Sample records for economic status gender

  1. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  2. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  3. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  4. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  5. Mathematics anxiety, mathematics achievement, gender, and socio?economic status among Arab secondary students in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nimer Fayez Bayaa

    1990-01-01

    Several researchers have discussed the differences between males and females in mathematics achievement and mathematics anxiety. Some believe that there are genetic reasons for these differences, but the majority blame society for causing those differences. In this study, two Arab schools in Israel, one of which has students who come from a high socio?economic status (SES) and the other of

  6. Life Satisfaction Depending on Socio-Economic Status and Gender among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eroglu, Susran Erkan; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Calisir, Vahit

    2009-01-01

    This research was carried out using the survey method in an attempt to find out the relationship between the life satisfaction and socio-economic status (SES) of adolescents. The research was conducted among 275 young Turkish people chosen by the random sampling method. The research findings determined that there was a significant difference…

  7. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  8. Associations between Students' Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality, Academic Achievement, and Classroom Behavior: Are They Moderated by Ethnicity, Gender, or Socio Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Khushwinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the correlations between students' perceptions of their relationships with teachers, students' academic achievement and students' classroom behavior. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate if students' ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status moderate the…

  9. Gender, Marital Status, And Earnings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Kristin

    Berk (1985) proposed that the family is a "gender factory"; that is, families are social institutions in which ideas about gender are formed, enforced, and reproduced across generations. This exercise examines the relationships between marital status and earnings among women aged 25 and over, using data from the 1990 U.S. Census. We will attempt to answer the following question: Does marital status influence earnings among women?

  10. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. first results from the multicare cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the multimorbidity pattern concerned, i.e. there seem to be at least two types of elderly multimorbid patients. First, there are patients with mainly cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, who are more often male, have an older age and a lower socio-economic status. Second, there are patients mainly with ADS and pain-related morbidity, who are more often female and equally distributed across age and socio-economic groups. Trial registration ISRCTN89818205 PMID:22471952

  11. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  12. The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

  13. Gender and ethnicity: Perspectives on dual status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Trotman Reid; Lillian Comas-Diaz

    1990-01-01

    The role of gender and ethnicity as status variables, i.e., as cues to social standing, personal experiences, and cultural expectations, is discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. The point is made that gender research typically fails to include race\\/ethnic concerns, and that studies of ethnic groups often ignore gender issues. Consideration is given to the relative scarcity of research

  14. Noblesse Oblige? Social Status and Economic Inequality Maintenance among Politicians

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats – measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender – was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526

  15. Gender, Martial Status, and Earnings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristin Anderson

    This activity is used in a Gender and Society class for undergraduate students. This activity includes the topics of income, poverty and gender, includes an investigation of historical patterns of the interaction between gender and income. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

  16. Economic Status of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Robert; Young, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the factors affecting the current economic status of academic librarians, as well as the history of changes in that economic picture. Issues discussed include the ranking of beginning academic librarian salaries in comparison to others in the profession, historical differences between academic librarian salaries and…

  17. Women's economic outcomes, gender inequality and public policy: findings from the Luxembourg Income Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet C. Gornick

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, many researchers have used the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) data to analyse women's economic status, or economic gender inequality, across the industrialized countries. Researchers concerned with labour market out- comes have concluded that: (i) women's labour market status lags men's in nearly every LIS country and time period; (ii) motherhood is a consequential factor nearly

  18. Another View of the Gender-Status Relation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Best

    2009-01-01

    Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Gerber (2009) proposes an integration of status and gender stereotypes with status mediating the influence of gender. In her model, status\\u000a is assumed to explain gender stereotypes, as well as self perceptions of such traits and their evaluation. The person-situation\\u000a personality literature, cross-cultural gender research, and developmental studies of gender stereotypes and behavior are reviewed.\\u000a A

  19. Attitudes towards economic risk and the gender pay gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anh T. Le; Paul W. Miller; Wendy S. Slutske; Nicholas G. Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the links between gender differences in attitudes towards economic risk and the gender pay gap. Consistent with the literature on the socio-economic determinants of attitudes towards economic risk, it shows that females are much more risk averse than males. It then extends this research to show that workers with more favorable attitudes towards risk are associated with

  20. Attitudes towards Economic Risk and the Gender Pay Gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anh T. Le; Paul W. Miller; Wendy S. Slutske; Nicholas G. Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the links between gender differences in attitudes towards economic risk and the gender pay gap. Consistent with the literature on the socio-economic determinants of attitudes towards economic risk, it shows that females are much more risk averse than males. It then extends this research to show that workers with more favorable attitudes towards risk are associated with

  1. Performance Pay, the Gender Earnings Gap and Parental Status

    E-print Network

    Spino, Claude

    . #12;1 Introduction The suggestion that performance pay influences gender earnings differences hasPerformance Pay, the Gender Earnings Gap and Parental Status John S. Heywood Department with performance pay. The US gender earnings gap in performance pay jobs exceeds that in non-performance pay jobs

  2. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  3. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M A Beydoun; Y Wang

    2008-01-01

    Background:Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown.Objectives:We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP) and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of

  4. Gender and Identity Status Differences in Late Adolescents' Possible Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthis, Kristine S.; Dunkel, Curt S.; Anderson, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined gender and identity status differences in late adolescents' possible selves. The intent of the study was to clarify conflicts between theory and research on gender differences in identity by investigating the content of participants' possible selves. Participants completed measures of identity and possible selves. The…

  5. Status, Personality, and Gender Stereotyping: Response to Commentators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwendolyn L. Gerber

    2009-01-01

    Status differences between women and men can explain why they perceive themselves as having different personality traits.\\u000a The status explanation of gender stereotyping is discussed in relation to two views that have shaped research and theory on\\u000a gender and personality: the traditional view that men and women are characterized by stable, enduring dispositions and the\\u000a more recent view that women’s

  6. Gender hierarchy in the space: the role of gender status in shaping the spatial agency bias.

    PubMed

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Piccoli, Valentina; Brambilla, Marco; Bianchi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    According to the Spatial Agency Bias (SAB), more agentic groups (men) are envisioned to the left of less agentic groups (women). This research investigated the role of social status in shaping the spatial representation of gender couples. Participants were presented pairs consisting of one male and one female target who confirmed gender stereotypes. The status of the targets in each pair was systematically varied (high-status vs. low-status job). Participants chose the target order (female/male vs. male/female) they preferred. In line with gender-status expectations (male: high-status, female: low-status), a male in a high-status job led to a spatial arrangement that favored the male/female order, regardless of the status of the female target. The female/male order was favored only when the female had a high-status job and the male a low-status job. No SAB occurred for pairs in which both targets displayed low-status jobs. The implications of status for the SAB are discussed. PMID:24765816

  7. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  8. ICTs as a tool for Gender socio-economic empowerment

    E-print Network

    Heiser, Gernot

    1 ICTs as a tool for Gender socio-economic empowerment Big Picture Symposium, NICTA University of pilot projects India Capacity building, program management, e-Bharat Fund for implementation of State 8. Innovation, R&D and National strategies for Broadband, ICTs and SciencesTechnology 9. Gender

  9. Social status in economic theory: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Truyts

    2008-01-01

    Social distinction or status is an important motivation of human behaviour. This paper provides a selective survey of recent advances in the economic analysis of the origins and consequences of social status. First, a selection of empirical research from a variety of scientific disciplines is discussed to underpin the further theoretical analysis. I then consider the origins and determinants of

  10. Education, Gender, and Economic Development: A Cross-National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effects of gender differences in educational expansion on national economic growth. Using cross-national data from 96 countries, the authors found that in less-developed countries, educational expansion among primary school-age girls had a stronger impact on long-term economic prosperity than did educational expansion among primary…

  11. Does child gender affect marital status? Evidence from Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Pooling microdata from five Australian censuses, I explore the relationship between child gender and parents’ marital status.\\u000a By contrast with the USA, I find no evidence that the gender of the first child has a significant impact on the decision to\\u000a marry or divorce. However, among two-child families, parents with two children of the same sex are 1.7 percentage points

  12. Seeing through Race, Gender and Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundi, Kirmanj

    This paper discusses the history of discrimination in the United States and the length of time it took to abolish the legal support of racism. The paper then discusses the problems of diversity in the United States. Acknowledging and accepting U.S. diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religious background, and national origin would…

  13. THE GOLDEN EAGLE and its economic status

    E-print Network

    THE GOLDEN EAGLE and its economic status Marine Biological Laboratory JAN 2 5 ..55 WOODS HOLE, MASS. CIRCULAR 27 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR #12;#12;THE GOLDEN EAGLE The golden eagle and its prey 13 Rabbits and rodents 13 Big game 15 Pronghorn antelope 15 Deer 18 Bighorn

  14. Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

  15. Gameplay, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in Two American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    In a study of 195 high school students, differences by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were found in their gaming habits and game literacy practices. Low-SES students generally preferred console video games, particularly those in the sports genre. They expressed frustration with the controls involved in long-form computer games such as those…

  16. The Impact of Gender and Organizational Status on Workplace Anger Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa A. Domagalski; Lisa A. Steelman

    2007-01-01

    The social rules for communicating anger in the workplace are multifaceted, and standards vary for different groups. Previous research addresses either gender differences in anger expression or organizational status differences, but not the combined impact of gender and status. The authors close this gap by investigating both the independent and joint influence of gender and rela- tive organizational status on

  17. Sex Selection and Gender Balance Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Sex Selection and Gender Balance V Bhaskar Department of Economics University College London Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK v.bhaskar@ucl.ac.uk January 11, 2010 Abstract We model parental sex selection and the equilibrium sex ratio. With intrinsic son preference, sex selection results in a male

  18. Gender, status and the use of power strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shira Keshet; Ronit Kark; Limor Pomerantz-Zorin; Meni Koslowsky; Joseph Schwarzwald

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of gender and status on the use of power strategies. The experiment consisted of a computer-based problem-solving task performed in pairs, where partici- pants interacted with simulated long-distance partners. Participants were 36 female and 38 male undergraduate students, who were assigned to be influencing agents and were required to convince their partners to accept

  19. Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Seguino

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the determinants of economic growth for a set of semi-industrialized export-oriented economies in which women provide the bulk of labor in the export sector. The primary hypothesis tested is that gender inequality which contributes to women’s relatively lower wages was a stimulus to growth via the effect on exports during 1975–95. Empirical analysis shows that GDP

  20. Emotions under Discussion: Gender, Status and Communication in Online Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Iosub, Daniela; Laniado, David; Castillo, Carlos; Fuster Morell, Mayo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the undisputed role of emotions in teamwork, not much is known about the make-up of emotions in online collaboration. Publicly available repositories of collaboration data, such as Wikipedia editor discussions, now enable the large-scale study of affect and dialogue in peer production. Methods We investigate the established Wikipedia community and focus on how emotion and dialogue differ depending on the status, gender, and the communication network of the editors who have written at least 100 comments on the English Wikipedia's article talk pages. Emotions are quantified using a word-based approach comparing the results of two predefined lexicon-based methods: LIWC and SentiStrength. Principal Findings We find that administrators maintain a rather neutral, impersonal tone, while regular editors are more emotional and relationship-oriented, that is, they use language to form and maintain connections to other editors. A persistent gender difference is that female contributors communicate in a manner that promotes social affiliation and emotional connection more than male editors, irrespective of their status in the community. Female regular editors are the most relationship-oriented, whereas male administrators are the least relationship-focused. Finally, emotional and linguistic homophily is prevalent: editors tend to interact with other editors having similar emotional styles (e.g., editors expressing more anger connect more with one another). Conclusions/Significance Emotional expression and linguistic style in online collaboration differ substantially depending on the contributors' gender and status, and on the communication network. This should be taken into account when analyzing collaborative success, and may prove insightful to communities facing gender gap and stagnation in contributor acquisition and participation levels. PMID:25140870

  1. The relationship of marital status, spouse’s career status, and gender to salary level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Landau; Michael B. Arthur

    1992-01-01

    The relationship of marital status, spouse’s career status, and gender to salary was examined from five different theoretical\\u000a perspectives for a sample of managers and professionals in one large organization. Results showed that married individuals\\u000a whose spouses did not have careers earned more than anyone except those who were divorced, controlling for age, education,\\u000a type of position, job location, organizational

  2. The relationship between body structure and the socio-economic status in Hungarian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Bodzsar, Eva B

    2014-06-01

    Among the numerous factors that influence the pattern of children's growth and development there are factors of the changeable socio-economic environment. The inequalities among the socio-economic strata in the Hungarian society have increased during last decades. The main objective of the study was to examine the body structure of children and adolescents living in different socio-economic backgrounds. The subjects of the present paper (9479 boys, 9304 girls) were examined in the 2nd Hungarian National Growth Study 2003-2006. Body structure was assessed by some absolute body dimensions, BMI, body composition and body shape indices. Children were grouped into relatively good, average and poor socio-economic subgroups by considering the education and occupation of the parents as well as the number of children in the family. Significant differences were found in the body structure of children varying in the socio-economic background: the better the socio-economic conditions the higher stature in both genders, while the lower relative fatness was found only in pubertal girls. The prevalence of unhealthy nutritional statuses (both underweight and overweight/ obese) was significantly lower in children living in better socio-economic conditions in both genders. Differences that were found in the body structure of children living in different socio-economic backgrounds emphasize the importance of using reference growth values layered also to socio-economic strata for screening nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25144976

  3. Gender Differences in Health Status and Adverse Outcomes Among Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P.; van Zitteren, Moniek; Beltrame, John F.; Fitridge, Robert; Denollet, Johan; Vriens, Patrick W.; Spertus, John A.; Smolderen, Kim G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined gender differences in health status and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study assessed (1) self?reported health status at PAD diagnosis and 12?months later, and explored (2) whether outcomes in women with PAD differ with regard to long?term major adverse events. Methods and Results A total of 816 patients (285 women) with PAD were enrolled from 2 vascular clinics in the Netherlands. Baseline clinical data and subsequent adverse events were recorded and patients completed the Short Form?12 (SF?12, Physical Component Score [PCS] and Mental Component Score [MCS]) upon PAD diagnosis and 12?months later. Women had similar ages and clinical characteristics, but poorer socio?economic status and more depressive symptoms at initial diagnosis, as compared with men. Women also had poorer physical (PCS: 37±10 versus 40±10, P=0.004) and mental (MCS: 47±12 versus 49±11, P=0.005) health status at the time of presentation. At 12?months, women still reported a poorer overall PCS score (41±12 versus 46±11, P=0.006) and MCS score (42±14 versus 49±12, P=0.002). Female gender was an independent determinant of a poorer baseline and 12?month PCS and MCS scores. However, there were no significant differences by gender on either mortality (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR]=0.93, 95% CI 0.60;1.44, P=0.74) or major adverse events (unadjusted HR=0.90, 95% CI 0.63;1.29, P=0.57), after a median follow?up of 3.2 years. Conclusions Women's physical and mental health status is compromised both at initial PAD diagnosis and at 12?month follow?up, despite experiencing a similar magnitude of change in their health scores throughout the first 12?months after diagnosis. PMID:25537275

  4. Economic models of the family and the relationship between economic status and health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Tipper

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence strongly suggests that there is a positive relationship between economic status and health, and that married persons are healthier than their single counterparts. There are, however, a number of economic explanations for why economic status is related to health in the family context that are often overlooked in empirical studies. This paper provides a comparative introduction to three

  5. Gender and Job Status as Contextual Cues for the Interpretation of Facial Expression of Emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara B. Algoe; Brenda N. Buswell; John D. DeLamater

    2000-01-01

    Participants' interpretations of facial expressions of emotion and judgments made about the poser as a function of gender, job status, and facial expression were examined. Two hypotheses regarding interpretation of expression stress either facial expression alone or a combination of facial expression and social context. Gender and status of target were expected to influence ratings of emotion and personality characteristics.

  6. Gender Inequality, Endogenous Cultural Norms and Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Hiller

    2008-01-01

    This research focuses on the role played by cultural norms in the long run persistence of gender inequalities. Cultural norms about gender roles are considered to be endogenous and can generate gender inequality and low development traps. Indeed, when the gender gap is internalized, it leads to inegalitarian views about gender roles. Due to these inegalitarian beliefs, boys receive more

  7. Data Analysis of Socio-Economic Status

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James A. Vela-McConnell

    In this exercise designed for a Race, Class and Gender course. Students will examine the effect of gender and race on social class in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 2000 Census and guides students through data interpretation using table outputs from WebCHIP found at DataCounts!.

  8. The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina Abu-Ghaida; Stephan Klasen

    At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduces fertility,

  9. Is the Revolution Over? Gender, Economic and Professional Parity in Academic Library Leadership Positions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Mestrovic Deyrup

    2004-01-01

    This article examines recent statistics provided by the government and the library profession concerning gender, professional, and economic parity among academic library directors. The results revealed that women now hold the majority of library directorships and that women's economic compensation in some cases exceeds that of their male counterparts. The author conducted a two-part survey that looked at the gender

  10. Gender Perspective of Risk Factors Associated with Disclosure of HIV Status, a Cross-Sectional Study in Soweto, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Longinetti, Elisa; Santacatterina, Michele; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. Aim To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients in South Africa. Setting A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. Patients A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73%) with median age of 39 years. Results Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR) 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1–1.0; p?=?0.05)). Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90–11.7; p?=?0.07) than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02–1.99; p?=?0.17) than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (p<0.01), and to partner and family (p<0.01), women were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (p<0.01), to child, family and others (p?=?0.01). Conclusion Being employed imposed a risk factor for HIV status disclosure, additionally we found an interaction effect of gender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended. PMID:24743189

  11. Economic Consequences of Health Status: A Review of the Evidence

    E-print Network

    in determining health status, including a number of geographical, environmental, and evolutionary factors correlation between output per capita (adjusted for purchasing power parity) and some health indicators unrelated to economic well- being. Geographical, environmental, and biological factors contribute

  12. Adolescents' Selective Visual Attention for High-Status Peers: The Role of Perceiver Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed…

  13. Social Network, Interpersonal Concerns and Help-Seeking in Primary Grade School Children as a Function of Sex, Performance, and Economic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Anne; Strobel, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Studies children's social networks, interpersonal concerns, and help-seeking behavior as functions of gender, school performance, and economic status. Shows significant differences based on all three independent variables, with the most negative results demonstrated by economically disadvantaged boys. Discusses various strategies to counteract the…

  14. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

  15. Health Status Measurement Performance and Health Status Differences by Age, Ethnicity, and Gender: Assessment in the Medical Outcomes Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Cunningham; Ron D. Hays; Tanya M. Burton; Raynard S. Kington

    2000-01-01

    :The comparative measurement performance of self-reported health status instruments for African American and Hispanic elderly has rarely been studied, despite evidence of their poor health status. This study examined psychometric performance and health status differences by age, ethnicity, and gender among 10,569 ethnically diverse patients who completed the Short-Form General Health Survey in the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Hispanics and

  16. Health Status Measurement Performance and Health Status Differences by Age, Ethnicity, and Gender: Assessment in the Medical Outcomes Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MPH William E. Cunningham; Ron D. Hays

    2000-01-01

    The comparative measurement performance of self-reported health status instruments for African American and Hispanic elderly has rarely been studied, despite evidence of their poor health status. This study examined psychometric performance and health status differences by age, ethnicity, and gender among 10,569 ethnically diverse patients who completed the Short-Form General Health Survey in the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Hispanics and

  17. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

  18. Economic Reforms and Gender-based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    their lower social status and decision making position in society. The reason(s) for gender wage gap is a very was not the cause of wage gap but a way to shelter women from "the full force of their lower productivity" caused;3 The size of the gender wage gap varies across countries as well as within the country. In many countries

  19. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  20. Nutritional and health status among nursing home residents in Lebanon: comparison across gender in a national cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. Results The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported “good” health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. Conclusions This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents. PMID:24950594

  1. Status and gender differences in diet at Mound 72, Cahokia, revealed by isotopic analysis of bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley H. Ambrose; Jane Buikstra; Harold W. Krueger

    2003-01-01

    Cahokia Mound 72 contains 272 human burials dating to the Lohmann and early Stirling phases (ca. 1050–1150 AD) of the Mississippian period. Substantial status- and gender-related differences in burial style are apparent. Some burials are associated with large quantities of prestigious grave goods, suggesting high status. Mass graves of young adult females with skeletal indicators of poor health suggest low

  2. Relations of Gender, Gender-Related Personality Characteristics, and Dating Status to Adolescents’ Cross-Sex Friendship Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sum Kwing Cheung; Catherine McBride-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how gender, instrumentality, expressivity and dating status were associated with adolescents’ perceived\\u000a cross-sex friendship quality. Two hundred sixty-two Hong Kong Chinese heterosexual teenagers (117 males, 145 females) aged\\u000a 14 to 18 rated the levels of companionship, closeness, help, security and conflict in their best cross-sex friendships. Results\\u000a showed that girls perceived more help but also more conflicts.

  3. Economic transformation and the gender earnings gap in urban China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Gustafsson; Shi Li

    2000-01-01

    .   The gender wage gap and its development in urban China is analysed utilising two large scale surveys covering 10 provinces\\u000a for the years 1988 and 1995. The results indicate that from an international perspective, the gender wage gap in urban China\\u000a appears to be relatively small. It is, however, increasing. Decompositions based on estimated regression-models show that\\u000a somewhat less

  4. "Doing Gender," Ensuring Survival: Mexican Migration and Economic Crisis in the Rural Mountain West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…

  5. Explaining the Gender Disparity in Latino Youth's Education: Acculturation and Economic Value of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Yari; Sanchez, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the roles of acculturation, economic value of education, and gender in the academic achievement of Latino adolescents. Participants (N = 143) were 12th-grade students at an urban public high school. Analyses revealed that a higher economic value of education was related to higher academic…

  6. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

  7. Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Goldin

    1990-01-01

    Using a unique set of data drawn from the US census, statistics, city directories, and other sources, the author looks at the differences between men and women in the US labour force. She shows that the `gender gap' in income and job level that has existed throughout history cannot be explained simply as a matter of sex discrimination, nor as

  8. Development of a Scale to Measure Economic Status of Students in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Griffin, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Family economic status is generally considered to be an important factor associated with students' educational outcomes. However, to evaluate the strength of this contention, it is important to first have appropriate measures of family economic status. Measuring the economic status of Vietnamese people has been particularly difficult as the…

  9. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

  10. Urban Crack Users: Gender Differences in Drug Use, HIV Risk and Health Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Tortu; Marjorie Goldstein; Sherry Deren; Mark Beardsley; Rahul Hamid; Kristine Ziek

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed gender differences in drug use, HIV risk, and health status in a sample of urban crack users. Using targeted sampling, 1434 crack users (66% male and primarily African-American and Puerto Rican), were recruited from the streets of East Harlem, New York City. A standardized, structured interview was administered, drug use was validated by urinalysis, and HIV testing

  11. Teachers' Perceptions Based on Tenure Status and Gender about Principals' Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret G.; Finch, Kim; Young, Suzanne; Hvidston, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study assessed teachers' attitudes about their formative supervision and the observational ability of principals through the constructs of teacher tenure status and gender. In sum, 255 teachers responded to an online survey indicating teachers' desired feedback focused on classroom climate, student engagement, and…

  12. Language Arts Achievement of Fourth Grade Students with Regard to Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Paula Coldwell

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to see if a difference exists in the language arts proficiency levels of 2,080 fourth grade students with regard to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status from 2010 through 2012 on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. Specifically, this study considered the possibility that a difference existed in language…

  13. Social Status as a Predictor of Race and Gender Stereotypes in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Mistry, Rashmita; Feagans, Laura

    2007-01-01

    We examined race and gender stereotypes in fourth-, sixth- and eighth-grade White and Black children. The participants reported their perceptions of the competence of Black, White, female and male children in academic domains, sports and music. In general, low-status groups (girls and Black children) did not endorse stereotypes that reflected…

  14. A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Tammy J.

    2010-01-01

    Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.…

  15. Social Rules for Managing Attempted Interpersonal Domination in the Workplace: Influence of Status and Gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keithia L. Wilson; Alfred J. Lizzio; Siegrid Zauner; Cynthia Gallois

    2001-01-01

    The present study utilized a social rules approach to investigate the relative influence of gender and status on managers' self-evaluations of their effectiveness in handling a dominating subordinate. In the first study 84 White middle-class participants identified the prescriptive and proscriptive rules for socially appropriate responding to a stimulus situation involving a pushy subordinate. Four rule sets were identified for

  16. Balancing Parenthood and Academia: Work/Family Stress as Influenced by Gender and Tenure Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Bischoff, Lisa G.

