The impact of health economic evaluations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Emelie; Arnberg, Karl; Levin, Lars-Åke; Liliemark, Jan; Davidson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The responsibility for healthcare in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The counties and municipalities are free to make their own prioritizations within the framework of the state healthcare laws. To guide prioritization of healthcare resources in Sweden, there is consensus that cost-effectiveness constitutes one of the three principles. The objective of this paper is to describe how cost-effectiveness, and hence health economic evaluations (HEE), have a role in pricing decisions, reimbursement of pharmaceuticals as well as the overall prioritization and allocation of resources in the Swedish healthcare system. There are various organizations involved in the processes of implementing health technologies in the Swedish healthcare system, several of which consider or produce HEEs when assessing different technologies: the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), the county councils' group on new drug therapies (NLT), the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU), regional HTA agencies and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The only governmental agency that has official and mandatory guidelines for how to perform HEE is TLV (LFNAR 2003:2). Even though HEEs may seem to have a clear and explicit role in the decision-making processes in the Swedish healthcare system, there are various obstacles and challenges in the use and dissemination of the results. PMID:25444295

  5. Solar thermal power plants in small utilities - An economic impact analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.; Ferber, R. R.; Mayo, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the potential economic impact of small solar thermal electric power systems in statistically representative synthetic small utilities of the Southwestern United States. Power supply expansion plans were compared on the basis of present worth of future revenue requirements for 1980-2000 with and without solar thermal plants. Coal-fired and oil-fired municipal utility expansion plans with 5 percent solar penetration were 0.5 percent and 2.25 percent less expensive, respectively, than the corresponding conventional plan. At $969/kWe, which assumes the same low cost solar equipment but no improvement in site development costs, solar penetration of 5 percent in the oil-fired municipal reduced revenue requirements 0.88 percent. The paper concludes that some solar thermal plants are potentially economic in small community utilities of the Southwest.

  6. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.R.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.; Ben-David, S.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency`s far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE`s impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy.

  7. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...This notice announces the availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) which examines the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts and socio-economic impacts of the proposed modification of the historic Bayonne Bridge across the Kill Van Kull between Bayonne, New Jersey and Staten Island, New York. This notice also announces the availability of the Finding of No Significant......

  8. Imbibing Wisdom of Environmental Impact Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ian

    1992-01-01

    Describes a learning module for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the relationship between EIA objectives and those of the module. Discusses constraints influencing the form of the subject and the range of possible training techniques. Presents details of the module's structure and comments on its approach. (Contains 16 references.) (MDH)

  9. Economic Impact of Meningococcal Outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Constenla, D; Carvalho, A; Alvis Guzmán, N

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The impact of meningitis outbreaks is substantial. We aim to calculate the costs of meningococcal outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia from the healthcare system perspective. Methods.  A review of the literature was performed on costs associated with meningococcal outbreak in Latin America. Structured interviews capturing information about the use of resources, expenses allocated to treatment of infection, immunization campaigns, and response activities during the outbreak and disease surveillance pre- and postoutbreak were directed at local health authorities in Brazil and Colombia to foster a greater understanding of the economic impact of meningococcal outbreaks. All costs were expressed in 2014 US values. Results.  The Vila Brandina outbreak in Brazil reported 3 cases that were associated with a total investigation and outbreak management cost of $34 425 ($11 475 per notified case), representing 2.7 more than the annual gross domestic product per capita in Brazil. In contrast, the outbreak in Cartagena de Indias in Colombia reported 6 cases at a cost of the disease response phase of $735 or 9.5% of the annual gross domestic product per capita ($123 per notified case). For the disease surveillance phase, the costs ranged from $3935 (in Cartagena de Indias) to $6667 (in Vila Brandina). Serogroups B and C were responsible for the majority of meningococcal outbreaks reported in Brazil and Colombia. Conclusions.  Findings of this study underscore the importance of meningococcal disease in the region. Future research should focus on a more detailed investigation of costs of meningococcal outbreaks covering all phases of an outbreak. PMID:26688825

  10. Economic Impact of Meningococcal Outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Constenla, D.; Carvalho, A.; Alvis Guzmán, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of meningitis outbreaks is substantial. We aim to calculate the costs of meningococcal outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia from the healthcare system perspective. Methods. A review of the literature was performed on costs associated with meningococcal outbreak in Latin America. Structured interviews capturing information about the use of resources, expenses allocated to treatment of infection, immunization campaigns, and response activities during the outbreak and disease surveillance pre- and postoutbreak were directed at local health authorities in Brazil and Colombia to foster a greater understanding of the economic impact of meningococcal outbreaks. All costs were expressed in 2014 US values. Results. The Vila Brandina outbreak in Brazil reported 3 cases that were associated with a total investigation and outbreak management cost of $34 425 ($11 475 per notified case), representing 2.7 more than the annual gross domestic product per capita in Brazil. In contrast, the outbreak in Cartagena de Indias in Colombia reported 6 cases at a cost of the disease response phase of $735 or 9.5% of the annual gross domestic product per capita ($123 per notified case). For the disease surveillance phase, the costs ranged from $3935 (in Cartagena de Indias) to $6667 (in Vila Brandina). Serogroups B and C were responsible for the majority of meningococcal outbreaks reported in Brazil and Colombia. Conclusions. Findings of this study underscore the importance of meningococcal disease in the region. Future research should focus on a more detailed investigation of costs of meningococcal outbreaks covering all phases of an outbreak. PMID:26688825

  11. Economic and Health Impacts Associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium Drinking Water Outbreak−Alamosa, CO, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J.; Brunkard, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n = 369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n = 108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n = 699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n = 233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak’s estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677–$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471–$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks. PMID:23526942

  12. The economic impact of H1N1 on Mexico's tourist and pork sectors.

    PubMed

    Rassy, Dunia; Smith, Richard D

    2013-07-01

    By examining tourist arrivals and pork output and trade statistics, this analysis estimates the economic impact to the Mexican tourism and pork sectors because of the H1N1 influenza pandemic. It also assesses the role of the international response in the context of this economic impact. For tourism, losing almost a million overseas visitors translated into losses of around $US2.8bn, which extended over a five-month period, mostly because of the slow return of European travellers. For the pork industry, temporal decreases in output were observed in most of the country and related to H1N1 incidence (p = 0.048, r = 0.37). By the end of 2009, Mexico had a pork trade deficit of $US27m. The losses derived from this pandemic were clearly influenced by the risk perception created in tourist-supplying and pork trade partners. Results suggest that the wider economic implications of health-related emergencies can be significant and need to be considered in preparedness planning. For instance, more effective surveillance and data gathering would enable policy to target emergency funding to the sectors and regions hardest hit. These results also stress the importance of being familiar with trade networks so as to be able to anticipate the international response and respond accordingly. PMID:23744805

  13. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  14. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Remittances and their economic impact in post-war Somaliland.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I I

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines the role of remittances, provided by a large global diaspora of migrant workers and refugees, in post-war Somaliland. Based on field-work conducted in Somaliland under the COPE project in 1998/9, the paper discusses trends in the size, source, means of transfer, distribution and use of remittances, their role in livelihoods and in the country's economic recovery and future prospects. The total value of remittances, originating mainly from migrant labour in the Gulf and more recently an exodus of refugees to the West, and greatly facilitated by the growth of telecommunications in Somaliland and of remittance agencies, is estimated at some US$500 million annually--around four times the value of livestock exports and much more significant than hitherto appreciated. Contrary to the prevailing view that remittances are mainly used for consumption and unproductive investments such as housing and land, this study suggests that in Somaliland they have contributed to the rapid growth of a vibrant private sector. On the other hand, remittance flows have been associated with a number of negative side-effects such as the loss of the country's most educated and skilled labour, increased income inequality and booming sector effects, and their positive impact is limited by the present lack of credit schemes and facilities for saving. PMID:11138372

  16. Impacts of Time Delays on Distributed Algorithms for Economic Dispatch

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Sun, Yannan; Lian, Jianming

    2015-07-26

    Economic dispatch problem (EDP) is an important problem in power systems. It can be formulated as an optimization problem with the objective to minimize the total generation cost subject to the power balance constraint and generator capacity limits. Recently, several consensus-based algorithms have been proposed to solve EDP in a distributed manner. However, impacts of communication time delays on these distributed algorithms are not fully understood, especially for the case where the communication network is directed, i.e., the information exchange is unidirectional. This paper investigates communication time delay effects on a distributed algorithm for directed communication networks. The algorithm has been tested by applying time delays to different types of information exchange. Several case studies are carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the algorithm in the presence of time delays in communication networks. It is found that time delay effects have negative effects on the convergence rate, and can even result in an incorrect converge value or fail the algorithm to converge.

