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  1. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

  2. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in

  3. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated

  4. The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior

  5. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random

  6. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to

  7. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  8. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  9. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  10. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    PubMed

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  11. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were

  12. Life Satisfaction Depending on Socio-Economic Status and Gender among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eroglu, Susran Erkan; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Calisir, Vahit

    2009-01-01

    This research was carried out using the survey method in an attempt to find out the relationship between the life satisfaction and socio-economic status (SES) of adolescents. The research was conducted among 275 young Turkish people chosen by the random sampling method. The research findings determined that there was a significant difference

  13. The Contribution of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and Socio-Cultural Influence to Turkish Students' Task Value Beliefs in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning

  14. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  15. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. first results from the multicare cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the multimorbidity pattern concerned, i.e. there seem to be at least two types of elderly multimorbid patients. First, there are patients with mainly cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, who are more often male, have an older age and a lower socio-economic status. Second, there are patients mainly with ADS and pain-related morbidity, who are more often female and equally distributed across age and socio-economic groups. Trial registration ISRCTN89818205 PMID:22471952

  16. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  17. The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

  18. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    PubMed

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. PMID:26463535

  19. Gender, socio-economic status, migration origin and neighbourhood of residence are barriers to HIV testing in the Paris metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socio-economic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of the characteristics of the residential neighbourhood was also analysed using multilevel models. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with no history of HIV testing in women were an age >44 years, the absence of any pregnancy during the previous 15 years, a low education level, unemployment, to have had no or only one steady relationship in one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to live in a poor neighbourhood. In men, factors were age <30 or >44 years, to have had no or only one steady relationship during one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to perceive oneself as being at low risk of HIV infection. An association according to the "migration origin" was observed among men: foreigners and French men born to (at least) one foreign parent were more likely not to have been tested than French men born to two French parents. We conclude that gender, social and territorial differences exist in HIV testing among people living in the Paris area. More systematic proposals of HIV test in primary care would be an effective policy to overcome these persistent social stratifications. PMID:21711180

  20. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  1. Economic Status of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Robert; Young, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the factors affecting the current economic status of academic librarians, as well as the history of changes in that economic picture. Issues discussed include the ranking of beginning academic librarian salaries in comparison to others in the profession, historical differences between academic librarian salaries and

  2. Noblesse Oblige? Social Status and Economic Inequality Maintenance among Politicians

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526

  3. Partial Edentulism and its Correlation to Age, Gender, Socio-economic Status and Incidence of Various Kennedy's Classes- A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, Vidhya; Krishnan, Chitra Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Partial edentulism, one or more teeth missing is an indication of healthy behaviour of dental practices in the society and attitude towards dental and oral care. The pattern of partial edentulism has been evaluated in many selected populations in different countries by different methods. Most of the studies have evaluated partial edentulism by surveying of Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs), patients visiting clinics, clinical records and population in particular locality. The objective of the study is to review the prevalence of partial edentulousness and its correlation to age,gender, arch predominance, socio economic factors and incidence of various Kennedy's Classes. Key observations drawn from the review are as below. There is no gender correlation for partial edentulism.Prevalence of partial edentulism is more common in mandibular arch than maxillary arch.Younger adults have more Class III and IV RPDs. Elders have more distal extension RPDs Class I and II. PMID:26266237

  4. Partial Edentulism and its Correlation to Age, Gender, Socio-economic Status and Incidence of Various Kennedys Classes A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chitra Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Partial edentulism, one or more teeth missing is an indication of healthy behaviour of dental practices in the society and attitude towards dental and oral care. The pattern of partial edentulism has been evaluated in many selected populations in different countries by different methods. Most of the studies have evaluated partial edentulism by surveying of Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs), patients visiting clinics, clinical records and population in particular locality. The objective of the study is to review the prevalence of partial edentulousness and its correlation to age,gender, arch predominance, socio economic factors and incidence of various Kennedys Classes. Key observations drawn from the review are as below. There is no gender correlation for partial edentulism.Prevalence of partial edentulism is more common in mandibular arch than maxillary arch.Younger adults have more Class III and IV RPDs. Elders have more distal extension RPDs Class I and II. PMID:26266237

  5. Exploring Gender and Economic Development in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Melissa; Oberhauser, Ann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights how dynamic gender relations affect the diverse experiences of men and women in Appalachia's economic development. The analysis draws from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census data to examine and compare the demographic, social, and economic conditions of women and men in Appalachia. The discussion focuses on geographical

  6. Splitting hair for cortisol? Associations of socio-economic status, ethnicity, hair color, gender and other child characteristics with hair cortisol and cortisone.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Ralph C A; Noppe, Gerard; Windhorst, Dafna A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van den Akker, Erica L T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of SES and ethnicity with hair cortisol and cortisone and to identify potential child and family characteristics that can assist in choosing covariates and potential confounders for analyses involving hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Hair samples were collected in 2484 6-year-old children from the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Measurements for cortisol and cortisone were used as the outcome in regression analyses. Predictors were SES, ethnicity, hair color and child characteristics such as birthweight, gestational age at birth, BMI, disease, allergy, and medication use. Lower family income, more children to be supported by this income, higher BMI and darker hair color were associated with higher hair cortisol and cortisone levels. Boys also showed higher levels. Ethnicity (Dutch and North European descent) was related to lower levels. High amounts of sun in the month of hair collection was related to higher levels of cortisone only. More recent hair washing was related to lower levels of cortisol and cortisone. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, age, medication use, hair washing frequency, educational level of the mother, marital status of the mother, disease and allergy were not associated with cortisol or cortisone levels. Our results serve as a starting point for choosing covariates and confounders in studies of substantive predictors or outcomes. Gender, BMI, income, the number of persons in a household, ethnicity, hair color and recency of hair washing are strongly suggested to take into account. PMID:26773401

  7. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary

  8. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  9. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream

  10. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  11. Women's health status and gender inequality in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, M Y; Sarri, R

    1997-12-01

    This paper examines the health status of women in China by reviewing levels and trends of female mortality at several phases of a woman's life cycle focusing on infancy girlhood, childbearing and old age. The mortality rates of Chinese women and men are compared for the period 1950-1990 as are comparisons with women in selected countries. The cause-specific death rate, expressed as a percentage of all deaths, and the burden of disease, measured in terms of the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), are used to reflect the changing patterns of female diseases and causes of deaths. Significant improvement in the health status of Chinese women since 1950 is widely acknowledged as a major achievement for a developing country with the largest population in the world, but the differentials in women's health by region and urban/rural areas are considerable. The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) indicates that the overall level of physical well-being of Chinese women has increased in recent decades, but disparity in health between men and women still exists. The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) further reveals that China has achieved significant progress in women's health during the past four decades, but far less has been achieved with respect to gender equality overall. The final sections of the paper focus on the discussion of some health problems faced by the female population during the process of economic reform since the 1980 s. In order to promote gender equality between women and men, concerns on women's health care needs are highlighted. PMID:9447637

  12. Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ying Chu

    2004-01-01

    Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential

  13. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the

  14. Effects of Student Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwarter, Amy E.; Aruguete, Mara S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined experimentally whether student gender and socioeconomic status (SES) affect teachers' expectations of students. Participants were 106 teachers who read a scenario about a hypothetical student with academic and behavioral challenges. The authors systematically varied the gender and SES of the student to create 4 conditions.

  15. Gender and Identity Status Differences in Late Adolescents' Possible Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthis, Kristine S.; Dunkel, Curt S.; Anderson, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined gender and identity status differences in late adolescents' possible selves. The intent of the study was to clarify conflicts between theory and research on gender differences in identity by investigating the content of participants' possible selves. Participants completed measures of identity and possible selves. The

  16. Gender differences in nutritional status and feeding patterns among infants in the Gaza Strip.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbaum, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Abed, Y

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined gender variation in nutritional treatment and anthropometric status of infants in the Gaza Strip. Numerous studies have documented gender differences in health status in developing areas, generally finding boys to be at an advantage over girls. Social and economic characteristics in Gaza suggest that one might expect preferential treatment of boys there. METHODS. The study used data on two samples of infants 0 to 18 months of age collected from five health centers in Gaza. A variety of different analytic methods were used to look for gender differences in feeding patterns, prevalence of malnutrition, and anthropometric status. RESULTS. Although some differences in nutritional treatment and anthropometric outcome for infants of different socioeconomic status and between the earlier and later samples were found, no consistent gender differences were revealed. CONCLUSIONS. The findings are consistent with several different explanations. First, expectations of finding gender differences may have been unfounded. Alternatively, such differences may have existed previously but have been eliminated through successful public health intervention, rising levels of education, and economic development. PMID:7604921

  17. Socioeconomic Status, Economic Problems, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Robert; Matthews, Shelley Keith; Bucher, Jacob; Welcher, Adria N.; Keyes, Corey

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and delinquency is not as strong as suggested by the leading crime theories. This article argues that such theories do not predict that SES in and of itself causes delinquency but rather that the economic problems associated with SES cause delinquency. Such problems

  18. Socioeconomic Status, Economic Problems, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Robert; Matthews, Shelley Keith; Bucher, Jacob; Welcher, Adria N.; Keyes, Corey

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and delinquency is not as strong as suggested by the leading crime theories. This article argues that such theories do not predict that SES in and of itself causes delinquency but rather that the economic problems associated with SES cause delinquency. Such problems…

  19. Charisma, status, and gender in groups with and without gurus.

    PubMed

    Martin, John Levi; Van Gunten, Tod; Zablocki, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have noted that small religious groups with charismatic leaders seem to have different gender dynamics than do groups without. We argue that the presence of such a leader changes what charisma means in such a group. Without such a leader, strong personalities may appear charismatic and lead to positions of high statusand such dynamics historically have tended to be associated with a positional advantage to males. With such a leader, however, charisma is more likely to be compatible with receptivity and decoupled from gender characteristics that tend to disadvantage women, leading charismatic women to have greater status than they would otherwise have. PMID:22616087

  20. Comparing objective and subjective status: gender and space (and environmental justice?).

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Kelly, Shona

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature has described differential health effects of environmental toxins and pollutants on people of different socio-economic status (SES) that may not always reflect differing levels of exposure. We offer four questions or contentions that together may contribute to understanding this conundrum and then present an empirical exploration of one of these questions: Does the relationship between SES and self-perceived status vary in space? Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults conducted in twenty-five communities in British Columbia, Canada, a supplementary data set containing demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the communities themselves, and multilevel modelling techniques, this article describes relationships between objective and subjective measures of social status, by gender and in space. Our analysis contributes to the development of innovative environmental justice models by bringing some spatial sensitivity to interrelationships among these aspects of status. PMID:16275047

  1. Gameplay, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in Two American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    In a study of 195 high school students, differences by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were found in their gaming habits and game literacy practices. Low-SES students generally preferred console video games, particularly those in the sports genre. They expressed frustration with the controls involved in long-form computer games such as those

  2. Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",

  3. Sex Differences in Conformity: Status and Gender Role Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Chrvala, Carole

    1986-01-01

    Examines status and gender role explanations of the tendency for women to conform more than men in group pressure settings. Analysis of age and sex differences revealed that older females were significantly more conforming than older males when under surveillance and when subjects formed impressions of group members' likability. Among younger

  4. Examining Gender Similarity and Mentor's Supervisory Status in Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosik, John J.; Godshalk, Veronica M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the influence of mentor's status (supervisor vs. non-supervisor) and gender similarity (homogeneous vs. diversified) of mentor-protege dyads on protege's perception of mentoring functions and outcomes. We collected and analyzed data from 217 mentor-protege dyads comprised of working professionals from a variety of industries.