    2005-01-01

    The present research investigated the influence of gender and tenure status in academicians' experiences of balancing parenthood and an academic career. Men (n = 85) and women (n = 179) employed full-time in tenure-track academic positions with at least one child younger than the age of 16 responded via the Internet to a 36-item questionnaire…

  17. Counterstories of College Persistence by Undocumented Mexicana Students: Navigating Race, Class, Gender, and Legal Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Susana Maria; Maldonado, Marta Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from four sets of four in-depth interviews and one subsequent focus group to examine how undocumented Mexicana students navigate identities and the meanings of race, gender, class, and legal status. We mobilize a critical race theory framework to center and explore the content of students' counterstories. While majoritarian…

  18. Vitamin A intake and status in populations facing economic stress.

    PubMed

    West, Keith P; Mehra, Sucheta

    2010-01-01

    Dietary quality and diversity reflect adequacy of vitamin A. Both can deteriorate in response to economic crises. Although the nutritional consequences of the 2008 world food price crisis remain unclear, past studies of diet, status, and socioeconomic standing under usual (deprived) and unusually disruptive times suggest dietary quality and vitamin A status decline in mothers and young children. This is presumably the result of shifting diets to include less preformed vitamin A-rich animal source foods and, to a lesser extent, vegetables and fruits. Cross-sectional assessments of diet, deficiency, and socioeconomic status in a number of countries and surveillance data collected during the Indonesian economic crisis of 1997-8 indicate that the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, night blindness, and other related disorders (e.g., anemia) may have increased during the 2008 crisis, and that it might not have necessarily recovered once food prices waned later in 2008. Lost employment may be a factor in slow nutritional recovery, despite some easing of food prices. Vitamin A deficiency should still be preventable amid economic instabilities through breast feeding promotion, vitamin A supplementation, fortification of foods targeted to the poor, and homestead food production that can bolster income and diversify the diet. PMID:19939993

  19. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  20. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports") had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13-15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  1. Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared Food Expenditure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…

  2. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  3. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  4. Gender Aspects of the Economic Payback of a Tuition-Charging Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskakova, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    For many decades now the sphere of education in Russia has been considered to be among the most well off among other spheres of activity, from the standpoint of gender equality. One component of radical economic reforms in Russia in the 1990s was the transformation of education financing. During the reform years the number of students in higher…

  5. Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

  6. Undergraduate engineering student experiences: Comparing sex, gender and switcher status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergen, Brenda Sue

    This dissertation explores undergraduate engineering experiences, comparing men with women and switchers with non-switchers. Factors related to a chilly academic climate and gender-role socialization are hypothesized to contribute to variations in men's and women's academic experiences and persistence rates. Both quantitative and qualitative data are utilized in an effort to triangulate the findings. Secondary survey data, acquired as result of a 1992 Academic Environment Survey, were utilized to test the hypothesis that sex is the most important predictor (i.e., demographic variable) of perceptions of academic climate. Regression analyses show that sex by itself is not always a significant determinant. However, when sex and college (engineering vs. other) are combined into dummy variables, they are statistically significant in models where sex was not significant alone. This finding indicates that looking at sex differences alone may be too simplistic. Thirty personal interviews were conducted with a random stratified sample of undergraduate students from the 1993 engineering cohort. The interview data indicate that differences in childhood socialization are important. With regard to persistence, differences in socialization are greater for switchers vs. non-switchers than men vs. women. Thus, gender-role socialization does not appear to play as prominent a role in women's persistence as past literature would indicate. This may be due to the self-selection process that occurs among women who choose to pursue engineering. Other aspects of childhood socialization such as parents' level of educational and occupation, students' high school academic preparation and knowledge of what to expect of college classes appear to be more important. In addition, there is evidence that, for women, male siblings play an important role in socialization. There is also evidence that women engineering students at Midwestern University face a chilly academic climate. The factors which appear to contribute the most to an inhospitable atmosphere include subtle behaviors on the part of faculty and administrators and blatant sexist, derogatory and hostile comments and jokes on the part of male undergraduate students. Personal interview data indicate continued resistance among some male administrators, faculty and students to women pursuing majors in engineering.

  7. Gender and offender status predicting treatment success in refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Håkon; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Elbert, Thomas; Holen, Are

    2014-01-01

    Background Current knowledge is limited regarding patient characteristics related to treatment outcome of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers. Objective Gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression were investigated for possible effects on the treatment outcome. Method Patient characteristics were explored in 54 refugees and asylum seekers who had completed a treatment program for PTSD. Non-responders (10), those who had the same or higher levels of symptom severity after treatment, were compared with responders, those who had lower symptom severity after treatment (44). Symptom severity was measured by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The non-responders and responders constituted the dichotomous, dependent variable. The independent variables were gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression. T-tests and Exact Unconditional Homogeneity/Independence Tests for 2×2 Tables were used to study the relationship to treatment outcome. Results Being male and reporting to have been a violent offender were significantly more frequent characteristics among the non-responders compared to the responders. The levels of pretreatment anger, depression and torture status did not affect the treatment outcome. Conclusions The study adds support to findings that females benefit more from treatment of PTSD than males and that violent offenders are difficult to treat within the standard treatment programs. PMID:24494062

  8. Social status, gender and alcohol-related problems: the black young adult experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dionne C. Godette; Erika Edwards; Chandra L. Ford; Lee Strunin; Timothy Heeren; Ichiro Kawachi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, this study examined prevalence of drinking and related problems among five racial\\/ethnic groups aged 18–30.Design. Logistic regression analyses examined influences of gender and social status on alcohol-related problems among blacks, controlling for demographics.Results. Black drinkers were significantly less likely to be high-risk or risky\\/heavy episodic drinkers

  9. Nonverbal Reactions to Conversational Interruption: A Test of Complementarity Theory and the Status\\/Gender Parallel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally D. FarleyAmie; Amie M. Ashcraft; Mark F. Stasson; Rebecca L. Nusbaum

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined nonverbal reactions to conversational interruption (a status-organizing cue). We predicted that\\u000a the nonverbal reactions to interruption (versus a control condition) would show a different pattern of results than gender\\u000a differences. Participants (N = 150) were paired with one of four confederates and randomly assigned to either an interruption or control condition. Nine\\u000a nonverbal behavioral reactions were coded by

  10. The Pipeline Still Leaks and More Than You Think: A Status Report on Gender Diversity in Biomedical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    The Pipeline Still Leaks and More Than You Think: A Status Report on Gender Diversity in Biomedical in 200342 when he stated: America will not remain the power it is in the world today, nor will our people

  11. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict Among Employed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents. Findings indicate that single mothers feel more home-to-job conflict than single fathers, married mothers, and married fathers. Some predictors of home-to-job conflict vary by marital status and gender. Job pressure is related to home-to-job conflict more for single parents than for married parents. Age of children is related to conflict for single fathers only. Whereas an unsupportive workplace culture is related to conflict, especially for married fathers, the lack of spouses’ share of domestic responsibilities is related to conflict, especially for married mothers. These findings indicate that marital status and gender create distinct contexts that shape employed parents’ perceived home-to-job conflict. PMID:23155301

  12. Gender, poverty and economic adjustment in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kanji, N

    1995-04-01

    This study examines the gender-differentiated effects of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on households in Zimbabwe during 1991. Interviews and focus groups were conducted among 120 randomly selected households in Kambuzuma, a densely populated suburb of Harare with mostly Black residents with a considerable range in income. Interviews were conducted in mid-1991 and reinterviews were conducted among 100 households in mid-1992. 40 semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted. Policy changes were partially instituted, and intensification of changes was planned during 1991-95. By 1992 debt servicing increased rather than decreased as planned. Adjustments were made in employment sectors, cost of living, and social services. Findings reveal that cost of living for lower-income urban families rose by 45%. Expenditures showed a real decline among the lowest 25% income group by 12.4%. Food expenditures declined by 15.4% in real income in the lowest income group and by only 3.4% in the highest income group. Food declines in male-headed households were 1.3% in real terms, but 13.4% in female-headed households, which were predominantly low-income households. The lowest-income households were found to cut back on absolute amounts of food consumed, as well as shifting to food with greater bulk and less protein. The mid-day meal among women and children was eliminated. Rents increased, as did transportation costs. Low-income and high-income (with 3-4 children) households had difficulty paying school fees. Out of the sample of 100, the number of households that could not afford to buy clothes increased from 6 to 28 during 1991-92. 89% of households were employed in 1991, but only 85% were employed in 1992. The number of second earners increased by 1%. Unemployment numbers and dependents rose. Women's income generating activities declined during 1991-92. Average monthly income from regular activities declined by 45% in real terms and declined for irregular activities by 23%. Real income, when increased cost of living was accounted for, declined by almost 25% for the whole sample. Mean monthly incomes declined by 15.9% for the top income group and 38% for the bottom 25% income group. The percentage of households in debt rose from 8% to 12%. The increase in household size as a coping strategy is confirmed. It is concluded that class-based inequities must be changed in order to improve the lives of both men and women that are affected by SAPs. PMID:12290828

  13. The Economic Contribution of Canada's Colleges and Institutes. An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 2: Detailed Results by Gender and Entry Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to present the results of the economic impact analysis in detail by gender and entry level of education. On the data entry side, gender and entry level of education are important variables that help characterize the student body profile. This profile data links to national statistical databases which are already…

  14. University of Technology, Sydney response to Measuring the Socio-economic Status of Higher Education Students

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    1 University of Technology, Sydney response to Measuring the Socio-economic Status of Higher there is a lack of aspiration for their children. In these situations educational status and occupation (except

  15. That's a boy's toy: gender-typed knowledge in toddlers as a function of mother's marital status.

    PubMed

    Hupp, Julie M; Smith, Jessi L; Coleman, Jill M; Brunell, Amy B

    2010-01-01

    A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more "traditional" family structures (married mothers) would have more gender-typed knowledge compared to children from less traditional families (unmarried mothers). Moreover, we explored if this relationship would be related to, at least in part, the greater frequency of androgynous behaviors (i.e., both masculine and feminine household activities) an unmarried mother performs. Twenty-eight children (age 2 to 3) were tested at local childcare centers. The mother of each child reported her marital status as well as how often she engaged in stereotypically masculine and feminine behaviors. As expected, mothers' marital status was associated with children's level of gender-typed knowledge, such that children with unmarried mothers had less gender-typed knowledge, in part due to the unmarried mother's greater frequency of androgynous behaviors. Implications for children's acquisition of gender-related stereotypes and the possible benefit of having mothers model both masculine and feminine behaviors are discussed. PMID:21171550

  16. First-Year Study Success in Economics and Econometrics: The Role of Gender, Motivation, and Math Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Rowaan, Wietske

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the relationships among gender, math skills, motivation, and study success in economics and econometrics. They find that female students have stronger intrinsic motivation, yet lower study confidence than their male counterparts. They also find weak evidence for a gender gap over the entire first-year…

  17. Age, gender, and hormonal status modulate the vascular toxicity of the diesel exhaust extract phenanthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Prisby, Rhonda D; Muller-Delp, Judy; Delp, Michael D; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    Inhaled airborne pollutants such as particulate matter increase the susceptibility to adverse health consequences and cardiovascular events. Diesel exhaust contributes significantly to the ambient particle pollution burden. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if exposure to a common component of diesel exhaust, phenanthraquinone (PQ), impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the femoral principal nutrient artery and to determine whether age, gender, and/or hormonal status alter the putative effects of PQ on vasodilation. Vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed in vitro in intact control (age 6, 14, and 24 mo) and ovariectomized (age 6, 14, and 24 mo) female rats and intact (age 6 and 24 mo) male rats. Gender did not influence vasodilator capacity of the femoral principal nutrient artery, and there was an age-related decline in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in both female and male 24-mo-old rats. Exposure to PQ elicited a gender-specific affect in 6-mo-old rats; i.e., vasodilation was impaired 63% in male rats but had no effect in female rats. Exposure to PQ abolished vasodilation in 14- and 24-mo-old rats of both genders, and ovariectomy compromised vasodilator responsiveness to ACh in all age groups. The data demonstrate a vasoprotective mechanism in young female rats that may be related to endogenous ovarian hormones and provides evidence that suggests certain subsets of the population (e.g., elderly, males, and postmenopausal women) may be more susceptible to the adverse consequences of airborne pollutants. PMID:18306094

  18. Gender and sexual economics: do women view sex as a female commodity?

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

    2014-07-01

    In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. PMID:24855018

  19. The relation of dialogic, control, and racial socialization practices to early academic and social competence: effects of gender, ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Oscar; Jean-Baptiste, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This research tests the relations of parental practices to child competence and assertions that practices differ by gender of the child. Home-based interviews and structured observations of parent-child interactions were conducted with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of families (N = 501) whose 4-year-old children were served in public prekindergarten. Study data confirmed the importance of parental practices for children's academic and social competence but did not support claims that use of any of the practices was related to the child's gender. Significant differences were found for economic status on dialogic practices and for ethnicity on control and ethnic socialization. Poor parents employed dialogic practices less than nonpoor parents' and African American parents employed dialogic practices less often and control and ethnic socialization more often than European Americans. Dialogic practices were related to competence, but parental control and ethnic socialization were not. PMID:23889013

  20. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic

  1. Married With Children: The Influence of Parental Status and Gender on Ambulatory Blood Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julianne Holt-Lunstad; Wendy Birmingham; Adam M. Howard; Dustin Thoman

    2009-01-01

    Background  Although there is substantial evidence that social relationships and marriage may influence both psychological and physical\\u000a health, little is known about the influence of children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study examined the competing predictions regarding the directional influence of parental status and its interaction with\\u000a gender—given that mothers are typically disproportionately more responsible for everyday care of children—on cardiovascular\\u000a functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  We examined ambulatory

  2. Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p?

  3. Gender, socio-economic variables and target organ damage in new-diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    de Tuero, Gabriel Coll; Barcelò, Maria Antònia; Saez, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study as to ascertain whether gender and socio-economic variables can explain differences in the degree of severity of hypertension (HT) at the time of diagnosis. Patients were recently diagnosed and never-treated hypertensives, seen in primary care sites and aged 15-75. This study also included a cohort of normotensive patients. All individuals were invited to respond a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and socio-economic data. Target organ damage (TOD) is considered a marker of severity. Three hundred and eighty-eight individuals responded to the questionnaire, 277 hypertensive, 111 normotensive. In an ordered probit model, the odds ratio of presenting with more than one TOD were: Aged >67 (OR=1.22; 1.06-1.38), being a smoker (OR=1.21; 1.02-1.40) or ex-smoker (OR=2.89; 1.27-4.51), primary school education (OR=2.17; 1.47-2.87), being male (OR=0.75; 0.59-0.90), being an agricultural worker (OR=0.03; 0.00-0.05) or a salaried professional (OR=0.96; 0.94-0.99). The results show differences in the severity of the HT in the initial assessment of the patient according to gender or other socio-economic variables. It is particularly important at the time of carrying out the diagnosis and the HT assessment. PMID:19591005

  4. Gender differences in sleep deprivation effects on risk and inequality aversion: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Excessive working hours-even at night-are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects' risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females' reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making. PMID:25793869

  5. Gender Differences in Sleep Deprivation Effects on Risk and Inequality Aversion: Evidence from an Economic Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Excessive working hours—even at night—are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects’ risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females’ reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making. PMID:25793869

  6. Gender \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Lecarme

    2002-01-01

    The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,

  7. Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Klasen

    2002-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital.

  8. Early adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and weight status change: the moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    According to many public health experts, obesity is the most serious health threat facing today's early adolescents. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial adjustment (i.e., internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, interpersonal skills) and weight status change during early adolescence and possible moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a US nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. The current study was initiated in the fifth grade (n = 6,860; 51 % female). At fifth grade, parents reported on household routines; children and teachers reported on indicators of psychosocial adjustment. At fifth and eighth grade, children's weight was measured. Girls' weight status stability and change was more likely than boys' to be associated with psychosocial adjustment, after accounting for household/child routines and demographic variables. Compared to non-Hispanic White, Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of externalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay obese at eighth grade. Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of internalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay at a healthy weight at eighth grade, especially if they reported lower levels of acculturation. Lastly, African American girls with better interpersonal skills at fifth grade were more likely to stay obese at eighth grade. Implications for obesity prevention programs with early adolescents are discussed in the contexts of gender, ethnicity and acculturation. PMID:25107487

  9. Vitamin A status of socio-economically backward children.

    PubMed

    Aspatwar, A P; Bapat, M M

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was carried out to asses the Vitamin A status of pre-school (0-6 yrs). and school age (6-12 yrs.) children of socio-economically backward families from slums of Bombay and its suburbs. The Vitamin A, protein, calories and iron from the rice and dal based diet was found to be below recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Among the 1956 children surveyed 20% of the children showed low (< 20 micrograms/dl) serum vitamin A levels. 4.8% of the children were suffering from one or the other signs of Vitamin A deficiency. Rose Bengal stain test (RBST) and conjuctival impression cytology (CIC) indicted the signs of mild conjuctival xerosis and of early epithelial changes which were correlated with serum vitamin A levels. Serum iron, PCV, Hb and RBC levels were below normal. The anthropometric measurements of these children were below 50th percentile of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) standards. Due to lack of proper nutrition, the overall growth of children is either retarded or not upto the standard levels as was noted in majority of the children. PMID:10829900

  10. Blinded to Science: Gender Differences in the Effects of Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status on Academic and Science Attitudes among Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Brea L.; Link, Tanja; Boelter, Christina; Leukefeld, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational…

  11. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  12. Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Likeability: Associations with Popularity and Status Enhancement--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of popularity, substance use, athletic abilities, physical attractiveness, and physical and relational aggression with likeability by same-gender and cross-gender peers among early adolescents (N = 3,312; M age = 13.60, with 92.7% of the participants in the 12-14 age range). Data collection consisted of peer…

  13. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age??85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (??=?-.140, p?=?.05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b?=?-1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  14. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  15. Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status.…

  16. Gender and dating relationship status moderate the association between alcohol use and sex-related alcohol expectancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric R. Pedersen; Christine M. Lee; Mary E. Larimer; Clayton Neighbors

    2009-01-01

    Young adulthood can be a period where the development of intimacy and dating relationships coincide with alcohol experimentation. The current study was designed to examine how dating relationship status is associated with drinking behavior. Additionally, although the relationship between sex-related alcohol expectancies and drinking has been established, the current study extends this research by investigating how gender and dating relationship

  17. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Iran and its relationship with gender, urbanisation, education, marital status and occupation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassankhani B

    Introduction : We investigated the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its relationship between gender, urbanisation, education, marital status and occupation in the Iranian population. Methods: A total of 3,778 men and women aged between 15 and 64 years were recruited by using a cluster-stratified sampling method from Khorasan province, northeast Iran. Using an interviewer- administrated questionnaire, demographical data

  18. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  19. Classroom-Level Predictors of the Social Status of Aggression: Friendship Centralization, Friendship Density, Teacher-Student Attunement, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…

  20. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

  1. A Report on the Undergraduate Women of Greater Guam and Micronesia: Their Status Aspirations and Gender Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    This document reports on a study to determine Guamanian women's identification of their social status and gender awareness. Participants of the study were 350 randomly selected undergraduate women who responded to questionnaires. A statistical profile of the Guamanian undergraduate women was derived as follows: (1) is a traditional aged student;…

  2. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  3. Predictiveness of Identity Status, Main Internet Use Purposes and Gender on University Students' the Problematic Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at revealing the relationships between the problematic Internet use of university students and their identity status, main Internet use purposes, and gender. A total of 464 university students participated in the study, and the research data were collected through the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Extended Objective Measure…

  4. Relations between different types of children's aggressive behavior and sociometric status among peers of the same and opposite gender.

    PubMed

    Kerestes, Gordana; Milanovi?, Anita

    2006-12-01

    Croatian elementary school children in grades 4 to 6 (N= 151) reported on direct and indirect aggressive behaviors of their classmates. Acceptance and rejection by classmates were also assessed, employing the sociometric nomination technique. Correlational analyses revealed that both forms of aggression were related to peer rejection, but unrelated to peer acceptance. Girls' aggression was more strongly related to peer rejection than boys' aggression, independent of the type of aggression. Aggressive children of both genders tended to be more rejected by their same-gender classmates than by classmates of the opposite gender. Results were discussed in terms of children's attitudes towards aggression, and gender stereotyped perception of appropriateness of aggressive behavior. A need to examine developmental changes and cultural differences in relationships between aggression and peer status was emphasized. PMID:17107496

  5. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (?(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (?(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (?(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (?(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (?(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (?(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981

  6. Exploring the Latino Paradox: How Economic and Citizenship Status Impact Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…

  7. HIV Status and Gender: A Brief Report from Heterosexual Couples in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Farmer, Shu C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the impact of HIV falls on both partners of a married couple, the burden of stress may not be necessarily shared evenly. This study examined the relations among HIV status, gender and depressive symptoms among 152 married or cohabitating couples living with HIV in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Thailand. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a 15-item depressive symptom screening test that was developed and used previously in Thailand. Among the 152 couples, 59% were couples in which both members were people living with HIV (PLH) (seroconcordant; both PLH couples), 28% had only female members with HIV (serodiscordant; female PLH couples), and 13% had only male members with HIV (serodiscordant; male PLH couples). The prevalence of depressive symptoms between seroconcordant and serodiscordant groups was similar. However, female PLH reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, regardless of their partners’ HIV status. Future prevention programs focusing on serodiscordant couples should be planned to target HIV risk, as well as emphasis on mental health, with a particular focus on women’s increased susceptibility to negative mental health outcomes. PMID:22747184

  8. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

  9. Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children's Performance on the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in…

  10. Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis in School Children in Rwanda and Its Association with Socio-Economic Status: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smedt, Stefan De; Nkurikiye, John; Fonteyne, Yannick; Hogewoning, Arjan; Esbroeck, Marjan Van; Bacquer, Dirk De; Tuft, Stephen; Gilbert, Clare; Delanghe, Joris; Kestelyn, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.3–4.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load. PMID:21976577

  11. Personality Type and Student Performance in Upper-Level Economics Courses: The Importance of Race and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…

  12. Neoliberalism and the World Bank: Economic Discourse and the (Re)Production of Gendered Identity(ies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Penny

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…

  13. Ethnicity, socio-economic position and gender—do they affect reported health—care seeking behaviour?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy Adamson; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Nish Chaturvedi; Jenny Donovan

    2003-01-01

    While the pursuit of equity of access to health care is a central objective of many health care systems, there is evidence that patients of ethnic minority descent, in lower socio-economic position (SEP) or of female gender are less likely than Whites, more affluent groups or men, respectively, to access secondary and tertiary medical care. However, it is unclear at

  14. The Status of Econometrics in the Economics Major: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce K.; Perry, John J.; Petkus, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online…

  15. Teaching Feminist Economics through Student-Written Diaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genna R. Miller

    2012-01-01

    As a heterodox, economics paradigm, feminist economics seeks to improve women’s economic status and reduce the androcentric bias in economics. Thus, teaching feminist economics involves teaching students different ways of analyzing social inequalities and how to access more emotionally connected aspects of human behavior. This article argues that using student-written ‘gender diaries’ serves as an important pedagogical device for teaching

  16. Different Patterns of Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: An Analysis by Student Gender, Race, SES, and First-Generation Status. A Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) Project Research Paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the conditional effects of student-faculty interaction in a large research university system, based on various student characteristics including gender, race, and socio-economic and first-generation status. The study utilized data from the 2006 University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES), a longitudinal…

  17. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Arafat, Hassan A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-01

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe. PMID:18397822

  18. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, Issam A. [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies (IEWS), Birzeit University, Ramallah (Palestinian Territory, Occupied); Arafat, Hassan A. [Chemical Engineering Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)], E-mail: harafat@najah.edu; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel [College of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

    2009-01-15

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

  19. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquirie

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    , national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquiries regarding non with low fluorescence. Other features The system also has a resonant scanner which enables video rate

  20. Constipation Misperception Is Associated With Gender, Marital Status, Treatment Utilization and Constipation Symptoms Experienced

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Suck Chei; Park, Moo In; Park, Kyung Sik; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Kee Wook; Koo, Hoon Sup; Kim, Wan Jung; Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Ji Sung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims It is essential that clinicians have an understanding of patients’ perceptions of constipation as well as constipation mis-perception (CM), which can be defined as failure to recognize the six constipation symptoms (infrequency, straining, hard stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction or manual maneuver). The aims of our study were to identify the prevalence of CM and its association with demographics and clinical features. Methods This nationwide survey included 625 self-reported constipated subjects (431 females; mean age, 41.2 years) among random participants in the National Health Screening Program. The prevalence of CM for each constipation symptom was estimated, and the participants were classified into nil (0), low (1–2), mid (3–4) and high (5–6) level CM subgroups according to the number of misperceived symptoms. Results The highest rate of CM was observed for manual maneuver (48.3%), followed by anorectal obstruction (38.4%), stool infrequency (34.6%), incomplete evacuation (32.2%), hard stool (27.2%) and straining (25.4%). Among the nil (n = 153), low (n = 242), mid (n = 144) and high level (n = 86) subgroups, there were significant differences in the proportions of males (18.3%, 34.3%, 39.6% and 30.2%; P = 0.001, respectively), never-married status (25.7%, 38.2%, 36.8% and 45.9%; P = 0.030, respectively) and those who did not receive treatment for constipation (41.8%, 47.5%, 58.3% and 66.3%; P < 0.001, respectively). There was a significant linear trend of increasing degree of CM with decreasing symptoms experienced (P < 0.001). Conclusions CM is significantly associated with gender, marital status, treatment utilization and the range of constipation symptoms experienced. PMID:24935009

  1. Resisting Gendered Smoking Pressures: Critical Consciousness as a Correlate of Women's Smoking Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyssa N. Zucker; Abigail J. Stewart; Cynthia S. Pomerleau; Carol J. Boyd

    2005-01-01

    Gender is one of the social structures, along with social class and ethnicity, that shapes women's smoking behaviors. We examined how different responses to gender pressures (internalization and resistance) relate to smoking. We analyzed data from a national random digit dial survey of 945 women and found that never smokers scored high on resistance to gender pressure (indicated by high

  2. The Effects of Gender and Maturational Status on Generalized Joint Laxity in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Paterno, Mark V.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effects of pubertal status on generalized joint laxity in a population of male and female athletes. We hypothesized that females would show higher generalized joint laxity after the onset of puberty while males would not. This cross-sectional cohort study included 275 female and 143 male middle school and high school basketball and soccer athletes. Joint laxity was assessed using the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index. BHJMI scores were averaged and female and male athletes were compared by pubertal stage. Females demonstrated increased joint laxity scores between pre-pubertal and post-pubertal groups (P=0.042), while males did not. Pre-pubertal male and female athletes were not different in cumulative joint laxity scores (female pre-puberty Mean=2.00; male pre-pubertal Mean=1.66). However, following the onset of puberty females (pubertal Mean=2.96; post-pubertal Mean= 3.03) demonstrated a greater joint laxity score compared to males (pubertal Mean=1.24; post-pubertal Mean=1.30). Gender differences in BHJMI score was found at puberty and post-puberty (P<0.001). In contrast to males, females may have greater generalized joint laxity following the onset of puberty. Structural and physiological changes that occur during puberty such as alterations in passive joint restraints, may affect the type, severity and incidence of injuries in the maturing adolescent population. PMID:17597005

  3. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ?25%, women: ?32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  4. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ?25%, women: ?32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  5. Differences in Specialist Consultations for Cardiovascular Disease by Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Insurance Status, and Site of Primary Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. John Orav; LeRoi S. Hicks

    2010-01-01

    Background—Consultation with cardiologists may improve the quality of ambulatory care and reduce disparities for patients with heart disease. We assessed the use of cardiology consultations and the associated quality by race\\/ethnicity, gender, insurance status, and site of care. Methods and Results—In a retrospective cohort, we examined electronic records of 9761 adults with coronary artery disease orcongestive heart failure (CHF) receiving

  6. Exploring the effects of gender, age, income and employment status on consumer response to mobile advertising campaigns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Leppäniemi; Heikki Karjaluoto

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects gender, age, income and employment status on consumer response to short message service (SMS)-oriented direct-response requests or a call-to-action tactic in a television advertisement or program, consumer's participation in SMS sweepstakes or other competitions, and consumer uptake of mobile services such as ringtones, logos, screensavers and wallpapers ordered

  7. The relation of gender, race and socioeconomic status to obesity and obesity comorbidities in a sample of US adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Paeratakul; JC Lovejoy; DH Ryan; GA Bray

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the obesity-related chronic diseases in the US adult population according to gender, race and socioeconomic status.METHODS: Data from the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994–1996 CSFII) conducted by the US Department of Agriculture\\/Agricultural Research Service (USDA\\/ARS) were used in the analysis. Relevant data included self-reported weight and height, self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart

  8. A Critical Examination of Texas Mathematics Achievement in Grades Three through Eight by Mathematical Objective across Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status

    E-print Network

    Fox, Brandon

    2012-02-14

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify performance differences on the TAKS mathematics assessments in grades three through eight across race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status in the years 2004, 2007, and 2010. The guiding...