  17. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  18. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  19. The economic impacts of Oklahoma's Family Medicine residency programs.

    PubMed

    Lapolla, Michael; Brandt, Edward N; Barker, Andréa; Ryan, Lori

    2004-06-01

    The enactment of Medicare and Medicaid created a new demand for medical services in Oklahoma, particularly in rural areas. The state of Oklahoma responded by creating The Oklahoma Physician Manpower Training Commission in 1975. The overall purpose of the Commission was to increase the number of primary care physicians and influence distribution into non-metro areas. This analysis concerns the public policy value of this ongoing program. The PMTC has provided resident stipend funding to each of Oklahoma's publicly funded Family Medicine residency programs. Since 1975, the PMTC has provided over 139 million dollars in resident stipend funding and support; and there have been 749 program graduates with 431 practicing in Oklahoma. This model calculates that the Oklahoma-based physicians have created a cumulative 3.7 billion dollars of economic impact on the state; and conservatively estimates that only 10% of the practice decisions/locations were influenced by the PMTC. This creates an estimated return of 370 million dollars on an "investment" of 139 million dollars. Additionally the model demonstrates that the current cohort of physicians is annually responsible for 15,530 jobs and an associated payroll of 428 million dollars. PMID:15346805

  20. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Impacts of Introducing Legumes into Cropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Göran; Watson, Christine A; Stoddard, Frederick L; Zander, Peter M; Walker, Robin L; Pristeri, Aurelio; Toncea, Ion; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Europe's agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2% of the arable land and more than 70% of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 and 33% and N fertilizer use by 24 and 38% in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22% in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers. PMID:27242870

  1. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Impacts of Introducing Legumes into Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Göran; Watson, Christine A.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Zander, Peter M.; Walker, Robin L.; Pristeri, Aurelio; Toncea, Ion; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Europe's agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2% of the arable land and more than 70% of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 and 33% and N fertilizer use by 24 and 38% in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22% in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers. PMID:27242870

  2. [The impact of health economics: a status report].

    PubMed

    Tunder, R

    2011-12-01

    "Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given. PMID:22108908

  3. Energy, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technology in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The spreadsheet-based economic model shown here has been successfully used to analyze the impacts of technology used in a variety of industrial areas. It generates projections on energy, waste, and production cost savings that can be used to gauge the potential benefits that may result from technology adoption. The model is highly flexible, and can be used to incorporate unique benefits that fall outside the realm of energy savings. Although only aggregated results are shown here to protect developer confidentially, it is obvious that when the same information is viewed on the project level it can be invaluable to the research program manager. With the data provided by the model the value of a project can be assessed in terms of the federal investment as well as national impacts. This is a distinct advantage for government research managers who much allocate very scarce federal research funds among a multitude of potentially important research projects.

  4. Economic Benefits and Impacts from Public Libraries in the State of Florida. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.; Fraser, Bruce T.; Nelson, Timothy W.; Robbins, Jane B.

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the economic impacts and benefits of Florida public libraries. The study objectives were to: describe the role of public libraries in economic development; identify and describe the range of specific activities and programs engaged in to support economic development; identify factors that…

  5. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in western Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level economic impacts of no-till farming as compared to conventional tillage and the current mix of tillage practices. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulatio...

  6. Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

  7. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  8. In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic impacts. The report, ``Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935

  9. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

  10. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

  11. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Mid-Atlantic region.

  12. The NASA Lewis Research Center's Expendable Launch Vehicle Program: An Economic Impact Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the economic impact of the Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) Expendable Launch Vehicle Program (ELVP) on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures ELVP's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. The study uses regional economic multipliers based on input-output models to estimate the effect of ELVP spending on the Northeast Ohio economy.

  13. The NASA Lewis Research Center's Expendable Launch Vehicle Program: An Economic Impact Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the economic impact of the Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) Expendable Launch Vehicle Program (ELVP) on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures ELVP's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they "ripple" throughout the economy. The study uses regional economic multipliers based on input-output models to estimate the effect of ELVP spending on the Northeast Ohio economy.

  14. The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John

    2007-01-01

    Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

  15. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  16. The Economic Impact of San Juan College on San Juan County, New Mexico, 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Jo

    A study was conducted of the economic impact of San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, New Mexico, on businesses and employment in San Juan County during fiscal year (FY) 1991-92. The five components used to measure the college's tangible economic impact on the local community were SJC's total expenditures in FY 1991-92 used to buy goods and…

  17. The Economic Impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland County, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellinger, William; Bybel, Alexandra; de Cabrol, Charles; Frankel, Zachary; Kosta, Elizabeth; Laffey, Thomas; Letko, Lauren; Pehlman, Robert; Peterson, Eric; Roderick, Benjamin; Rose, Leo; Schachter, Andrew; Wang, Jue; Wood, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study of Dickinson College represents an unusually complete, detailed, and balanced study of the local and regional economic impact of an academic institution. Among other features, it includes estimates of the college's positive and negative effects on local government, local as well as county wide economic impact estimates, and a relatively…

  18. The Economic Impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland County, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellinger, William; McCann, Danielle

    Economic impact is defined as the added income created within a given geographical area by a particular institution or resulting from a specific policy action. This analysis, which used data from many sources, including surveys completed by 174 Dickinson employees, considered the economic impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland…

  19. The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Francois, Ed.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., Ed.

    This book, a collection of articles and papers, reviews techniques and tools that can be used to evaluate the poverty and distributional impact of economic policy choices. Following are its contents: "Evaluating the Poverty and Distributional Impact of Economic Policies: A Compendium of Existing Techniques" (Francois Bourguignon and Luiz A.…

  20. 78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import... comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

  1. St. Louis Community College and the Local Economy: An Estimate of the College's Economic Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, John J.

    This report presents results of a study conducted to estimate the economic impact of St. Louis Community College (SLCC) on the local economy. Introductory material discusses the purpose of economic impact studies, and an analysis of the demography of SLCC and the St. Louis area is provided. Next, the project model used in the study is presented,…

  2. Examining Climate Influences and Economic Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms in Massachusetts: 1993 and 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N.