  5. Motivational Responses to Fitness Testing by Award Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domangue, Elizabeth; Solmon, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Fitness testing is a prominent element in many physical education programs, but there has been limited investigation concerning motivation constructs associated with the testing. This study investigated the relationships among physical education students' award status and gender to achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and intentions. After…

  6. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  7. Emotions under Discussion: Gender, Status and Communication in Online Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Iosub, Daniela; Laniado, David; Castillo, Carlos; Fuster Morell, Mayo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the undisputed role of emotions in teamwork, not much is known about the make-up of emotions in online collaboration. Publicly available repositories of collaboration data, such as Wikipedia editor discussions, now enable the large-scale study of affect and dialogue in peer production. Methods We investigate the established Wikipedia community and focus on how emotion and dialogue differ depending on the status, gender, and the communication network of the editors who have written at least 100 comments on the English Wikipedia's article talk pages. Emotions are quantified using a word-based approach comparing the results of two predefined lexicon-based methods: LIWC and SentiStrength. Principal Findings We find that administrators maintain a rather neutral, impersonal tone, while regular editors are more emotional and relationship-oriented, that is, they use language to form and maintain connections to other editors. A persistent gender difference is that female contributors communicate in a manner that promotes social affiliation and emotional connection more than male editors, irrespective of their status in the community. Female regular editors are the most relationship-oriented, whereas male administrators are the least relationship-focused. Finally, emotional and linguistic homophily is prevalent: editors tend to interact with other editors having similar emotional styles (e.g., editors expressing more anger connect more with one another). Conclusions/Significance Emotional expression and linguistic style in online collaboration differ substantially depending on the contributors' gender and status, and on the communication network. This should be taken into account when analyzing collaborative success, and may prove insightful to communities facing gender gap and stagnation in contributor acquisition and participation levels. PMID:25140870

  8. Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.

  9. Chronic bronchitis in the general population: influence of age, gender and socio-economic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferr, Alexis; Fuhrman, Claire; Zureik, Mahmoud; Chouaid, Christos; Vergnengre, Alain; Huchon, Grard; Delmas, Marie-Christine; Roche, Nicolas

    2012-03-01

    Chronic bronchitis (CB) is an indicator of an increased risk of developing COPD, but its symptoms are often underestimated. Demographic and socio-economic conditions might influence its prevalence, reporting and impact. Data from a large epidemiological survey of the French general population were analyzed to determine the burden of CB, the magnitude of under-diagnosis and the influence of age, gender and socio-economic conditions. Altogether, 9050 participants aged 45 years or more provided complete data. The prevalence of symptoms and diagnosis of CB was 3.5% and 3.4%, respectively. CB was associated with impaired health status and activity and, in women, work loss. Among subjects with symptoms of CB, only 28.6% declared a known diagnosis of respiratory disease. Factors associated with symptoms of CB in multivariate analysis were male gender, active smoking, lower income and occupational category: the highest prevalence was observed in manual workers (5.6%) and self-employed subjects (5.2%). The under-diagnosis of CB was more marked in men and subjects of higher socio-economic categories. These results confirm that CB is markedly under-diagnosed in the general population. Socio-economic conditions influence both its prevalence (higher in low categories) and rate of diagnosis (lower in high categories), which should be considered when elaborating prevention and detection campaigns. PMID:22197577

  10. Gender, migration and the organisation of work under economic devolution: Ecuador, 1982-90.

    PubMed

    Brown, L A; Pavri, F; Lawson, V A

    1998-09-01

    This study examined the impact of economic deficits due to structural adjustment processes on shifts in the organization of work by gender and migration status in Ecuador. Work is organized according to Lawson's social hierarchy scheme: ownership; authority and control over employees; autonomy in one's own work; and the nature and range of skills used in production. After a brief review of the related empirical literature, the author describes the concepts, categories of, and study area of work and then begins the empirical analysis. Data were obtained from 1,884,816 individual records of economically active persons in 1982 and 2,946,547 persons in 1990, from the censuses of 1982 and 1990 for the entire nation, and from fieldwork observations by Lawson. Structural adjustment policies (SAPs) associated with devolution tend to further aggravate inequities, especially among the disadvantaged. Findings are presented for male and female nonmigrants, migrants, and female migrants. During the 1980s, female migrants experienced primary economic activity, especially as self-employed, family, or low skilled employees; and declines in high skilled public sector employment and service activity, especially in wage labor. The economic impact was greater by gender than by migration status. The shifts only improved the relative position of women in self-employed and ownership jobs. Females lost public-sector employment to males; overall wage declines were more severe in the informal sector. Down-sizing in the public sector and shifts toward capital-intensive production marginalized female migrants. Fieldwork operationalizes losses among females/female migrants. PMID:12321833

  11. The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Klasen, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic

  12. Effects of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Early Academic Performance on Postsecondary Education Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry; Robinson, Chester R.; Plata, Maximino; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and four types of eighth-grade academic performance on postsecondary educational choices at late adolescence. Gender had strongest influences on educational choice. Gender also interacted with SES and academic performance. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.…

  13. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

  14. The Economic Status of the African American Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L.

    This paper describes the economic status of the African American family in Cleveland (Ohio) and in the United states as a whole and describes a model of interactions of social forces and economic factors that have influenced the declining earnings of African American families. The proportion of African American families in poverty in the United

  15. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from

  16. Gender Differences in Health Status and Adverse Outcomes Among Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P.; van Zitteren, Moniek; Beltrame, John F.; Fitridge, Robert; Denollet, Johan; Vriens, Patrick W.; Spertus, John A.; Smolderen, Kim G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined gender differences in health status and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study assessed (1) self‐reported health status at PAD diagnosis and 12‐months later, and explored (2) whether outcomes in women with PAD differ with regard to long‐term major adverse events. Methods and Results A total of 816 patients (285 women) with PAD were enrolled from 2 vascular clinics in the Netherlands. Baseline clinical data and subsequent adverse events were recorded and patients completed the Short Form‐12 (SF‐12, Physical Component Score [PCS] and Mental Component Score [MCS]) upon PAD diagnosis and 12‐months later. Women had similar ages and clinical characteristics, but poorer socio‐economic status and more depressive symptoms at initial diagnosis, as compared with men. Women also had poorer physical (PCS: 37±10 versus 40±10, P=0.004) and mental (MCS: 47±12 versus 49±11, P=0.005) health status at the time of presentation. At 12‐months, women still reported a poorer overall PCS score (41±12 versus 46±11, P=0.006) and MCS score (42±14 versus 49±12, P=0.002). Female gender was an independent determinant of a poorer baseline and 12‐month PCS and MCS scores. However, there were no significant differences by gender on either mortality (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR]=0.93, 95% CI 0.60;1.44, P=0.74) or major adverse events (unadjusted HR=0.90, 95% CI 0.63;1.29, P=0.57), after a median follow‐up of 3.2 years. Conclusions Women's physical and mental health status is compromised both at initial PAD diagnosis and at 12‐month follow‐up, despite experiencing a similar magnitude of change in their health scores throughout the first 12‐months after diagnosis. PMID:25537275

  17. Individual versus Household Migration Decision Rules: Gender and Marital Status Differences in Intentions to Migrate in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gubhaju, Bina; De Jong, Gordon F.

    2009-01-01

    This research tests the thesis that the neoclassical micro-economic and the new household economic theoretical assumptions on migration decision-making rules are segmented by gender, marital status, and time frame of intention to migrate. Comparative tests of both theories within the same study design are relatively rare. Utilizing data from the Causes of Migration in South Africa national migration survey, we analyze how individually held own-future versus alternative household well-being migration decision rules effect the intentions to migrate of male and female adults in South Africa. Results from the gender and marital status specific logistic regressions models show consistent support for the different gender-marital status decision rule thesis. Specifically, the maximizing ones own future neoclassical microeconomic theory proposition is more applicable for never married men and women, the maximizing household income proposition for married men with short-term migration intentions, and the reduce household risk proposition for longer time horizon migration intentions of married men and women. Results provide new evidence on the way household strategies and individual goals jointly affect intentions to move or stay. PMID:20161187

  18. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation. Advanced fuel materials and fabrication costs have large uncertainties based on complexities of operation, such as contact-handled fuel fabrication versus remote handling, or commodity availability. Thus, this analytical work makes a good faith effort to quantify uncertainties and provide qualifiers, caveats, and explanations for the sources of these uncertainties. The overall result is that this work assembles the necessary information and establishes the foundation for future analyses using more precise data as nuclear technology advances.

  19. Adolescents' Selective Visual Attention for High-Status Peers: The Role of Perceiver Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed

  20. Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrego, Leisy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are

  1. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

  2. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics

  3. An economic analysis of life expectancy by gender with application to the United States.

    PubMed

    Leung, Michael C M; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Junsen

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an economic model to explain the behavior of life expectancy of both sexes. It explicitly examines the relationship between the gender gap in life expectancy and the gender gap in pay. It shows that as the latter narrows over the course of economic development, the former may initially expand but will eventually shrink. Simulation results from our model accord with the behavior of life expectancy for both sexes since the 1940s in the United States. PMID:15587696

  4. Linking Employment Problems to Economic Status: 1984 Survey. Bulletin 2270.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin contains information, culled from the March 1985 Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), on the employment problems faced by American workers in 1984 and the impact of these problems on the economic status of their families and households. The following employment problems are

  5. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Lexical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Esther; Peppe, Sue; Gibbon, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    The British Picture Vocabulary Scale, second edition (BPVS-II), a measure of receptive vocabulary, is widely used by speech and language therapists and researchers into speech and language disorders, as an indicator of language delay, but it has frequently been suggested that receptive vocabulary may be more associated with socio-economic status.

  6. Economic Development and Educational Status in Appalachian Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates competing explanations for the relatively poor educational performance in Appalachian Kentucky. Concludes that substantial economic diversification would probably result in improved educational status. Warns against reliance on extractive industries and presents data showing increased income from mining to be significantly correlated

  7. Gender differences in the management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the importance of insurance status.