  9. Unsettled Future: Older Women—Economics and Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Arendell; Carroll Estes

    1987-01-01

    Gender and minority status are key in explaining differences among the aged in terms of economic and health issues that they confront. Significantly, the situation of older women is not a result of old age, but is a result of lifelong patterns of socioeconomic and gender stratification in the larger society. The social origins of older women's disadvantaged status are

  10. Explaining the Socio-Economic Status School Completion Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Hanel, Barbara; Buddelmeyer, Hielke

    2013-01-01

    Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion rates…

  11. Prevalence of oral lesions in Mexican children with perinatally acquired HIV: association with immunologic status, viral load, and gender.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis; Cashat-Cruz, Miguel; Morales-Aguirre, Jose Juan; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis; Aquino-Garcia, Sandra; Fragoso-Ríos, Rodolfo; Cuairán-Ruidiaz, Vicente; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos; Morales, Juan; Figueroa, Carlos Avila

    2002-04-01

    It has been proposed that HIV-related oral lesions (HIV-ROL) have a significant diagnostic and prognostic value for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult patients. However, in HIV-infected children, the relation between HIV-ROL and immune and virologic status is not well established. The principal objective of this paper is to assess the prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions (HIV-ROL) in Mexican HIV-infected children in relation to their immunologic status, viral load, and gender. Forty-eight HIV-infected children from Immunodeficiency Clinic, Child's Hospital of México, México City, were examined for oral pathology. The data obtained from medical records were: name, gender, age, route of infection, CD4 lymphocytes cells count/mL, HIV-1-RNA level of copies/mL (viral load), and type and time of treatment. The prevalence of HIV-ROL was 29.2%. Oral candidosis was the most prevalent oral lesion (20.8%) followed by periodontal and gingival disease (4.2%), herpes simplex (2.1%), and parotid enlargement (2.1%). There was no association between the prevalence of HIV-ROL and gender, immunological status, or viral load. The most frequent clinical form of oral candidosis was erythematous candidosis (12.5%, N = 6). Our results do not suggest a direct relationship between prevalence of HIV-ROL, severe immunodepression, and/or viral load > 100000 copies in this population. PMID:12015869

  12. Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Sandra

    2006-02-01

    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health. PMID:15896870

  13. Blinded to science: gender differences in the effects of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on academic and science attitudes among sixth graders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brea L. Perry; Tanja Link; Christina Boelter; Carl Leukefeld

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race\\/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational aspirations, persistence, views of science, and educational self-efficacy are examined. African American and Latino

  14. Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies. PMID:22839762

  15. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  16. Fuel Cells: Status and Technical/Economic Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambach, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    The need for fuel cell and alternative fuels has become increasingly important in that the U.S. spends 1 billion dollars per week to import oil, and is expected to import 80-100 billion per year in oil by the year 2010. These imports account for half of our oil supply. If 20% of the U.S. vehicle fleet were powered by fuel cells there would be: an offset 1.1 million barrels of oil per day; and a reduction of 2 million tons per year of regulated air pollutants. Fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from reformed natural gas results in more than 90% reduction in regulated emissions, and a 70% reduction in CO2, a greenhouse gas. And fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from renewables (wind, solar geothermal, hydro) results in total elimination of all emissions. When fuel cells become commercialized: they will improve America's economic competitiveness; and the regions where they are produced will benefit economically.

  17. Wind turbines for electric utilities - Development status and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a 'fuel saver' is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  18. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  19. Wind turbines for electric utilities: Development status and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a fuel saver is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  20. Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.

    PubMed

    Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy. PMID:24765817

  1. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Methods The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. Results The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. Conclusions We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:23565918

  2. Fuel Cells: Status and Technical/Economic Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Rambach, G.

    1996-02-01

    The need for fuel cell and alternative fuels has become increasingly important in that the U.S. spends 1 billion dollars per week to import oil, and is expected to import 80-100 billion per year in oil by the year 2010. These imports account for half of our oil supply. If 20% of the U.S. vehicle fleet were powered by fuel cells there would be: an offset 1.1 million barrels of oil per day; and a reduction of 2 million tons per year of regulated air pollutants. Fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from reformed natural gas results in more than 90% reduction in regulated emissions, and a 70% reduction in CO2, a greenhouse gas. And fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from renewables (wind, solar geothermal, hydro) results in total elimination of all emissions. When fuel cells become commercialized: they will improve America`s economic competitiveness; and the regions where they are produced will benefit economically.

  3. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  4. Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery-Oriented

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can

  5. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  6. The Status of Women in the States. Politics, Economics, Health, Demographics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This report presents information from a variety of sources (primarily government agencies) regarding the status of women in the United States. The report presents data for each state on 20 component indicators as well as on 4 composite indices: political participation; employment and earnings; economic autonomy; and reproductive rights. Discussed…

  7. Impact of Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centers on the Economic Status of the Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Chandra Shekara; P Kanaka Durga

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centers Scheme on the economic status of the farmers of Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The present study is based on the primary data from a sample of 107 farmers from Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The results of the study indicated that majority of the sample farmers received free advisory and quality

  8. The effect of patient race and socio-economic status on physicians' perceptions of patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle van Ryn; Jane Burke

    2000-01-01

    Despite its potential influence on quality of care, there has been little research on the way physicians perceptions of and beliefs about patients are affected by patient race or socio-economic status. The lack of research in this area creates a critical gap in our understanding of how patients' demographic characteristics influence encounter characteristics, diagnoses, treatment recommendations, and outcomes. This study

  9. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  10. Career Development Needs of Low Socio-Economic Status University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Erin

    2011-01-01

    With increased funding from the Australian federal government to improve the enrolments of students with low socio-economic status into university, identifying the career needs of this student cohort is of utmost importance, if indeed they are different from other university students. This will ensure career services offer comprehensive and…

  11. Transactional sex and economic exchange with partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence

    PubMed Central

    Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702

  12. Images of occupations: Components of gender and status in occupational stereotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Glick; Korin Wilk; Michele Perreault

    1995-01-01

    A multidimensional approach to occupational gender type was explored. In Study 1, participants' spontaneous images of various jobs were elicited. The attributes generated were used to develop a job images questionnaire employed in Study 2 on which participants rated a random sample of 100 occupational titles. Occupational images were primarily structured on two orthogonal dimensions: prestige and gender type. The

  13. Relationships between Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Math Attitudes, and Math Achievement: An International Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Sunny R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement have traditionally been studied within individual countries, despite the existence of large international data sets available for analysis. This dissertation investigated the relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement based on information from 50…

  14. Gendered Inequity in Society and the Academy: Policy Initiatives, Economic Realities and Legal Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron-Moore, Pamela; Jacobs, Leslie R.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the social constructs impacting the contemporary world, gender is perhaps the most pervasive and the most insidious. Its inequities creep into our everyday lives with impunity. Across the globe, gender construction has evoked challenge, undergone reform and, in some instances, transformed thinking in societies. Yet, for all the gains made…

  15. The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Directions in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.

    The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…

  16. Ethnicity, gender, and global risk indicators in the lives of status offenders coming to the attention of the juvenile court.

    PubMed

    Gavazzi, Stephen M; Yarcheck, Courtney M; Lim, Ji-Young

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the risks and needs of status offenders in comparison to an at-large juvenile court sample, with specific attention paid to factors related to gender and ethnicity. Status offenders displayed significantly higher risk scores than the comparison sample in domains associated with both family and parenting concerns and educational concerns. In addition, females displayed higher risk levels than males and White youth displayed significantly higher risk levels than minority youth across a wide variety of risk domains. Further analyses were conducted regarding the participation of African American males and females in a program designed as an alternative to detention. For both groups, successful program completion was accompanied by little or no further court involvement, whereas failure to complete the program was related to a variety of negative outcomes. However, African American females and males successfully completing program requirements displayed different risks and needs at the outset of their participation. PMID:16249399

  17. Young adolescents' wellbeing and health-risk behaviours: gender and socio-economic differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MANFRED MAX BERGMAN; JACQUELINE SCOTT

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we use the 1994–1997 Youth Surveys of the British Household Panel Study to examine the wellbeing of young adolescents. We conceptualize wellbeing as a multi-dimensional construct and we develop and test models of gender and age differences. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we find clear gender differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, unhappiness and worries. We confirm that wellbeing and

  18. Family socioeconomic status, household tobacco smoke, and asthma attack among children below 12 years of age: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Chang, Ly-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the negative impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or parental cigarette smoking on pediatric asthma. Little is known, however, regarding whether there is a gender difference in the effect of household ETS on pediatric asthma. Using a nationwide survey in Taiwan, we examined the relationship between asthma prevalence in the past year and household ETS among children below 12 years of age (N = 3761). We used multivariate regression models to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of household ETS and asthma attacks by gender. In about 3% of the sample, parents reported that their children had an asthma attack in the past year, confirmed by physicians. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that household ETS predicted asthma attacks for girls (OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.24-7.76) but not for boys. Father's education was significantly associated with asthma attack for both girls (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04-1.47) and boys (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.05-1.26). Girls with lower family income were more likely to have had an asthma attack in the last year (OR = .48, 95%CI = .27-.87). The impact of household ETS and family socioeconomic status on asthma attacks differs by gender among children below 12 years. PMID:23908368

  19. Racial Differences in Physical and Mental HealthSocio-economic Status, Stress and Discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Williams; Yan Yu; James S. Jackson; Norman B. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which racial differences in socio-economic status (SES), social class and acute and chronic indicators of perceived discrimination, as well as general measures of stress can account for black-white differences in self-reported measures of physical and mental health. The observed racial differences in health were markedly reduced when adjusted for education and especially income. However,

  20. The relationship between food consumption and socio-economic status: evidence among British youths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola De Agostini

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing

  1. Weight status, gender, and race/ethnicity: are there differences in meeting recommended health behavior guidelines for adolescents?

    PubMed

    Minges, Karl E; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-04-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400

  2. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400

  3. The influence of socio-economic status on adolescent attitude to social noise and hearing protection.

    PubMed

    Widén, S E Olsen; Erlandsson, S I

    2004-01-01

    The focus of the present study, of 1285 adolescents, was young people's attitudes towards noise and their use of hearing protection at discos and pop concerts. Comparisons were made between adolescents from different age groups, and with different socio-economic status. Logistic regressions indicated that "worry before attending noisy activities" and "hearing symptoms" such as tinnitus and noise sensitivity could, to some degree, explain the use of hearing protection in noisy environments. Another conclusion to be drawn from this study was that adolescents' attitudes and behaviours regarding hearing protection use differed between levels of socio-economic status. Individuals with high SES expressed more negative attitudes and used ear protection to a greater extent than those with lower SES. This result might indicate differences in the development of future auditory problems among individuals with different levels of socio-economic status. The cause of hearing impairment and tinnitus may not be restricted merely to noise exposure. Psychological aspects, such as attitudes towards noisy environments and the individual's behaviour regarding the use of hearing protection may be considered as important factors in the understanding of why the prevalence of hearing related problems has increased among adolescents. PMID:15703150

  4. The link between socio-economic background and Internet use: barriers faced by low socio-economic status groups and possible solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Van Aerschot; Niki Rodousakis

    2008-01-01

    The digital divide affects low socio-economic status groups in particular. According to previous research and survey results of the ELOST project (e-Government for Low Socio-Economic Groups), socio-economic factors – especially age and level of education – play a role in determining whether a person is an Internet user or non-user. This article presents the findings of the survey, as well

  5. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ? 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p < 0.01). Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children. PMID:22405468

  6. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  7. Understanding differences in sexting behaviors across gender, relationship status, and sexual identity, and the role of expectancies in sexting.

    PubMed

    Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A

    2013-08-01

    Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (?=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (?(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks. PMID:23675996

  8. Measuring Gender (In)Equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID). OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 247

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes P.; Morrisson, Christian; Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Drechsler, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to establish, test and analyse hypotheses regarding cross-country variations in women's economic status are hampered by the lack of a readily accessible and easily used information resource on the various dimensions of gender inequality. Addressing this gap, this paper introduces the Gender, Institutions and Development data base (GID)…

  9. Socioeconomic and gender differences in adolescents' nutritional status in urban Cameroon, Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léonie N. Dapi; Urban Janlert; Christophe Nouedoui; Hans Stenlund; Lena Håglin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' nutritional status according to socioeconomic status (SES) and sex using anthropometry in urban Cameroon, Africa. Adolescent boys (n = 248) and girls (n = 333) 12 to 16 years old were recruited from randomly selected schools in a cross sectional study in Yaoundé city and grouped according to SES. Weight, height,

  10. Childhood peer status and the clustering of social, economic, and health-related circumstances in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Ylva B; Brännström, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Within the school-class context, children attain a social position in the peer hierarchy to which varying amounts of status are attached. Studies have shown that peer status - i.e. the degree of acceptance and likeability among classmates - is associated with adult health. However, these studies have generally paid little attention to the fact that health problems are likely to coincide with other adverse circumstances within the individual. The overarching aim of the current study was therefore to examine the impact of childhood peer status on the clustering of social, economic, and health-related circumstances in adulthood. Using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 14,294), four outcome profiles in adulthood were identified by means of latent class analysis: 'Average', 'Low education', 'Unemployment', and 'Social assistance recipiency and mental health problems'. Multinomial regression analysis demonstrated that those with lower peer status had exceedingly higher risks of later ending up in the more adverse clusters. This association remained after adjusting for a variety of family-related and individual factors. We conclude that peer status constitutes a central aspect of children's upbringing with important consequences for life chances. PMID:24508719

  11. Sexual Coercion and Well-Being in Young Adulthood: Comparisons by Gender and College Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the associations between sexual coercion and well-being based on gender and college enrollment (N=1399). Results indicate that women were more likely than men to report having experienced sexual coercion. In addition, noncollege women were more likely than college women to report having experienced rape and sexual abuse. (RJM)

  12. Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

    2005-08-01

    There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions. PMID:16261994

  13. Sex, Class, and History: An Experiment in Teaching Economics in an Interdisciplinary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Ora

    2008-01-01

    The author reports on various aspects of teaching economics in an interdisciplinary, team-taught course, including reflections on a unique experiment in teaching economics to nonmajors. By the incorporation of selected topics of gender economics into the interdisciplinary course about the changing economic statuses of women throughout history, the…

  14. Native English speakers’ investment in foreign language learning – what role do gender and socioeconomic status play? 

    E-print Network

    Gayton, Angela Mary

    2014-07-01

    Rhetoric about the ‘crisis’ state of language learning in predominantly Anglophone countries is nothing new, given the widely-held belief about English having ‘global lingua franca’ status. Similarly long-standing are ...

  15. [New social and economical issues in the assessment of Romanian population's health status].

    PubMed

    Duma, Odetta

    2008-01-01

    Health status is determined by a combination of biological, environmental (physical and socio-economic), behavioural/lifestyle and medical care factors. The social and economic factors include many influences over which an individual may have limited control, such as economic status or educational level. The most important measures of these factors are represented by: gross domestic product per capita, employment rate, unemployment rate, literacy rate, poverty line, and human development index. From this point of view, the following positive issues have been recorded in Romania: a low unemployment rate (6.1%) compared to European Union countries; a high literacy rate (97.3%), very close to the maximum of 100% reported by all developed countries; and a human development index of 0.805 (rank 60 in the international hierarchy), specific to a country with a high human development. Negative issues have been reported in case of the following indicators: the reported gross domestic product per capita expressed in PPP US$ was 8480, among the lowest in Europe, specific to a country with a medium income; population living with less than 2 US$ per day of 13% and living with less than 1 US$ per day 2.1%; the employment rate was 57.4%, but in female population only 51.3%, whereas in male population it was 63.9%. PMID:19295020

  16. Pathways to Economic Security: Gender and Nonstandard Employment in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Compiling data from several government surveys, this article identifies key social indicators of economic security associated with nonstandard employment in Japan. Empirical trends of nonstandard employment are contextualized in the development of Japanese coordinated capitalism from the economic boom during the 1960s through the recession of the…

  17. A livelihood from the forest: gendered visions of social, economic and environmental change in Southern Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina Brown; Sandrine Lapuyade

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores divergent perceptions and experiences of social, economic and environmental change of villagers in Southern Cameroon arguing that the economic crisis has impacted very differently on men and women within the same community and within households. The analysis highlights shifts in cropping patterns towards increased food crops, especially cassava and plantain, for cash. Sources of livelihood for men

  18. That's a Boy's Toy: Gender-Typed Knowledge in Toddlers as a Function of Mother's Marital Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Hupp; Jessi L. Smith; Jill M. Coleman; Amy B. Brunell

    2010-01-01

    A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more

  19. The role of weight status, gender and self-esteem in following a diet among middle-school children in Sicily (Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margherita Ferrante; Maria Fiore; Gina E Sciacca; Luca Leon; Salvatore Sciacca; Marine Castaing; Gianbattista Modonutti

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight-related issues such as obesity, dieting and eating disorders in adolescents are major public health problems. Moreover, undertaking a diet tends to be common among school children and the reasons for doing so are not always related to weight status. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of body mass index (BMI), gender and self-esteem in

  20. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  1. The Relation of Student Behavior, Peer Status, Race, and Gender to Decisions about School Discipline Using CHAID Decision Trees and Regression Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Stacy B.; Fireman, Gary D.; Wang, Eugene W.

    2010-01-01

    Peer nominations and demographic information were collected from a diverse sample of 1493 elementary school participants to examine behavior (overt and relational aggression, impulsivity, and prosociality), context (peer status), and demographic characteristics (race and gender) as predictors of teacher and administrator decisions about…

  2. Family, cultural and gender role aspects in the context of HIV risk among African American women of unidentified HIV status: An exploratory qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Jarama; F. Z. Belgrave; J. Bradford; M. Young; J. A. Honnold

    2007-01-01

    This was an exploratory, qualitative study of contextual cultural and social realities of the sexual interactions of a representative sample of African American women of unidentified HIV status. The study expanded our understanding of family and gender role variables by exploring influences of family of origin and idealistic perceptions of roles on sexual relationships. Data was collected on 51 African

  3. The Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Students: Focus on Auditory Status and Gender.

    PubMed

    McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L

    2014-10-01

    Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:25287415

  4. The effect of age, gender and driver status on pedestrians' intentions to cross the road in risky situations.

    PubMed

    Holland, Carol; Hill, Roslyn

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been used successfully in the past to account for pedestrians' intentions to cross the road in risky situations. However, accident statistics show age and gender differences in the likelihood of adult pedestrian accidents. This study extends earlier work by examining the relative importance of the model components as predictors of intention to cross for four different adult age groups, men, women, drivers and nondrivers. The groups did not differ in the extent to which they differentiated between two situations of varying perceived risk. The model fit was good, but accounted for less of the variance in intention for the youngest group (17-24) than for other age groups. Differences between the age groups in intention to cross seemed to be due to differences in perceived value of crossing rather than differences in perceived risk. Women were less likely to intend to cross than men and perceived more risk, and there were important age, gender and driver status differences in the importance of the TPB variables as predictors of intention. A key implication of these findings is that road safety interventions need to be designed differently for different groups. PMID:16979132

  5. Mortality of Dandy-Walker syndrome in the United States: Analysis by race, gender, and insurance status

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Shearwood; Ukwuoma, Onyinyechi I.; Lunos, Scott; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital disorder often diagnosed in early childhood. Typically manifesting with signs/symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, DWS is catastrophic unless timely neurosurgical care can be administered via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. The rates of mortality, adverse discharge disposition (ADD), and CSF drainage in DWS may not be uniform regardless of race, gender or insurance status; such differences could reflect disparities in access to neurosurgical care. This study examines these issues on a nationwide level. Materials and Methods: The Kids’ Inpatient Database spanning 1997-2003 was used for analysis. Only patients admitted for DWS (ICD-9-CM = 742.3) were included. Multivariate analysis was adjusted for several variables, including patient age, race, sex, admission type, primary payer, income, and hospital volume. Results: More than 14,000 DWS patients were included. Increasing age predicted reduced mortality (OR = 0.87; P < 0.05), ADD (OR = 0.96; P < 0.05), and decreased likelihood of receiving CSF drainage (OR = 0.86; P < 0.0001). Elective admission type predicted reduced mortality (OR = 0.29; P = 0.0008), ADD (OR = 0.68; P < 0.05), and increased CSF drainage (OR = 2.02; P < 0.0001). African-American race (OR = 1.20; P < 0.05) and private insurance (OR = 1.18; P < 0.05) each predicted increased likelihood of receiving CSF drainage, but were not predictors of mortality or ADD. Gender, income, and hospital volume were not significant predictors of DWS outcome. Conclusion: Increasing age and elective admissions each decrease mortality and ADD associated with DWS. African-American race and private insurance status increase access to CSF drainage. These findings contradict previous literature citing African-American race as a risk factor for mortality in DWS, and emphasize the role of private insurance in obtaining access to potentially lifesaving operative care.

  6. The Relationship between Economic Status, Knowledge on Dengue, Risk Perceptions and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marta; Sánchez, Lizet; Pérez, Dennis; Sebrango, Carlos; Shkedy, Ziv; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The reemergence of dengue as an important public health problem reflects the difficulties in sustaining vertically organized, effective, control programs and the need for community-based strategies for Aedes aegypti control that result in behavioral change. We aimed to disentangle the relationships between underlying determinants of dengue related practices. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 780 households in La Lisa, Havana, Cuba. A questionnaire and an observation guide were administrated to collect information on variables related to economic status, knowledge on dengue, risk perception and practices associated with Aedes aegypti breading sites. To test a conceptual model that hypothesized direct relationships among all these constructs, we first used Exploratory Factor Analysis with Principal Component Analysis to establish the relationship between observed variables and the underlying latent variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the observed data supported the conceptual model through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated that the items measured could be reduced into five factors with an eigenvalue >1.0: Knowledge on dengue, Intradomiciliar risk practices, Peridomiciliar risk practices, Risk perception and Economic status. The proportion of the total variance in the data explained by these five factors was 74.3%. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis model differed from our hypothesized conceptual model. Only Knowledge on dengue had a significant, direct, positive, effect on Practices. There was also a direct association of Economic status with Knowledge on dengue, but not with Risk perception and Practices. Clarifying the relationship between direct and indirect determinants of dengue related practices contributes to a better understanding of the potential effect of Information Education and Communication on practices and on the reduction of Aedes aegypti breeding sites and provides inputs for designing a community based strategy for dengue control. PMID:24349145

  7. Working Nine to Five: Economic Impacts on the Gender Gap in Macro Politics .

    E-print Network

    Scott, Holly Katherine

    2013-09-28

    A difference in aggregate public opinion and policy preferences between men and women has long been assumed but rarely fully empirically tested. In this analysis, I look at multiple economic factors impacting men and women in similar, yet different...