    2005-12-01

    Although the potential causes of harmful algal blooms (HABs), or red tides, have been studied extensively, the relationships between the environmental drivers and economic impacts have not been fully explored. This paper examined the environmental-economic link by investigating similarities in the environmental conditions leading to the 1993 and 2005 HABs (caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandirum) along the Massachusetts coast, and the resulting effects on shellfish, public health, recreation, tourism, and the commercial shellfish industry in Massachusetts. Environmental influences including sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, precipitation, streamflow, and shellfish toxicity levels were examined for the years 1990 to 2005. Economic impacts on commercial fishery landings (Massachusetts mussel commercial fishery landings and Gloucester commercial fishery landings) were assessed for the years1990 to 2003. The Plume Advection hypothesis was studied and results showed that runoff from the five major rivers that contribute to the Western Maine Coastal Current, the current that carried these cells, peaked in April 1993 and 2005 relative to the mean which varied from river to river. The most intense wind stress coming from the North occurred in April 1993 and May 2005 with speeds of 15-20 m/s. A large decrease in salinity off the Massachusetts coast occurred in May 1993 and measured outside the 68% of 1993 salinity data recorded, and from the information available, in April and May 2005 waters were also less saline. Peaks in shellfish toxicity occurred in early June 1993 at approximately 400 μg toxicity/g shellfish meat and in 2005 at 700 μg toxicity/g shellfish meat. This indicated a lag time between peaks in runoff and toxicity of approximately one month and similarly with decreases in salinity. Runoff also corresponded to a large decrease in salinity during May 1993. Coincidentally, there was also a significant decrease in commercial fishery landings between

  3. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F.; Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E.; Chabert, C.

    2012-07-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit

  4. A Framework for Developing Indicators Linking Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Water Funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, L.; Game, E.; Calvache, A.; Moreno, P.; Morales, A.; Rivera, B.; Rodriguez, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in the equity and sustainability of water funds and other investment in watershed services programs has spurred interest in evaluation of program impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being. Yet, programs often lack a systematic framework to select indicators that are both important to stakeholders and relevant to hypothesized program impact. To fill this gap, we developed a participatory indicator selection methodology and piloted it in Fondo Agua por La Vida y la Sostenibilidad in the East Cauca Valley Colombia. We started by linking program activities to anticipated ecological and socio-economic impacts through stakeholder developed results chains. Using results chains as the framework, we constructed fuzzy cognitive models to explore the relative impact of program activities on social and ecological attributes. To prioritize indicators to monitor, we combined our fuzzy modelling results with an assessment of the perceived importance of different attributes for stakeholders in the water fund. We used the selected indicators to design a monitoring program that will allow the water fund to track and communicate its impact over the long-term.

  5. 40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.22 Section... FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact. The assessment of impact on other...

  6. Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghiryan, M.

    Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

  7. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings. PMID:24053574

  8. From impact assessment to recommendation: How are the impact assessment results presented and used?

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, T.

    1995-07-01

    Most work on impact assessment (IA) deals with data, technique, and procedures for making the assessment. While these things can influence the final choice of planning alternative, it is equally important how the assessment results are used in the political decision process. The case material concerns integrated transportation and land use plans for the 10 largest urban regions in Norway. It is demonstrated that application of the impact assessment results varies widely among the cities. The information potential of the impact calculations is considerably underexploited in many cases, and assessment results seem too easily ignored in the process of reaching a recommendation on planning strategy. Some factors are identified and discussed in an attempt to shed light on this phenomenon.

  9. User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

  10. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  11. AIDA: Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Galvez, A.; Reed, C.; Carnelli, I.; Abell, P.; Ulamec, S.; Rivkin, A.; Biele, J.; Murdoch, N.

    2015-03-01

    AIDA (Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment) is a project of a joint mission demonstration of asteroid deflection and characterisation of the kinetic impact effects. It involves the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (with support from members of NASA centers including Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and the European Space Agency (with support from members of the french CNRS/Cte dAzur Observatory and the german DLR). This assessment will be done using a binary asteroid target. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission concepts, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterisation spacecraft. The objective and status of the project will be presented.

  12. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  13. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  14. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-09

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The

  15. The October 1973 NASA mission model analysis and economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the 1973 NASA Mission Model Analysis. The purpose was to obtain an economic assessment of using the Shuttle to accommodate the payloads and requirements as identified by the NASA Program Offices and the DoD. The 1973 Payload Model represents a baseline candidate set of future payloads which can be used as a reference base for planning purposes. The cost of implementing these payload programs utilizing the capabilities of the shuttle system is analyzed and compared with the cost of conducting the same payload effort using expendable launch vehicles. There is a net benefit of 14.1 billion dollars as a result of using the shuttle during the 12-year period as compared to using an expendable launch vehicle fleet.

  16. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL’s researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects.

  17. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  18. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  19. AIDA: The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Cheng, A. F.; Reed, C.; Ulamec, S.; Biele, J.; Abell, P.; Landis, R.

    2013-09-01

    The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission, a joint effort of ESA, JHU/APL, NASA, OCA, and DLR, is the first demonstration of asteroid deflection and assessment via kinetic impact. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission elements, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterization spacecraft. These two missions are, respectively, JHU/APL's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Investigation Mission (AIM) missions. As in the separate DART and AIM studies, the target of this mission is the binary asteroid [65803] Didymos in October, 2022. For a successful joint mission, one spacecraft, DART, would impact the secondary of the Didymos system while AIM would observe and measure any change in the relative orbit. AIM will be the first probe to characterise a binary asteroid, especially from the dynamical point of view, but also considering its interior and subsurface composition. The mission concept focuses on the monitoring aspects i.e., the capability to determine in-situ the key physical properties of a binary asteroid playing a role in the system's dynamic behavior. DART will be the first ever space mission to deflect the trajectory of an asteroid in a measurable way.- It is expected that the deflection can be measured as a change in the relative orbit period with a precision better than 10%. The joint AIDA mission will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact [1,2].

  20. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways - Part 1: Water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2013-07-01

    A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr-1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr-1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  1. Regional economic impacts of natural hazards - the case of the 2005 Alpine flood event in Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfurtscheller, C.

    2014-02-01

    Natural hazards have substantial impacts on economies on all scales. While the measurement of direct effects seems manageable, less is known about the dimensions of economic effects, especially on local and regional scales. The lack of standardized terminology, empirical data and methods currently hampers profound decision support. In our study of the 2005 flood event in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria), which triggered about 264 million Euros in direct losses, we surveyed companies from all sectors of the economy to identify the drivers of economic effects. The main aim of the study was to assess the regional economic impacts on the gross regional product by the 2005 floods without macro-economic modelling techniques using bottom-up data. Using basic quantitative and qualitative methods, we established and analysed a data pool of questionnaire and interview results as well as direct loss data. Based on this empirical evidence, we estimated the decline in gross regional product in the study area at NUTS-3 level. We observed that disrupted traffic networks, for instance, had very negative effects on the regional economy. In addition, we identified economic winners of severe hazard impacts and estimated the amount of increasing economic flows (economic stimuli), based on compensation payments. Finally, the net effect can be estimated balancing the negative and positive effects of the flood event. The methods and results of this study can help to improve ex post loss estimations, and with it, ex ante methods for the cost efficiency of risk reduction measures, e.g. cost-benefit analysis. However, much effort is needed to improve the data basis on economic effects measured as a change in economic flows.

  2. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  3. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  4. Biophysical and Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Poverty Impacts of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.; Verma, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper seeks to understand the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the impacts of climate change on agricultural output, international trade, and poverty. We incorporate biophysical uncertainty by sampling from a distribution of global climate model predictions for temperature and precipitation for 2050. The implications of these realizations for crop yields around the globe are estimated using the recently published statistical crop yield functions provided by Lobell, Schlenker and Costa-Roberts (2011). By comparing these yields to those predicted under current climate, we obtain the likely change in crop yields owing to climate change. The economic uncertainty in our analysis relates to the response of the global economic system to these biophysical shocks. We use a modified version of the GTAP model to elicit the impact of the biophysical shocks on global patterns of production, consumption, trade and poverty. Uncertainty in these responses is reflected in the econometrically estimated parameters governing the responsiveness of international trade, consumption, production (and hence the intensive margin of supply response), and factor supplies (which govern the extensive margin of supply response). We sample from the distributions of these parameters as specified by Hertel et al. (2007) and Keeney and Hertel (2009). We find that, even though it is difficult to predict where in the world agricultural crops will be favorably affected by climate change, the responses of economic variables, including output and exports can be far more robust (Table 1). This is due to the fact that supply and demand decisions depend on relative prices, and relative prices depend on productivity changes relative to other crops in a given region, or relative to similar crops in other parts of the world. We also find that uncertainty in poverty impacts of climate change appears to be almost entirely driven by biophysical uncertainty.