    PubMed

    Murasko, Jason E

    2006-10-01

    Despite cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the leading killer of both sexes in the US, there are indications that men and women have different experiences in the health system with prevention and treatment practices. Beyond largely descriptive findings, little research exists that addresses how men and women may differ in their response to certain key influences on CVD health services utilization. This paper examines gender differentials in the effect of insurance coverage on CVD preventive health services in the US. An economics framework is used to model individual demand for preventive services as a function of insurance status, while controlling for a comprehensive set of explanatory variables. The services analyzed include cholesterol and blood pressure screening, pharmaceutical use for hypertension and lipid disorders, and CVD-related physician visits. Both general and high-risk samples are evaluated. The results show that while a lack of insurance is associated with lower rates of utilization in both men and women, there are no observed gender differences in insurance-effects for recommended intervals of risk factor screening in the general population. However, for individuals with previously diagnosed heart disease or stroke, a lack of coverage is more strongly associated with lower rates of screening, pharmaceutical management, and physician contact in women than men. Potential reasons for these findings are discussed and policy implications are noted. PMID:16762471

  8. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of

  9. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  10. Nutritional and health status among nursing home residents in Lebanon: comparison across gender in a national cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. Results The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported good health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. Conclusions This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents. PMID:24950594

  11. The gender gap in the economic well-being of nonresident fathers and custodial mothers.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, S M; Subaiya, L; Kahn, J R

    1999-05-01

    Using a unique sample of couples with children, we estimate the gender gap in economic well-being after marital separation, something that previous studies of individuals who divorce have not been able to do. The income-to-needs levels of formerly married mothers are only 56% those of their former husbands. The postseparation gender gap is reduced if the wife was employed full-time and was an above-average earner before marital disruption. The gap is also relatively small among the least economically independent wives, those who were not employed before separation. For the latter group, the husband's relatively low income tends to reduce the gender gap. PMID:10332611

  12. Shifting the Breadwinning Boundary: The Role of Men's Breadwinner Status and Their Gender Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuo, Jiping

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the role of men's breadwinner status and their gender ideologies in shifting the breadwinning boundary. Data come from a 3-wave panel survey of 522 married men in 1980, 1983, and 1988. A strong effect of men's breadwinner status on their ideologies is found in 1983 but not in 1988, whereas the reversed pattern holds for the…

  13. Labor Market Effects on Dropping out of High School: Variation by Gender, Race, and Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping

  14. Explaining the Gender Disparity in Latino Youth's Education: Acculturation and Economic Value of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Yari; Sanchez, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the roles of acculturation, economic value of education, and gender in the academic achievement of Latino adolescents. Participants (N = 143) were 12th-grade students at an urban public high school. Analyses revealed that a higher economic value of education was related to higher academic

  15. "Doing Gender," Ensuring Survival: Mexican Migration and Economic Crisis in the Rural Mountain West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional

  16. Status, communality, and agency: implications for stereotypes of gender and other groups.

    PubMed

    Conway, M; Pizzamiglio, M T; Mount, L

    1996-07-01

    Four studies addressed the hypothesis, based on correspondence bias, that low- relative to high-status individuals are perceived as more communal and less agentic. Study 1 instantiated status in terms of occupations, and findings were as expected. The findings of Study 2 reconciled those of Study 1 and of A.H. Eagly and V.J. Steffen (1984) in that they demonstrated that high-status occupations are differentially construed in terms of their interpersonal communal demands. The hypothesis received clear support in Studies 3 and 4, in which a general instantiation of status independent of occupations, social roles, and gender was adopted. The findings are discussed in terms of gender stereotypes and social role theory of gender (A.H. Eagly, 1987) as well as in terms of other stereotypes. PMID:8709000

  17. Measured Parental Weight Status and Familial Socio-Economic Status Correlates with Childhood Overweight and Obesity at Age 9

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568). Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82%) and age eligible children (response rate 57%) were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3%) or obese (6.6%). Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. Conclusions/Significance Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due to the high prevalence of obesity in parents and children, population based interventions are required. PMID:22912886

  18. Gender differences in economic support and well-being of older Asians.

    PubMed

    Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Reidy, Erin; Knodel, John

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in economic support and well-being in eight countries in Southern and Eastern Asia (Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, and Taiwan). We examine multiple economic indicators, including sources of income, receipt of financial and material support, income levels, ownership of assets, and subjective well-being. Results show substantial variation in gender differences across indicators and provide an important qualification to widely held views concerning the globally disadvantaged position of older women. Whereas men tend to report higher levels of income than women, there is generally little gender difference in housing characteristics, asset ownership, or reports of subjective economic well-being. Unmarried women are economically advantaged compared to unmarried men in some respects, in part because they are more likely to be embedded in multigenerational households and receive both direct and indirect forms of support from family members. PMID:15243197

  19. Vitamin A intake and status in populations facing economic stress.

    PubMed

    West, Keith P; Mehra, Sucheta

    2010-01-01

    Dietary quality and diversity reflect adequacy of vitamin A. Both can deteriorate in response to economic crises. Although the nutritional consequences of the 2008 world food price crisis remain unclear, past studies of diet, status, and socioeconomic standing under usual (deprived) and unusually disruptive times suggest dietary quality and vitamin A status decline in mothers and young children. This is presumably the result of shifting diets to include less preformed vitamin A-rich animal source foods and, to a lesser extent, vegetables and fruits. Cross-sectional assessments of diet, deficiency, and socioeconomic status in a number of countries and surveillance data collected during the Indonesian economic crisis of 1997-8 indicate that the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, night blindness, and other related disorders (e.g., anemia) may have increased during the 2008 crisis, and that it might not have necessarily recovered once food prices waned later in 2008. Lost employment may be a factor in slow nutritional recovery, despite some easing of food prices. Vitamin A deficiency should still be preventable amid economic instabilities through breast feeding promotion, vitamin A supplementation, fortification of foods targeted to the poor, and homestead food production that can bolster income and diversify the diet. PMID:19939993

  20. Influences of gender and socioeconomic status on the motor proficiency of children in the UK.

    PubMed

    Morley, David; Till, Kevin; Ogilvie, Paul; Turner, Graham

    2015-12-01

    As the development of movement skills are so crucial to a child's involvement in lifelong physical activity and sport, the purpose of this study was to assess the motor proficiency of children aged 4-7years (range=4.3-7.2years), whilst considering gender and socioeconomic status. 369 children (176 females, 193 males, aged=5.960.57years) were assessed for fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral co-ordination, balance, speed and agility, upper-limb co-ordination and strength. The average standard score for all participants was 44.48.9, classifying the participants towards the lower end of the average score. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified significant effects for gender (p<0.001) and socioeconomic status (p<0.001). Females outperformed males for fine motor skills and boys outperformed girls for catch and dribble gross motor skills. High socioeconomic status significantly outperformed middle and/or low socioeconomic status for total, fine and gross motor proficiency. Current motor proficiency of primary children aged 4-7years in the UK is just below average with differences evident between gender and socioeconomic status. Teachers and sport coaches working with primary aged children should concentrate on the development of movement skills, whilst considering differences between genders and socioeconomic status. PMID:26342797

  1. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and

  2. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

  3. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (SSS-peer, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 1315 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  4. Economic status and temperature-related mortality in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Bell, Michelle L.; Kan, Haidong; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2015-10-01

    In developed countries, low latitude and high temperature are positively associated with the population's ability to adapt to heat. However, few studies have examined the effect of economic status on the relationship between long-term exposure to high temperature and health. We compared heterogeneous temperature-related mortality effects relative to the average summer temperature in high-socioeconomic-status (SES) cities to temperature-related effects in low-SES cities. In the first stage of the research, we conducted a linear regression analysis to quantify the mortality effects of high temperature (at or above the 95th percentile) in 32 cities in Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea. In the second stage, we used a meta-regression to examine the association between mortality risk with average summer temperature and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In cities with a low GDP per capita (less than 20,000 USD), the effects of temperature were detrimental to the population if the long-term average summer temperature was high. In contrast, in cities with a high GDP per capita, temperature-related mortality risk was not significantly related to average summer temperature. The relationship between long-term average summer temperature and the short-term effects of high temperatures differed based on the city-level economic status.

  5. Familial and Economic Influences on the Gender-Related Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Meece, Judith L.; Askew, Karyl J. S.; Agger, Charlotte A.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2015-01-01

    Economic, occupational, and social shifts in rural economies have influenced nuanced changes in the educational and occupational aspirations of rural adolescent women and men. However, there is limited contemporary research that examines the aspirations of rural adolescents at the beginning of the 21st century. Drawing on a sample of 8,756 rural adolescents in the United States, we examine how familial, geographic, and economic variables influence gender-related differences in educational and occupational aspirations. Findings revealed significant gender differences, favoring girls, in youth's educational aspirations, occupational aspirations, and aspirations for nontraditional careers. Results highlight the importance of contextual variables such as parental expectations, family income, and motivation variables in predicting gender-related aspirations of rural youth. PMID:26681990

  6. Gender Aspects of the Economic Payback of a Tuition-Charging Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskakova, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    For many decades now the sphere of education in Russia has been considered to be among the most well off among other spheres of activity, from the standpoint of gender equality. One component of radical economic reforms in Russia in the 1990s was the transformation of education financing. During the reform years the number of students in higher

  7. Gender Aspects of the Economic Payback of a Tuition-Charging Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskakova, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    For many decades now the sphere of education in Russia has been considered to be among the most well off among other spheres of activity, from the standpoint of gender equality. One component of radical economic reforms in Russia in the 1990s was the transformation of education financing. During the reform years the number of students in higher…

  8. Back to the Basics: Socio-Economic, Gender, and Regional Disparities in Canada's Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason D.; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance W.

    2008-01-01

    This study reassessed the extent to which socio-economic background, gender, and region endure as sources of educational inequality in Canada. The analysis utilized the 28,000 student Canadian sample from the data set of the OECD's 2003 "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)". Results, consistent with previous findings, highlight

  9. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an

  10. Bold, Reckless and Adaptable? Explaining Gender Differences in Economic Thinking and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Telhaj, Shqiponja

    2005-01-01

    In the first half of this paper we develop a perspective on the role of "boldness" in explaining gender differences in thinking and attitudes. We apply this analysis to evidence from Australia, the USA and the UK in relation to economics at school and university levels. In the second half we present the results of a study of over 1000

  11. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

  12. Gender Differences in Young Latino Adults' Status Attainment: Understanding Bilingualism in the Familial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Sampson Lee; Cobas, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism among Latinos in the United States may not necessarily result in negative status attainment consequences. Such studies have typically overlooked gender differences in the consequences of bilingualism. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (N=866 females; 737 males), we

  13. Counterstories of College Persistence by Undocumented Mexicana Students: Navigating Race, Class, Gender, and Legal Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Susana Maria; Maldonado, Marta Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from four sets of four in-depth interviews and one subsequent focus group to examine how undocumented Mexicana students navigate identities and the meanings of race, gender, class, and legal status. We mobilize a critical race theory framework to center and explore the content of students' counterstories. While majoritarian

  14. Counselor Perceptions of Students Who Vary in Gender and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwarter, Amy E.; Aruguete, Mara S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study experimentally examined how counselor perceptions of hypothetical students are affected by student gender and socioeconomic status (SES). Results showed that counselors perceive students from low SES backgrounds as having less promising futures and lower math abilities. Counselors also rated female students as lower in math

  15. A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Tammy J.

    2010-01-01

    Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.…

  16. The Interactive Effects of Counselor Gender, Physical Attractiveness and Status on Client Self-Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunin, Carla C.; Rodin, Miriam J.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated client self-disclosure and client perception of counselors. Subjects rated counselors on intelligence and empathy, and while role-playing clients in therapy. Clients disclosed more to male counselors when counselors were high in status or attractiveness. Suggests the effect of counselor gender depends on an interaction with other

  17. Effects of Counselor Gender and Drinking Status on Perceptions of the Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark E.; Prentice, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of counselor gender and drinking status on 93 mandated clients' perceptions of counselor trustworthiness, expertness and attractiveness, and confidence in the counselor. Results revealed no differences between ratings of recovering alcoholic, nonalcoholic, or no-statement counselors on any of the dependent measures.

  18. A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Tammy J.

    2010-01-01

    Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.

  19. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.