  8. HIV status, gender, and marriage dynamics among adults in Rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Anglewicz, Philip; Reniers, Georges

    2014-12-01

    Awareness of and responses to HIV health risks stemming from relations between sexual partners have been well documented in sub-Saharan Africa, but few studies have estimated the effects of observed HIV status on marriage decisions and outcomes. We study marriage dissolution and remarriage in rural Malawi using longitudinal data with repeated HIV and marital status measurements. Results indicate that HIV-positive individuals face greater risks of union dissolution (via both widowhood and divorce) and lower remarriage rates. Modeling studies suggest that the exclusion of HIV-positive individuals from the marriage or partnership pools will reduce the spread of HIV. PMID:25469927

  9. Mental health status and gender as risk factors for onset of physical illness over 10?years

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Flora I; Smith, Katherine L W; Moineddin, Rahim; Dunn, James R; Glazier, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in understanding the connection between mental illness (MI) and the onset of new physical illnesses among previously physically healthy individuals. Yet the role of gender is often forgotten in research focused on comorbidity of health problems. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the onset of physical illness in a cohort of respondents who met criteria for MI compared with a control cohort without mental health problems. Methods This cohort study, conducted in Ontario, Canada, used a unique linked dataset with information from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and medical records (n=15?902). We used adjusted Cox proportional survival analysis to examine risk of onset of four physical health problems (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, asthma, hypertension and diabetes) for those with and without baseline MI across a 10-year period (2002–2011) among respondents aged 18–74?years. We controlled for socioeconomic and health indicators associated with health. Results The incidence of physical illness in the MI cohort was 28.5% among women and 29.9% among men (p=0.85) relative to controls (23.8% and 24%, respectively; p=0.48). Women in the MI cohort developed secondary physical health problems a year earlier than their male counterparts (p=0.002). Findings from the Cox proportional survival regression showed that women were at 14% reduced risk of developing physical illness, meaning that men were more disadvantaged (HR=0.89, CI 0.80 to 0.98). Those in the MI cohort were at 10 times greater risk of developing a secondary physical illness over the 10-year period (HR=1.10, CI 0.98 to 1.21). There was no significant interaction between gender and MI cohort (HR=1.05, CI 0.85 to 1.27). Conclusions Policy and clinical practice have to be sensitive to these complex-needs patients. Gender-specific treatment and prevention practices can be developed to target those at higher risk of multiple health conditions. PMID:24014840

  10. Marital status, spousal coverage, and the gender gap in employer-sponsored health insurance.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, T C

    Not only do men who work full time earn more than women, but they are more likely to receive employer-sponsored health benefits. This paper provides evidence on the gender gap in employer-sponsored health insurance. The results indicate that the gap is driven largely by the tendency of married women to decline employer-sponsored insurance in favor of being covered through their husbands. Indeed, among single workers, women are more likely than men to be offered insurance. These findings call into question the conclusion made by previous researchers that employers discriminate against women in the provision of health insurance. PMID:9031647

  11. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquirie

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status.biotech.iastate.edu/biotechnology- service-facilities. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age

  12. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquirie

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status.biotech.iastate.edu/service_facilities. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion

  13. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquiries can be directed to t

    E-print Network

    Hu, Hui

    Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability of their coursework, develop workplace skills, and generally prepare to hit the ground running when they secure full

  14. Population health status in China: EQ-5D results, by age, sex and socio-economic status, from the National Health Services Survey 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Sun; Jiaying Chen; Magnus Johannesson; Paul Kind; Ling Xu; Yaoguang Zhang; Kristina Burström

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  To measure and analyse national EQ-5D data and to provide norms for the Chinese general population by age, sex, educational\\u000a level, income and employment status.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The EQ-5D instrument was included in the National Health Services Survey 2008 (n = 120,703) to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL). All descriptive analyses by socio-economic status (educational\\u000a level, income and employment status) and by clinical

  15. Gender and the Effects of Demographics, Status, and Work Values on Work Centrality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannheim, Bilha

    1993-01-01

    An Israeli survey of 209 men and 136 women (96 percent response) found women were less work centered than men of intermediate socioeconomic status (SES)--these women were usually wives, mothers, and employed; women's country of origin was relevant to work role centrality; and SES, values, and job satisfaction explained centrality for men, SES,…

  16. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

  17. Exploring the Literature on Relationships between Gender Roles, Intimate Partner Violence, Occupational Status, and Organizational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…

  18. [The present status and attempts toward the achievement of gender equality in the JAA].

    PubMed

    Senba, Emiko

    2013-09-01

    The proportion of female members in The Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) is 18% with the proportion of female members higher among the young generation (20-30 Y.O.; 34.8%, 30-40 Y.O.; 26.8%). However, the number of female members in the Board of Directors has been zero or one (0 or 6%) for many years. More than two female members are necessary on the Board to promote the diversity in the management of the JAA. The numbers of female members in other committees has shown gradual increase in recent years. A substantial increase in female faculty members including professors in each university and school will support the future development of the anatomical research field and the association. We have made the first great step by setting up the committee on promotion of gender equality in JAA in March, 2011. In the next year, JAA became a member of Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). Our committee's activity includes holding workshops and seminars at the annual meetings to promote gender equality in the research field and to encourage mutual support and friendship, not only among women members but also among all members. PMID:24066390

  19. Morinda revisited: Changes in nutritional well-being and gender differences after 30 years of rapid economic growth in rural Punjab, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. James Levinson; Sucheta Mehra; Dorothy Levinson; Anita Kumari Chauhan; Guy Koppe; Brian Bence; Astier M. Almedom

    2004-01-01

    A follow-up study of malnutrition and its determinants among children 6 to 24 months of age was carried out in rural areas of Punjab State in India 30 years after the original study, and following a period of rapid economic growth. The original 1971 study had found a high preva- lence of mortality and malnutrition and the worst gender difference

  20. Intra-population variation in anemia status and its relationship to economic status and self-perceived health in the Mexican Family Life Survey: implications for bioarchaeology.

    PubMed

    Piperata, Barbara A; Hubbe, Mark; Schmeer, Kammi K

    2014-10-01

    Recently scholars have advocated for the use of a critical biocultural approach in bioarchaeology, where osteological and dental markers of stress are used to understand the broader biosocial context of past populations. However, the ability to accomplish this task rests on the assumption that ultimate-level environmental stressors and well-being in the past can be reconstructed from the prevalence of pathologies in skeletal collections. Here we test this assumption using anemia prevalence in the Mexican Family Life Survey. Specifically we test three hypotheses: (1) that individuals sharing the same household are more likely to share anemia status; (2) anemia status is a predictor of economic status (a common proxy for broader environmental context); and (3) anemia status is related to self-rated health. Results demonstrate that: anemia status was not commonly shared between household members; there was a significant overlap in economic status between anemic and nonanemic individuals (i.e., anemia poorly predicted economic status) and; while anemia status was associated with self-perceived health, the majority of those who reported poor health were nonanemic while a significant number of those who reported very good health were anemic. We argue that these findings are likely related to variation in individual frailty, which is shaped by biological and cultural risk factors. Therefore, we advocate for greater incorporation of individual frailty into bioarchaeological investigations, and, in effort to overcome some of the difficulties associated with this task, increased use of data from living populations and greater collaboration between bioarchaeologists and human biologists. PMID:24862211

  1. Status and Gender: The Paradox of Progress in an Age of Narcissism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean M. Twenge

    2009-01-01

    As women have gained status in Western cultures in the last few decades, they have increasingly endorsed stereotypically masculine\\u000a instrumental\\/assertive traits. However, men have also endorsed these traits at a higher frequency and show only a weak trend\\u000a toward embracing more stereotypically feminine expressive\\/communal traits. Overall, Western cultures have moved toward valuing\\u000a instrumental\\/assertive traits and devaluing expressive\\/communal traits. The paradox

  2. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

  3. Nutritive value of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in Croatian university students according to gender.

    PubMed

    Coli? Bari?, Irena; Satali?, Zvonimir; Lukesi?, Zeljka

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the nutritive value was calculated using food composition tables. Daily menus on average provide an adequate amount of energy, protein and most micronutrients: 88.2% of daily menus provide a balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates, 22.5% of daily menus provide more than 300 mg of cholesterol, and 58.8% have more than 25 g dietary fibre. On average, students had 2.4 meals and 1.3 snacks per day. Breakfast was the most often skipped meal. Red meat, cereals and fast food were consumed more often by males (P<0.05). Low-fat dairy products, whole grain products and breakfast cereals were consumed more often by females (P<0.05). The most common choice for snacks was fruit. Males exercised more than females (4.4 h/week versus 1.6 h/week; P<0.05). A higher percentage of females (29.8%) than males (17.2%) smoked cigarettes. For alcohol consumption it was vice versa: 88.9 and 84.8% of males and females, respectively. A total of 80.4% of students were well nourished. This study showed that meals offered at students' restaurants are adequate. Dietary and other health-related behaviour differed according to gender. Clustering of some behaviours was observed. PMID:14522693

  4. Socio-economic status and socio-emotional health of orphans in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Motsaathebe

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and emotional well-being of orphans in Mangaung, South Africa. Five hundred orphans aged 7-11 years participated in the cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2012. Data was collected by trained fieldworkers, who conducted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires with the orphans, their teachers and caregivers, and the heads of the households where the orphans resided. The caregivers, children and teachers all completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to measure the orphans' mental health, while heads of household provided information about socio-economic indicators. STATA version 12 was used to perform multivariate data analyses to identify socio-economic factors associated with the mental health of orphans. Food security, access to medical services and a male caregiver were factors associated with better emotional well-being of orphans, whereas other variables such as household asset index and monthly household expenditure were not linked with the orphans' mental health. Two of the three variables (food security and access to medical services) associated with better emotional well-being of orphans are also government interventions to assist orphans. Further research is needed to determine whether other government programs also impact the emotional well-being of orphans. PMID:24968757

  5. Periodontal Health Status of Different Socio-economic Groups in Out-Patient Department of TMDC & RC, Moradabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, D.J.; Agali, Chandan; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Batra, Manu; Singh, Vikas; Bumb, Swapnil S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Objective: To assess the oral health awareness and periodontal health status of different socio-economic groups in out-patient department of the Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre (TMDC&RC), Moradabad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 416 subjects of 30-60 years age group with different socio-economic status classified according to modified Kuppuswamy scale (2012). Subjects were interviewed by the questionnaire and Community Periodontal Index was recorded. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test (SPSS version 17). Result: This study showed that the code 2 and code 3 is more in lower socio-economic status (p =0.115 and p=0.079 respectively). Significant association was seen in Code 0, code 1 & code 4 (p<0.01) which is indicative that upper class have more healthy periodontal status than lower. Conclusion: Significant association exists between oral health awareness and periodontal health with the socio-economic status of the individual. PMID:25177641

  6. Self-reported functional and general health status among older respondents in china: the impact of age, gender, and place of residence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Yue, Yuwen; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-03-01

    This study made comparisons of self-reported functional and general health status between Chinese women and men in different age-groups in rural and urban settings and examined multiple factors relating to these health statuses in older adults. This study included a sample of 4017 respondents, aged 55 years and older, from the Hubei subsample of the Chinese National Health Service Survey III in 2003. The results illustrate that the differences in self-rated functional and general health status between genders and between urban and rural areas diminished with age. Access to health care was strongly associated with health status. The quality of the local environment, measured by access to tap water, was a significant factor for rural residents. Our study suggests that improving access to health care services and reducing environmental health risks are critical for improving physical functioning, psychological functioning, and self-rated general health for older adults in China. PMID:22199153

  7. Gender differences in food and nutrient intakes and status indices from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of People Aged 65 Years and Over

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CJ Bates; A Prentice; S Finch

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994–95.Design: The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed

  8. LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

    1993-01-06

    The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

  9. Does Socio-Economic Status Moderate the Associations between Psychosocial Predictors and Fruit Intake in Schoolchildren? The Pro Children Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandvik, C.; Gjestad, R.; Samdal, O.; Brug, J.; Klepp, K. -I.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether socio-economic status (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…

  10. The Legal and Economic Status of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (9th, April 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1981 conference on the legal and economic status of collective bargaining in higher education, sponsored by the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions, are presented. Papers and authors are as follows: "Yeshiva Shock Waves" (David Kuechle); "The Yeshiva Case: One Year…

  11. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Parental Involvement in Turkish Primary Schools: Perspective of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Gumus, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on parental involvement in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental involvement, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental involvement, and whether…

  12. A Very Slow Recovery: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2011-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna; Curtis, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the annual report on the economic status of the profession. Although the results of this year's survey of full-time faculty compensation are marginally better than they have been the last two years, 2011-12 represents the continuation of a historic low period for faculty salaries. The overall average salary for full-time…

  13. Explaining socio-economic status differences in walking for transport: An ecological analysis of individual, social and environmental factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of potential mechanisms of influence (mediators) of socio-economic status (SES) on walking for transport is important, because the likely opposing forces of influence may obscure pathways for intervention across different SES groups. This study examined individual, and perceived s...

  14. A Comparison of the Economic Status of Working-Age Persons with Visual Impairments and Those of Other Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    This article compares the economic status of adults with visual impairments with those with non-visual impairments using data from the National Health Interview Survey. Employment rates and mean household incomes were lower and receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance higher among those blind in both eyes than those with less severe visual…

  15. Are gender, marital status or parenthood risk factors for outcome of treatment for chronic disabling spinal disorders?

    PubMed

    Gatchel, Robert J; Mayer, Tom G; Kidner, Cindy L; McGeary, Donald D

    2005-06-01

    Recent clinical research has suggested that single working mothers may differ in their response to health treatment and outcomes, relative to their married female or male counterparts. The present study explored, on an a priori basis, the existence and extent of differences in chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes of pain report, return-to-work and future health utilization for single working mothers, relative to other patients. A cohort of 1,679 consecutive chronically disabled work related spinal disorder (CDWRSD) patients were placed into one of eight groups as a function of gender, marital status (single/married), and parenthood (with/without children). All patients completed an assessment battery measuring psychosocial variables at pre- and post-treatment, and a structured clinical interview evaluating socioeconomic outcomes at 1 year following completion of a 5-7 week functional restoration program. Results revealed that single females with children differed from all other groups in racial representation, with 57.1% of these individuals being African American, widely disparate from the prevailing local ethnicity. Single females and males with children were represented by a higher incidence of cervical injuries (25.0% and 26.7%, respectively) than all other groups (5.4-16.6%, p < .001). Contrary to expectation, the 8 groups did not differ significantly in program completion rate, work return, work retention, health utilization, recurrent injury or case settlement rates at one-year follow-up. The single females with children group did display greater levels of depression pre-treatment compared to the other groups. However, at post-treatment, these differences no longer existed. This investigation is one of the first to examine if the combination of gender and parenthood distinguishes significantly among CDWRSD patients. Overall, contrary to expectation, the single mothers did not show any significant differences in CDWRSD outcome at one-year post-rehab follow-up, and the single mothers and fathers showed no differences in depression or pain severity post-treatment. Thus, in spite of the societal belief to the contrary, it seems that single parent patients can show similar chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes, relative to other CDWRSD patients, after a prescribed course of tertiary functional restoration rehabilitation. PMID:15844676

  16. The age-gender-status profile of high performing athletes in the UK taking nutritional supplements: Lessons for the future

    PubMed Central

    Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6%) and vitamin C (70.7%) were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%), whey protein (31.7%), echinacea (30.9%), iron (29.9%) and caffeine (23.7%). Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously shown to increase the probability of prohibited substance use, groups exhibiting high use of nutritional supplements should be monitored. Future research should incorporate a wide range of supplements and enquire about the daily amount ingested. In addition to tutoring, preventive measures should incorporate offering acceptable and healthy alternatives for assisted performance enhancement. PMID:18186936

  17. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    PubMed

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University. PMID:23951219

  18. Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery-Oriented Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students’ socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students’ learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students’ achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University’s educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University. PMID:23951219

  19. (In press, 2013). In J. Holmes, M. Meyerhoff, & S. Ehrlich (Eds.), Handbook of Language and Gender, 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

    E-print Network

    Herring, Susan

    , leveling traditional distinctions of social status and creating opportunities for less powerful individuals-based interaction has been claimed to lead to greater gender equality, with women, as the socially, politically, and economically less powerful gender, especially likely to reap its benefits. The argument goes as follows: Text

  20. Key Findings on the Economic Status of Women in North Carolina

    E-print Network

    But The

    2012-01-01

    (IWPR), The Status of Women in North Carolina, shows that many of North Carolina’s women are vulnerable to challenges such as unemployment, a persistent wage gap, poverty, and the high cost of child care. In addition, women in the state experience stubborn disparities in opportunities and outcomes— disparities that exist among women of different race and ethnic groups as well as among women from various geographic areas within the state. Addressing these challenges and disparities is essential to promoting the well-being and vibrancy of North Carolina’s many communities. When women thrive, whole communities and regions thrive as well. The forthcoming report provides critical data to identify both areas of progress for women in North Carolina and places where additional improvements are still needed. i The report analyzes key issues—such as employment and earnings, economic security and poverty, health and well-being, and political participation— that profoundly affect the lives of women in North Carolina. It presents data that can serve as a resource for advocates, researchers, community leaders, policymakers, and others who seek to analyze and discuss community investments, program initiatives, and public policies that will lead to positive change for women in the state of North Carolina and nationwide. The study is funded by the North Carolina Council for Women, the

  1. The economic status of trauma centers on the eve of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Eastman, A B; Bishop, G S; Walsh, J C; Richardson, J D; Rice, C L

    1994-06-01

    An in-depth understanding of the economic problems confronting trauma centers is essential for their continued development and to address impending changes of health care reform. A comprehensive financial and demographic survey was sent to 839 hospitals identified as potential trauma centers. A total of 313 surveys from 48 states were returned. Extensive information was collected in several areas including financial status (58% reported serious financial problems and 36% reported minor financial problems; 68% reported a financial loss), cost containment and management strategies, marketing, "halo" effect (53% reported positive effect), operational impacts, physician support (47% reported problems), malpractice (92% reported no special problem), role of auto insurance reimbursement, and access to rehabilitation. Detailed financial data of actual costs and reimbursements (95 respondents) were analyzed with the costing method used by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). These data will allow us to develop better strategies to deal with the problems of uncompensated and underfunded trauma care and improve trauma center viability. PMID:8015006

  2. Attitudes towards Masculine Japanese Speech in Multilingual Professional Contexts of Hong Kong: Gender, Identity, and Native-Speaker Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Hiroko

    2008-01-01

    The gendered speech in a foreign language has been found to pose barriers for learners due to different gender norms associated with their mother tongue and the foreign language. The problem is especially serious with the masculine and feminine forms of speech in the Japanese language, as these are strongly linked with social inequality between…

  3. Attitudes Towards Masculine Japanese Speech in Multilingual Professional Contexts of Hong Kong: Gender, Identity, and Native-Speaker Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Itakura

    2008-01-01

    The gendered speech in a foreign language has been found to pose barriers for learners due to different gender norms associated with their mother tongue and the foreign language. The problem is especially serious with the masculine and feminine forms of speech in the Japanese language, as these are strongly linked with social inequality between men and women. While a

  4. Social and Economic Characteristics of Street Youth by Gender and Level of Street Involvement in Eldoret, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sorber, Rebecca; Winston, Susanna; Koech, Julius; Ayuku, David; Hu, Liangyuan; Hogan, Joseph; Braitstein, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY) in Eldoret, Kenya. Methods Participants were eligible if they were aged 12–21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time), or nights and days on the street (full-time) and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other). Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3. Results Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01–5.35), name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03–6.45), have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67–18.34), and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01–12.82). Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14–6.18), and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47–7.02). Conclusions These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics. PMID:24827584

  5. Economic Rationality or Social Justice? Gender, the National Qualifications Framework and Educational Reform in South Africa, 1989-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    Examines the conceptualization of gender redress within the policy development work on the National Qualification Framework (NQF) that is a key initiative of education reform in South Africa. Discusses the history of the NQF and addresses perspectives on gender and the integration of education and training from 1989 to 1996. (CMK)

  6. Selected occupational status projections of Southern youth: an analysis of sex, race, and socio-economic status.

    E-print Network

    Lever, Michael F

    1969-01-01

    , . rhool ci 1s, - ', . 're s, ? &- ir&clu 'red 1 ? :recuen&t re . . -On- es in tercis of 2&-c!c' ic occuvf ion&s:&erc . . r seated, i= '". riff icult to dcriv. usehle find'n9s fro, . this study. 10 t11er s i!dy& u. . in' 2. co. '. !h inccl sa. '&. . !le...; lnty ol 'xpecta'tlon 39 4. Q tpg 48 t q l9 30 Vrii Soci' - conoiT&ic S at'us Data i;anipulation 51 51 Occuparicnal Status Pro jections Socio-Econos!ic Status 54 58 V. SOCTC-ECO':Oir:TC STATUS AC1? OCCUPAT:C"AL " 'A'i'US PRO JECTlch'S EY...

  7. Discrimination versus specialization: a survey of economic studies on sexual orientation, gender and earnings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Elizabeth Dunne

    2008-01-01

    Several studies examine the link between sexual orientation and earnings using large data sets that distinguish sexual orientation through questions about sexual behavior and/or by allowing respondents to self-identify as part of a same-sex cohabitating couple. After controlling for other earnings-related characteristics these studies generally show an earnings penalty for gay/bisexual men relative to heterosexual men and an earnings premium for lesbian/bisexual women relative to heterosexual women. Explanations for this gender disparity include gender differences in sexual orientation discrimination, greater labor force attachment for lesbian/bisexual women, and the effects of the overall gender earnings gap. PMID:19042290

  8. Vitamin A supplementation among children in India: Does their socioeconomic status and the economic and social development status of their State of residence make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Agrawal, Praween

    2015-01-01

    Background India has the largest percentage/number of vitamin A deficient children in the world. However, the effectiveness of a program of vitamin A supplementation at the population level has been rarely examined. We aim to examine the status of vitamin A supplementation among preschool children in India and its association with their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the social and economic development level of the State in which they reside. Materials and Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study of 20,802 children aged 12-35 months whose mothers participated in the National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS-3) conducted during 2005-2006. The association between the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the children, the social and economic development status of the State in which they reside and vitamin A supplementation status was examined by means of unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Results Only 25% of the children in India received vitamin A supplementation, indicating a poor coverage, and the differences between the States were wide (<10% to >45%). Rural children (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10-1.30; P < 0.0001) and children of educated mothers (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 2.04-2.83; P < 0.0001) were more likely to receive vitamin A supplementation than others. Children born in a higher birth order (6+) (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.46-0.63; P < 0.0001) and those residing in states with low levels of social and economic development (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.46-0.57; P < 0.0001) were only about half as likely to receive vitamin A supplementation as their counterparts. Conclusion The national vitamin A supplementation program in India did not reach a majority of preschool children in 2005. Greater maternal formal education, higher household wealth status and high social development status of their State of residence appears to be an important determinant for receipt of a vitamin A supplementation by preschool children in India. PMID:25729705

  9. Fair play doesn't matter: MEP modulation as a neurophysiological signature of status quo bias in economic interactions.

    PubMed

    Pisoni, Alberto; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; Zarri, Luca; Vergallito, Alessandra; Romero Lauro, Leonor Josefina

    2014-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies show that watching others' movements enhances motor evoked potential (MEPs) amplitude of the muscles involved in the observed action (motor facilitation, MF). MF has been attributed to a mirror neuron system mediated mechanism, causing an excitability increment of primary motor cortex. It is still unclear whether the meaning an action assumes when performed in an interpersonal exchange context could affect MF. This study aims at exploring this issue by measuring MF induced by the observation of the same action coupled with opposite reward values (gain vs loss) in an economic game. Moreover, the interaction frame was manipulated by showing the same actions within different economic games, the Dictator Game (DG) and the Theft Game (TG). Both games involved two players: a Dictator/Thief and a receiver. Experimental participants played the game always as receivers whereas the Dictator/Thief roles were played by our confederates. In each game Dictator/Thief's choices were expressed by showing a grasping action of one of two cylinders, previously associated with fair/unfair choices. In the DG the dictator decides whether to share (gain condition) or not (no-gain condition) a sum of money with the receiver, while in TGs the thief decides whether to steal (loss condition) or not to steal (no-loss condition) it from the participants. While the experimental subjects watched the videos showing these movements, a single TMS pulse was delivered to their motor hand area and a MEP was recorded from the right FDI muscle. Results show that, in the DG, MF was enhanced by the status quo modification, i.e. MEP amplitude increased when the dictator decided to change the receivers' status quo and share his/her money, and this was true when the status quo was more salient. The same was true for the TG, where the reverse happened: MF was higher for trials in which the thief decided to steal the participants' money, thus changing the status quo, in the block in which the status quo maintenance occurred more often. Data support the hypothesis that the economic meaning of the observed actions differently modulates MEP amplitude, pointing at an influence on MF exerted by a peculiar interaction between economic outcomes and variation of the subjects' initial status quo. PMID:24983714

  10. Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Dunn RA, Sharkey JR, Lotade-Manje J, Bouhlal Y, Nayga RM Jr. Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas.