  5. State Investment in Universities: Rethinking the Impact on Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Does investing taxpayer money in higher education lead to major payoffs in economic growth? State legislators and policy makers say yes. They routinely advocate massive appropriations for university education and research, even in poor economic times, on the grounds that taxpayers will be rewarded many times over. The investment of federal funds…

  6. The economic impact of malignant catarrhal fever on pastoralist livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Lankester, Felix; Lugelo, Ahmed; Kazwala, Rudovick; Keyyu, Julius; Cleaveland, Sarah; Yoder, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to partially quantify the potential economic benefits that a vaccine, effective at protecting cattle against malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), could accrue to pastoralists living in East Africa. The benefits would result from the removal of household resource and management costs that are traditionally incurred avoiding the disease. MCF, a fatal disease of cattle caused by a virus transmitted from wildebeest calves, has plagued Maasai communities in East Africa for generations. The threat of the disease forces the Maasai to move cattle to less productive grazing areas to avoid wildebeest during calving season when forage quality is critical. To assess the management and resource costs associated with moving, we used household survey data. To estimate the costs associated with changes in livestock body condition that result from being herded away from wildebeest calving grounds, we exploited an ongoing MCF vaccine field trial and we used a hedonic price regression, a statistical model that allows estimation of the marginal contribution of a good's attributes to its market price. We found that 90 percent of households move, on average, 82 percent of all cattle away from home to avoid MCF. In doing so, a herd's productive contributions to the household was reduced, with 64 percent of milk being unavailable for sale or consumption by the family members remaining at the boma (the children, women, and the elderly). In contrast cattle that remained on the wildebeest calving grounds during the calving season (and survived MCF) remained fully productive to the family and gained body condition compared to cattle that moved away. This gain was, however, short-lived. We estimated the market value of these condition gains and losses using hedonic regression. The value of a vaccine for MCF is the removal of the costs incurred in avoiding the disease. PMID:25629896

  7. The Economic Impact of Malignant Catarrhal Fever on Pastoralist Livelihoods

    PubMed Central

    Lankester, Felix; Lugelo, Ahmed; Kazwala, Rudovick; Keyyu, Julius; Cleaveland, Sarah; Yoder, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to partially quantify the potential economic benefits that a vaccine, effective at protecting cattle against malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), could accrue to pastoralists living in East Africa. The benefits would result from the removal of household resource and management costs that are traditionally incurred avoiding the disease. MCF, a fatal disease of cattle caused by a virus transmitted from wildebeest calves, has plagued Maasai communities in East Africa for generations. The threat of the disease forces the Maasai to move cattle to less productive grazing areas to avoid wildebeest during calving season when forage quality is critical. To assess the management and resource costs associated with moving, we used household survey data. To estimate the costs associated with changes in livestock body condition that result from being herded away from wildebeest calving grounds, we exploited an ongoing MCF vaccine field trial and we used a hedonic price regression, a statistical model that allows estimation of the marginal contribution of a good’s attributes to its market price. We found that 90 percent of households move, on average, 82 percent of all cattle away from home to avoid MCF. In doing so, a herd’s productive contributions to the household was reduced, with 64 percent of milk being unavailable for sale or consumption by the family members remaining at the boma (the children, women, and the elderly). In contrast cattle that remained on the wildebeest calving grounds during the calving season (and survived MCF) remained fully productive to the family and gained body condition compared to cattle that moved away. This gain was, however, short-lived. We estimated the market value of these condition gains and losses using hedonic regression. The value of a vaccine for MCF is the removal of the costs incurred in avoiding the disease. PMID:25629896

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    SciTech Connect

    Gałaś, Slávka; Gałaś, Andrzej; Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka; Fialová, Jitka; and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  9. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.R.; Nielsen, T.G.; Schultz, J.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.; Ben-David, S.; Temple, J.

    1998-05-29

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was established in 1949 to perform the engineering development and ordnance responsibilities associated with nuclear weapons. By the early 1960`s the facility had evolved into an engineering research and development laboratory and became a multiprogram laboratory during the 1970s. Sandia is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, Incorporated. For several years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico. For this report, the reference period is FY 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997) and includes two major impact analyses: the impact of SNL activities on central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the central New Mexico region includes Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance counties. Total impact represents both direct and indirect respending by business, including induced effects (respending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts results from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. 75 FR 62762 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... demographic, cultural, economic, and social information about the snapper-grouper fisheries in the...

  11. Economic Impact of Second-Home Communities: A Case Study of Lake Latonka, Pa. Economic Research Service Report ERS-452.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard N., Jr.

    Based on the results of a lot-owner survey and on data from public records and other sources relative to the development of a second-home community in Lake Latonka, Pennsylvania (begun in 1964 and sold out in 1966), economic impacts were estimated by applying appropriate income multipliers to reported use and development expenditures. It was…

  12. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Windstorms can cause significant financial damage and they rank among the most hazardous meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Risk associated with windstorms involves the combination of hazardous weather conditions, such as high wind gust speeds, and socio-economic factors, such as the distribution of assets as well as their susceptibilities to damage. A sophisticated risk assessment is important in a wide range of areas and has benefits for e.g. the insurance industry. However, a sophisticated risk assessment needs a large sample of storm events for which high-resolution, quantitative meteorological and/or loss data are available. Latter is typically an aggravating factor. For present-day windstorms in Switzerland, the data basis is generally sufficient to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated impacts. In contrast, historic windstorms are usually described by graphical depictions of the event and/or by weather and loss reports. The information on historic weather events is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. It has primarily been the field of activity of environmental historians to study historic weather extremes and their impacts. Furthermore, the scarce availability of atmospheric datasets reaching back sufficiently in time has so far limited the analysis of historic weather events. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble dataset, a global atmospheric reanalysis currently spanning 1871 to 2012, offers potentially a very valuable resource for the analysis of historic weather events. However, the 2°×2° latitude-longitude grid of the 20CR is too coarse to realistically represent the complex orography of Switzerland, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of smaller-scale features of the surface wind field influenced by the local orography. Using the 20CR as a starting point, this study illustrates a method to

  13. Impact of the 2008 economic and financial crisis on child health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lucas, Patricia J; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000-50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children's health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

  14. Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez de Sanmamed, María-José; Choonara, Imti; Faresjö, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Lucas, Patricia J.; Raat, Hein; Séguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles and abstracts were reviewed, from which 22 studies were included. The risk of bias for quantitative studies was mixed while qualitative studies showed low risk of bias. An excess of 28,000–50,000 infant deaths in 2009 was estimated in sub-Saharan African countries, and increased infant mortality in Greece was reported. Increased price of foods was related to worsening nutrition habits in disadvantaged families worldwide. An increase in violence against children was reported in the U.S., and inequalities in health-related quality of life appeared in some countries. Most studies suggest that the economic crisis has harmed children’s health, and disproportionately affected the most vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further studies to monitor the child health effects of the global recession and to inform appropriate public policy responses. PMID:25019121

  15. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture: A Ricardian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K.

    2007-06-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  16. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, P.