  20. Teachers' Perceptions Based on Tenure Status and Gender about Principals' Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret G.; Finch, Kim; Young, Suzanne; Hvidston, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study assessed teachers' attitudes about their formative supervision and the observational ability of principals through the constructs of teacher tenure status and gender. In sum, 255 teachers responded to an online survey indicating teachers' desired feedback focused on classroom climate, student engagement, and

  1. Social Status as a Predictor of Race and Gender Stereotypes in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Mistry, Rashmita; Feagans, Laura

    2007-01-01

    We examined race and gender stereotypes in fourth-, sixth- and eighth-grade White and Black children. The participants reported their perceptions of the competence of Black, White, female and male children in academic domains, sports and music. In general, low-status groups (girls and Black children) did not endorse stereotypes that reflected…

  2. Language Arts Achievement of Fourth Grade Students with Regard to Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Paula Coldwell

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to see if a difference exists in the language arts proficiency levels of 2,080 fourth grade students with regard to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status from 2010 through 2012 on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. Specifically, this study considered the possibility that a difference existed in language…

  3. Social Status as a Predictor of Race and Gender Stereotypes in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Mistry, Rashmita; Feagans, Laura

    2007-01-01

    We examined race and gender stereotypes in fourth-, sixth- and eighth-grade White and Black children. The participants reported their perceptions of the competence of Black, White, female and male children in academic domains, sports and music. In general, low-status groups (girls and Black children) did not endorse stereotypes that reflected

  4. Students' Help-Seeking Behaviours by Gender, Racial Background, and Student Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ness T.; Robinson, M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, university counseling centers have been challenged to provide services that are accessible to an increasingly diverse student population. With this focus, this study examined students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors in relation to their gender, racial background, and their student status (graduate or undergraduate). Based on

  5. Economic Status, Informal Exchange, and Sexual Risk in Kisumu, Kenya*

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Many observers believe that wealthy men play a disproportionate role in the continuing spread of HIV/AIDS infection in sub-Saharan Africa through their involvement in informal exchange relationships, where money and gifts (referred to as transfers) are given to a range of nonmarital sexual partners. In this case, wealthier men are riskier sexual partners because they can afford to give larger transfers, which have been found to be negatively associated with condom use. Alternatively, wealthier men might have greater incentives to practice safe sex at later stages of the epidemic or wealthier men might match with female partners who have particularly strong preferences for condom use. Accordingly, economic status would be positively associated with condom use. We use survey data from urban Kisumu, Kenya, to investigate the various mechanisms through which economic status is associated with sexual risk behavior. Our results show that wealth is positively associated with transfers; wealth is uncorrelated with condom use, however. The characteristics of wealthier mens female partners also do not differ from the characteristics of poorer mens partners. We conclude that wealthier men have stronger preferences for condom use, which offsets the negative effect of larger transfers that they give to their sexual partners. PMID:25605976

  6. Gender Differences in the Learning Status of Diabetic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated learning status of 95 diabetic children and 97 matched controls. Results indicated that diabetic boys had significantly lower Freedom from Distractibility scores compared with scores of diabetic girls and controls, and lower Perceptual Organization scores compared with scores of control boys. Diabetic children experienced more learning…

  7. Sin, Sickness or Status? Homosexual Gender Identity and Psychoneuroendocrinology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1987-01-01

    Sex hormones in the prenatal brain of humans influence the subsequent sexual status or orientation of the individual as bisexual, heterosexual, or homosexual. Postnatal socialization is another contributing factor. Sexual orientation is not under the direct governance of chromosomes and genes. (Author/VM)

  8. Gender Differences in the Learning Status of Diabetic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated learning status of 95 diabetic children and 97 matched controls. Results indicated that diabetic boys had significantly lower Freedom from Distractibility scores compared with scores of diabetic girls and controls, and lower Perceptual Organization scores compared with scores of control boys. Diabetic children experienced more learning

  9. Undergraduate engineering student experiences: Comparing sex, gender and switcher status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergen, Brenda Sue

    This dissertation explores undergraduate engineering experiences, comparing men with women and switchers with non-switchers. Factors related to a chilly academic climate and gender-role socialization are hypothesized to contribute to variations in men's and women's academic experiences and persistence rates. Both quantitative and qualitative data are utilized in an effort to triangulate the findings. Secondary survey data, acquired as result of a 1992 Academic Environment Survey, were utilized to test the hypothesis that sex is the most important predictor (i.e., demographic variable) of perceptions of academic climate. Regression analyses show that sex by itself is not always a significant determinant. However, when sex and college (engineering vs. other) are combined into dummy variables, they are statistically significant in models where sex was not significant alone. This finding indicates that looking at sex differences alone may be too simplistic. Thirty personal interviews were conducted with a random stratified sample of undergraduate students from the 1993 engineering cohort. The interview data indicate that differences in childhood socialization are important. With regard to persistence, differences in socialization are greater for switchers vs. non-switchers than men vs. women. Thus, gender-role socialization does not appear to play as prominent a role in women's persistence as past literature would indicate. This may be due to the self-selection process that occurs among women who choose to pursue engineering. Other aspects of childhood socialization such as parents' level of educational and occupation, students' high school academic preparation and knowledge of what to expect of college classes appear to be more important. In addition, there is evidence that, for women, male siblings play an important role in socialization. There is also evidence that women engineering students at Midwestern University face a chilly academic climate. The factors which appear to contribute the most to an inhospitable atmosphere include subtle behaviors on the part of faculty and administrators and blatant sexist, derogatory and hostile comments and jokes on the part of male undergraduate students. Personal interview data indicate continued resistance among some male administrators, faculty and students to women pursuing majors in engineering.

  10. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) than the European (20–30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10–20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity–SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  11. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-06-01

    Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  12. [Health status and care giving needs in the elderly: gender related differences].

    PubMed

    Doser Joz-Roland, N; Monod-Zorzi, S

    2010-07-28

    The health status and need for care differ depending on the gender. The most notable differences are life expectancy, life expectancy in good health and the prevalence of geriatric syndromes or chronic illnesses. Some social health determinants (social isolation or financial precariousness) seem to act as risk factors for vulnerability, mostly amongst old or very old women. Through some examples of differences between men and women in terms of health and caregiving needs, this article tries to heighten the awareness of health professionals to a gender based approach of the elderly patient in order to promote the best possible equity in healthcare. PMID:20806564

  13. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41–60-year-old age group than in the 18–40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  14. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United

  15. Gender Effects in Assessment of Economic Knowledge and Understanding: Differences among Undergraduate Business and Economics Students in Germany, Japan, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brckner, Sebastian; Frster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Happ, Roland; Walstad, William B.; Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Gender effects in large-scale assessments have become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Yet few studies have linked differences in assessment results of male and female students in higher education to construct-relevant features of the target construct. This paper examines gender effects on students' economic

  16. Gender and offender status predicting treatment success in refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Håkon; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Elbert, Thomas; Holen, Are

    2014-01-01

    Background Current knowledge is limited regarding patient characteristics related to treatment outcome of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers. Objective Gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression were investigated for possible effects on the treatment outcome. Method Patient characteristics were explored in 54 refugees and asylum seekers who had completed a treatment program for PTSD. Non-responders (10), those who had the same or higher levels of symptom severity after treatment, were compared with responders, those who had lower symptom severity after treatment (44). Symptom severity was measured by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The non-responders and responders constituted the dichotomous, dependent variable. The independent variables were gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression. T-tests and Exact Unconditional Homogeneity/Independence Tests for 2×2 Tables were used to study the relationship to treatment outcome. Results Being male and reporting to have been a violent offender were significantly more frequent characteristics among the non-responders compared to the responders. The levels of pretreatment anger, depression and torture status did not affect the treatment outcome. Conclusions The study adds support to findings that females benefit more from treatment of PTSD than males and that violent offenders are difficult to treat within the standard treatment programs. PMID:24494062

  17. Social status correlates of reporting gender discrimination and racial discrimination among racially diverse women.

    PubMed

    Ro, Annie E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in North California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  18. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  19. No early gender effects on energetic status and life history in a salmonid

    PubMed Central

    Régnier, Thomas; Labonne, Jacques; Chat, Joëlle; Yano, Ayaka; Guiguen, Yann; Bolliet, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Throughout an organism's early development, variations in physiology and behaviours may have long lasting consequences on individual life histories. While a large part of variation in critical life-history transitions remains unexplained, a significant proportion may be caused by early gender effects as part of gender-specific life histories shaped by sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the presence of early gender effects on the timing of emergence from gravel and the energetic status of brown trout (Salmo trutta) early stages. To investigate this question, individual measures of emergence timing, metabolic rate and energetic content were coupled for the first time with the use of a recent genetic marker for sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), a master sex-determining gene. Our results show that gender does not influence the energetic content of emerging juveniles or their emergence timing. These findings suggest that gender differences may appear later throughout salmonid life history and that selective pressures associated with the critical period of emergence from gravel may shape early life-history traits similarly in both males and females.

  20. Gender Diversity in the Geosciences: Current Status and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Frey, C.; Ongley, L. K.

    2002-12-01

    Since 1995, the proportion of women in the American Geological Institute's Directory of Geoscience Departments has risen from 12% of the entries to 14.2% (exclusive of administrative assistants). Separated into type of institution, there is a greater proportion of women at Museums (17.5%), Bachelor's-granting institutions (17.2%), and non degree-granting academic institutions (16.5%), but these percentages drop when marginal positions, such as "Lecturer", "Instructor", "Adjunct" and "Cooperating Faculty" are excluded to 14.0% (Museums), 15.9% (B.S.-granting institution). The institutions with the lowest proportion of females are the State Geologic Surveys (12.6% female), followed by Ph.D.-granting institutions (12.8% female). Fifteen Ph.D.-granting institutions in the United States still have no females on their faculty. These numbers contrast poorly with the proportion of women receiving B.S. or M.S. degrees in the geosciences over the last 10 years (34 B.S.%/30% M.S. in 1996) and with the proportion receiving the PhD. (24% over the last 10 years; 30% in 2000). There is a significant loss of women between the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and between the Ph.D. degree and a tenure-track position. Women reach or exceed their overall average in four subdisciplines of the geosciences: paleontology, geochemistry, general geology, and oceanography. Women are most under-represented in engineering geology, followed by economic geology, planetology, soil science, geophysics, and hydrology. Within these subdisciplines, women exceed their overall average in geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, ground water and surface water studies, soil biochemistry, and meteorite study. Most women in tenure-track positions at degree-granting institutions are currently Assistant Professors while most men are Full Professors. The proportion of women hired into Assistant Professor positions has increased over the last five years, from 22% hired 5 to 10 years ago to 25% hired 1 to 5 years ago. These data indicate that women are beginning to approach being hired at the same proportion in which they receive PhD degrees in the geosciences. Despite common myth, women are not getting "all" of the new Assistant Professor positions; they remain under-represented at every academic rank, at every type of institution. At the current rate of increase, we expect women will not achieve parity in the geosciences for another 40 years.

  1. First-Year Study Success in Economics and Econometrics: The Role of Gender, Motivation, and Math Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Rowaan, Wietske

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the relationships among gender, math skills, motivation, and study success in economics and econometrics. They find that female students have stronger intrinsic motivation, yet lower study confidence than their male counterparts. They also find weak evidence for a gender gap over the entire first-year…

  2. First-Year Study Success in Economics and Econometrics: The Role of Gender, Motivation, and Math Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Rowaan, Wietske

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the relationships among gender, math skills, motivation, and study success in economics and econometrics. They find that female students have stronger intrinsic motivation, yet lower study confidence than their male counterparts. They also find weak evidence for a gender gap over the entire first-year

  3. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic

  4. A Study on Relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss

    2015-01-01

    Personality covers the whole nature of the individual. Socio Economic Status refers to the position that an individual and family occupies with reference to prevailing average standards, cultural possession and participation in group activity of community. This paper reports on relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of student…

  5. ITER Cryoplant Status and Economics of the LHe plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monneret, E.; Chalifour, M.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Voigt, T.; Badgujar, S.; Chang, H.-S.; Vincent, G.