  11. The joint effects of risk status, gender, early literacy and cognitive skills on the presence of dyslexia among a group of high-risk Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Simpson W L; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W F; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by paediatricians. The age-5 performances on various literacy and cognitive tasks, gender and group status (familial risk or language delayed) were used to predict developmental dyslexia 2 years later using logistic regression analysis. Results showed that greater risk of dyslexia was related to slower rapid automatized naming, lower scores on morphological awareness, Chinese character recognition and English letter naming, and gender (boys had more risk). Three logistic equations were generated for estimating individual risk of dyslexia. The strongest models were those that included all print-related variables (including speeded number naming, character recognition and letter identification) and gender, with about 70% accuracy or above. Early identification of those Chinese children at risk for dyslexia can facilitate better dyslexia risk management. PMID:22271420

  12. Licit prescription drug use in a Swedish population according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjusting for level of multi-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Methods The study was carried out on the total population aged 20?years or older in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for the individual level of multi-morbidity in the population to which we have related the odds ratio for individuals and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for patients of using licit prescription drugs, defined daily doses (DDDs) and total costs of licit prescription drugs after adjusting for age, gender and socioeconomic factors (educational and income level). Results After adjustment for multi-morbidity level male individuals had less than half the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.40-0.42)) compared to female individuals. Among the patients, males had higher total costs (IRR 1.14 (95% CI 1.13-1.15)). Individuals above 80?years had nine times the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 9.09 (95% CI 8.33-10.00)) despite adjustment for multi-morbidity. Patients in the highest education and income level had the lowest DDDs (IRR 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80), IRR 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.74)) after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Conclusions This paper shows that there is a great variability in licit prescription drug use associated with gender, age and socioeconomic status, which is not dependent on level of multi-morbidity. PMID:22846625

  13. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?gender inequities alongside economic programming, because this type of combined intervention has potential to reduce levels of IPV. Additional large-scale intervention research is needed to replicate these findings. Trial registration Registration Number: NCT01629472. PMID:24176132

  14. Reading Performances as Related to Race and Socio-economic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carron, Theodore J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship of race and socioeconomic status to the learning of reading skills among ninth-grade black and white students in the Tuscaloosa, Alabama, city and county schools. Each student was given diagnostic reading tests by timed, untimed, and auditory administration. Socioeconomic status was measured by…

  15. Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

  16. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Richter; Anja Leppin; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of

  17. Status, Gender, and Nonverbal Behavior in Candid and Posed Photographs: A Study of Conversations Between University Employees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith A. Hall; Lavonia Smith LeBeau; Jeannette Gordon Reinoso; Frank Thayer

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six male and female university employees (93% White, 6% African American, 1% Asian) were photographed in dyads while they conversed about working at their university (candid photographs) and again while they deliberately faced the camera (posed photographs). Eight nonverbal behaviors were coded from the photographs, and relative status was ascertained from a postexperimental questionnaire. Status differences were found for upward

  18. Gender Stereotypes as a Product of Inferred Sex Differences in Status: The Case of the Influenceability Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    According to sex stereotypes, women are more easily influenced than men. This stereotype may derive from perceivers' inferences that women occupy lower status positions than men, and the lower an individual's status in relation to other persons, the more he or she yields to their influence. Each subject (N=408) read a scenario describing a…

  19. Psychological Well-Being in the Early Life Course: Variations by Socioeconomic Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Owens, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    Our analysis focuses on the implications of social status characteristics for children's psychological well-being. Drawing on social evaluation theories and stress-based explanations, we hypothesized that disadvantage cumulates across statuses (the double jeopardy hypothesis) and over time as children move into the adolescent years. To test this…

  20. Health status of older immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Filice, John K

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to the Canadian-born in terms of age and gender using multiple measures of health status including self-assessed health. Second, we identify the factors associated with health status using the determinants of health framework. In both cases, the key questions are whether differences in health status exist and whether they are explained primarily by socio-economic, socio-demographic, or lifestyle factors that may point to problems with the Canadian health care system. Findings indicate that there is a relative comparability in the health status of older immigrants, even after controlling for age. PMID:17001585

  1. Onset of Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Interplay of Pubertal Status, Gender, Weight, and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…

  2. Gender Status Decline, Resistance, and Accommodation among Female Neophytes in the Missions of California: A San Gabriel Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the devastating impact that Spanish colonization had on both traditional gender roles and female mortality among the Kumivit, or Gabrielino, Indians of Southern California. Documents the unique resistance and accommodation responses of Native women, from the shaman Toypurina's revolt against the missionaries to Bartolomea's accommodation…

  3. Economic Opportunities and Gender Differences in Human Capital: Experimental Evidence for India. NBER Working Paper No. 16021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in health and education are a concern for a number of developing countries. While standard theory predicts human capital should respond to market returns, social norms (e.g., disapproval of women working outside the home) may weaken or even sever this link for girls. Though many studies have examined the link between women's…

  4. ‘They'd only call you a scally if you are poor’: the impact of socio-economic status on children's identities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liz Sutton

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of socio-economic status to children's understandings of their own identity and belonging. It draws on a participatory research project with two groups of children, aged 8–13 years, from different socio-economic backgrounds, in two different geographic locations. It explores how children perceive and understand their own social and economic situations in relation to others. Whilst the

  5. Continuous Versus Episodic Change: The Impact of Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Donohue III; James Heckman

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the available evidence on the causes of black economic advance in order to assess the contribution of federal policy. Over the period 1920-1990, there were only two periods of relative black economic improvement -- during the 1940s and in the decade following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the voting Rights Act of 1965,

  6. Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

    1979-01-01

    The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

  7. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  8. Ringvorlesung Gender Studies: Gender Economies Gender Cultures

    E-print Network

    Siegen, Universität

    Ringvorlesung Gender Studies: Gender Economies ­ Gender Cultures www.uni-siegen.de/gender Sabine Lebenskonzepten -Klausur- Bei Fragen und Anregungen können Sie sich gerne bei uns melden: gender@uni-siegen.de Weitere Informationen erhalten Sie auch auf unserer Homepage www.uni-siegen.de/gender ! Wintersemester

  9. Gender inequality and the spread of HIV-AIDS in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aparna Mitra; Dipanwita Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to analyze the low status of women as being a major contributor for the observed gender inequality in the spread of HIV\\/AIDS in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses data from National Aids Control Organization, National Family Health Survey, and the Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Findings – This study highlights the

  10. Gender inequality, family planning, and maternal and child care in a rural Chinese county

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianghong Li

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of prenatal and obstetric care utilization within the context of recent social and economic changes in contemporary rural China. The aim of this study is to test the general hypothesis that gender inequality (women's status and son preference) and the state's family planning policy have a significant influence on maternal and childcare utilization. Both qualitative

  11. Gender Atypical Behavior in Chinese School-Aged Children: Its Prevalence and Relation to Sex, Age, and Only Child Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Yu; Sam Winter

    2011-01-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6–12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression.

  12. Fatigue, insomnia and nervousness: gender disparities and roles of individual characteristics and lifestyle factors among economically active people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Peretti-Watel; Stéphane Legleye; Michèle Baumann; Marie Choquet; Bruno Falissard; Nearkasen Chau

    2009-01-01

    Background  Individuals with certain personal, family and job characteristics are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the respective\\u000a role of obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse, low education, income, living and family conditions, and socio-occupational category\\u000a in fatigue\\/insomnia (FI), nervousness (N) and frequent drug use for those disorders (DFI and DN) among men and women and in\\u000a gender disparities are not

  13. Siblings, friends, course-mates, club-mates: how adolescent health behavior homophily varies by race, class, gender, and health status.

    PubMed

    Daw, Jonathan; Margolis, Rachel; Verdery, Ashton M

    2015-01-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors develop during adolescence, and these behaviors can have fundamental consequences for health and mortality in adulthood. Social network structure and the degree of homophily in a network affect how health behaviors and innovations are spread. However, the degree of health behavior homophily across different social ties and within subpopulations is unknown. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by using a novel regression model to document the degree of homophily across various relationship types and subpopulations for behaviors of interest that are related to health outcomes. These patterns in health behavior homophily have implications for which behaviors and ties should be the subjects of future research and for predicting how homophily may shape health programs focused on specific subpopulations (gender, race, class, health status) or a specific social context (families, peer groups, classrooms, or school activities). PMID:24673889

  14. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  15. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    PubMed

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians. PMID:25631884

  16. The Relationship Between Learning Style Preferences and Gender, Educational Major and Status in First Year Medical Students: A Survey Study From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning style’s questionnaire was done on 184 first year students of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing and health services management at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed through experts’ views and reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (? = 0.86). Data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.18 software and x2 test. Results: Out of 184 participants who responded to and returned the questionnaire, 122 (66.3%) were female; more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the enrolled students were at the professional doctorate level (medicine, pharmacy, dentistry) and 31.5% at the undergraduate level (nursing and health services management). Eighty-nine (48.4%) students preferred a single-modal learning style. In contrast, the remaining 95 students (51.6%) preferred multi-modal learning styles. A significant relationship between gender and single modal learning styles (P = 0.009) and between status and learning styles (P = 0.04) was observed. Conclusions: According to the results, male students preferred to use the kinesthetic learning style more than females, while, female students preferred the aural learning style. Knowledge about the learning styles of students at educational institutes is valuable and helps solve learning problems among students, and allows students to become better learners. PMID:25763269

  17. Suicide in Italy during a time of economic recession: some recent data related to age and gender based on a nationwide register study.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Vichi, Monica; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou; De Leo, Diego; Girardi, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Previous research reported that economic crises may have important implications for increasing suicide rates. We investigated official data on completed suicide in Italy during the recent economic crisis as related to age and gender. Data were extracted from the Italian Mortality Database. The trend in suicide rates from 1980 to 2010 (the most recent year available) was analysed by joinpoint regression analysis. Rate ratios were calculated to compare suicide rates before and after the present economic crisis. Suicide rates for men 25-64 years of age (those involved in the labour force) started to increase in 2008 after a period of a statistically significant decrease from 1994 to 2007 and their suicide rate was 12% higher in 2010 compared with that in 2006. In contrast, suicide rates declined for women of all ages and for men younger than 25 and older than 65 years of age. After 2007, there was a noticeable increase in suicide rates among Italian men involved in the labour force. PMID:24313850

  18. 1229 Insect Pest Status and Economics of Bt Cotton Cultivation under Irrigated Ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basavaraj V. Patil

    Results : Insect pest status on Bt cotton has not changed with regard to sucking pest complex, but there is significant reduction of all the three bollworm population \\/ incidence viz., Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), Earias vittella (Fabricius) and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) throughout the crop growth, as compared to non Bt cotton hybrid. However, higher incidence of dusky cotton bug. Oxycarenus

  19. A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

    This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…

  20. Equity Indicators: Measures of Socio-Economic Status at Victoria University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Genevieve; Doughney, James; Palermo, Josephine

    After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…

  1. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  2. Socio-Economic Status Determines Risk of Receptive Syringe Sharing Behaviors among Iranian Drug Injectors; A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although needle and syringe sharing is one of the main routs of transmission of HIV in several countries in the middle east, very little is known about how socio-economic status of injecting drug users (IDUs) is linked to the receptive syringe sharing behaviors in these countries. Aim: To study socio-economic correlates of receptive needle and syringe sharing among IDUs in Iran. Methods: The study used data from the Unhide Risk Study, a national survey of IDUs. This study sampled 636 IDUs (91% male) via snowball sampling from eight provinces in Iran in 2009. Socio-demographic and drug use characteristics were collected. We used a logistic regression to determine factors associated with receptive needle and syringe sharing during the past 6?months. Results: From 636 IDUs enrolled in this study, 68% (n?=?434) reported receptive needle and syringe sharing behaviors in the past 6?months. Odds of receptive needle and syringe sharing in the past 6?months was lower among IDUs who were male [odds ratios (OR)?=?0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.12–0.70], had higher education (OR?=?0.74, 95% CI?=?0.64–0.86) but higher among those who were unemployed (OR?=?4.05, 95% CI?=?1.50–10.94), and were single (OR?=?1.47, 95% CI?=?1.02–2.11). Conclusion: This study presented factors associated with risk of receptive needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. This information may be used for HIV prevention and harm reduction purposes. Socio-economic status of Iranian IDUs may be closely linked to high-risk injecting behaviors among them.

  3. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  4. His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Geist, Claudia; Lucas, Amy

    2014-08-01

    Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men's satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women's satisfaction, but men's satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men's satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners. PMID:25045175

  5. Development of Phonological Awareness during the Preschool Year: The Influence of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…

  6. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  7. No Refuge: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2010-01-01

    Rough financial seas had been buffeting many colleges and universities for years before the recession that began in late 2007. Then in mid-September 2008, an economic tsunami crashed into campuses, challenging their ability to provide the accessible, high-quality education necessary to achieve long-term national goals. As the economy weakened at…

  8. DISCIPLINARY INCIDENTS IN PRISON: EFFECTS OF RACE, ECONOMIC STATUS, URBAN RESIDENCE, PRIOR IMPRISONMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Finn

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the effects of race, economic deprivation, urban background, and criminal justice experience on officially recorded violent and non-violent disciplinary incidents for inmates (n = 2496) released from a northern state prison system. Results of regression analysis indicate that after controlling for important predictor variables, race and prior prison incarceration have no significant main effects on incident rates.

  9. Economic Status, Community Danger and Psychological Problems among South African Children

    PubMed Central

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    An extensive literature links community violence and poverty in the US to psychological difficulties in children. To test the cross-national generalizability of these relationships, 625 young, South African mothers residing in black townships with different levels of community danger and material hardship rated their 6-year-olds on emotional functioning and behavioral problems. Most mothers were African, employed and of low educational attainment. Community danger was confirmed as a risk factor for anxiety, depression, aggression, opposition and low affability in children. A composite measure of socioeconomic status as indexed by education and job status was unrelated to behavioral and emotional adjustment. However, children experiencing material hardship had fewer problems related to behavioral self-control than children in families with greater access to material resources. PMID:17664957

  10. Marine Bioinvasions in the Southeastern Pacific: Status, Ecology, Economic Impacts, Conservation and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan C. Castilla; Paula E. Neill

    Knowledge of the status of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) in temperate southeastern Pacific countries (Chile and Peru)\\u000a is incipient. Nevertheless, at least in Chile, the problem has recently been addressed by taxonomists and ecologists (e.g.\\u000a Baez et al. 1998; Gajardo and Laikre 2003; Castilla et al. 2005; Camus 2005). While numerous NIS have been intentionally introduced\\u000a for aquaculture purposes (e.g.

  11. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: A comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamile Kukulu; Süreyya Sarvan; Leyla Muslu; ?erife Gözde Yirmibe?o?lu

    2010-01-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different

  12. Incorporation of Socio-economic Status Indicators into Policies for the Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Candice; Weider, Katie; Konopka, Kristen; Danis, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has an important effect on health. Individuals with lower SES experience more chronic disease, are less likely to receive preventive care, and have shorter life expectancies. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented and increasing numbers of previously uninsured people gain access to health care, the imperative to recognize patients’ SES and develop health initiatives that account for the social determinants of health increases. Health care providers across the nation are adopting electronic health records (EHRs). Policies such as Meaningful Use offer opportunities to systematically incorporate the collection of standardized SES indicators into EHRs in ways that improve health, increase the understanding of the relationship between SES and health, and inform future policies. This paper examines the use of SES indicators in research, national surveys, and federal programs and finds adding an income question is the most feasible and optimal SES indicator for the inclusion in EHRs. PMID:24509007

  13. Inclusion of information on risk factors, socio-economic status and health seeking in a tuberculosis prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, K; Holtz, T H; Cobelens, F; Chua, J; van Leth, F; Tupasi, T; Williams, B

    2009-02-01

    Data on socio-economic status, exposure to risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and previous health-seeking for TB may be included in a TB prevalence survey to gain better knowledge about the distribution of TB in the population as well as a better understanding of what factors are driving the TB epidemic in a given setting. This article provides an overview of how such additional information may be collected. The article highlights the need to carefully consider the risk of jeopardising the quality of the overall survey by overburdening it with additional data collection, and concludes that additional time and resources for planning, training, logistics and supervision are required to safeguard quality. The article also discusses special considerations regarding sampling, sample size and data interpretation when including such information in a TB prevalence survey. PMID:19146743

  14. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

  15. GenderNet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A number of reports over the past decade have paid great attention to the numerous gender inequities that exist throughout both the "developed" and "developing" nations of the world. As part of its vast program of activities, the World Bank has developed this site, which describes how the Bank "seeks to reduce gender disparities and enhance women's participation in economic development through its programs and projects." Along with describing the World Bank's programs, the site provides a host of gender statistics and provides updated research reports, and helpful development resources. The development resource section is particularly useful as it contains practical how-to strategies that may be used to close the gender gap in such areas as the digital divide, participation in rural development, and transport. Visitors will also want to take a look at GenderStats, which is an electronic database of gender statistics and indicators culled from countries across the globe, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.

  16. The Academic Kitchen: A Social History of Gender Stratification at the University of California, Berkeley. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerad, Maresi

    This book recounts the story of the rise and fall of an all-women's department (home economics) at the University of California, Berkeley. Emphasis is on the connection between gender and status in an academic department and the life of one woman scientist, Agnes Fay Morgan, who was instrumental in the department's development. Analysis considers…

  17. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

  18. Racial and Gender Gaps in Academic Achievement: An Updated Look at 1993-94 Data. Report Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulaney, Chuck; Bethune, Ginger

    This second annual report for the Wake County (North Carolina) Public School System examined students' achievement indicators among groups that vary in gender, race, and economic status. The graphic format displays the extent of some of the gaps in academic achievement among the groups examined that existed in the 1993-94 school year, and compares…

  19. The Persistence of Traditional Gender Roles in the Information Technology Sector: A Study of Female Engineers in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reena Patel; Mary Jane C. Parmentier

    2005-01-01

    As women in India enter the rapidly expanding Information Technology (IT) workforce, it could be predicted that their active participation in this sector will change their socio-economic status within the employing organization and the communities in which they reside. It is often expected that women's participation in the professional realm will contribute to a breakdown of traditional gender roles. And

  20. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; ? = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  1. Marital Status and Cognitive Impairment among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults: The Role of Gender and Social Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lei; Ng, Xue-Ting; Yap, Philip; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Tih-Shih; Håkansson, Krister; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between marital status and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling Chinese older adults. Methods We analyzed data from 2,498 Chinese aged 55 and older from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study cohort. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination total score of 23 or below. Odds ratios of associations were reported and adjusted for potential confounders in logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 12.2% (n = 306). Being single was associated with about 2.5 times increased odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married (adjusted OR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.41-4.55). The association between marital status and cognitive impairment was much stronger in men compared to that in women, and was indeed statistically significant only for men. Among the single and widowed persons social engagement was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment. Compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of social engagement scores, the odds of having cognitive impairment was lowered by 50% for subjects in the second and the third tertile. Conclusion Being single or widowed was associated with higher odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married in a cohort of older Chinese men but not women. PMID:25473404

  2. The contributions of weight problem perception, BMI, gender, mood, and smoking status to binge eating among college students.

    PubMed

    Saules, Karen K; Collings, Amy S; Hoodin, Flora; Angelella, Nancy E; Alschuler, Kevin; Ivezaj, Valentina; Saunders-Scott, David; Wiedemann, Ashley A

    2009-01-01

    College student participants (N=1063; 77.8% response rate) completed a web-based survey assessing demographics, depression, anxiety, body image, cigarette smoking, and weight history. Among overweight participants, 42.6% of those who believed they were overweight admitted to binge eating, while only 30.1% who did not feel overweight did so (p<.05). Among non-overweight participants, 43.2% of those who believed they were overweight admitted to binge eating, while only 32.9% of those who did not feel overweight did so (p<.05). Weight Problem Perception (WPP) mediated the contribution of BMI on binge eating outcomes, and WPP contributed significantly to the prediction of binge eating, beyond the risk conferred by established correlates of binge eating (e.g., gender, mood, and cigarette smoking). Results suggest that when assessing risk for binge eating, a one-question assessment of whether or not an individual believes s/he is overweight has significant predictive power. Findings are consistent with literature on the importance of the "fat self-schema" [Stein, K.F., & Corte, C. (2007). Identity impairment and the eating disorders: Content and organization of the self-concept in women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review, 15 (1), 58-69] in disordered eating and theory implicating identity in the maintenance of addictive behavior [West, R.W. (2006). Theory of Addiction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Inc.]. PMID:19171310

  3. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  4. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  5. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

  6. Students' Economic and Educational Status and Selection for Compensatory Education. Technical Report No. 2 from the Study of the Sustaining Effects of Compensatory Education on Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breglio, Vincent J.; And Others

    A "Participation Study," designed to determine the relationships among economic status, educational need and instructional services received, is described in this report. Based on data collected from 15,000 randomly selected elementary school students from across the country, compensatory education selection rates are presented for students from…

  7. Inequitable walking conditions among older people: examining the interrelationship of neighbourhood socio-economic status and urban form using a comparative case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa L Grant; Nancy Edwards; Heidi Sveistrup; Caroline Andrew; Mary Egan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older

  8. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

  9. Women's Status and Fertility in Developing Countries: Son Preference and Economic Security. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 682 and Population and Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Mead

    The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…

  10. So Young and Already Victims of Stereotype Threat: Socio-Economic Status and Performance of 6 to 9 Years Old Children on Raven's Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert, Michel; Preaux, Marie; Jund, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether children from low socio-economic status (SES) are victims of stereotype threat. Children in first grade (6 to 7 years old) and third grade (8 to 9 years old) performed Raven's progressive matrices, an intellectual ability test commonly used by psychologists. The test was presented either with the…

  11. Stroke knowledge among diabetics: a cross-sectional study on the influence of age, gender, education, and migration status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke campaigns are educating about the need to immediately contact the emergency medical system if symptoms occur. Despite higher stroke rates among patients with diabetics and some migrant populations, there are few data about stroke knowledge in these groups. Methods We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 250 diabetes patients from Germany and Turkey in a primary care and diabetes practice center. The two-page questionnaire asked for stroke knowledge and socio-demographic data. Also, medical and communication data were obtained. Stroke knowledge was defined as good if a participant knew (1) at least two stroke symptoms (good symptom knowledge) and (2) that immediate hospital admission or an emergency call is necessary in case of stroke symptoms (good action knowledge). Results A total of 231 of 250 patients took part in the survey (participation rate 92.4%) with 134 natives (53.6%), 84 migrants from Turkey (33.6%) and 13 migrants (5.2%) from other countries. Comparing natives and migrants from Turkey good symptom knowledge was documented in 52.8% of the participants, good action knowledge in 67.9%, and good stroke knowledge in nearly forty percent (39.4%) of patients (n?=?218). A logistic regression analysis showed better stroke knowledge if patients were younger than 61 years, had good language abilities and were living in an one-generation household (p?gender, years since migration and diabetes control did not play a role. Conclusions We documented stroke knowledge deficits among patients with diabetes, both natives and migrants. Additional information strategies for these high risk populations are needed. PMID:24330386

  12. Prevalence of Self-Neglect across Gender, Race, and Socioeconomic Status: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A.; Evans, Denis A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-neglect is the behavior of an elderly person that threatens his/her own health and safety, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the scope of the self-neglect in the community population remains unclear. We examined the prevalence of self-neglect and its specific behaviors of hoarding, hygiene and other environmental hazards in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A population-based cohort study conducted from 2007 to 2010 in a single cycle in a geographically defined community of 4 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Ill., USA. Participant's personal and home environment was rated on hoarding, personal hygiene, house in need of repair, unsanitary conditions, and inadequate utility. Prevalence estimates were presented across gender, race/ethnicity, education and income levels. Results There were 4,627 older adults in the cohort. The prevalence of self-neglect and specific personal and environmental hazards varied significantly by race/ethnicity and by levels of education and income. For race/ethnicity, black older adults (men 13.2%; women 10.9%) had a significantly higher prevalence of self-neglect than white older adults (men 2.4%; women 2.6%). For those with less than high school education, the prevalence of the self-neglect was 14.7% in men and 10.9% in women. For those with an annual income of less than USD 15,000, the prevalence of self-neglect was 21.7% in men and 15.3% in women. Conclusion The prevalence of self-neglect and specific behaviors of hoarding, poor hygiene, and other environmental hazards are higher among black older adults and among those with lower levels of education and income. PMID:22189358

  13. Association between socio-economic status and hemoglobin A1c levels in a Canadian primary care adult population without diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hgb A1c levels may be higher in persons without diabetes of lower socio-economic status (SES) but evidence about this association is limited; there is therefore uncertainty about the inclusion of SES in clinical decision support tools informing the provision and frequency of Hgb A1c tests to screen for diabetes. We studied the association between neighborhood-level SES and Hgb A1c in a primary care population without diabetes. Methods This is a retrospective study using data routinely collected in the electronic medical records (EMRs) of forty six community-based family physicians in Toronto, Ontario. We analysed records from 4,870 patients without diabetes, age 45 and over, with at least one clinical encounter between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2011 and one or more Hgb A1c report present in their chart during that time interval. Residential postal codes were used to assign neighborhood deprivation indices and income levels by quintiles. Covariates included elements known to be associated with an increase in the risk of incident diabetes: age, gender, family history of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose. Results The difference in mean Hgb A1c between highest and lowest income quintiles was -0.04% (p?=?0.005, 95% CI -0.07% to -0.01%), and between least deprived and most deprived was -0.05% (p?=?0.003, 95% CI -0.09% to -0.02%) for material deprivation and 0.02% (p?=?0.2, 95% CI -0.06% to 0.01%) for social deprivation. After adjustment for covariates, a marginally statistically significant difference in Hgb A1c between highest and lowest SES quintile (p?=?0.04) remained in the material deprivation model, but not in the other models. Conclusions We found a small inverse relationship between Hgb A1c and the material aspects of SES; this was largely attenuated once we adjusted for diabetes risk factors, indicating that an independent contribution of SES to increasing Hgb A1c may be limited. This study does not support the inclusion of SES in clinical decision support tools that inform the use of Hgb A1c for diabetes screening. PMID:24410794

  14. Poverty Measure Changes Our Perceptions of Who Is Living in Poverty An Examination of Poverty by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, and Marital Status

    E-print Network

    unknown authors

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns about the adequacy of the official federal poverty measure, a new Supplemental Poverty Measure was recently developed to more accurately assess poverty. This fact sheet presents a rather different picture of poverty in the United States for the various demographic groups based on the Supplemental Poverty Measure and compares this new picture to the understanding of poverty based on the official measure, using data for the 2010 calendar year. The poverty rate is higher under the Supplemental Poverty Measure (15.9 percent poor, IWPR analysis of BLS data) than it is under the official poverty measure (15.1 percent poor; DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, and Smith 2011) for the total U.S. population and for most of the demographic groups examined. Under the Supplemental Poverty Measure, there is also less inequality in poverty across gender, race/ethnicity, age, and marital status than is found using the standard measure. The new measure will now be released by the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) along with the official measure each year. The key differences between the Supplemental Poverty Measure and the official poverty measure are that the supplemental measure includes a more accurate assessment of resources and a more accurate measure of the poverty line (also known as the threshold, the point at which a household's resources are inadequate enough to define it as living in poverty; Women of Color Policy Network 2011). More specifically, in

  15. The role of husband's and wife's economic activity status in the demand for children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y