    1980-06-01

    The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

  17. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed. PMID:26607752

  18. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  19. An ecological economics framework for assessing environmental flows: the case of inter-basin water transfers in Lesotho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matete, Mampiti; Hassan, Rashid

    2005-07-01

    This paper used the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) that transfers water from the Orange River Basin in Lesotho to the Vaal River Basin in South Africa as a case study to show how environmental sustainability aspects can be integrated into economic development planning. Using the Ecological Social Accounting Matrix (ESAM) for Lesotho that integrates ecological implications of the LHWP with economic benefits of the project, the paper analysed the impact of lost ecological services downstream the LHWP dams in Lesotho on the well-being of households directly affected by the project (riparians) and the general economy of the country. The results revealed that despite significant economic benefits, the project has unintended impacts on ecological resources and services with resultant deleterious well-being implications for riparians. The results from the ESAM analysis indicated that not only the income of riparians is likely to suffer, but also that of other households and social groups, as well as the general economy of Lesotho. While results of the ESAM analysis did not indicate large income impacts on the economy at large, they were significant for riparians. The importance of integrating ecological consequences into impact assessment of IBWT before such transfers can be implemented to ensure sustainable development and considering economy-wide impacts associated with IBWT was proven necessary for a holistic impact assessment of IBWT.

  20. Economic impacts of the SAFRR tsunami scenario in California: Chapter H in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; Rose, Adam; Sue Wing, Ian; Wei, Dan

    2013-01-01

    effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. An appropriate measure of the economic impacts on the California economy for the SAFRR tsunami scenario is the reduction in GDP. The economic impacts are first calculated without resilience, the ability of the economy to adjust to disruptions in ways that mute potential negative impacts. There are many types of resilience, including using existing inventories of materials, using unused capacity, conserving inputs, substituting for disrupted supplies, recapturing production after the disruption is restored, and many others. A method for estimating resilience, identified in the port system and sectors affected by property damages, is applied to indicate potential reductions of direct and total economic impacts. In this SAFRR tsunami scenario analysis of economic impacts to California, we implement established techniques used to model the economic impacts for two previous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scenarios: the southern California Shakeout earthquake (Rose and others, 2011) and the California ARkStorm severe winter storm (Sue Wing and others, written commun., 2013). For the SAFRR tsunami scenario, we reviewed the relevant studies that assess economic impacts from previous tsunami events affecting California and elsewhere and estimate the economic impacts of potential tsunami and other threats to POLA and POLB. To our knowledge, assessment of impacts to the California economy from distant source tsunamis does not exist. Previous tsunamis, including those from the 1960 Chile earthquake, the 1964 Alaska earthquake, the 2008 Chile earthquake and the 2011 Japan earthquake, had only relatively minor or very localized severe damage (such as that in Crescent City in 1964), and no studies of the economic impacts were completed. A rare study of the economic impacts of a tsunami event has recently been produced for the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (Kajitani and others, 2013). Quarterly declines in Japan’s GDP are observed

  1. Gender impact assessment in microfinance and microenterprise: why and how.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    2000-02-01

    This article discusses the reasons for conducting gender impact assessment in microfinance and microenterprise. Although women are increasingly being targeted in microfinance and microenterprise projects, this does not necessarily mean that gender relations are being taken into account. Rather, targeting women raises a host of questions about the context in which women are operating their businesses or handling finance. Assessing gender impact in microfinance and microenterprise can help answer the questions in order to understand whether women are able to use the services and make the anticipated improvements in their livelihoods. Moreover, several approaches are suggested: 1) establish a gender baseline; 2) consider the potential impacts of the project on gender relations; 3) establish the information and indicators required; and 4) collect and analyze the data using tools and techniques appropriate to the task. However, in the context of gender relations there remains much ground, which often cannot be openly discussed. The discussion of how people organize their financial and economic affairs inside the household is usually a delicate area. Hence, it is suggested that such matters should be handled very carefully and to consider the composition and dynamics of the research team itself. PMID:12295962

  2. Energy Market and Economic Impacts Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), in response to a September 27, 2006, request from Senators Bingaman, Landrieu, Murkowski, Specter, Salazar, and Lugar. The Senators requested that EIA assess the impacts of a proposal that would regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through an allowance cap-and-trade system. The program would set the cap to achieve a reduction in emissions relative to economic output, or greenhouse gas intensity.

  3. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  4. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer

  5. Economic Assessment of Zoonotic Diseases: An Illustrative Study of Rift Valley Fever in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pendell, D L; Lusk, J L; Marsh, T L; Coble, K H; Szmania, S C

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of a Rift Valley Fever outbreak, a virus that spreads from livestock to humans, often through mosquitoes. Developing a 'one health' economic framework, economic impacts on agricultural producers and consumers, government costs of response, costs and disruptions to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and human health costs (morbidity and mortality) are estimated. We find the agricultural firms bear most of the negative economic impacts, followed by regional non-agricultural firms, human health and government. Further, consumers of agricultural products benefit from small outbreaks due to bans on agricultural exports. PMID:25052324

  6. 75 FR 51468 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is making available thirty-five Privacy Impact Assessments on various...'s Web site between October 1, 2009 and May 31, 2010. DATES: The Privacy Impact Assessments will...

  7. The development of ecological impact assessment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehua; Li, Zhouyuan; Liao, Chenghao; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Annah; Li, Dong; Li, Yajun; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    The balance between economic development and ecological conservation in China has become a critical issue in recent decades. Ecological impact assessment (EcoIA) was established beginning in the 1980s as a component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) that focuses specifically on human-related changes in ecosystem structure and function. EcoIA has since been widely applied throughout the country with continuous refinements in theory and practice. As compared to EIA, EcoIA is often performed at a larger scale in the long-term, and thus requires more advanced tools and techniques to quantify and assess. This paper reviews the development of EcoIA over the past 30years in China, with specific consideration given to refinements in legislation and methodology. Three stages in the development of EcoIA in China are identified, along with their achievements and limitations. Supplementing this qualitative analysis, the paper also provides a quantitative bibliometrics review of academic publications concerning EcoIA in China over the three identified stages. Lastly, general trends in the development of EcoIA are summarized with the aim of conveying potential future trajectories. This review is intended to introduce the EcoIA system to scholars interested in the growing field of environmental management in China. PMID:26318514

  8. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results. PMID:27424115

  9. Demographic pressure, economic development, and social engineering: An assessment of fertility declines in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Heuveline, Patrick

    2001-10-01

    Concerns over the prospects of explosive demographic growth led to concerted efforts to engineer fertility reductions in the developing world, while skeptics argued that economic development was the best way to hasten fertility decline. Now that fertility declines have occurred in many countries can either side claim victory? Or was demographic pressure simply self-regulated by links between mortality and fertility changes? Using country-level data and a methodology inspired by a series of seminal articles by Preston, I assess the impact of economic change on both fertility and mortality and the independent effect of mortality on fertility between the 1960s and the 1990s. Aggregating country-level estimates into six regional population projections from 1950 to 2000, I translate these impacts on demographic variables into population size impacts. Although economic development accounted poorly for either mortality or fertility changes, the prevailing population growth was not that different from the growth predicted had economic development alone influenced demographic trends. The main reason appears to be an association between mortality and fertility levels that offset the initial effects of mortality declines outpacing economic growth. Together, the effect of economic change on both mortality and fertility declines and the effect of mortality on fertility predicted reasonably well actual population size in year 2000, suggesting only a modest influence of any additional factor. PMID:24648602

  10. Economic Evidence on the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy; Menne, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In responding to the health impacts of climate change, economic evidence and tools inform decision makers of the efficiency of alternative health policies and interventions. In a time when sweeping budget cuts are affecting all tiers of government, economic evidence on health protection from climate change spending enables comparison with other public spending. METHODS The review included 53 countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Literature was obtained using a Medline and Internet search of key terms in published reports and peer-reviewed literature, and from institutions working on health and climate change. Articles were included if they provided economic estimation of the health impacts of climate change or adaptation measures to protect health from climate change in the WHO European Region. Economic studies are classified under health impact cost, health adaptation cost, and health economic evaluation (comparing both costs and impacts). RESULTS A total of 40 relevant studies from Europe were identified, covering the health damage or adaptation costs related to the health effects of climate change and response measures to climate-sensitive diseases. No economic evaluation studies were identified of response measures specific to the impacts of climate change. Existing studies vary in terms of the economic outcomes measured and the methods for evaluation of health benefits. The lack of robust health impact data underlying economic studies significantly affects the availability and precision of economic studies. CONCLUSIONS Economic evidence in European countries on the costs of and response to climate-sensitive diseases is extremely limited and fragmented. Further studies are urgently needed that examine health impacts and the costs and efficiency of alternative responses to climate-sensitive health conditions, in particular extreme weather events (other than heat) and potential emerging diseases and other conditions

  11. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  12. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2005-08-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power, and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  13. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

  14. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.R.; Nielsen, T.G.; Schultz, J.; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M.; Ben-David, S.; Temple, J.