    The ITER cryoplant is composed of helium and nitrogen refrigerators and generator combined with 80 K helium loop plants and external purification systems. Storage and recovery of the helium inventory is provided in warm and cold (80 K and 4.5 K) helium tanks.The conceptual design of the ITER cryoplant has been completed, the technical requirements defined for industrial procurement and contracts signed with industry. Each contract covers the design, manufacturing, installation and commissioning. Design is under finalization and manufacturing has started. First deliveries are scheduled by end of 2015.The various cryoplant systems are designed based on recognized codes and international standards to meet the availability, the reliability and the time between maintenance imposed by the long-term uninterrupted operation of the ITER Tokamak. In addition, ITER has to consider the constraint of a nuclear installation.ITER Organization (IO) is responsible for the liquid helium (LHe) Plants contract signed end of 2012 with industry. It is composed of three LHe Plants, working in parallel and able to provide a total average cooling capacity of 75 kW at 4.5 K. Based on concept designed developed with industries and the procurement phase, ITER has accumulated data to broaden the scaling laws for costing such systems.After describing the status of ITER cryoplant part of the cryogenic system, we shall present the economics of the ITER LHe Plants based on key design requirements, choice and challenges of this ITER Organization procurement.

  6. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

  7. Gender Obesity Inequities Are Huge but Differ Greatly According to Environment and Socio-Economics in a North African Setting: A National Cross-Sectional Study in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Delpeuch, Francis; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Béji, Chiraz; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Bougatef, Souha; Kolsteren, Patrick; Maire, Bernard; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35–70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg)/height(m)2 and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). Results BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), P<0.0001) as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR = 3.8[3.1–7.4], P<0.0001) and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3–4.8], P<0.0001). Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3–8.7]) than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7–5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3–8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0–23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5–4.3]) or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0–5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3–8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. Conclusion The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings. PMID:23118943

  8. Dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing: the relevance of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Khallad, Yacoub

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked. PMID:22822989

  9. The pain of low status: the relationship between subjective socio-economic status and analgesic prescriptions in a Scottish community sample.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Juliet Ruth Helen; Sani, Fabio; Madhok, Vishnu; Norbury, Michael; Dugard, Pat

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong positive relationship between objective measures of socio-economic status (OSS) and general health. However, there is an increasing interest in the relationship between health and subjective socio-economic status (SSS), which describes one's perceived rank in relation to the rest of the society, based on factors such as income, occupation and education. While the relationship between SSS and general health is well established, the relationship between SSS and pain has received little attention. Gathering both self-report questionnaire data and General Practitioner medical data from a large representative community sample in Scotland between 2012 and 2013 (N=1824), we investigated the relationship between SSS and prescriptions for analgesic drugs. We found that higher levels of SSS significantly predicted lower odds of participants having been prescribed at least one analgesic drug in the previous six months. We obtained this result even after controlling for OSS-related variables (education, occupational status and geographical location) and demographic variables (age and gender). This suggests that, just like the relationship between SSS and general health, SSS has important effects on pain that go beyond the influence of OSS. PMID:25685990

  10. Effects of applicant overeducation, job status, and job gender stereotype on employment decisions.

    PubMed

    Athey, T R; Hautaluoma, J E

    1994-08-01

    Employment preferences of personnel representatives in electronics firms regarding job applicants who had varying levels of education were investigated. The applicants had either obtained a 4-year college degree, completed 2 years of college, or completed high school. The stimulus jobs required the equivalent of a high school education but varied in terms of status and gender stereotype. The personnel representatives tended to recommend college-educated applicants for higher status jobs and male stereotypic jobs and applicants who had high school degrees for lower status and female stereotypic jobs. Contrary to the results of most previous research on overeducation, the performance of the applicants who were college graduates was expected to be higher than that of the less educated applicants. PMID:7967549

  11. Effects of Prior Economic Education, Native Language, and Gender on Economic Knowledge of First-Year Students in Higher Education. A Comparative Study between Germany and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings…

  12. Effects of Prior Economic Education, Native Language, and Gender on Economic Knowledge of First-Year Students in Higher Education. A Comparative Study between Germany and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brckner, Sebastian; Frster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings

  13. Association of mandible anatomy with age, gender, and dental status: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Chole, Revant H; Patil, Ranjitkumar N; Balsaraf Chole, Swati; Gondivkar, Shailesh; Gadbail, Amol R; Yuwanati, Monal B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Gonial angle and antegonial region are important landmarks in mandible which is influenced by gender, age, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth and to investigate their relationship to gender, age group, and dental status. Materials and Methods. A total of 1060 panoramic radiographs were evaluated: the dentulous group, 854 subjects and the edentulous group, 206 subjects. The patients were grouped into six age groups of 10-years each. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth were measured from panoramic radiographs. Results and Discussion. Corelation of age with gonial angle, antegonial angle and antegonial depth was not significant. Significant difference in mandibular angle was found between males and females. Males had significantly smaller antegonial angle and greater antegonial depth than females. Significant difference was found for gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth between right and left sides of mandible. Conclusion. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth can be implicated as a forensic tool for gender determination but not suitable for age determination. PMID:24959560

  14. Association of Mandible Anatomy with Age, Gender, and Dental Status: A Radiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Chole, Revant H.; Patil, Ranjitkumar N.; Gondivkar, Shailesh; Gadbail, Amol R.; Yuwanati, Monal B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Gonial angle and antegonial region are important landmarks in mandible which is influenced by gender, age, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth and to investigate their relationship to gender, age group, and dental status. Materials and Methods. A total of 1060 panoramic radiographs were evaluated: the dentulous group, 854 subjects and the edentulous group, 206 subjects. The patients were grouped into six age groups of 10-years each. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth were measured from panoramic radiographs. Results and Discussion. Corelation of age with gonial angle, antegonial angle and antegonial depth was not significant. Significant difference in mandibular angle was found between males and females. Males had significantly smaller antegonial angle and greater antegonial depth than females. Significant difference was found for gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth between right and left sides of mandible. Conclusion. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth can be implicated as a forensic tool for gender determination but not suitable for age determination. PMID:24959560

  15. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  16. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in

  17. Gender differences in sleep deprivation effects on risk and inequality aversion: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Excessive working hours--even at night--are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects' risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females' reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making. PMID:25793869

  18. Gender Differences in Sleep Deprivation Effects on Risk and Inequality Aversion: Evidence from an Economic Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Excessive working hours—even at night—are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects’ risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females’ reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making. PMID:25793869

  19. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  20. Grade, pubertal status, and gender-related variations in conflictual issues among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Papini, D R; Clark, S; Barnett, J K; Savage, C L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent perceptions of conflictual family issues, and to ascertain if the intensity of these issues is associated with adolescent grade in school, pubertal status, and gender. The sample was comprised of 279 junior high and senior high school students. Each participant completed a self-report measure of pubertal status, a demographic questionnaire, and the Issues Checklist. Principal factor analysis with varimax rotation of the Issues Checklist resulted in the retention of four factors accounting for 71.59% of the variance. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted for each emergent factor with grade in school, pubertal status, and gender serving as predictors. The results of these analyses indicated that the intensity of School Issues and Household Behavior Issues is greater among seventh and ninth graders than among eleventh graders. Self-Responsibility Issues were perceived as being most intense among transpubertal adolescents. Finally, boys perceived more intense conflict over Persistent Issues and Concerns than did girls. PMID:2610045

  1. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students

  2. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  3. Gender, Race, and Health Insurance Status in Patients Undergoing Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nileshkumar; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Thakkar, Badal; Coffey, James O; Agnihotri, Kanishk; Patel, Achint; Ainani, Nitesh; Nalluri, Nikhil; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nish; Patel, Neil; Badheka, Apurva O; Kowalski, Marcin; Hendel, Robert; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan; Noseworthy, Peter A; Asirvatham, Samuel; Lo, Kaming; Myerburg, Robert J; Mitrani, Raul D

    2016-04-01

    Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has emerged as a popular procedure. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there exist differences or disparities in ablation utilization across gender, socioeconomic class, insurance, or race. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2000 to 2012), we identified adults hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of AF by ICD 9 code 427.31 who had catheter ablation (ICD 9 code-37.34). We stratified patients by race, insurance status, age, gender, and hospital characteristics. A hierarchical multivariate mixed-effect model was created to identify the independent predictors of AF ablation. Among an estimated total of 3,508,122 patients (extrapolated from 20% Nationwide Inpatient Sample) hospitalized with a diagnosis of AF in the United States from the year 2000 to 2012, 102,469 patients (2.9%) underwent catheter ablations. The number of ablations was increased by 940%, from 1,439 in 2000 to 15,090 in 2012. There were significant differences according to gender, race, and health insurance status, which persisted even after adjustment for other risk factors. Female gender (0.83 [95% CI 0.79 to 0.87; p <0.001]), black (0.49 [95% CI 0.44 to 0.55; p <0.001]), and Hispanic race (0.64 [95% CI 0.56 to 0.72; p <0.001]) were associated with lower likelihoods of undergoing an AF ablation. Medicare (0.93, 0.88 to 0.98, <0.001) or Medicaid (0.67, 0.59 to 0.76, <0.001) coverage and uninsured patients (0.55, 0.49 to 0.62, <0.001) also had lower rates of AF ablation compared to patients with private insurance. In conclusion we found differences in utilization of catheter ablation for AF based on gender, race, and insurance status that persisted over time. PMID:26899494

  4. [The impact of health economics: a status report].

    PubMed

    Tunder, R

    2011-12-01

    "Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given. PMID:22108908

  5. Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p < 0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p < 0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p < 0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p < 0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p < 0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p < 0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p < 0.004]. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS. PMID:24735007

  6. Early adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and weight status change: the moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    According to many public health experts, obesity is the most serious health threat facing today's early adolescents. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial adjustment (i.e., internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, interpersonal skills) and weight status change during early adolescence and possible moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a US nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. The current study was initiated in the fifth grade (n=6,860; 51% female). At fifth grade, parents reported on household routines; children and teachers reported on indicators of psychosocial adjustment. At fifth and eighth grade, children's weight was measured. Girls' weight status stability and change was more likely than boys' to be associated with psychosocial adjustment, after accounting for household/child routines and demographic variables. Compared to non-Hispanic White, Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of externalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay obese at eighth grade. Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of internalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay at a healthy weight at eighth grade, especially if they reported lower levels of acculturation. Lastly, African American girls with better interpersonal skills at fifth grade were more likely to stay obese at eighth grade. Implications for obesity prevention programs with early adolescents are discussed in the contexts of gender, ethnicity and acculturation. PMID:25107487

  7. Gender Differences in the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Grimaud, Olivier; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Berr, Claudine; Helmer, Catherine; Dufouil, Carole; Kihal, Wahida; Alpérovitch, Annick; Chauvin, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored the pattern of associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and atherosclerosis progression (as indicated by carotid intima media thickness, CIMT) across gender. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 5474 older persons (mean age 73 years) recruited between 1999 and 2001 in the 3C study (France). We fitted linear regression models including neighborhood SES, individual SES and cardiovascular risk factors. Results CIMT was on average 24 µm higher in men (95% CI: 17 to 31). Neighborhood SES was inversely associated with CIMT in women only (highest versus lowest tertiles: −12.2 µm, 95%CI −22 to −2.4). This association persisted when individual SES and risk factors were accounted for. High individual education was associated with lower CIMT in men (−21.4 µm 95%CI −37.5 to −5.3) whereas high professional status was linked to lower CIMT among women (−15.7 µm 95%CI: −29.2 to −2.2). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors resulted in a slightly more pronounced reduction of the individual SES-CIMT association observed in men than in women. Conclusion In this sample, neighborhood and individual SES displayed different patterns of associations with subclinical atherosclerosis across gender. This suggests that the causal pathways leading to SES variations in atherosclerosis may differ among men and women. PMID:24282522

  8. The Status of Econometrics in the Economics Major: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce K.; Perry, John J.; Petkus, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online

  9. The Status of Econometrics in the Economics Major: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce K.; Perry, John J.; Petkus, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online…

  10. Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Biaggi, Christina; Secula, Florence; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Namgyal, Pem; Hombach, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease. PMID:26317975

  11. A Reconstruction of the Gender Agenda: The Contradictory Gender Dimensions in New Labour's Educational and Economic Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Miles, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory

  12. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…

  13. Development of a Socio-Economic-Status Index Using United States Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosset, Jane M.; Hawk, Thomas R.