    1987-04-01

    Data from Hong Kong were used to examine how the demand for children is affected by the economic returns to different types of market activities. The specific data used was a 1% sample of the 1976 "Hong Kong By-Census of Population." Only women under 50 who were currently married and living with their husbands were included. The households were restricted to land-based and non-farm families with economically active husbands. There were a total of 4128 families in the sample; in 3768 families the wife had experienced at least 1 birth. A simple 1-period model of household production and fertility demand is outlined. Emphasis was on 2 aspects of the demand for children in households who choose to work in the informal sector: children are more readily employed in a family business; and wife's work in a family business or in a wage employment at home is more compatible with childcare activities. Both effects imply that holding constant other characteristics, a higher desired stock of children will be demanded. As expected, an increase in wife's predicted log earnings in home work had a negative effect on the demand for children. The effect was almost always significant. An increase in wife's productivity in the family business, as proxied by her predicted log earnings in the family business, increased the demand for children significantly. This usually is interpreted to be a result of entering a market activity which is compatible with childcare. Another possible explanation is that the price of children is lowered because if children work in the family business then their productive contributions subsidize their parents' consumption. Yet, without direct measures or proxies for these effects, it is not possible to distinguish between them. An increase in husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment had a significant negative effect on demand for children. This can be interpreted in 2 ways: if an interior solution exists for husband's allocation of time, then a negative effect implies either that children are inferior (or are observed to be so) or husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment increases the probability of specializing in it. Thus, the role of children in the family business vanishes, and the desired number of children is reduced. Both husband's and wife's schooling reduced significantly the demand for children. In general, estimates of coefficients from families with at least 1 child were smaller in absolute magnitude and less significant statistically. PMID:12269084

  16. [Economic crisis and employment conditions: gender differences and the response of social and employment policies. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. PMID:24863992

  17. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior. PMID:21078697

  18. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  19. Letter knowledge in parent–child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

  20. Tobacco use prevalence – disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Julia A.; Peterson, Erin; Bobo, Matthew; Pickle, Kathryn E.; Rohde, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product) among the 3 populations of interest. Results “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment”. For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third) of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48%) and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%). Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations. PMID:23967410

  1. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523

  2. Type 2 diabetes prevalence varies by socio-economic status within and between migrant groups: analysis and implications for Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic diversity is increasing through migration in many developed countries. Evidence indicates that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence varies by ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES), and that in many settings, migrants experience a disproportionate burden of disease compared with locally-born groups. Given Australia’s multicultural demography, we sought to identify groups at high risk of T2DM in Victoria, Australia. Methods Using population data from the Australian National Census and diabetes data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme, prevalence of T2DM among immigrant groups in Victoria in January 2010 was investigated, and prevalence odds versus Australian-born residents estimated. Distribution of T2DM by SES was also examined. Results Prevalence of diagnosed T2DM in Victoria was 4.1% (n?=?98671) in men and 3.5% (n?=?87608) in women. Of those with T2DM, over 1 in 5 born in Oceania and in Southern and Central Asia were aged under 50 years. For both men and women, odds of T2DM were higher for all migrant groups than the Australian-born reference population, including, after adjusting for age and SES, 6.3 and 7.2 times higher for men and women born in the Pacific Islands, respectively, and 5.2 and 5.0 times higher for men and women born in Southern and Central Asia, respectively. Effects of SES varied by region of birth. Conclusions Large socio-cultural differences exist in the distribution of T2DM. Across all socio-economic strata, all migrant groups have higher prevalence of T2DM than the Australian-born population. With increasing migration, this health gap potentially has implications for health service planning and delivery, policy and preventive efforts in Australia. PMID:23517376

  3. Impact of socio-economic status on the hospital readmission of Congestive Heart Failure patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Atefeh; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Naderi, Nasim; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of multiple indicators of Socio-economic Status (SES) on Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) related readmission. Methods: A prospective study consisting of 315 patients without the history of admission due to CHF was carried out in Tehran during 2010 and 2011. They were classified into quartiles based on their SES applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and followed up for one year. Using stratified Cox regression analysis, Hazard Ratios (HRs) were computed to assess the impact of SES on the readmission due to CHF. Results: During the 12 months follow-up, 122 (40%) were readmitted at least once. HR of lowest SES patients vs. the highest SES patients (the fourth versus first quartile) was 2.66 (95% CI= 1.51–4.66). Variables including abnormal ejection fraction (<40%), poor physical activity, poor drug adherence, and hypertension were also identified as significant independent predictors of readmission. Conclusion: The results showed low SES is a significant contributing factor to increased readmission due to CHF. It seems that the outcome of CHF depends on the SES of patients even after adjusting for some of main intermediate factors. PMID:25337599

  4. Toward a ‘macro-micro’ analysis of gender, power and ICTs: A response to Micky Lee’s feminist political economic critique of the human development approach to new ICTs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet D Kwami; Brenna Wolf-Monteiro; H Leslie Steeves

    2011-01-01

    This essay, in response to Micky Lee’s article in this issue, agrees with her macro-level argument that the UNDP’s human development approach to new ICTs and global indices are grounded in old modernist models privileging neoliberal economic imperatives, treat ICTs as gender neutral and ignore global power relations. However, the authors argue that Lee’s critique is underdeveloped in three ways.

  5. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Haaxma; B. R. Bloem; G. F. Borm; W. J. G. Oyen; K. L. Leenders; S. Eshuis; J. Booij; D. E. Dluzen; M. W. I. M. Horstink

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We investigated the influence of gender and oestrogen status on: (1) age at onset, (2) presenting symptom, (3) severity and

  6. Anxiety among High School Students in India: Comparisons across Gender, School Type, Social Strata and Perceptions of Quality Time with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Chatterjee, Pooja; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    The broad objective of the study was to understand better anxiety among adolescents in Kolkata city, India. Specifically, the study compared anxiety across gender, school type, socio-economic background and mothers' employment status. The study also examined adolescents' perceptions of quality time with their parents. A group of 460 adolescents…

  7. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  8. Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. de Castro; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully\\u000a capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social\\u000a status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample\\u000a of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American

  9. Physical activity patterns in 50–59 year men in France and Northern Ireland. Associations with socio-economic status and health behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wagner; C. Simon; A. Evans; P. Ducimetière; V. Bongard; M. Montaye; D. Arveiler

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare physical activity patterns and their associations with socio-economic status (SES) and health behaviour in two countries at contrasting risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: This paper is a cross-sectional analysis of 7359 French and 2398 Northern Irish 50–59 year men of the PRIME cohort. Net energy expenditure due to physical activity (PAE) was

  10. The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population

    PubMed Central

    Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194

  11. The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population.

    PubMed

    Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-22

    Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194

  12. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

  13. The influence of socio-economic status and multimorbidity patterns on healthcare costs: a six-year follow-up under a universal healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbidity has been linked to elevated healthcare utilization and previous studies have found that socioeconomic status is an important factor associated with multimorbidity. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the impact of multimorbidity and socioeconomic status on healthcare costs and whether inequities in healthcare exist between socioeconomic classes within a universal healthcare system. Methods This longitudinal study employed the claims database of the National Health Insurance of Taiwan (959 990 enrolees), adopting medication-based Rx-defined morbidity groups (Rx-MG) as a measurement of multimorbidity. Mixed linear models were used to estimate the effects of multimorbidity and socioeconomic characteristics on annual healthcare costs between 2005 and 2010. Results The distribution of Rx-MGs and total costs presented statistically significant differences among gender, age groups, occupation, and income class (p?gender, increases in the number of Rx-MG assignments were associated with higher total healthcare costs. After controlling for the effects of Rx-MG assignment and demographic characteristics, physicians, paramedical personnel, and public servant were found to generate higher total costs than typical employees/self-employed enrolees, while low-income earners generated lower costs. High income levels were also found to be associated with lower total costs. It was also revealed that occupation and multimorbidity have a moderating effect on healthcare cost. Conclusions Increases in the prevalence of multimorbidity are associated with higher health care costs. This study determined that instances of multimorbidity varied according to socioeconomic class; likewise there were inequities in healthcare utilization among individuals of various occupations and income levels, even when demographic characteristics and multimorbidity were controlled for. This highlights the importance of socioeconomic status with regard to healthcare utilization. These results indicate that socioeconomic factors should not be discounted when discussing the utilization of healthcare by patients with multimorbidity. PMID:23962201

  14. Gender & Politics in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Ewig

    Description: This course examines the role of gender and women in Latin American politics. The course is organized around particular political and economic regime types: revolutionary, authoritarian, neoliberal and democratic. We will analyze the ways that gender is used by particular regimes and how it shapes transitions between regimes. Of special interest will be the political mobilization of women (Left

  15. Gender Differences in Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CYNTHIA F. C ARACTA

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence points to gender-based differences in incidence, risk, histology, and pathogen- esis of certain lung diseases in women as compared with men. Gender influences not only physiologi- cal differences, but also the social, economic, and cultural context in which men and women coexist. Central to these differences is the role of sex hormones, which may contribute to the pathogenesis

  16. Nanotechnology and Innovation, Recent status and the strategic implication for the formation of high tech clusters in Greece, in between a global economic crisis

    E-print Network

    Gkanas, Evangelos I; Makridis, Sofoklis S; Stubos, Athanasios K; Bakouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the first major worldwide research initiative of the 21st century and probably is the solution vector in the economic environment. Also, innovation is widely recognized as a key factor in the economic development of nations, and is essential for the competitiveness of the industrial firms as well. Policy and management of innovation are necessary in order to develop innovation and it involves processes. It is essential to develop new methods for nanotechnology development for better understanding of nanotechnology based innovation. Nanotechnologies reveal commercialization processes, from start ups to large firms in collaboration with public sector research. In the current paper, a study in the present status of innovation in nanotechnology and the affection of global economic crisis in this section is made and also the potential of increase the innovation via the presence of clusters in a small country like Greece which is in the eye of tornado from the global crisis is studied.

  17. Factors affecting the career progress of academic accountants in Australia: Cross-institutional and gender perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nava Subramaniam

    2003-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, Australian highereducation has undergone significant reforms andpolicy changes based on economic rationalismand modernisation of management. This paperexamines the outcomes of the reform processesbased on the career attributes, status andperceptions of work environment of academicaccountants in Australian universities.Similarities and differences between academicaccountants are explored fromcross-institutional and gender perspectives.The data provide insight into a number ofsystemic inequalities between

  18. Evaluation of potential gender-related differences in behavioral and cognitive alterations following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2015-05-01

    Together with pharmacoresistant seizures, the quality of life of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients is negatively impacted by behavioral comorbidities including but not limited to depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. The pilocarpine model of TLE has been widely used to study characteristics of human TLE, including behavioral comorbidities. Since the outcomes of pilocarpine-induced TLE might vary depending on several experimental factors, we sought to investigate potential gender-related differences regarding selected behavioral alterations in C57BL6 mice. We found that epileptic mice, independent of gender, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test. In the object recognition test, epileptic mice, regardless of gender, showed a decreased recognition index at 24 (but not at 4) hours after training. On the other hand, no significant differences were found regarding mice learning and memory performance in the Barnes maze paradigm. Motor coordination and balance as assessed by the beam walk and rotarod tests were not impaired in epileptic mice of both genders. However, female mice, independent of epilepsy, performed the beam walk and rotarod tasks better than their male counterparts. We also found that only male epileptic mice displayed disturbed behavior in the forced swim test, but the mice of both genders displayed anhedonia-like behavior in the taste preference test. Lastly, we found that the extent of hilar cell loss is similar in both genders. In summary, both genders can be successfully employed to study behavioral comorbidities of TLE; however, taking the potential gender differences into account may help choose the more appropriated gender for a given task, which may be of value for the minimization of the number of animals used during the experiments. PMID:25749198

  19. Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…

  20. Gender and advertisements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maitrayee Chaudhuri

    2001-01-01

    This article is about advertisements and gender images in the English print media in India, and rests on the assumption that the shift in the Indian state's economic policy in favour of globalisation has accompanied a shift in public discourse as evidenced in the media. Although some images of Indian women are traditional (the homemaker and mother), many are new

  1. Gender Constancy and Sibling Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Rank, Sara Anne

    To test effects of family constellation on children's acquisition of sex-role, the sex-role behavior of 175 children between the ages of 3 and one half and 6 years from one-child and two-child families was compared. Included in the design were five categories: only children, and four additional categories based on sex and relative age of siblings…

  2. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume IV: Social, Political and Economic Issues in Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  3. Gender Identity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Identity: Gender Identity Sexuality/Sexual Orientation Mental Health Issues Gender Identity Helpful Resources Homophobia/Transphobia Gender identity is how strong a person's feeling is about being male or female, or possibly parts of both. Most people are comfortable with the feeling ...

  4. Doing Gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CANDACE WEST; DON H. ZIMMERMAN

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to advance a new understanding of gender as a routine accomplishment embedded in everyday interaction. To do so entails a critical assessment of existing perspectives on sex and gender and the introduction of important distinctions among sex, sex category, and gender. We argue that recognition of the analytical independence of these concepts is essential

  5. The Impact of Gender Norms on Condom Use among HIV-Positive Adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner’s HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95–26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870

  6. What It's Worth: Field of Training and Economic Status in 2009. Household Economic Studies. Current Population Reports. P70-129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between educational attainment and economic outcomes is shaped by a variety of educational experiences, including field of training, length of time spent in school, and level of attainment. This report explores the relationship between educational attainment, field of training, and eventual occupation and earnings. The report also…

  7. Gender issues in energy policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti K Parikh

    1995-01-01

    Gender issues have received attention at micro level in terms of technological interventions such as cookstoves, biogas, solar cookers, wood plantations and so on. They have yet to be addressed in macro level policies. Women's needs for energy vary depending on whether they are in urban or rural areas, their stage of economic development and whether they are economically active.

  8. GENDER EQUALITY Incorporated

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    , gender roles, gender construction Gender mythsGENDER EQUALITY Incorporated 5 DAY GENDER TRAINING WITH CERTIFICATION April 26-30, 2010 - Toronto. #12;simplifying IT 5 DAY GENDER TRAINING WITH CERTIFICATION GOAL This 5 day course is designed

  9. Gender differences and equality issues in Europe: critical aspects of gender mainstreaming policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabella Crespi

    2009-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming is the major global strategy for the promotion of gender equality. Clear intergovernmental mandates for gender mainstreaming have been developed for all the major areas of work of the United Nations and the European Commission, including disarmament, poverty reduction, macro-economics, health, education and trade. The evaluation of equal opportunities mainly focuses on qualification measures for unemployed women and

  10. State-level women’s status and psychiatric disorders among US women

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Subramanian, S. V.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Although greater gender equality at the state-level is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in women after controlling for individual-level confounders, the extent to which state-level women’s status is related to psychiatric disorders in women and gender differences in psychopathology has never been examined. We examined these associations in the current report. Methods We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653), a national probability sample of US adults. Respondents completed structured diagnostic assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between four state-level indicators of women’s status (political participation, employment/earnings, social/economic autonomy, and reproductive rights) and odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. We also tested whether women’s status predicted the magnitude of gender differences in psychiatric disorders. Results State-level political participation, employment/earnings, and social/economic autonomy were unrelated to odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. However, the prevalence of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder was lower in states where women have greater reproductive rights (OR 0.93–0.95), controlling for individual-level risk factors. None of the women’s status indicators predicted gender differences in mood and anxiety disorder prevalence. Conclusions State-level women’s status was largely unrelated to mood and anxiety disorders in women or to gender differences in these disorders. Investigation of social factors that play a role in shaping the distribution of individual-level risk factors that are associated with gender disparities in psychiatric disorders represents an important avenue for future research. PMID:20853099

  11. Marital status and colon cancer outcomes in US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries: Does marriage affect cancer survival by gender

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Tony R.

    Marital status and colon cancer outcomes in US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results often perform. It is of interest to explore the relationship between marital status and colon cancer, since colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the US for both men and women, and marriage

  12. The University of Virginia does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sex

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    and activities as required by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the Americans with Disabilities Act designated to handle inquiries regarding the American with Disabilities Act, the Rehabilitation ActThe University of Virginia does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender

  13. Predicting the Use of Campus Counseling Services for Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino/Hispanic, and White Students: Problem Severity, Gender, and Generational Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kieran T.; Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; McIver, Stephanie D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of counseling center use among Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino/Hispanic, and White college students. Findings indicated that female and 2nd-generation students report the most severe difficulties. Problem severity and gender predicted counseling center use for White and Asian/Pacific…

  14. Efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers in the management of left ventricular systolic dysfunction according to race, gender, and diabetic status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Shekelle; Michael W. Rich; Sally C. Morton; Col. Sid W. Atkinson; Wenli Tu; Margaret Maglione; Shannon Rhodes; Michael Barrett; Gregg C. Fonarow; Barry Greenberg; Paul A. Heidenreich; Tom Knabel; Marvin A. Konstam; Anthony Steimle; Lynne Warner Stevenson

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesThis study sought to assess the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers on all-cause mortality in patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction according to gender, race, and the presence of diabetes.

  15. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights…

  16. Unequal Access, Unequal Participation: Some Spatial and Socio-Economic Dimensions of the Gender Gap in Education in Africa with Special Reference to Ghana, Zimbabwe and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabaya, Judith; Konadu-Agyemang, Kwadwo

    2004-01-01

    The question of unequal access to education among males and females appears to be universal in the developing world. However, females in Africa seem to suffer more discrimination in terms of access to education. This study revisits the question of gender disparities in educational access in Africa by analyzing data from recent comparative national…

  17. A gender more vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Basu, A M

    1991-12-01

    The greater risks of death faced by females in India are discussed in terms of the differences between the norther and southern regions of India, culture compounding inequality, and intervention strategies. When the assumption of a sex ratio of equality of 950/1000 is make, every region in the north is below (ranging from 874-913), and every region in the south above (ranging from 960-1040). The same north/south division remains for the male probability of dying by age 5 as a proportion of female probability (rural) in 1981. 2 explanations are given for female's greater survival changes in the south. 1) Marriage and kinship systems are different. Girls in the north typically marry earlier; many times marriage is to a stranger in a distant area so that family contact is reduced. The consequence is a reduction in female autonomy and status in both her father's and her husband's home. 2) Economic roles are different. Research has revealed that male/female survival equality occurs in states with high female labor force participation rates. At the micro level, working women's children tend to have more equal death rates. Physical devaluation is not only evidenced in death and survival, but also in the disparity in schooling. The states with the greatest gender differentials in mortality also have the greatest differences in literacy. This has been interpreted as household resources are disproportionately invested in males. Cultural inhibitions about the physical freedoms of girls also are involuntary reasons for the sex differential. The example is given of the apprehension generated for a male doctor's examination of a girl, a coeducational school environment, or a school located a distance from the home. There is the tradition of female seclusion and inhibition. In combination with the dependence on sons to limit the choices open to women, and to limit the growth and development, the product is inequality. Amniocentesis has lead to the increase in numbers of sex determination and abortion clinics. There is evidence that aborted fetuses are primarily female. Without change in these practices, there will not be a reversal in the sex ratio. Interventions suggested include increasing the number of facilities for the equal development of girls and women. There must be increases in female medical staff, more girl's schools in villages, and more nutrition programs for girls, Women's economic independence must be enhanced. PMID:12317118

  18. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    PubMed

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time-bound manner, there could be serious adverse implications for the Indian economy, society and politics. PMID:18032812

  19. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

  20. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business concern or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...close of business by the fifth business day after notification by...Contracting, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 Third...Attn: Women-owned Small Business Status Protest. (2...The solicitation number or electronic link to or a paper copy...

  1. Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed. PMID:24921019

  2. Gender Socialization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Stockard

    As children grow up they form a general sense of self and the ability to relate to others and play a part in society. In this process they also develop beliefs about the roles and expectations that are associated with each sex group (gender roles) and a self-identity as a member of one sex group or the other (gender identity).

  3. Gender Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine T. Bartlett

    1994-01-01

    The inauguration of the DUKE JOURNAL OF GENDER LAW & POLICY represents an exciting step in the institutionalization of a subject area in academic law formerly found only at the fringe of legal scholarship and law school curriculums. Often shunned as a political activity inappropriate to institutions committed to academic rigor, objectivity, and neutrality, gender law has begun to lay

  4. Gender Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  5. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  6. Gender Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" focuses on gender issues in early childhood. The first article, "Both Halves of the Sky: Gender Socialization in the Early Years," focuses on the arguments that have led to an international call for increased participation of girls in education, an introduction to studies which map young children's…

  7. The Possible Effects of Nutritional Status and Growth of Children on the Economic Potential of West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Barbara K.

    Meeting nutritional needs of children in West Virginia is vital to the state's economic development. A malnourished, uneducable population will be unemployable in a high tech society and the state cannot afford custodial and welfare costs resulting from childhood malnutrition. Evidence of nutritional need in West Virginia includes low rate of…

  8. Economics in Asia: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Nine Countries. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This book contains reports on the teaching of and research in economics in nine countries: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Each report covers the historical development and growth of the discipline in the country; the development of infra-structures for teaching and…

  9. School Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Status and Teachers' Work Commitment in Finland: Longitudinal Survey with Register Linkage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and…

  10. Rapid Industrial Development, Competition, and Relative Economic Status: A Study in Human Ecology. Working Paper RID 73.10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gene F.; Clemente, Frank

    The document has 3 goals (1) to examine the distribution of economic benefits of industrial development as reflected by the concept of competition in human ecology; (2) to provide an empirical test of the ecological model, and (3) to relate the findings to public policy. Two Illinois study areas were identified. First, as an experimental region,…

  11. Survey error in measuring socio-economic risk factors of health status: a comparison of a survey and a census

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Lorant; Stefaan Demarest; Pieter-Jan Miermans; Herman Van Oyen

    2007-01-01

    Results Less-educated individuals had a lower risk of poor health status in the survey (Prevalence ratio ¼1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48-1.86) than in the census (Prevalence ratio ¼2.23) leading to an underestimation of the risk associated with low education (ROR ¼0.74, 95% CI 0.66-0.83). Compared with better-off groups, those who were not working or who were less educated were

  12. Household context and child mortality in rural South Africa: the effects of birth spacing, shared mortality, household composition and socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen M; Clark, Samuel J

    2013-01-01

    Background Household characteristics are important influences on the risk of child death. However, little is known about this influence in HIV-endemic areas. We describe the effects of household characteristics on children’s risk of dying in rural South Africa. Methods We use data describing the mortality of children younger than 5 years living in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system study population in rural northeast South Africa during the period 1994–2008. Using discrete time event history analysis we estimate children’s probability of dying by child characteristics and household composition (other children and adults other than parents) (N = 924 818 child-months), and household socio-economic status (N = 501 732 child-months). Results Children under 24 months of age whose subsequent sibling was born within 11 months experience increased odds of dying (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.7). Children also experience increased odds of dying in the period 6 months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.6), 3–5 months (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5–5.9), and 2 months (OR 11.8; 95% CI 7.6–18.3) before another household child dies. The odds of dying remain high at the time of another child’s death (OR 11.7; 95% CI 6.3–21.7) and for the 2 months following (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.9–8.6). Having a related but non-parent adult aged 20–59 years in the household reduces the odds (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5–0.8). There is an inverse relationship between a child’s odds of dying and household socio-economic status. Conclusions This detailed household profile from a poor rural setting where HIV infection is endemic indicates that children are at high risk of dying when another child is very ill or has recently died. Short birth intervals and additional children in the household are further risk factors. Presence of a related adult is protective, as is higher socio-economic status. Such evidence can inform primary health care practice and facilitate targeting of community health worker efforts, especially when covering defined catchment areas. PMID:23912808

  13. gender institute gender in global perspective

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Paul

    gender institute gender in global perspective #12;gender in global perspective 1 But what is GENDER? Gender can mean men and women, and the relationship between them. But it is also about masculinity. From our global perspective, gender always intersects with other categories of analysis such as race

  14. Gender Difference and Gender Disadvantage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Rhode

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores the theoretical foundations of American sex discrimination law. Traditional legal frameworks have analyzed gender issues in terms of gender difference. Yet, inder this approach, sex-based differences have been both overlooked and overvalued. In some instances, such as occupational restrictions and military service, courts have transformed biological distinctions into cultural imperatives. In other cases, such as those involving

  15. Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012.

    PubMed

    Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D

    2012-01-01

    In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134

  16. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038

  17. Binge drinking among Brazilian students: a gradient of association with socioeconomic status in five geo-economics regions

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Aims 1) To describe the characteristics of binge drinking (BD) among high school students in Brazil and 2) the association of BD with students' socioeconomic status (SES) in the five different Brazilian macroregions. Design A national multistage probabilistic sample of high school students. Setting Students were drawn from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Participants 17,297 high school students, aged 14 to 18 years. Measurement Self-report data about BD practices and SES were analyzed via weighted logistic regressions and a funnel plot. Findings Almost 32% of the students engaged in BD in the past-year. Being in the highest SES stratum doubled the risk of BD among students in all five Brazilian macroregions. There was a gradient in the association between past-year BD and socioeconomic status: as SES increased; the chance of having recently engaged in BD also increased. In the Brazilian capitals as a whole, boys versus girls (aOR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.26 to 1.58]), being older (aOR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.55] per each additional year of age) and those attending private schools versus public schools (aOR = 1.39 [95% CI 1.18 to 1.62]), were at greater risk for BD. Conclusions Contrary to what is observed in developed countries, students living in Brazilian capitals may be at an increased risk of BD when they belong to the highest socioeconomic status. Adolescents growing up in other emerging economies might have the same association between high SES and BD. PMID:22771006

  18. Using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data to analyze geographical distribution of socio-economic status; an experience from KEMRI/CDC HDSS.