    1998-05-29

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico. The agency`s far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both DOE and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE`s impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 and FY 1997. Total impacts represents both direct and indirect impacts (respending by business), including induced (respending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) introduction; (2) profile of DOE activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE expenditure patterns; (4) measuring DOE/New Mexico`s economic impact; (5) technology transfer within the federal labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) glossary of terms; and (7) technical appendix containing a description of the model. 9 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. [Economic assessment, a field between clinical research and observational studies].

    PubMed

    Launois, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Health technology assessments propose to study the differential impact of health interventions in a complex care system which is characterised by the multitude of individual behaviours and the diverse nature of the institutions involved. Current systems for data collection lend themselves poorly to this rigorous analysis of efficacy of treatments in the actual situations where they are used. Randomised trials endeavour to neutralise any parasitic interference which could compromise testing for a causal relationship between the treatment administered and the result obtained. Their methodology which establishes the term ceteris paribus in the principle of good practice lends itself poorly to an analysis of individual behaviour. Observational studies are start from actual treatment situations to describe them as reliably as possible. By definition, however, these assume that the natural course of events is not deviated by any intervention. The absence of an experimental plan increases the likelihood of bias and makes it more difficult to test for causal relationships. They lend themselves poorly to testing for incremental efficacy. The two instruments to be preferred are decisional analysis and quasi-experimental studies. Decisional analysis help to avoid the problems of external validity associated with randomised clinical trials by associating parameters which are extracted from data obtained from everyday practice. Quasi-experimental studies or pragmatic trials are based on the reality of behaviour of the prescriber and his/her patients; their impact on efficacy, quality of life social costs of the disease and of treatments may be identified under normal conditions of use. PMID:12609811

  16. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways - Part 1: Water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr-1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr-1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  17. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  18. Economic impacts of anthropogenic activities on coastlines of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, Orville T.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Lent, Linda K.; Richmond, James A.; Treadwell, Donald D.; Douglass, Scott L.; Edge, Billy L.; Ewing, Lesley C.; Pratt, Anthony P.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities primarily impact coasts by reducing sediment inputs, altering sediment transport processes, and accelerating sediment losses to the offshore. These activities include: sand and gravel extraction, navigation and shore protection works; non-structural shoreline management strategies such as beach nourishment, sand by-passing and beach scraping, dams and flood control works; channel and inlet dredging; subsidence caused by fluid extraction and reduction of carbonate beach material. Although many of these activities have improved the quality of life, they also have had unintended effects on the coast. The issues that arise from human alterations of the coast are common to many coastal regions around the world; this paper draws from several areas of the United States to present an overview and provisional assessment of the economic consequences of anthropogenic activities along the Pacific coast.

  19. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  20. Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, J C

    2013-11-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

  1. Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Song Guojun Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

    2011-11-15

    The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: > National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. > We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. > The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

  2. Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, JC

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

  3. Economic impact of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) on work in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading cause of work disability, sickness absence from work, 'presenteeism' and loss of productivity across all the European Union (EU) member states. It is estimated that the total cost of lost productivity attributable to MSDs among people of working age in the EU could be as high as 2% of gross domestic product (GDP). This paper examines the available evidence on the economic burden of MSDs on work across Europe and highlights areas of policy, clinical and employment practice which might improve work outcomes for individuals and families and reduce the economic and social costs of MSDs. PMID:26612235

  4. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:19529748

  5. Life cycle assessment of biochar systems: estimating the energetic, economic, and climate change potential.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kelli G; Gloy, Brent A; Joseph, Stephen; Scott, Norman R; Lehmann, Johannes

    2010-01-15

    Biomass pyrolysis with biochar returned to soil is a possible strategy for climate change mitigation and reducing fossil fuel consumption. Pyrolysis with biochar applied to soils results in four coproducts: long-term carbon (C) sequestration from stable C in the biochar, renewable energy generation, biochar as a soil amendment, and biomass waste management. Life cycle assessment was used to estimate the energy and climate change impacts and the economics of biochar systems. The feedstocks analyzed represent agricultural residues (corn stover), yard waste, and switchgrass energy crops. The net energy of the system is greatest with switchgrass (4899 MJ t(-1) dry feedstock). The net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for both stover and yard waste are negative, at -864 and -885 kg CO(2) equivalent (CO(2)e) emissions reductions per tonne dry feedstock, respectively. Of these total reductions, 62-66% are realized from C sequestration in the biochar. The switchgrass biochar-pyrolysis system can be a net GHG emitter (+36 kg CO(2)e t(-1) dry feedstock), depending on the accounting method for indirect land-use change impacts. The economic viability of the pyrolysis-biochar system is largely dependent on the costs of feedstock production, pyrolysis, and the value of C offsets. Biomass sources that have a need for waste management such as yard waste have the highest potential for economic profitability (+$69 t(-1) dry feedstock when CO(2)e emission reductions are valued at $80 t(-1) CO(2)e). The transportation distance for feedstock creates a significant hurdle to the economic profitability of biochar-pyrolysis systems. Biochar may at present only deliver climate change mitigation benefits and be financially viable as a distributed system using waste biomass. PMID:20030368

  6. Combined Sustainability Assessment and Techno-Economic Analysis for the Production of Biomass-Derived High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit

    2015-11-13

    Conversion technologies for biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are being actively developed. Converting biomass into advanced hydrocarbon fuels requires detailed assessments to help prioritize research; techno-economic analysis (TEA) is a long established tool used to assess feasibility and progress. TEA provides information needed to make informed judgments about the viability of any given conceptual conversion process; it is particularly useful to identify technical barriers and measure progress toward overcoming those barriers. Expansion of the cellulosic biofuels industry at the scale needed to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard goals is also expected to have environmental impacts. Hence, the success of the biofuels industry depends not only on economic viability, but also on environmental sustainability. A biorefinery process that is economically feasible but suffers from key sustainability drawbacks is not likely to represent a long-term solution to replace fossil-derived fuels. Overarching concerns like environmental sustainability need to be addressed for biofuels production. Combined TEA and environmental sustainability assessment of emerging pathways helps facilitate biorefinery designs that are both economically feasible and minimally impactful to the environment. This study focuses on environmental sustainability assessment and techno-economic analysis for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via gasification and methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. Results from the conceptual process design with economic analysis, along with the quantification and assessment of the environmental sustainability, are presented and discussed. Sustainability metrics associated with the production of high-octane gasoline include carbon conversion efficiency, consumptive water use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy consumption, energy return on investment and net energy value.