    The study reported here employed a quasi-factorial ecological approach to explore the possibility of using economic and social indicators available from the 1980 census to construct a socio-economic status (SES) index. The study hypothesized that if an appropriate factor analysis model could be identified, factor score equations could be used to

  14. Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children's Performance on the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in

  15. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (?(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (?(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (?(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (?(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (?(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (?(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981

  16. Gender differences between predictors of HIV status among PWID in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, K.F.; Dvoryak, S.; Garver-Apgar, C.; Davis, J.M.; Brewster, J.T.; Lisovska, O.; Booth, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Ukraine is among the largest in Europe. While traditionally the epidemic has spread through injection risk behavior, sexual transmission is becoming more common. Previous research has found that women in Ukraine have higher rates of HIV and engage in more HIV risk behavior than men. This study extended that work by identifying risk factors that differentially predict men and womens HIV status among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. Methods From July 2010 through July 2013, 2480 sexually active PWID with unknown HIV status were recruited from three cities in Ukraine through street outreach. The average age was 31 years old. Results Women, who made up twenty-eight percent of the sample, had higher safe sex self-efficacy (p<0.01) and HIV knowledge (p<0.001) than men, but scored higher on both the risky injection (p<0.001) and risky sex (p<0.001) composite scores than men. Risky sex behaviors were associated with womens HIV status more than mens. We also report results identifying predictors of risky injection and sex behaviors. Conclusions Gender-specific interventions could address problem of HIV risk among women who inject drugs in a country with a growing HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest specific ways in which intervention efforts might focus on groups and individuals who are at the highest risk of contracting HIV (or who are already HIV positive) to halt the spread of HIV in Ukraine. PMID:24613219

  17. Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis in School Children in Rwanda and Its Association with Socio-Economic Status: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smedt, Stefan De; Nkurikiye, John; Fonteyne, Yannick; Hogewoning, Arjan; Esbroeck, Marjan Van; Bacquer, Dirk De; Tuft, Stephen; Gilbert, Clare; Delanghe, Joris; Kestelyn, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.34.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, P = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, P = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, P = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load. PMID:21976577

  18. Blinded to Science: Gender Differences in the Effects of Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status on Academic and Science Attitudes among Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Brea L.; Link, Tanja; Boelter, Christina; Leukefeld, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational

  19. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as

  20. Explaining the Socio-Economic Status School Completion Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Hanel, Barbara; Buddelmeyer, Hielke

    2013-01-01

    Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion rates

  1. Explaining the Socio-Economic Status School Completion Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Hanel, Barbara; Buddelmeyer, Hielke

    2013-01-01

    Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion rates…

  2. ON IMPROVING THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE NEGRO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOBIN, JAMES

    EFFORTS TO ELIMINATE NEGRO POVERTY MUST BE UNDERTAKEN WITHIN A FAVORABLE OVERALL ECONOMIC CLIMATE, AND THE CURRENT CLIMATE IS NOT FAVORABLE BECAUSE MANPOWER AND PLANT CAPACITY ARE NOT FULLY UTILIZED. SUCH FACTORS AS LIMITED JOBS, EXAGGERATED JOB REQUIREMENTS, LOWER EARNING CAPACITY, DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT, FLUCTUATIONS OF THE BUSINESS CYCLE, AND…

  3. Ethnic Drinking Cultures, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in Asian American and Latino Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterogeneity in drinking across national groups is well-documented, but what explains such heterogeneity is less clear. To improve understanding of the underlying cultural conditions that may lead to diverse drinking outcomes, we investigate whether three dimensions of ethnic drinking culture (EDC)—alcohol consumption level, drinking prevalence, and detrimental drinking pattern (DDP) in the country of origin (COO)—are significantly associated with alcohol consumption in Asian Americans and Latina/os, and whether the associations vary by gender and socioeconomic status as assessed by educational level. Methods A nationally-representative sample of 1,012 Asian American and 4,831 Latino adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data was used. A series of multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted separately for Asian Americans and for Latina/os. Analyses were also stratified by gender and educational level. Results Overall, the associations between EDC variables and drinking outcomes were more pronounced for all Asian Americans than for all Latina/os, for males than for females among Asian Americans, and for Latinas than for Latinos. In analyses simultaneously stratifying on gender and education level, however, there was a clear pattern of COO DDP associated with heavier drinking and alcohol consumption volume only for Latinos without a college degree. Conclusions Ethnic drinking cultures may influence drinking in Asian American and Latino subgroups, albeit to a varying degree. Low-SES Latinos may be at disproportionate risk of harmful drinking patterns pervasive in their country of origin. Future research might investigate the complex interplay between socioeconomic disadvantage and cultural conditions to inform targeted interventions for subgroups at high risk of alcohol-related harms. PMID:25581659

  4. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  5. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  6. Neoliberalism and the World Bank: Economic Discourse and the (Re)Production of Gendered Identity(ies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Penny

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions

  7. Ethnic, Gender, and Socio-Economic Group Differences in Academic Performance and Secondary School Selection: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender, socio-economic (SES), and ethnic group differences in academic performance (measured at 14 and 16 years) in a sample of 517 British pupils (mean age = 16.5 years). White pupils outperformed their Black and Pakistani counterparts and high SES pupils consistently outperformed their low SES counterparts. Results from two

  8. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    PubMed

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important. PMID:26816163

  9. Classroom-Level Predictors of the Social Status of Aggression: Friendship Centralization, Friendship Density, Teacher-Student Attunement, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of

  10. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of

  11. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  12. A Report on the Undergraduate Women of Greater Guam and Micronesia: Their Status Aspirations and Gender Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    This document reports on a study to determine Guamanian women's identification of their social status and gender awareness. Participants of the study were 350 randomly selected undergraduate women who responded to questionnaires. A statistical profile of the Guamanian undergraduate women was derived as follows: (1) is a traditional aged student;…

  13. Predictiveness of Identity Status, Main Internet Use Purposes and Gender on University Students' the Problematic Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at revealing the relationships between the problematic Internet use of university students and their identity status, main Internet use purposes, and gender. A total of 464 university students participated in the study, and the research data were collected through the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Extended Objective Measure…

  14. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of

  15. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement

  16. Intercollegiate Athletics: Status of Efforts To Promote Gender Equity. Report to the Honorable Cardiss Collins, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Prepared as a report to Representative Cardiss Collins as part of an ongoing review of the implementation of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, this document examines the current status of gender equity in intercollegiate athletics. Agencies with oversight responsibility for public higher education in each of the 50 states and the

  17. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from…

  18. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from

  19. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  20. Fuel Cells: Status and Technical/Economic Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambach, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    The need for fuel cell and alternative fuels has become increasingly important in that the U.S. spends 1 billion dollars per week to import oil, and is expected to import 80-100 billion per year in oil by the year 2010. These imports account for half of our oil supply. If 20% of the U.S. vehicle fleet were powered by fuel cells there would be: an offset 1.1 million barrels of oil per day; and a reduction of 2 million tons per year of regulated air pollutants. Fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from reformed natural gas results in more than 90% reduction in regulated emissions, and a 70% reduction in CO2, a greenhouse gas. And fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from renewables (wind, solar geothermal, hydro) results in total elimination of all emissions. When fuel cells become commercialized: they will improve America's economic competitiveness; and the regions where they are produced will benefit economically.

  1. The Relation of Economic Status to Subjective Well-Being in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Ryan T.; Howell, Colleen J.

    2008-01-01

    The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least

  2. The Relation of Economic Status to Subjective Well-Being in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Ryan T.; Howell, Colleen J.

    2008-01-01

    The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least…

  3. Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Sandra

    2006-02-01

    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health. PMID:15896870

  4. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

  5. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  6. Wind turbines for electric utilities - Development status and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a 'fuel saver' is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  7. Wind turbines for electric utilities: Development status and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a fuel saver is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  8. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails. PMID:26102185

  9. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male respondents, 5/25 (25%) of males are each engaged in cultivation and small scale businesses in comparison to 1/25 (4%) of female and 6/25 (24%) of the female respondents are unemployed as compared to 2/25 (8%) of male respondents. It was observed that only 30% of the respondents were satisfied with the government treatment, 26% partially satisfied and rest were not satisfied with the government leprosy care system. Most of them wanted to seek treatment from the private health care providers. Overall this study reflects the poor socio-economic conditions of the LAPs. Though results of this exploratory study cannot be extrapolated to country or region or state without studying the situation in detail, it highlights the need for more in-depth studies and of government intervention in the form of encouraging awareness activities in the communities, engaging NGOs im case detection and after care service provision and rehabilitation of the LAPs. PMID:26999986

  10. What's it worth? Educational background and economic status: Spring 1984.

    PubMed

    Kominski, R

    1987-09-01

    This report presents data from the survey of Income of Program Participation regarding the background and educational attainment of the US population. All analyses are based on data collected in the 3rd interview of the panel gathered from May to August 1984. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) About 21% of US adults have obtained a degree beyond the high school diploma. 2) Those with professional degrees report a mean monthly income of $3871, the highest of all persons with degrees beyond high school. 3) The average monthly income for persons with a bachelor's degree is $1841; economics majors earn an average monthly income of $2846 while home economics majors make $1065. 4) 13.7% of all college degrees awarded to men are in the field of engineering; only 1.5% of degrees held by women are in engineering. 5) 19% of postsecondary degrees are awarded in the field of business. 5) 43% of all persons who attended at least 12 years of school were in an academic or college prep track; 20% of women were in a business track as compared to 5% of men. 6) 21.7% of persons 18-64 had at some time received training designed to help find a job, improve skills, or learn a new job; 34.7% of these people had obtained the training on their current job. PMID:12281537

  11. Gender differences in pre-event health status of young patients with acute myocardial infarction: A VIRGO study analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P; Smolderen, Kim G; Strait, Kelly M; Beltrame, John F; Lichtman, Judith H; Lorenze, Nancy P; DOnofrio, Gail; Bueno, Hctor; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A

    2015-01-01

    Aims We assessed gender differences in pre-event health status (symptoms, functioning, quality of life) in young patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and whether or not this association persists following sequential adjustment for important covariates. We also evaluated the interaction between gender and prior coronary artery disease (CAD), given that aggressive symptom control is a cornerstone of care in those with known coronary disease. Methods and Results A total of 3,501 AMI patients (2,349 women) aged 1855 years were enrolled from 103 United States/24 Spanish hospitals (20082012). Clinical/health status information was obtained by medical record abstraction and patient interviews. Pre-event health status was measured by generic [Short Form-12 (SF-12), EuroQoL [EQ-5D)] and disease-specific [Seattle angina questionnaire (SAQ)] measures. T-test/chi-square and multivariable linear/logistic regression analysis was utilized, sequentially adjusting for covariates. Women had more co-morbidities and significantly lower generic mean health scores than men [SF-12 physical health =4312 vs. 4611 and mental health= 4413 vs. 4811]; EQ-5D utility index=0.70.2 vs. 0.80.2, and visual analog scale=6322 vs. 6720, P<0.0001 for all. Their disease-specific health status was also worse, with more angina [SAQ angina frequency=8322 vs. 8718], worse physical function [physical limitation=7827 vs. 8721] and poorer quality of life [5525 vs. 6022, P<0.0001 for all]. In multivariable analysis, the association between female gender and worse generic physical/mental health persisted, as well as worse disease-specific physical limitation and quality of life. The interaction between gender and prior CAD was not significant in any of the health status outcomes. Conclusion Young women have worse pre-event health status as compared with men, regardless of their CAD history. While future studies of gender differences should adjust for baseline health status, an opportunity may exist to better address the pre-event health status of women at risk for AMI. PMID:25681487

  12. Economic status and prospects of solar thermal industrial heat

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Hale, M.J.