    PubMed

    Amek, Nyaguara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Obonyo, Benson; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; Laserson, Kayla

    2015-04-01

    Continuous monitoring in health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) allows for collection of longitudinal demographic data, health related, and socio-economic indicators of the site population. We sought to use household survey data collected between 2002 and 2006 in the Kenya Medical Research Institute in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and prevention (KEMRI/CDC) HDSS site in Asembo and Gem Western Kenya to estimate socio-economic status (SES) and assess changes of SES over time and space. Data on household assets and characteristics, mainly source of drinking water, cooking fuel, and occupation of household head was annually collected from 44,313 unique households during the study period. An SES index was calculated as a weighted average of assets using weights generated via Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Polychoric PCA, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) methods applied to the pooled data. The index from the best method was used to rank households into SES quintiles and assess their transition over time across SES categories. Kriging was employed to produce SES maps at the start and the end of the study period. First component of PCA, Polychoric PCA, and MCA accounted for 13.7%, 31.8%, and 47.3%, respectively of the total variance of all variables. The gap between the poorest and the least poor increased from 1% at the start to 6% at the end of the study period. Spatial analysis revealed that the increase in least poor households was centered in the lower part of study area (Asembo) over time. No significant changes were observed in Gem. The HDSS sites can provide a platform to assess spatial-temporal changes in the SES status of the population. Evidence on how SES varied over time and space within the same geographical area may provide a useful tool to design interventions in health and other areas that have a close bearing to the SES of the population. PMID:25602533

  19. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children’s oral health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children’s OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents’ age, and parents’ oral health literacy) on children’s OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project’s Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children’s Perception Questionnaire11-14 were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers’ age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children’s OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed. PMID:24650192

  20. Measuring Gender Well-being with Biological Welfare Indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aravinda Guntupalli; Joerg Baten

    Measuring gender well-being for the period before the 20th century is a difficult task, given that quantitative information is often lacking. We review the literature that uses gender differences of height (as a proxy of net nutritional status, and health). Previous research has focused on the gender inequalities during (a) the Middle Ages and the early modern period that includes

  1. A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The influence of early adult social roles and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Jager, Justin

    2011-09-01

    This study examined black-white differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban US subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether black-white differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that shift, if any, was associated with racial differences in the rate and mental health consequences of early adult social roles (e.g., living arrangements, work/college status, and single-parenthood) and socio-economic status (SES). As expected, growth in depressive affect pivoted around the onset of early adulthood, with the trajectory pivoting upward for Black Americans and downward for White Americans. Due to deficits in SES, the relation between challenging early adult social roles - under/unemployment in particular - and growth in depressive affect was more positive for Black Americans. This differential "vulnerability" appears to underlie racial differences in early adult growth (and by connection contribute to racial differences in growth pivot). The extent to which Black Americans were at a greater risk (relative to White Americans) for an upward pivot increased as the number of challenging roles increased. Black Americans facing only optimal early adult social roles were not at a greater risk, while those facing only challenging social roles were at the greatest risk. PMID:22282639

  2. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula. PMID:23819006

  3. Factorial Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) for Adults of Mexican Descent across Nativity Status, Language Format, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Lucas; Miller, Matthew J.; Moore, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    The cultural equivalence of psychological outcome measures remains a major area of investigation. The current study sought to test the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) with a sample of adult individuals of Mexican descent (N = 923) across nativity status (U.S.- vs. foreign-born), language format…

  4. A Descriptive Study of Perceived Impact of Gender on Employment Status, Type of Work, Industry Relationships, Working Environment & Job Satisfaction in Livestock Industry Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were…

  5. Inequalities in health care among patients with type 2 diabetes by individual socio-economic status (SES) and regional deprivation: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Quality of care could be influenced by individual socio-economic status (SES) and by residential area deprivation. The objective is to synthesize the current evidence regarding inequalities in health care for patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Methods The systematic review focuses on inequalities concerning process (e.g. measurement of HbA1c, i.e. glycolised haemoglobin) and intermediate outcome indicators (e.g. HbA1c level) of Type 2 diabetes care. In total, of n?=?886 publications screened, n?=?21 met the inclusion criteria. Results A wide variety of definitions for ‘good quality diabetes care’, regional deprivation and individual SES was observed. Despite differences in research approaches, there is a trend towards worse health care for patients with low SES, concerning both process of care and intermediate outcome indicators. Patients living in deprived areas less often achieve glycaemic control targets, tend to have higher blood pressure (BP) and worse lipid profile control. Conclusion The available evidence clearly points to the fact that socio-economic inequalities in diabetes care do exist. Low individual SES and residential area deprivation are often associated with worse process indicators and worse intermediate outcomes, resulting in higher risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications. These inequalities exist across different health care systems. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24889694

  6. Race and Gender in the Labor Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Altonji; Rebecca M. Blank

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent research in economics that investigates differentials by race and gender in the labor market. We start with a statistical overview of the trends in labor market outcomes by race, gender and Hispanic origin, including some simple regressions on the determinants of wages and employment. This is followed in Section 3 by an extended review of current

  7. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  8. [Gender in view].

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women. PMID:12349308

  9. Improving equity in malaria treatment: Relationship of socio-economic status with health seeking as well as with perceptions of ease of using the services of different providers for the treatment of malaria in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Obinna Onwujekwe; Benjamin Uzochukwu; Soludo Eze; Eric Obikeze; Chijioke Okoli; Ogbonnia Ochonma

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Equitable improvement of treatment-seeking for malaria will depend partly on how different socio-economic groups perceive the ease of accessing and utilizing malaria treatment services from different healthcare providers. Hence, it was important to investigate the link between socioeconomic status (SES) with differences in perceptions of ease of accessing and receiving treatment as well as with actual health seeking for

  10. Gender: shaping personality, lives and health of women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women’s personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. Methods As part of a six-country study titled ‘Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts’, semi-structured group discussions (n?=?30) were conducted with women (n?=?250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant’s perceptions about Pakistani women’s: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. Results The society studied has constructed a ‘Model’ for women that consider them ‘Objects’ without rights and autonomy. Women’s subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women’s traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. Conclusion There is a strong link between women’s autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization of services. Improvement in women’s health is bound to have positive influences on their children and wider family’s health, education and livelihood; and in turn on a society’s health and economy. PMID:24690271

  11. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hawa S Mbawalla; Joyce R Masalu; Anne N Åstrøm

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender

  12. Media Internalization and Social Comparison as Predictors of Eating Pathology Among Latino Adolescents: The Moderating Effect of Gender and Generational Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cortney S. Warren; Andrea Schoen; Kerri J. Schafer

    2010-01-01

    Using a sociocultural framework, this cross-sectional study examined eating pathology among 235 Latino adolescents from the\\u000a Southwestern U.S. who differed in generational status. Participants completed self-report measures of media pressures, internalization,\\u000a social comparison, and eating pathology. Overall, results revealed stronger relationships between these sociocultural variables\\u000a and eating pathology for girls. Girls reported greater social comparison, thin-ideal pressure and internalization, and

  13. Cross-validation of the very short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS): invariance across genders, age groups, ethnicities and weight statuses.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Maïano, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    In a recent review of various physical self-concept instruments, Marsh and Cheng (in press) noted that the very short 12-item version of the French Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS) represents an important contribution to applied research but that further research was needed to investigate the robustness of its psychometric properties in new and diversified samples. The present study was designed to answer these questions based on a sample of 1103 normally achieving French adolescents. The results show that the PSI-VS measurement model is quite robust and fully invariant across subgroups of students formed according to gender, weight, age and ethnicity. The results also confirm the convergent validity and scale score reliability of the PSI-VS subscales. PMID:21803009

  14. Gender and International Migration: Globalization, Development, and Governance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Benería; Carmen Diana Deere; Naila Kabeer

    2012-01-01

    This contribution examines the connections between gender and international migration around three themes: globalization, national economic development, and governance. First, it discusses the connections between globalization and the multiplicity of processes that have contributed to international migration and its feminization, arguing that gender awareness is crucial to understanding these processes. Gender analysis makes visible the increasing commodification of care work

  15. Gender equity in transitional China's healthcare policy reforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanyan Chen

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the gendered impact of Chinese healthcare reforms, drawing attention to the complex and changing nature of gender inequities in China's current economic and social transformations. Using official and academic sources, it examines the reforms' impact on access to reproductive healthcare, the gendered effects of changes in health sector financing – particularly the collapse of insurance systems and rising costs

  16. Gender, Tax Policies and Tax Reform in Comparative Perspective

    E-print Network

    de Gispert, Adrià

    1 Gender, Tax Policies and Tax Reform in Comparative Perspective Fran Bennett Department of Social;2 Gender, Tax Policies and Tax Reform in Comparative Perspective Paper presented at The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College 17-18 May 2006 Gender Issues in Tax Reform ­ the example of the UK 1. Introduction

  17. Interiorized Homophobia, Identity Dynamics and Gender Typization. Hypothesizing a Third Gender Role in Italian LGB Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmy Ciliberto; Federico Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    With this research, we explored the relation between (a) internalized homophobia, (b) lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) social identity statuses (along with the Marcia model), and (c) gender typization (along with Bem gender schema theory) of an Italian online LGB sample. Results show how the identity process of exploration is a risk factor in relation to internalized homophobia, whereas

  18. Land is a vital asset in South Asian agrarian societies, as it determines the overall socio-economic, political, and cultural status of individuals and

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    : they are in uenced by multiple factors, including class, caste, gender, culture, politics, religion, and history, poverty, marginalisation, social exclusion, discrimination, and inequality are largely linked

  19. Impact of gender and professional education on attitudes towards financial incentives for organ donation: results of a survey among 755 students of medicine and economics in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Methods Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n?=?755). Results The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p?=?0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p?economics (p?=?0.034). Conclusion Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward. PMID:24996438

  20. An Evaluation of Dental Prosthetic Status and Prosthetic Needs Among Eunuchs (Trans Genders) Residing in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh, India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hongal, S; Torwane, NA; Chandrashekhar, BR; Saxena, V; Chavan, KR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eunuchs are considered as the most vulnerable, frustrated, and insecure community. The accessibility to medical and dental facilities for the eunuchs is nearly nonexistent. Due to these reasons, they might be at a high risk of developing severe dental problems like tooth loss. Aim: The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: On the basis of convenient nonprobability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal along with a matched control consisting of cross section of the general population residing in the same locality was examined to evaluate the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of the population. All the obtained data were entered into a personal computer on Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Data comparison was done by applying Chi-square test. Results: A total of 639 subjects comprised of 207 eunuchs, 218 males and 214 females. Among all participants, 2.8% (18/639) were having prosthesis. The overall prosthetic status among males was 3.2% (7/218) followed by 2.9% (6/207) eunuchs and 2.3% (5/214) females. However, need for multi-unit and combination of one and more unit prosthesis for upper and lower jaws was higher in males compared to females and eunuchs, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The findings of this study clearly demonstrate a high unmet need for prosthetic care among the population surveyed. PMID:25506491

  1. Concentrations of polybromobiphenyls and polybromodiphenyl ethers in home dust: relevance to socio-economic status and human exposure rate.

    PubMed

    Kefeni, Kebede K; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Botha, Ben M

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the levels of all major polybromobiphenyls (PBBs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 31 home dust samples collected in Pretoria, South Africa. Low concentrations of PBB and PBDE congeners were detected in 21 and 7 samples, respectively. The ?10PBDEs concentration ranged from <0.3 to 234 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) of dust with a median of 18.3 ng g(-1) dw. No significant differences in the total concentration of PBDEs were observed among three socio-economic categories considered. The overall daily intake of PBDEs via ingestion of dust was estimated for children and adults using median concentrations of ?10PBDEs. Accordingly, for children and adults the exposure rate values are 0.96 and 0.38 ng day(-1), respectively. In addition, the estimated daily dust ingestion exposure rate doses for children and adults with respect to BDE-47 and BDE-99 were by far lower than the reference dose values. It can, therefore, be said that South Africans living in Pretoria are exposed to low concentrations of PBDEs from home environment dust. PMID:24252199

  2. Do consumers' preferences for improved provision of malaria treatment services differ by their socio-economic status and geographic location? A study in southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Improvement of utilization of malaria treatment services will depend on provision of treatment services that different population groups of consumers prefer and would want to use. Treatment of malaria in Nigeria is still problematic and this contributes to worsening burden of the disease in the country. Therefore this study explores the socio-economic and geographic differences in consumers' preferences for improved treatment of malaria in Southeast Nigeria and how the results can be used to improve the deployment of malaria treatment services. Methods This study was undertaken in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria in three rural and three urban areas. A total of 2,250 randomly selected householders were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Preferences were elicited using both a rating scale and ranking of different treatment provision sources by the respondents. A socio-economic status (SES) index was used to examine for SES differences, whilst urban-rural comparison was used to examine for geographic differences, in preferences. Results The most preferred source of provision of malaria treatment services was public hospitals (30.5%), training of mothers (19%) and treatment in Primary healthcare centres (18.1%). Traditional healers (4.8%) and patent medicine dealers (4.2%) were the least preferred strategies for improving malaria treatment. Some of the preferences differed by SES and by a lesser extent, the geographic location of the respondents. Conclusion Preferences for provision of improved malaria treatment services were influenced by SES and by geographic location. There should be re-invigoration of public facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, in addition to improving the financial and geographic accessibility of such facilities. Training of mothers should be encouraged but home management will not work if the quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops where drugs for home management are purchased are not improved. Therefore, there is the need for a holistic improvement of malaria treatment services. PMID:20051103

  3. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  4. Gender Matters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angela L. Juhl

    2003-09-01

    Do females and males choose science for different reasons? The authors surveyed 271 college students in the gender-neutral field of biology to learn when they became interested and what factors determined their origin and maintenance of interest in biolog

  5. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  6. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  7. Atypical auditory refractory periods in children from lower socio-economic status backgrounds: ERP evidence for a role of selective attention.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Courtney; Paulsen, David; Yasen, Alia; Neville, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies indicate that lower socio-economic status (SES) is associated with reduced effects of selective attention on auditory processing. Here, we investigated whether lower SES is also associated with differences in a stimulus-driven aspect of auditory processing: the neural refractory period, or reduced amplitude response at faster rates of stimulus presentation. Thirty-two children aged 3 to 8years participated, and were divided into two SES groups based on maternal education. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to probe stimuli presented at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 200, 500, or 1000ms. These probes were superimposed on story narratives when attended and ignored, permitting a simultaneous experimental manipulation of selective attention. Results indicated that group differences in refractory periods differed as a function of attention condition. Children from higher SES backgrounds showed full neural recovery by 500ms for attended stimuli, but required at least 1000ms for unattended stimuli. In contrast, children from lower SES backgrounds showed similar refractory effects to attended and unattended stimuli, with full neural recovery by 500ms. Thus, in higher SES children only, one functional consequence of selective attention is attenuation of the response to unattended stimuli, particularly at rapid ISIs, altering basic properties of the auditory refractory period. Together, these data indicate that differences in selective attention impact basic aspects of auditory processing in children from lower SES backgrounds. PMID:25003553

  8. Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder are associated with lower socio-economic status: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Aim Only a few studies have examined the relationship between Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder and socio-economic status (SES). Existing studies are primarily cross-sectional, arise from specialty clinics, and use single measures of SES. In this study we examine this relationship in a longitudinal, population-based sample. Method Data are from 7152 children born during 1991 and 1992 in the county of Avon, UK, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, who were followed up to age 13. After exclusions for intellectual disability* and autism, 6768 participants (3351 males [49.5%]) and 3417 females [50.5%]) remained. Parental SES was assessed using multiple measures during pregnancy and at 33?months of age. Presence of Tourette syndrome or chronic tics was determined from repeated maternal questionnaires up to when the child was 13?years of age. Results Multiple SES measures were associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of Tourette syndrome and chronic tics. A postnatal composite factor score (lowest vs highest tertile odds ratio 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.38–3.47) provided the best fit to the data. Interpretations As is seen in several childhood conditions, such as cerebral palsy and autism, lower SES is a risk factor for Tourette syndrome/chronic tics. Potential explanations include differential exposure to environmental risk factors or parental psychopathology as a measure of an increased genetic risk leading to decreased parental SES. PMID:24138188

  9. Nature or nurture: a systematic review of the effect of socio-economic status on the developmental and cognitive outcomes of children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hilary S; Edwards, Phil

    2013-11-01

    The effect of socio-economic status (SES) on the cognitive outcome of preterm-born children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to systematically review the published literature and to report the strength and consistency of the effect of SES on the cognitive outcomes of preterm children, across different SES indicators. We conducted a literature search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index to identify English-language cohort or case-control studies published after 1990 that had reported the effect of at least one SES indicator on cognitive outcome in children born <37 weeks gestation. Fifteen studies (from a total 4,162 identified) were included. Thirteen SES indicators were evaluated [categorized as: "individual-level" (6 indicators), "family-structure" (3), "contextual" (2) and "composite" (2)]. Maternal educational level was the most frequently evaluated SES indicator (by 11/15 studies) and was most consistently associated with cognitive outcome. Maternal education below high school level was associated with severe cognitive deficiency [reported odds ratios (95 % CI) range: OR = 1.4 (1.0-1.9) to OR = 2.3 (1.2-4.5)]. A meta-analytic measure of the effect of SES was not calculated due to heterogeneity in studies. SES appears to confound the association between preterm birth and cognitive deficit and should be adjusted for in studies reporting cognitive outcome. PMID:23135625

  10. Gender economies: literacy and the gendered production of neo?liberal subjectivities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronwyn Davies; Sue Saltmarsh

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the links between subjectivities as they are constructed through the intersecting discourses of gender and literacy, and we situate this analysis in the context of the current neo?liberal social and economic order. We begin with a discussion of the background to the gender and literacy debates. We then describe what neo?liberalism is and its implications

  11. Food Security Status of Older Adult Home-Delivered Meals Program Participants and Components of Its Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Duerr

    2007-01-01

    Food security status was assessed for 143 West Central Indiana community-dwelling older adults participating in a home-delivered meals program, using the national CPS-FSSM survey, based on economics, and augmented items, including such factors as ability to prepare and\\/or shop for food. Results showed that 74.8% were food secure, much lower than the national rate for households with elderly (94.0%). Gender

  12. Gender Studien 1. Studieneinheit Gender Studien

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Gender Studien 1. Studieneinheit Gender Studien 2. Fachgebiet / Verantwortlich Medizin / Prof. Dr, M.A.) 3. Inhalte / Lehrziele �berblick über Theorie und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der Gender verpflichtend. Magisterstudiengang: Pflicht im Grundstudium ist das Basismodul Gender Studies. Bis zum Ende des

  13. “Do Changes in Spousal Employment Status Lead to Domestic Violence? Insights from a Prospective Study in Bangalore, India”

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence – violence against women perpetrated by husbands – is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrolment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women. PMID:19828220

  14. An analysis of socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountain Villages in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey, with consideration of gender roles.

    PubMed

    Davran, Müge K; Ocak, Sezen; Secer, Arzu

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims to reveal socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountains' villages in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey: with consideration of gender roles. Goat production sector is the most important livelihood activity in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. According to various new regulations of the Ministry of Forestry, goat production in the mountainous villages of Taurus Mountains has been banned for recent year for various reasons such as; the destruction of shoots and branches in trees, forest degradation and erosion. Therefore, goat production is decreasing dramatically in that region. Data were collected in 4 districts of 8 villages in which goat production has been done intensively (two villages in each district) by face to face interview with 52 women and 58 men. Data were analyzed in Statistical Program of Social Science (SPSS). According to our findings, goat production has different affects on the lives of men and women and the sustainability of the sector is dependent on social factors, primarily education. PMID:19107568

  15. Health and the 2008 Economic Recession: Evidence from the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The economic recession which began in 2008 has resulted in a substantial increase in unemployment across many countries, including the United Kingdom. Strong association between unemployment and poor health status among individuals is widely recognised. We investigated whether the prevalence of poor health at a population level increased concurrent to the rise in unemployment during the economic recession, and whether the impact on health varied by geographical and socioeconomic circumstances. Method Health, demographic and socioeconomic measures on 1.36 million survey responses aged 16–64 were extracted from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey of the United Kingdom, collected every three months, from January 2006 to December 2010. The likelihood of self-reporting poor health status and specific types of health problems (depression, mental illness, cardiovascular and respiratory) across time were estimated separately using logistic regression. Explanatory variables included economic status (International Labour Organization definition), occupational class, age, gender, country of birth, ethnicity, educational qualifications, couple status, household tenure, number of dependents, and geographical region. Results Unemployment (age-gender adjusted) rose from 4.5% in January 2008 to 7.1% by September 2009. The reporting of poor health status increased from 25.7% in July 2009 to 29.5% by December 2010. Similar increases were found for cardiovascular and respiratory health problems; not depression or mental illness. The prevalence of poor health status among the unemployed decreased from 28.8% in July 2008, to 24.9% by March 2009; but this was followed by an increase in poor health experienced across all regions and by all socioeconomic groups, including those who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class. Interpretation Although our study found no exacerbation of pre-recession health inequalities, the rise in poor health status not only for the unemployed, but also among people who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class, justifies concern voiced among many public health commentators. PMID:23437208

  16. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  17. Childhood socio-economic status and the onset, persistence, and severity of DSM-IV mental disorders in a US national sample

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Breslau, Joshua; Green, Jennifer Greif; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Although significant associations between childhood socio-economic status (SES) and adult mental disorders have been widely documented, SES has been defined using several different indicators often considered alone. Little research has examined the relative importance of these different indicators in accounting for the overall associations of childhood SES with adult outcomes. Nor has previous research distinguished associations of childhood SES with first onsets of mental disorders in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood from those with persistence of these disorders into adulthood in accounting for the overall associations between childhood SES and adult mental disorders. Disaggregated data of this sort are presented here for the associations of childhood SES with a wide range of adult DSM-IV mental disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative sample of 5,692 adults. Childhood SES was assessed retrospectively with information about parental education and occupation and childhood family financial adversity. Associations of these indicators with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disorders that included anxiety, mood, behavioral, and substance disorders at different life course stages (childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and mid-later adulthood) and the persistence/severity of these disorders were examined using discrete-time survival analysis. Lifetime disorders and their ages-of-onset were assessed retrospectively with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Different aspects of childhood SES predicted onset, persistence, and severity of mental disorders. Childhood financial hardship predicted onset of all classes of disorders at every life-course stage with odds-ratios (ORs) of 1.7–2.3. Childhood financial hardship was unrelated, in comparison, to disorder persistence or severity. Low parental education, although unrelated to disorder onset, significantly predicted disorder persistence and severity, whereas parental occupation was unrelated to onset, persistence, or severity. Some, but not all, of these associations were explained by other co-occurring childhood adversities. These specifications have important implications for mental health interventions targeting low-SES children. PMID:21820781

  18. Gender Differences in Pay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2000-01-01

    We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere,

  19. Age and Gender Effects on Auto Liability Insurance Payouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen I. Doerpinghaus; Joan T. Schmit; Jason Jia-Hsing Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We examine the relationship between claimant demographic characteristics (specifically, gender, age, and marital status) and the relative size of automobile third-party settlements. We present three possible theories to explain differences in payouts associated with gender and age: variations in risk attitudes, variations in negotiating costs, and discrimination. Results of empirical testing are consistent with differences in settlement amounts, particularly

  20. Gender Stereotypes of Occupations: Does Women's Work Have Prestige Yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girondi, Annette M.; And Others

    While gender stereotyping of occupations has been investigated, the relationship between such stereotypes and job status has received less attention. Two studies were conducted in which assessments of occupational gender stereotyping were compared with assessments of occupational prestige made by the same subjects. In study one, subjects were 20…

  1. Gender, language and the workplace: an exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona Sheridan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The study aims to examine the role that gendered talk plays in the workplace in both task and non-task related interactions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research undertaken is a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative research using a single case study. The case study, comprising mixed gender and mixed status employees of an American multinational corporation, demonstrates similarities and differences

  2. The Collaborative for Gender Equity: The Economy and Employment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from the Collaborative for Gender Equity includes a number of links to articles on the economy, employment and gender equity in the STEM disciplines. Articles cover topics including the pay gap, barriers for women's success in science and engineering and the status of the United States' technical workforce. Dates of publication are included.

  3. Gender Differences in Poor Outcome Patients With Lifelong Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Moriarty; Dana Lieber; Ashley Bennett; Leonard White; Michael Parrella; Philip D. Harvey; Kenneth L. Davis

    2001-01-01

    Gender effects have been reported quite consistently in schizophrenia, with male patients having an earlier age of onset, poorer functional outcome, greater negative symptoms and cognitive impairment, and less severe positive symptoms. Because age of onset, cognitive impairments, and negative symptoms are all correlated with poorer functional status, it is not clear if previously reported gender differences in symptoms are

  4. Longitudinal Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Brazilian Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients (BRAZPD): Socio-economic Status Not a Barrier

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi; Fernandes, Natália; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Silva Fernandes, Neimar; Bastos, Kleyton; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ? Background and Objectives: A large proportion of the patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Brazil have low levels of education and family income. The present study assessed whether education level and family income are associated with baseline and longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores during the first year of PD therapy. ? Methods: We evaluated 1624 incident patients from the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Study (BRAZPD) at baseline, and 486 of them after 12 months. The SF-36 was used to determine HRQOL and the Karnofsky index (KI), physical performance. ? Results: At baseline, patients received high KI scores compared with scores on the SF-36. The means of the mental and physical components at baseline and after 12 months were 39.9 ± 10.5 compared with 38.7 ± 11.7 and 41.8 ± 9.6 compared with 40.7 ± 9.8 respectively, which were not statistically different. A multivariate regression analysis showed that age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were predictors of the mental component (respectively, ? = 0.12, p < 0.001; ? = 0.11, p < 0.001; ? = -0.08, ? = 0.007; and ? = -0.07, p = 0.007) and that age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hemoglobin, glucose, and creatinine were predictors of the physical component (respectively, ? = -0.28, p < 0.001; ? = 0.06, p = 0.009; ? = -0.09, p = 0.002; ? = -0.09, p = 0.001; ? = 0.07, p = 0.004; ? = -0.05, p = 0.040; and ? = 0.05, p = 0.040). Education level and family income were not significantly associated with HRQOL (mental and physical components) in the multivariate regression. ? Conclusions: The results indicate that, as predictors, family income and education level have no impact on HRQOL, supporting the idea that socio-economic status should not be a barrier to the selection of PD as a treatment modality in Brazil. PMID:24335126

  5. Inequitable walking conditions among older people: examining the interrelationship of neighbourhood socio-economic status and urban form using a comparative case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older people who walk in their neighbourhoods; b) to examine differences among neighbourhood stakeholder key informant perspectives on socio-political processes that shape the walkability of neighbourhood environments. Methods An embedded comparative case study examined differences among four Ottawa neighbourhoods that were purposefully selected to provide contrasts on urban form (inner-urban versus suburban) and SES (higher versus lower). Qualitative data collected from 75 older walkers and 19 neighbourhood key informants, as well as quantitative indicators were compared on the two axes of urban form and SES among the four neighbourhoods. Results and discussion Examining the inter-relationship of neighbourhood SES and urban form characteristics on older people's walking experiences indicated that urban form differences were accentuated positively in higher SES neighbourhoods and negatively in lower SES neighbourhoods. Older people in lower SES neighbourhoods were more affected by traffic hazards and more reliant on public transit compared to their higher SES counterparts. In higher SES neighbourhoods the disadvantages of traffic in the inner-urban neighbourhood and lack of commercial destinations in the suburban neighbourhood were partially offset by other factors including neighbourhood aesthetics. Key informant descriptions of the socio-political process highlighted how lower SES neighbourhoods may face greater challenges in creating walkable places. These differences pertained to the size of neighbourhood associations, relationships with political representatives, accessing information and salient neighbourhood association issues. Findings provide evidence of inequitable walking environments. Conclusion Future research on walking must consider urban form-SES inter-relationships and further examine the equitable distribution of walking conditions as well as the socio-political processes driving these conditions. There is a need for municipal governments to monitor differences in walking conditions among higher and lower SES neighbourhoods, to be receptive to the needs of lower SES neighbourhood and to ensure that policy decisions are taken to address inequitable walking conditions. PMID:21054879

  6. [Depression--gender differences].