  7. Assessment of non-economic impacts to coastal recreation and tourism from oil and gas development: A review of selected literature and example-methodology. Inventory and evaluation of Washington and Oregon coastal recreation resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, L.E.; Johnson, D.R.; Lee, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the study three-part was to assist Minerals Management Service (MMS) planners in evaluation of the anticipated social impact of proposed oil and gas development on the environment. The Pacific Northwest coastal areas of Washington and Oregon, widely known for their natural beauty, provide a variety of recreational opportunities for both local residents and visitors. In fact, tourism is one of the leading industries in the two states and is an important source of revenue for the economies of many coastal communities. Thus, the Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS), in anticipation of the proposed Lease Sale 132, funded the research project with the aim of adding to the existing knowledge of Oregon and Washington coastal recreation resources that might be affected by proposed oil and gas development activities.

  8. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment

  9. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND IMPACT IN COMMUNITIES OF COLOR AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that communities of color and economically/educationally disadvantaged communities are at a greater risk of impact from environmental hazards. In many past studies in environmental justice (EJ) communities, scientists have used surrogate measures of exposure b...

  12. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  13. Economic Liberalization and Its Impact on Women and Women's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    1996-01-01

    Externally imposed macroeconomic restructuring in developing nations (termed economic liberalization or neoliberalism) has specific effects on women because free-market processes undervalue anything without direct monetary value. Two immediate effects on education are privatization and budget cutbacks, which result in differential access to…

  14. The Impact of Economic Stress on Community Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Brian J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Warns that community mental health services are threatened by reductions in federal support and increased numbers of clients. Reviews literature on the effect of adverse economic events on mental health. Identifies issues and answers for managing this dilemma including planning, financial diversification, and inter-agency cooperation. (Author/JAC)

  15. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is the cause of many preventable diseases and premature deaths in the UK and around the world. It poses enormous health- and non-health-related costs to the affected individuals, employers, and the society at large. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, globally, smoking causes over US$500 billion in economic damage each year. OBJECTIVES This paper examines global and UK evidence on the economic impact of smoking prevalence and evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of smoking cessation measures. STUDY SELECTION Search methods We used two major health care/economic research databases, namely PubMed and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) database that contains the British National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; Cochrane Library of systematic reviews in health care and health policy; and other health-care-related bibliographic sources. We also performed hand searching of relevant articles, health reports, and white papers issued by government bodies, international health organizations, and health intervention campaign agencies. Selection criteria The paper includes cost-effectiveness studies from medical journals, health reports, and white papers published between 1992 and July 2014, but included only eight relevant studies before 1992. Most of the papers reviewed reported outcomes on smoking prevalence, as well as the direct and indirect costs of smoking and the costs and benefits of smoking cessation interventions. We excluded papers that merely described the effectiveness of an intervention without including economic or cost considerations. We also excluded papers that combine smoking cessation with the reduction in the risk of other diseases. Data collection and analysis The included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.0.0. Outcomes assessed in the review Primary outcomes of the selected studies are smoking prevalence

  16. Emergency use of groundwater as a backup supply: Quantifying hydraulic impacts and economic benefits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Li, Zhen; Hermans, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater can play an important role in water-supply emergency planning. A framework is presented for assessing the hydraulic impacts and associated costs of using groundwater as a backup supply when imported-water deliveries are disrupted, and for quantifying the emergency benefits of groundwater management strategies that enable better response to such disruptions. Response functions are derived, which relate additional groundwater pumpage during water-supply emergencies to impacts such as increased pumping costs, subsidence, and seawater intrusion. Monte Carlo analysis is employed to estimate the incremental costs of using groundwater as a backup supply. The emergency benefits of alternative groundwater management strategies are computed for different expected durations of imported water disruption, percentages of imported water replaced by groundwater, and threshold drawdowns for subsidence impacts. The methodology is applied to the coastal Los Angeles Basin. For this case study, emergency benefits of artificial recharge strategies are dominated by reduction of potential subsidence costs. The variance of the results also is primarily due to subsidence effects. Incorporation of probability distributions reflecting a larger expected use of groundwater during the imported-water disruption results in higher estimated emergency benefits of artificial recharge strategies. The framework presented for quantifying incremental costs and economic benefits of using groundwater as a backup supply could be applied to a broad range of water emergency planning decisions.

  17. Comparing Two Approaches for Assessing Observation Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Langland and Baker introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete assessment of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation impacts from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation impact on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.

  18. Groundwater resources impact assessment for triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E.

    1996-10-01

    The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources Impact Assessment of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources Impact Assessment will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less impact on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.

  19. STRATEGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLIMATE SCENARIOS FOR IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to create a strategy for the development of climate scenarios for use in impact assessment, potential techniques of development were reviewed and the information needs of potential users assessed. vailable techniques were assessed through literature reviews and consultat...

  20. Economic Impact of Miami-Dade Community College on Dade County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorp, Ron

    In an effort to determine the economic impact of Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) on Dade County, a study was conducted of the economic benefits of educational opportunities for human development of Dade County residents; the increase in business due to direct expenditures by the college, employees, and students; and "second round"…

  1. The Impact of Integrating Scholarship on Women into Introductory Economics: Evidence from One Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lage, Maureen J.; Treglia, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Articulates five phases of integrating women's studies issues into a traditional curriculum. Examines the impact of integrating phase three, applying accepted economic theory to the realm of women, in an undergraduate introductory economics course. Includes a curriculum comparison of traditional and gender-inclusive courses. (MJP)

  2. The Impact of Short-Term Economic Fluctuations on Kindergarten Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    For some 5-year-olds, delayed kindergarten enrollment may result in long-term academic benefits. Although waiting an additional year allows for further development prior to the start of formal education, the economic costs of the next best alternatives can be significant. This study examines the impact of short-term economic fluctuations on a…

  3. The Impact of Economic Transition on Kindergartens in Kazakhstan: Problems and Policy Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensher, Martin; Passingham, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the most important economic factors that have had an impact upon kindergartens in Kazakhstan in recent years. Provides city-specific data detailing the effects of the collapse of communism and the rise of market-oriented economic reform on kindergarten closures. Discusses policy responses to declining enrollments and school closures.…

  4. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in the Fort Cobb reservoir watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level management practices for no-till and conventional tillage. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulation model, was used to determine impacts of alternative tilla...

  5. Economic-impact analysis of effluent-limitations guidelines and standards for the organic chemicals, plastics, and synthetic-fibers industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This report identifies and analyzes economic impacts that are likely to result from water-pollution-control regulations on the organic chemicals, plastics, and synthetic fibers (OCPSF) industry. The regulations included EPA effluent limitations and standards. The report supplements technical studies supporting the issuance of the OCPSF regulations by estimating the broader economic effects that might result from the application of various control methods and technologies. The primary economic-impact variables assessed include the costs of the contemplated regulations, and the potential for these regulations to cause plant closure, unemployment, reductions in profitability, shifts in the balance of trade, and anticompetitive effects on small business and new facilities.

  6. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  7. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  8. 78 FR 15355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pilot Project Assessing Economic Benefits of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Project Assessing Economic Benefits of Marine Debris Removal AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... economic benefits to beach visitors of marine debris removal. The project will use a revealed preference... economic benefits, providing information about the types of marine debris that beach visitors are...