    1992-12-01

    This paper provides estimates of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of a mid-temperature parabolic trough system for three different development scenarios. A current technology case is developed that is representative of recent designs and costs for commercial systems, and is developed using data from a recent system installed in Tehachapi, California. The second scenario looks at design enhancements to the currenttechnology case as a way to increase annual energy output and decrease costs. The third scenario uses the annual energy output of the enhanced design, but allows for cost reductions that would be possible in higher volume production than currently exist. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system, and the results were combined with cost data in an economic analysis model. The study indicates that R D improvements in the current trough system show promise of reducing the (LEC) by about 40%. At higher production rates, the LEC of the solar system with R D improvements could potentially be reduced by over 50%.

  13. Economic status and prospects of solar thermal industrial heat

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Hale, M.J.

    1992-12-01

    This paper provides estimates of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of a mid-temperature parabolic trough system for three different development scenarios. A current technology case is developed that is representative of recent designs and costs for commercial systems, and is developed using data from a recent system installed in Tehachapi, California. The second scenario looks at design enhancements to the currenttechnology case as a way to increase annual energy output and decrease costs. The third scenario uses the annual energy output of the enhanced design, but allows for cost reductions that would be possible in higher volume production than currently exist. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system, and the results were combined with cost data in an economic analysis model. The study indicates that R&D improvements in the current trough system show promise of reducing the (LEC) by about 40%. At higher production rates, the LEC of the solar system with R&D improvements could potentially be reduced by over 50%.

  14. Endurance Cyclist Fluid Intake, Hydration Status, Thirst, and Thermal Sensations: Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Williamson, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    This field investigation assessed differences (e.g., drinking behavior, hydration status, perceptual ratings) between female and male endurance cyclists who completed a 164-km event in a hot environment (35 °C mean dry bulb) to inform rehydration recommendations for athletes. Three years of data were pooled to create 2 groups of cyclists: women (n = 15) and men (n = 88). Women were significantly smaller (p < .001) than men in height (166 ± 5 vs. 179 ± 7 cm), body mass (64.6 ± 7.3 vs. 86.4 ± 12.3 kg), and body mass index (BMI; 23.3 ± 1.8 vs. 26.9 ± 3.4) and had lower preevent urinary indices of hydration status, but were similar to men in age (43 ± 7 years vs. 44 ± 9 years) and exercise time (7.77 ± 1.24 hr vs. 7.23 ± 1.75 hr). During the 164-km ride, women lost less body mass (-0.7 ± 1.0 vs. -1.7 ± 1.5 kg; -1.1 ± 1.6% vs. -1.9 ± 1.8% of body weight; p < .005) and consumed less fluid than men (4.80 ± 1.28 L vs. 5.59 ± 2.13 L; p < .005). Women consumed a similar volume of fluid as men, relative to body mass (milliliters/kilogram). To control for performance and anthropomorphic characteristics, 15 women were pair-matched with 15 men on the basis of exercise time on the course and BMI; urine-specific gravity, urine color, and body mass change (kilograms and percentage) were different (p < .05) in 4 of 6 comparisons. No gender differences were observed for ratings of thirst, thermal sensation, or perceived exertion. In conclusion, differences in relative fluid volume consumed and hydration indices suggest that professional sports medicine organizations should consider gender and individualized drinking plans when formulating pronouncements regarding rehydration during exercise. PMID:26479401

  15. Associations between economic loss, financial strain and the psychological status of Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. PMID:25754768

  16. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls

  17. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idse, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the

  18. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlgan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory

  19. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  20. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  1. Socio-Economic Status and Enrollment in Higher Education: Do Costs Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have…

  2. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study

  3. Socio-Economic Status and Enrollment in Higher Education: Do Costs Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have

  4. Here's the News: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2012-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.; Thornton, Saranna

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the annual report on the economic status of the profession. This year's report covers three main issues--all perennial problems, but with new analysis based on the latest data--in addition to summarizing the current results from the annual American Association of University Professors (AAUP) survey of full-time faculty

  5. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a

  6. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  7. Teacher Perceptions of Race, Socio-Economic Status and Language Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilberts, Richard A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to find whether race, socio-economic status (SES) and language cues of speakers modify the ratings of white experienced teachers. Subjects were 250 white male and female experienced teachers whose responses were recorded on a semantic differential designed to assess teacher expectancies on two concepts: speaker and speaker's…

  8. Career Development Needs of Low Socio-Economic Status University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Erin

    2011-01-01

    With increased funding from the Australian federal government to improve the enrolments of students with low socio-economic status into university, identifying the career needs of this student cohort is of utmost importance, if indeed they are different from other university students. This will ensure career services offer comprehensive and…

  9. The Status of Women in the States. Politics, Economics, Health, Demographics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This report presents information from a variety of sources (primarily government agencies) regarding the status of women in the United States. The report presents data for each state on 20 component indicators as well as on 4 composite indices: political participation; employment and earnings; economic autonomy; and reproductive rights. Discussed

  10. Project in Research in Universities: Economic Status of College Alumni. Bulletin, 1937, No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Walter J.

    1939-01-01

    The study of the "Economic Status of College Alumni" carried out on a uniform basis in 31 universities in 20 States is reported in this bulletin. These institutions are considered representative of universities for the country as a whole. Nearly 50,000 graduates, both men and women; contributed to the study by returning usable questionnaires. Each

  11. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  12. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  13. Socio-Economic Status and Academic Achievement Trajectories from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    Although a positive relationship between socio-economic status and academic achievement is well-established, how it varies with age is not. This article uses four data points from Canada's National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine how the academic achievement gap attributed to SES changes from childhood to adolescence

  14. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood

  15. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) analysis on depressed mood in Korea: the impact of gender differences and other socio-economic factors

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Lara; Noh, Yong-Hwan; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression), might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods: Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females), aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP) regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status) and socio-economic factors (such as education, residence in metropolitan areas, and so on). As the results of the Wald test carried out after the estimations did not allow to reject the null hypothesis of endogeneity, a probit model was run too. Results: Overall, women tend to develop depression more frequently than men. There is an inverse effect of education on depressed mood (probability of -24.6% to report a depressed mood due to high school education, as it emerges from the probit model marginal effects), while marital status and the number of family members may act as protective factors (probability to report a depressed mood of -1.0% for each family member). Depression is significantly associated with socio-economic conditions, such as work and income. Living in metropolitan areas is inversely correlated with depression (probability of -4.1% to report a depressed mood estimated through the probit model): this could be explained considering that, in rural areas, people rarely have immediate access to high-quality health services. Conclusion: This study outlines the factors that are more likely to impact on depression, and applies an IVP model to take into account the potential endogeneity of some of the predictors of depressive mood, such as female participation to workforce and health status. A probit model has been estimated too. Depression is associated with a wide range of socio-economic factors, although the strength and direction of the association can differ by gender. Prevention approaches to contrast depressive symptoms might take into consideration the evidence offered by the present study. PMID:26340392

  16. Images of Occupations: Components of Gender and Status in Occupational Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Peter; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Uses a multidimensional approach to explore occupational gender type for 100 occupational titles. Occupational images were primarily structured on two orthogonal dimensions: prestige and gender type. Findings from a sample of 125 undergraduates support the multidimensional approach. Also, even though the prestige and gender-type factors were

  17. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Arafat, Hassan A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-01

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe. PMID:18397822

  18. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Arafat, Hassan A. Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-15

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

  19. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  20. A COMPARISON OF ECONOMIC AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF OLDER ADULTS BASED ON HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY STATUS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The older-adult (ages 65 years and over) population is expected to increase from the current 12 percent to 20 percent in 2030. Their well-being is important to their families, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and policy makers. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic and nutr...

  1. Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Urban African American Clinic Patients: Differences by Gender and Screening Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Ruggieri, Dominique G.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening. Few studies have explored African Americans own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were patients in a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital. Focus groups were delimited by gender and CRC screening status. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using an iterative coding process with consensus and triangulation to develop thematic categories. Results indicated key thematic differences in perceptions of screening by gender and CRC screening status. While both men and women who had never been screened had a general lack of knowledge about CRC and screening modalities, women had an overall sense that health screenings were needed and indicated a stronger need to have a positive relationship with their doctor. Women also reported that African American men do not get colonoscopy because of the perceived sexual connotation. Men who had never been screened, compared to those who had been screened, had less trust of their doctors and the health care system and indicated an overall fear of going to the doctor. They also reiterated the sexual connotation of having a colonoscopy and were apprehensive about being sedated during the procedure. Overall, men expressed more fear and were more reluctant to undergo CRC screening than women, but among those who had undergone CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, men expressed advantages of having the screening. All groups were also found to have a negative attitude about the use of fecal occult blood testing and felt colonoscopy was the superior screening modality. Results suggest that messages and education about CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, might place more emphasis on accuracy and might be more effective in increasing screening rates among African Americans if tailored to gender and screening status. PMID:20443096

  2. Socio-economic factors, lifestyle and gender differences in body mass index in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Mary; Chorghade, Ginny; Crozier, Sarah; Leary, Sam; Fall, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    A survey of the nutritional status of women in six villages in the Pune district of Maharashtra, India found young women to have significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than their male peers. The purpose of this study was to identify social and economic factors associated with this difference in thinness, and to explore the behaviour in men and women that might underlie these associations. We compared men and women in 90 families in this part of Maharashtra, recording social and economic details, fasting practices and oil consumption, and took measurements of the height and weight of a married couple of child-bearing age in each family. In this agricultural community, women were thinner in joint, land-owning families where the main occupation was farming, than they did in non-farming families. This was not true of men in this type of family. Men in ‘cash-rich’ families had higher BMIs than men in families without this characteristic. There was no corresponding difference in women’s body mass index. We then examined the lifestyles of men and women in a sub-set of 45 of these families. Women were more likely to work full-time in farming than men, to carry the burden of all household chores, to have less sleep and to eat less food away from home than men. Women fasted more frequently and more strictly than men. Despite identifying significant differences in behaviour between men and women in the same household, we could find no direct link between behaviour and body mass index. We conclude that being married into a farming family is an important factor in determining the thinness of a woman in rural Maharashtra. PMID:17116720