    PubMed

    Garde, Karin

    2007-06-18

    Unipolar depression is twice as frequent among women in fertile years compared to men. Current biological theories are that stages of life with declining levels of oestrogen could be a trigger of depression. Psychological theories are low self-esteem, sensitivity to lack of social support, comorbidity with anxiety, aggression turned inwards in women, outwards in men, whose comorbidity is alcohol abuse. Social theories are the preponderance of women in poverty and economic dependence. Symptoms and outcome are equal for men and women. Suicide is a greater risk for men, and increases with age; suicide attempts are a greater risk for women, and decline with age. During life span the rates of depression and anxiety and gender differences decline. PMID:17594834

  7. Interiorized homophobia, identity dynamics and gender typization. Hypothesizing a third gender role in Italian LGB individuals.

    PubMed

    Ciliberto, Jimmy; Ferrari, Federico

    2009-01-01

    With this research, we explored the relation between (a) internalized homophobia, (b) lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) social identity statuses (along with the Marcia model), and (c) gender typization (along with Bem gender schema theory) of an Italian online LGB sample. Results show how the identity process of exploration is a risk factor in relation to internalized homophobia, whereas commitment is a protective factor. Against the authors' expectations, data indicate that androgynous, non-heterosexual individuals are mostly in a foreclosure identity status, while the typed ones are in an acquisition status and more protected against homophobia. This suggests that the androgynous social representation of homosexuality for non-heterosexual individuals is an alternative gender role more socially available to them. PMID:19591035

  8. 3 CFR - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and Coordination to Promote Gender Equality and Advance the Status...U.S. global leadership on gender equality requires dedicated...by the critical and historic role played by the Office of Global...coordination of efforts to promote gender equality and advance the...

  9. The Gendered Nature of Disasters: Women Survivors in Post-Tsunami Tamil Nadu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Juran

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of disasters rarely reveal themselves equally across an affected population. Rather, the extent of impact is determined by social constructs, such as religion, caste, socioeconomic status and most notably, gender, which cuts across all of these spheres. This article focuses on the variable of gender and the role it played in post-tsunami Tamil Nadu, India. In particular, gender

  10. Blaming the Target of Sexual Harassment: Impact of Gender Role, Sexist Attitudes, and Work Role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret De Judicibus; Marita P. McCabe

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine factors associated with blaming the target of sexual harassment. Participants' experiences of sexual harassment, sexist attitudes, gender, gender role identity, age, worker or student status, and belief in a just world were included as independent variables. Level of blame was evaluated using a series of 12 vignettes that manipulated the gender of the target

  11. The Feminization of Poverty in the United StatesGender, Race, Ethnicity, and Family Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARJORIE E. STARRELS; SALLY BOULD; LEON J. NICHOLAS

    1994-01-01

    This article delineates the contribution of gender, race, ethnicity, marital, and parental status to the feminization of poverty. Its analysis of recent published and unpublished census data suggests that gender, race, and ethnicity strongly affect poverty rates. However, parenthood interacts with gender in such a way as to affect only women and to affect White women more than Blacks and

  12. Women's and Gender Studies

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    and the world around us. The Pauline Jewett Institute of Women's and Gender Studies offers a stimulating; the history of women; and gender and the family. In addition, Carleton University and the UniversityWomen's and Gender Studies #12;Women's and Gender Studies at Carleton University provides you

  13. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender

  14. Gender Inequalities in Education

    E-print Network

    achievement, grades, test scores, college, educational attainment, gender roles Abstract The terrain of genderGender Inequalities in Education Claudia Buchmann,1 Thomas A. DiPrete,2 and Anne McDaniel1 1 and theo- retical perspectives on gender inequalities in educational performance and attainment from early

  15. The Gender Pay Gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine D. Blau

    1996-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array

  16. [Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. PMID:24864001

  17. Gendered interactions in corporate annual report photographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merridee L. Bujaki; Bruce J. McConomy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the gendered nature of interactions in mixed sex Canadian corporate annual report (CAR) photographs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Quantitative content analysis of 106 CAR photographs is performed to evaluate, at the level of the photograph, how women and men interact in mixed sex photographs to reveal their relative prominence, power and status.

  18. Branding and Bricolage. Gender, Consumption and Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Rachel; Tyler, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The analysis presented here focuses on the relationship between femininity, transition and consumer culture. It explores the relationship between gender and consumer culture in the context of a discussion of the transition from childhood to teenage status for a group of young girls, and seeks to make a critical contribution to contemporary debates…

  19. Gender, Hierarchy, and Leadership: An Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda L. Carli; Alice H. Eagly

    2001-01-01

    Although women's status has improved remarkably in the 20th century in many societies, women continue to lack access to power and leadership compared with men. This issue reviews research and theory concerning women's leadership. The articles included in the issue provide evidence of bias in the evaluation of women, discuss effects of gender stereotypes on women's influence and leadership behav-

  20. Gender and the Development of Welfare Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    This paper builds on the idea that any further development of the concept of 'welfare regime' must incorporate the relationship between unpaid as well as paid work and welfare. Consideration of the privateldomestic is crucial to a gendered understanding of welfare because historically women have typically gained entitlements by virtue of their dependent status within the family as wives and

  1. Indicators of gender equality for American states and regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Sugarman; Murray A. Straus

    1988-01-01

    The indicators described in this paper are measures of status equality (as compared to measures of status attainment). Status equality was operationalized by expressing the status attainment scores for women as a percentage of the scores for men. Indicators of equality in the economic, political, and legal spheres of life were computed for each of the 50 U.S. states. The

  2. Policy on Gender Neutral Housing Policy on Gender-Neutral

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Gender Neutral Housing 10/01/2013 Policy on Gender-Neutral Housing I. Purpose and Scope Gender-neutral housing gives students the option to reside with another student, regardless of sex, gender, gender identity or gender expression. II. Definitions Gender-neutral housing is defined

  3. The Effectiveness of Single-Gender Eighth-Grade English, History, Mathematics and Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Douglas Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of eighth-grade single-gender classes with coed classes across subject area, gender, at-risk status, and socioeconomic status (SES). The sample was drawn from one school, DeSoto West Junior High School, where enrollment averages 80% African American,…

  4. Challenging Gender Stereotypes: Resistance and Exclusion.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2014-11-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls. PMID:25382748

  5. Gender Differences in Wage Rates, Work Histories, and Occupational Segregation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. M. Main

    1991-01-01

    Using data from the Social Change and Economic Life Initiative, an attempt is made to gauge the extent of gender differences in wages that are due to discrimination. Allowance is made for gender differences in occupational attainment. It is estimated that discrimination in the range of 11 to 24 per cent of female wages can be found.

  6. Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Vlassoff

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-com- municable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illus- trates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to

  7. Chapter 48 Race and gender in the labor market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Altonji; Rebecca M. Blank

    1999-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent research in economics that investigates differentials by race and gender in the labor market. We start with a statistical overview of the trends in labor market outcomes by race, gender and Hispanic origin, including some simple regressions on the determinants of wages and employment. This is followed in Section 3 by an extended review of current

  8. Foreign Trade and the Gender Earnings Differential in Urban Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gautam Hazarika; Rafael Otero

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of foreign trade induced product market competition, upon workplace gender discrimination in urban Mexico as measured by the gender earnings differential. More than 3 decades ago, Becker (1957) argued that labor market discrimination was economically inefficient in that discriminating firms must forego a quantity of profit. Thus, firms with more market power, i.e., firms facing

  9. Foreign Trade and the Gender Earnings Differential in Urban Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gautam Hazarika; Rafael Otero

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of foreign trade induced product market competition, upon workplace gender discrimination in urban Mexico as measured by the gender earnings differential. More than four decades ago, Becker argued that labour market discrimination was economically inefficient in that discriminating firms must forego a quantity of profit. Thus, firms with more market power, i.e., firms facing less

  10. Ego Identity Status and Self-Monitoring Behavior in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumru, Asiye; Thompson, Ross A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between identity status and self-monitoring behavior, including age and gender differences, among adolescents in Turkey. Found significant increases in identity achievement and moratorium with age, and no gender differences in identity status. Males were significantly higher than females in self-monitoring. (Author/SD)

  11. Gender and migration on the labour market: Additive or interacting disadvantages in Germany?

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Höhne, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Despite substantial differences in labour market attainment according to gender and migration status, gender and ethnic differences in labour market behaviour are most often studied separately. In contrast, this study describes and analyses interactions between gender, ethnic background and immigrant generation with regard to labour market participation, part-time work, and occupational status. The double comparison aims to reveal whether gender gaps in these labour market outcomes among the majority population generalise to ethnic minorities. Moreover, we ask whether variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour follows the patterns in migrants' origin countries, and whether gender gaps show signs of intergenerational assimilation. Our heterogeneous choice and OLS regressions of 2009 German Microcensus data reveal considerable variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour between East and West Germany, across ethnic groups and across generations. Intergenerational comparisons show that most ethnic minorities assimilate towards German patterns of gendered labour market attainment. PMID:23859734

  12. Gender Schematicity, Gender Identity Salience, and Gender-Linked Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2004-01-01

    Using self-categorization theory, the effects of sex, chronic gender accessibility (i.e., gender schematicity), and gender identity salience on gender-linked language use in e-mail are examined. Results confirmed interactive effects only. Gender schematic men and women whose gender was salient used typical gender-linked language (e.g., men used…

  13. Situational Influences on Gender Differences in Agency and Communion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Moskowitz; Eun Jung Suh; Julie Desaulniers

    1994-01-01

    Gender differences were examined in the context of situational effects. Participants monitored interpersonal behavior for 20 days, using an event-sampling strategy. The monitored behaviors reflected dominance and submissiveness (components of agency) and agreeableness and quarrelsomeness (components of communion). The situations reflected differences in the status of work roles: interactions with boss, co-worker, and supervisee. Status influenced agency. Individuals were most

  14. Gender and Identity: The Intersection of Structure, Content, and Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Kroger

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to review empirical studies published between 1966-1995 utilizing J. E. Marcia's [(1966) “Development and Validation of Ego Identity Status,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 3, pp. 551–558] identity status paradigm for the purpose of observing any patterns of gender difference on issues related to identity structure, content, and context;

  15. WORKING PAPER N 2012 13 Do professors really perpetuate the gender gap in science?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Understanding the origin of these discrepancies is important from an economic perspective: gender differences in entry into science careers accounts for a significant part of the gender pay differential among college made in the literature. We first know that gender differences in math and science test scores are very

  16. Gender Relations in Native North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillain, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Examines sex roles among five Native American groups: the Montagnais-Naskapis of eastern Labrador, Navajos, Eskimos, Iroquois, and Plains Indians. Discusses the economic and social influences on gender roles in these cultures, and the effects of postcolonial historical forces. Contains 49 references. (SV)

  17. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  18. Gendered Citizenship: Women, Equality, and Abortion Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Nossiff

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s significant progress has been made in the area of women's rights, yet women lag behind men economically, politically, and socially. One reason for this persistent inequality between the sexes is that traditional gender attitudes regarding women's roles as wives and mothers compete with a definition of equality based on rights. Nowhere is this more evident than in

  19. The Gender Based Development of Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Lufer

    1994-01-01

    This thesis explores the direct and causal link between the exploitation of women as a source of unpaid or cheap labour, and the rapid economic growth of the economies we consider newly industrialized. Thailand has been chosen as the case study because it serves to exemplify the kinds of effects gender based development has upon women. The hypothesis that was

  20. Motives for khat use and abstinence in Yemen - a gender perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Khat consumption is widespread in Yemeni society and causes problems both in economic development and public health. Preventive measures have been largely unsuccessful and the cultivation continues to proliferate. The gender-specific motives for khat use and abstinence were studied to create a toe-hold for more specific interventions. Methods In a quota sample with equal numbers of males, females, abstainers and consumers, 320 subjects were interviewed on their specific opinions about khat and its impact on subjective and public health, and on social and community functioning. Strata were compared in their acceptance and denial of opinions. Notions that could predict abstinence status or gender were identified with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Male khat users had a strong identification with khat use, while females were more ambivalent. The notion that khat consumption is a bad habit (odds ratio (OR) 3.4; p < 0.001) and consumers are malnuorished (OR 2.2; p = 0.046) were associated with female gender among khat users. Among the females worries about health impact (OR 3.2; p = 0.040) and loss of esteem in the family (OR 3.1; p = 0.048) when using khat predicted abstinence. Male abstainers opposed khat users in the belief that khat is the cause of social problems (OR 5.1, p < 0.001). Logistic regression reached an accuracy of 75 and 73% for the prediction of abstinence and 71% for gender among consumers. (All models p < 0.001.) Conclusions Distinct beliefs allow a differentiation between males, females, khat users and abstainers when targeting preventive measures. In accordance to their specific values female khat users are most ambivalent towards their habit. Positive opinions scored lower than expected in the consumers. This finding creates a strong toe-hold for gender-specific public health interventions. PMID:21110889

  1. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. PMID:24628877

  2. Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces)

    PubMed Central

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494

  3. Gender differences in outcomes in people with schizophrenia in rural China: 14-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Mao, Wen-Jun; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Conwell, Yeates

    2015-04-01

    Background Little is known about gender differences in the long-term outcomes of people with schizophrenia living in the community. Aims To explore gender differences in the 14-year outcome of people with schizophrenia in rural China. Method A 14-year follow-up study among a 1994 cohort (n = 510) of participants with schizophrenia was conducted in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. All participants and their informants were followed up in 2004 and 2008 using the Patients Follow-up Schedule. Results Compared with female participants, male participants were significantly younger, had significantly higher rates of mortality, suicide and homelessness, and poorer family and social support. There was no significant gender difference in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores, previous suicide attempts, those never treated, previous hospital admission or inability to work. Longer duration of illness was associated with functional decline and comparatively poorer family economic status. Conclusions The long-term outcomes of men with schizophrenia is worse than those of women with the disorder in rural China. Higher mortality, suicide and homelessness rates in men may contribute partly to the higher prevalence of schizophrenia in women in China. Policies on social and family support and gender-specific intervention strategies for improving long-term outcomes should be developed for people with this disorder. PMID:25573398

  4. Low economic status is associated with suboptimal intakes of nutritious foods by adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study uses data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and compares the social characteristics such as education, marital status and housing and food and nutrient intakes of adults from low-, medium-, and high- income households. There were 2,675 adults, ages 60 yea...

  5. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status, Entry Style and Instructional Variables on the Learning of Mathematics in a Neo-Literate Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaeley, Gurcharn S.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated was the influence of socioeconomic status, entry style, and instructional variables on postsecondary mathematics performance of students in New Guinea. The pattern of results indicated that the performance of students could be more meaningfully grouped based on entry style rather than on mode of instruction. (Author/CW)

  6. Cohort Size, Sex and Socio-Economic Status as Predictors of Success in Year 12 Physics in Perth, 1987-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geelan, David; Louden, William; Wildy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    A variety of factors are associated with students' achievement in secondary school physics, including cohort size--the total number of students studying Physics in the school--and socioeconomic status. Earlier studies also showed boys achieving better in Physics, while more recent research has shown better results for girls. Statistical…

  7. Gender Identity Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Bussey

    \\u000a Gender features strongly in most societies and is a significant aspect of self-definition for most people. Following a brief\\u000a description of views on gender identity from the perspectives of humanistic social science, sociology, and psychology, this\\u000a chapter provides an analysis of gender identity development from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Social cognitive\\u000a theory describes how gender conceptions are developed

  8. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

  9. "Not to intrude": a Danish perspective on gender and class in nineteenth-century dairying.

    PubMed

    Fink, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study follows the thread of gender divisions in dairying in Denmark and the American Midwest in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Gender organization of dairying shifted at this time in diverse European and North American contexts. As agriculture mechanized and production scale increased, access to advanced education and international markets became critical. Women, who had been in the forefront of the development of dairying, ceded their leadership to men as these changes occurred. While some scholars see this shift as a strategic loss for women, this study finds that variables of class, marital status, rural demographics, and alternative occupations mediated the rural women's experience of change. Not all women experienced the change as a loss. The question of which women were invested in dairying is critical to understanding the course of change. Increasingly, middle-class farm women were turning away from the hard work of dairying and investing themselves in new ways in the upward mobility of their family farms. Rural life shaped distinct gender patterns in European and American history, and the rural experience shaped the larger trajectory of women's economic and political evolution, even though few rural women were involved in the organized women's movement. PMID:19860023

  10. The Embryology of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  11. Gender Inequality in Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Lombardo

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how the issue of ‘gender inequality in politics’ is framed in Spain and in the European Union (EU), asking to what extent policy discourses on the issue address gender bias in political institutions. Drawing on research carried out within the European project MAGEEQ, it discusses how the problem and solution to gender inequality in politics are framed

  12. The Morpheme Gender Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Fanny; Seigneuric, Alix; Spinelli, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments we explored the mental representation of morphologically complex words in French. Subjects were asked to perform a gender decision task on morphologically complex words that were of the same gender as their base or not. We found that gender decisions were made more slowly for morphologically complex words made from a base with…

  13. Beyond Gender Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary…

  14. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Shibley Hyde

    2005-01-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary

  15. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  16. Gender and the endothelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karolina Kublickiene; Leanid Luksha

    The understanding of the basis of gender differences in vascular function is of critical importance to establish gender targeted interventions in cardiovascular medicine. In this review we concentrate on the central role of the endothelium in respect to gender differences in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. The role of estrogen and its receptors is introduced not only as key players in

  17. Gender, Justice, Globalisation

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Gender, Justice, Globalisation Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS) Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Sciences and by the Interdisciplinary Center for Gender Studies of the University of Bern. It is supported, Interdisciplinary Centre for Gender Studies, University of Bern ­ Prof. Dr. Thomas Späth, Faculty of Humanities

  18. Gender Equality An Overview

    E-print Network

    .gsc.uic.edu May 29, 2013 In response of the University of Illinois Board of Trustees voting 6-2 in favor of gender, for the first time, cover gender-affirming surgeries. The board's decision reflects its willingness to listen his graduation, other students continued to work the initiative through the UIC system. Having gender

  19. Gender, Justice, Globalisation

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Gender, Justice, Globalisation Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS) 2013/2014 Universität Bern. In the Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS) Gender, Justice, Globalisation, a team of international experts these changes from a gender perspective and to integrate their findings into their own professional fields

  20. GENDER SCHEMA AND READING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan X Day

    1994-01-01

    The author's quirky reading of Winnie the Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner is investigated in terms of reader response and gender schema theory. The connections between these two theories are exemplified. Researchers attest to the pervasiveness of the gender schema, and the effects of gender schema on memory are presented in summaries of empirical studies with subjects from

  1. Gender relations and applied research on aging.

    PubMed

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-12-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life. PMID:20956798

  2. Impact of National Board Certification, Advanced Degree, and Socio-Economic Status on the Literacy Achievement Rate of 11th Grade Students in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Merlina Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The researcher explored whether there was a significant difference between the literacy achievement rates among eleventh grade students taught by National Board Certified Teachers versus students taught by non-National Board Certified Teachers with or without advanced degrees and of varied socio-economic levels. The researcher also explored the…

  3. Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism: Digging Deeper for the Contributions of Language Dominance, Linguistic Knowledge, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Thomas, Enlli Mon; Jones, Leah; Guasch, Nestor Vinas; Young, Nia; Hughes, Emma K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for executive function tasks in children of varying levels of language dominance, and examines the contributions of general cognitive knowledge, linguistic abilities, language use and socio-economic level to performance. Welsh-English bilingual and English monolingual…

  4. The Social and Economic Status of the Black Population in the United States 1974. Current Population Reports, Special Studies, Series P-23, No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Nampeo D.R.; And Others

    This population report presents current census and other governmental and private agency statistics on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the black population in the United States for 1974. Recent trends dating from 1970 to 1974 (and in the case of income and labor force, including early 1975 figures) are examined for…

  5. A Randomized Study of a Literacy-Integrated Science Intervention for Low-Socio-Economic Status Middle School Students: Findings from First-Year Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Guerrero, Cindy; Fan, Yinan; Huerta, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a randomized control trial study of reading/literacy-integrated science inquiry intervention after 1 year of implementation and the treatment effect on 5th-grade low-socio-economic African-American and Hispanic students' achievement in science and English reading. A total of 94 treatment students and 194…

  6. Assessment of the Status of Implementation of Response to Intervention in High, Average, and Low Economic Resource-Need Long Island School Districts: Feedback from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siciliano, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare Long Island special education directors' early assessments of the implementation of Response to intervention (RTI) in high, average, and low economic resource-need Long Island school districts in an attempt to provide the field feedback to better guide and operationalize the Individuals with…

  7. The employment of highly qualified in an international context, in small, medium sized and large companies: status quo and its implications for the economics of human resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Moog

    1. Current situation and basic idea Constant growth in economic internationalisation prompts major corporations and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) alike to recruit adequate ranks of qualified employees. Moreover, companies have to retain these employees - in the bids to survive in the marketplace and in the face of competition. In this context, companies vie for with one another for

  8. Gender bias in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Katarina

    2008-05-01

    Gender bias has implications in the treatment of both male and female patients and it is important to take into consideration in most fields of medical research, clinical practice and education. Gender blindness and stereotyped preconceptions about men and women are identified as key causes to gender bias. However, exaggeration of observed sex and gender differences can also lead to bias. This article will examine the phenomenon of gender bias in medicine, present useful concepts and models for the understanding of bias, and outline areas of interest for further research. PMID:19072473

  9. Gender determination in populus

    SciTech Connect

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  10. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  11. Gender, training and capacity building.

    PubMed

    Tinker, I

    1997-01-01

    Research into ways to plan and implement development projects that acknowledge and respond to their differential impact on men and women has increased, but promising approaches to enhancing women's quality of life have been obscured 1) the increasing gap between scholars and practitioners and 2) a view of women that excludes considerations of family and community. While scholars emphasize the differences in gender roles, practitioners seek similarities and parallels. The situation is also complicated by the rapidity of economic change and its differential impact on women. The women's studies scholars hired as consultants by development agencies are hampered by ethnocentric biases because most of their work pertains to the US, and there are only a few courses available in the US on the topic of "Women in Development." The Ford Foundation is trying to mitigate this situation by funding a project to integrate a consideration of Women in Development and gender into international studies curricula. A resulting reexamination of the theoretical constructs involved has led to recognition of the problems connected with incorrect use of the term "gender." This incorrect use arises from translation difficulties and from a failure to include issues involving males and females. Scholarship that focuses on individual women and ignores the role of women in families and communities is rooted in the extreme individualization of Western culture and is inappropriate for analysis of relationships in developing countries. PMID:12294031

  12. Development and Gender Equality: Consequences, Causes, Challenges and Cures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Mikkola; Carrie A. Miles; Leena Asikainen; Basudeb Guha; Pertti Haaparanta; Liisa Halko; Seppo Honkapohja; Vesa Kanniainen; Erkki Koskela; Shen Kuo; Ulla Lehmijoki

    This paper reviews economics literature on the relationship between gender equality and economic development. Stylized facts indicate that women' s roles are, although restricted, in the midst of quite dramatic change, both in developing and in developed countries. Results of both empirical and theoretical research, explanatory models and studies exploring both forces that challenge and those that facilitate greater equality

  13. The University of Minnesota is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to its programs, facilities, and employment without regard to race, color, creed, religion, national origin, gender,

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    origin, gender, age, marital status, disability, public assistance status, veteran status, or sexual, collaboration and leadership in business and business law. It does just what new legal education models call for

  14. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

  15. STATUS OF POROUS PAVEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

  16. Gender, gender role, and body image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Jackson; Linda A. Sullivan; Ronald Rostker

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between gender role and body image was examined in this research. Females and males who differed in their gender roles (i.e., masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated) completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (B. A. Winstead & T. F. Cash, “Reliability and Validity of the Body-Self Questionnaire: A New Measure of Body Image,” paper presented at the meeting of the

  17. Integrating Multiple Social Statuses in Health Disparities Research: The Case of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z

    2012-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674

  18. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  19. Child gender and father involvement in fragile families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelly. Lundberg; Sara. McLanahan; Elaina. Rose

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we use data from the first two waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the effects\\u000a of child gender on father involvement and to determine if gender effects differ by parents’ marital status. We examine several\\u000a indicators of father involvement, including whether the father acknowledges “ownership” of the child, whether the parents\\u000a live

  20. Stigma, status, and population health.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Jo C; Lucas, Jeffrey W; Ridgeway, Cecilia L; Taylor, Catherine J

    2014-02-01

    Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by "social ordering schemas" that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between "normals" and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma's impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of other more status-based bases of stratification such as SES, race and gender, whose health impacts have been firmly established. PMID:24507907