  9. Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of a low concentrating photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    De Feo, G; Forni, M; Petito, F; Renno, C

    2016-10-01

    Many new photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as the concentrating PV (CPV) systems, are appearing on the market. The main characteristic of CPV systems is to concentrate sunlight on a receiver by means of optical devices and to decrease the solar cells area required. A low CPV (LCPV) system allows optimizing the PV effect with high increase of generated electric power as well as decrease of active surface area. In this paper, an economic analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a particular LCPV scheme is presented and its environmental impacts are compared with those of a PV traditional system. The LCA study was performed with the software tool SimaPro 8.0.2, using the Econinvent 3.1 database. A functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity produced was chosen. Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008 were the methods used to assess the environmental impacts of the LCPV plant compared with a corresponding traditional system. All the methods demonstrated the environmental convenience of the LCPV system. The innovative system allowed saving 16.9% of CO2 equivalent in comparison with the traditional PV plant. The environmental impacts saving was 17% in terms of Ecological Footprint, and, finally, 15.8% with the ReCiPe method. PMID:26935857

  10. Uncertainty assessment tool for climate change impact indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Jacob, Daniela; Rechid, Diana; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Juckes, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A major difficulty in the study of climate change impact indicators is dealing with the numerous sources of uncertainties of climate and non-climate data . Its assessment, however, is needed to communicate to users the degree of certainty of climate change impact indicators. This communication of uncertainty is an important component of the FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC). CLIPC is developing a portal to provide a central point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change. In this project the Climate Service Center 2.0 is in charge of the development of a tool to assess the uncertainty of climate change impact indicators. The calculation of climate change impact indicators will include climate data from satellite and in-situ observations, climate models and re-analyses, and non-climate data. There is a lack of a systematic classification of uncertainties arising from the whole range of climate change impact indicators. We develop a framework that intends to clarify the potential sources of uncertainty of a given indicator and provides - if possible - solutions how to quantify the uncertainties. To structure the sources of uncertainties of climate change impact indicators, we first classify uncertainties along a 'cascade of uncertainty' (Reyer 2013). Our cascade consists of three levels which correspond to the CLIPC meta-classification of impact indicators: Tier-1 indicators are intended to give information on the climate system. Tier-2 indicators attempt to quantify the impacts of climate change on biophysical systems (i.e. flood risks). Tier-3 indicators primarily aim at providing information on the socio-economic systems affected by climate change. At each level, the potential sources of uncertainty of the input data sets and its processing will be discussed. Reference: Reyer, C. (2013): The cascade of uncertainty in modeling forest ecosystem responses to environmental change and the challenge of sustainable

  11. ASSESSMENT OF BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVABLE FOR SYNTHETIC RUBBER MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An assessment of The Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA) for treatment of synthetic rubber manufacturing wastewaters has been conducted. This assessment was based on feasibility tests with actual wastewater samples, both end-of-pipe (untreated) and after pri...

  12. Economic Assessment of the Association of Northern California Oncologists Member Practices

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Roberta; Falconer, Patricia; González, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 and early 2010, the Association of Northern California Oncologists conducted an economic assessment on a volunteer sample (n = 14) of northern California state oncology society member practices to measure key economic factors, diagnose economic viability, and prescribe changes to practice management to enhance practice economic viability. Recommendations for individual member practices as well as for the state oncology society were made as a result of the findings of this study. Results from follow-up interviews conducted with study practices approximately 1 year after the original assessments reveal that most recommendations were implemented and seem to have generally strengthened the economic performance of the practices. PMID:22211125

  13. The impact of economic issues on Nigerian health sciences libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Belleh, G S; Akhigbe, O O

    1991-01-01

    Economic issues are among the most important factors affecting health sciences libraries in Nigeria. These issues are influenced by the political, cultural, geographic, and demographic characteristics of the country. Significant economic issues are the dependence of the national economy on a single commodity, large foreign debt and spiraling inflation, stringent foreign exchange control measures, and inadequate realization by authorities of the role and importance of health sciences libraries. With shrinking budgets, resources, and staff, health sciences libraries can neither grow nor afford library automation. Health sciences librarians must take initiatives for cooperative activities to increase and make the most of resources, pursue nontraditional methods of fund-raising, educate authorities about the role and importance of libraries, and develop and implement a plan for the development and growth of health sciences libraries in the country. PMID:1884083

  14. Forecasting the Economic Impact of Future Space Station Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summer, R. A.; Smolensky, S. M.; Muir, A. H.

    1967-01-01

    Recent manned and unmanned Earth-orbital operations have suggested great promise of improved knowledge and of substantial economic and associated benefits to be derived from services offered by a space station. Proposed application areas include agriculture, forestry, hydrology, public health, oceanography, natural disaster warning, and search/rescue operations. The need for reliable estimates of economic and related Earth-oriented benefits to be realized from Earth-orbital operations is discussed and recent work in this area is reviewed. Emphasis is given to those services based on remote sensing. Requirements for a uniform, comprehensive and flexible methodology are discussed. A brief review of the suggested methodology is presented. This methodology will be exercised through five case studies which were chosen from a gross inventory of almost 400 user candidates. The relationship of case study results to benefits in broader application areas is discussed, Some management implications of possible future program implementation are included.

  15. Technological Change in Assessing Economics: A Cautionary Welcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Brendan; Considine, John; Flannery, Darragh

    2009-01-01

    The use of computer-based automated assignment systems in economics has expanded significantly in recent years. The most widely used system is Aplia which was developed by Paul Romer in 2000. Aplia is a computer application designed to replace traditional paper-based assignments in economics. The main features of Aplia are: (1) interactive content…

  16. Assessing the Efficacy of Gaming in Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gremmen, Hans; Potters, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that measured the efficacy of an international economics simulation among undergraduates. The simulation consisted of a macroeconomics game where students develop economic policies for four hypothetical countries. A multiple choice test and posttest questionnaire suggests that classroom games are more effective than…

  17. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  18. The economic impact of minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Coon, Thomas M

    2006-07-01

    The goals of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are to minimize surgical trauma, minimize blood loss, and maximize the effect of analgesia. Assuming these surgical procedures are successful and rigid fixation is achieved, the result, in theory, should be shorter hospital stays and successful, early, aggressive rehabilitation at reduced cost relative to standard TKA surgical techniques. In this article, I address the economic benefits of applying MIS TKA surgical techniques compared with standard TKA surgical techniques. PMID:16927653

  19. Prioritizing risk factors to identify preventive interventions for economic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Foster, Rachel H; Hadorn, David; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore a risk factor approach for identifying preventive interventions that require more in-depth economic assessment, including cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods A three-step approach was employed to: (i) identify the risk factors that contribute most substantially to disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); (ii) re-rank these risk factors based on the availability of effective preventive interventions warranting further cost-effectiveness analysis (and in some instances on evidence from existing cost-effectiveness analyses); and (iii) re-rank these risk factors in accordance with their relative contribution to health inequalities. Health inequalities between the Māori and non-Māori populations in New Zealand were used by way of illustration. Findings Seven of the top 10 risk factors prioritized for research on preventive interventions in New Zealand were also among the 10 risk factors most highly ranked as contributing to DALYs in high-income countries of the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region. The final list of priority risk factors included tobacco use; alcohol use; high blood pressure; high blood cholesterol; overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. All of these factors contributed to health inequalities. Effective interventions for preventing all of them are available, and for each risk factor there is at least one documented cost-saving preventive intervention. Conclusion The straightforward approach to prioritizing risk factors described in this paper may be applicable in many countries, and even in those countries that lack the capacity to perform additional cost-effectiveness analyses, this approach will still make it possible to determine which cost-effective interventions should be implemented in the short run. PMID:22423159

  20. A method of ecological and economic risk assessment during the development of the shelf based on mathematical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyova, N. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a method of mathematical modelling of ecological risk based on a synthesis of dynamic and probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The probability of assessment of an acceptable probability of an anthropogenic impact to minimize economic costs is proposed. The dependence of an acceptable probability of an anthropogenic impact on the ecological risk is demonstrated with an example calculation. The results of the modelling of the state of a shelf ecosystem based on the dynamic model are used for the calculation as source information. Based on this synthesis, the calculation results bring about the opportunity to balance ecological-economic goals of achieving safe development of the shelf and to satisfy the involuntary necessity to reduce the costs on environmental protection measures, while maintaining the priority of environmental requirements.