  3. Gendered Inequity in Society and the Academy: Policy Initiatives, Economic Realities and Legal Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron-Moore, Pamela; Jacobs, Leslie R.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the social constructs impacting the contemporary world, gender is perhaps the most pervasive and the most insidious. Its inequities creep into our everyday lives with impunity. Across the globe, gender construction has evoked challenge, undergone reform and, in some instances, transformed thinking in societies. Yet, for all the gains made

  4. Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES) as the contextual determinant of nutritional status of children. Methods Using National Family Health Survey-3 data, an attempt is made to estimate socio-economic inequality in childhood stunting at the state level through Concentration Index (CI). Multi-level models; random-coefficient and random-slope are employed to study the impact of SES on long-term nutritional status among children, keeping in view the hierarchical nature of data. Main findings Across the states, a disproportionate burden of stunting is observed among the children from poor SES, more so in urban areas. The state having lower prevalence of chronic childhood malnutrition shows much higher burden among the poor. Though a negative correlation (r = -0.603, p < .001) is established between Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) and CI values for stunting; the development indicator is not always linearly correlated with intra-state inequality in malnutrition prevalence. Results from multi-level models however show children from highest SES quintile posses 50 percent better nutritional status than those from the poorest quintile. Conclusion In spite of the declining trend of chronic childhood malnutrition in India, the concerns remain for its disproportionate burden on the poor. The socio-economic gradient of long-term nutritional status among children needs special focus, more so in the states where chronic malnutrition among children apparently demonstrates a lower prevalence. The paper calls for state specific policies which are designed and implemented on a priority basis, keeping in view the nature of inequality in childhood malnutrition in the country and its differential characteristics across the states. PMID:20701758

  5. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic indicators were the single most pervasive determinant of health-seeking behaviour among the study population, overriding age and sex, and in case of health-care expenditure, types of illness as well. PMID:15744403

  6. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Methods The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. Results The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. Conclusions We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:23565918

  7. Transactional sex and economic exchange with partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence

    PubMed Central

    Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702

  8. Socio-economic status, permanent income, and fertility: a latent-variable approach.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Glanville, Jennifer L; Stecklov, Guy

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines how permanent income and other components of socio-economic status (SES) are related to fertility in less developed countries. Because permanent income cannot be measured directly, we employ a latent-variable method. We compare our results with those of the more common proxy-variable method and investigate the consequences of not accounting for measurement error. Using data from Ghana and Peru, we find that permanent income has a large, negative influence on fertility and that research must take the latent nature of permanent income into account to uncover its influence. Controlling for measurement error in the proxies for permanent income can also lead to substantial changes in the estimated effects of control variables. Finally, we examine which of the common proxies for permanent income most closely capture the concept. The results have implications beyond this specific dependent variable, providing evidence on the sensitivity of microanalyses to the treatment of long-term economic status. PMID:17365871

  9. Relationships between Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Math Attitudes, and Math Achievement: An International Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Sunny R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement have traditionally been studied within individual countries, despite the existence of large international data sets available for analysis. This dissertation investigated the relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement based on information from 50

  10. Relationships between Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Math Attitudes, and Math Achievement: An International Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Sunny R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement have traditionally been studied within individual countries, despite the existence of large international data sets available for analysis. This dissertation investigated the relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement based on information from 50…

  11. Health status and preventative behaviors of immigrants by gender and origin: a Portuguese cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dias, Snia; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O

    2013-09-01

    Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P?Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time. PMID:23347097

  12. Employment and Earning Differences for Community College Graduates: Intersection of Gender and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goho, James

    2004-01-01

    The economic benefits of postsecondary education are well established. However, there still seem to be differences in employment outcomes by gender or equity status. This exploratory research examined employment differences at the intersection of gender and equity status. Data were derived from a graduate survey and institutional records of a

  13. Relation of type 2 diabetes mellitus with gender, education, and marital status in an Iranian urban population

    PubMed Central

    Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Shojaei, Mohammad; Sotoodeh Jahromi, Abdolreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the relationship of diabetes with gender, education, and marital status in an Iranian urban population. Methods: A total of 892 men and women aged 30-85 were recruited using a cluster-stratified sampling method from an urban population. Using a questionnaire, demographical data including gender, education, and marital status were collected. A blood sample after fasting for at least eight hours was collected from each subject. Associations of type 2 diabetes mellitus and studied variables were tested for significance. Results: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 11.6%; 11.1% in men and 12.1% in women with no significant difference between them. Diabetes mellitus was most prevalent in the oldest age (age more than 60 years, 22.9%) and low education groups (17.9%, P < 0.001). Marital status was not significantly related to diabetes mellitus (P= 0.37). Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is related to education within the Iranian population. Thus preventive strategies should be based on the affective factors. PMID:26989710

  14. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  15. Comparing the Influence of Childhood and Adult Economic Status on Midlife Obesity in Mexican American, White, and African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.; Reagan, Patricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This research addresses the following 2 questions. What is the effect of childhood and adult economic status on midlife obesity in Mexican American women? How do these economic patterns in Mexican American women compare with patterns seen in White women and in African American women? Method Data were drawn from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1979−2002 waves. The sample consisted of 422 Mexican Americans, 2,090 Whites, and 1,195 African Americans. The economic indicator used for childhood economic status was parent education; for adult economic status, the participant's own education and adult per capita income were used. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the relationship between midlife obesity and economic indicator, stratified by race/ethnic group. Results There was an increased risk for midlife obesity with disadvantaged economic status measured during childhood and at midlife in Mexican American women. The economic effects on midlife obesity in Mexican American women were similar to those found for White, but not African American women. Few economic influences on obesity at midlife were found for African American women. Conclusions Strategies that broadly improve the economic conditions of Mexican American women may be one important way to address the obesity epidemic in this population. PMID:19154189

  16. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Background Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. Method A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18–60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. Results No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure. PMID:26301591

  17. The economic status of parents with serious mental illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, A; Nicholson, J; Meara, E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents with serious mental illness may be vulnerable to financial insecurity, making successful parenting especially difficult. We explored relationships among parenting, serious mental illness and economic status in a nationally representative sample. Methods The sample included all working-age participants from the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 77,326). Two well-established scales of mental health distinguished participants with none, mild, moderate, and serious mental illness. We compared economic status by parenthood status and mental illness severity. Results Rates of employment were low for parents with serious mental illness (38% full-time and 17% part-time among mothers; 60% full-time and 9% part-time among fathers) compared to parents with no mental illness (50% full-time and 19% part-time among mothers; 85% full-time and 5% part-time among fathers). Mothers and fathers with serious mental illness were twice as likely to fall below the US Census poverty threshold than their peers without mental illness. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Parents with serious mental illness are less likely to be employed than those without mental illnesses and are highly likely to be living in poverty. Reducing poverty by helping parents with serious mental illness achieve better jobs and education is likely to translate into family stability and better outcomes. PMID:25000119

  18. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  19. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look

  20. Collective religiosity and the gender gap in attitudes towards economic redistribution in 86 countries, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M; Fernández, Juan J; Valiente, Celia; Mayrl, Damon

    2016-05-01

    What is the relationship between gender and the demand for redistribution? Because, on average, women face more economic deprivation than men, in many countries women favor redistribution more than men. However, this is not the case in a number of other countries, where women do not support redistribution more than men. To explain this cross-national paradox, we stress the role of collective religiosity. In many religions, theological principles both militate against public policies designed to redistribute income, and also promote traditionally gendered patterns of work and family involvement. Hence, we hypothesize that, in those countries where religion remains influential either through closer church-state ties or an intensely religious population, men and women should differ less in their attitudes towards redistribution. Drawing upon the World Values Survey, we estimate three-level regression models that test our religiosity-based approach and two alternative explanations in 86 countries and 175 country-years. The results are consistent with our hypothesis. Moreover, in further support of our theoretical approach, societal religiosity undermines pro-redistribution preferences more among women than men. Our findings suggest that collective religiosity matters more to the gender gap in redistributive attitudes than traditional political and labor force factors. PMID:26973029

  1. Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

    2005-08-01

    There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions. PMID:16261994

  2. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring

  3. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  4. The Relationship between Economic Status, Knowledge on Dengue, Risk Perceptions and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marta; Sánchez, Lizet; Pérez, Dennis; Sebrango, Carlos; Shkedy, Ziv; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The reemergence of dengue as an important public health problem reflects the difficulties in sustaining vertically organized, effective, control programs and the need for community-based strategies for Aedes aegypti control that result in behavioral change. We aimed to disentangle the relationships between underlying determinants of dengue related practices. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 780 households in La Lisa, Havana, Cuba. A questionnaire and an observation guide were administrated to collect information on variables related to economic status, knowledge on dengue, risk perception and practices associated with Aedes aegypti breading sites. To test a conceptual model that hypothesized direct relationships among all these constructs, we first used Exploratory Factor Analysis with Principal Component Analysis to establish the relationship between observed variables and the underlying latent variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the observed data supported the conceptual model through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated that the items measured could be reduced into five factors with an eigenvalue >1.0: Knowledge on dengue, Intradomiciliar risk practices, Peridomiciliar risk practices, Risk perception and Economic status. The proportion of the total variance in the data explained by these five factors was 74.3%. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis model differed from our hypothesized conceptual model. Only Knowledge on dengue had a significant, direct, positive, effect on Practices. There was also a direct association of Economic status with Knowledge on dengue, but not with Risk perception and Practices. Clarifying the relationship between direct and indirect determinants of dengue related practices contributes to a better understanding of the potential effect of Information Education and Communication on practices and on the reduction of Aedes aegypti breeding sites and provides inputs for designing a community based strategy for dengue control. PMID:24349145

  5. Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

    2014-11-01

    The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncologa Peditrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. PMID:24753054

  6. Gender and Schooling in Appalachia: Historical Lessons for an Era of Economic Restructuring. Research Paper 9411.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggard, Sally Ward

    This paper addresses issues involving the designing of new job training and education programs in central Appalachia in response to national policies for economic improvement. In March 1994, the Reemployment Act of 1994 was announced as the Clinton administration's response to problems caused by radical and worldwide economic restructuring. The

  7. Pathways to Economic Security: Gender and Nonstandard Employment in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Compiling data from several government surveys, this article identifies key social indicators of economic security associated with nonstandard employment in Japan. Empirical trends of nonstandard employment are contextualized in the development of Japanese coordinated capitalism from the economic boom during the 1960s through the recession of the

  8. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400

  9. Investigation of Vocational Interest and Preference in Terms of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Kaan Zülfikar; Türe, Ersin; Uysal, Asli; Akar, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Individuals tend to prefer a vocation in order to reach their targets such as leading a life, nutrition, housing, being safe, having a good position in society etc. It is a task of the adolescence period to choose a vocation which is for some the most important step of the life, while for some others it is a rather important…

  10. Health at the Intersections of Precarious Documentation Status and Gender-Based Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Parson, Nia; Escobar, Rebecca; Merced, Mariam; Trautwein, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on qualitative research investigating Spanish-speaking immigrant women's experiences of gender-based intimate partner violence (GBPV) and help seeking in New Jersey (2006-2008). Methods included interviews with these women, health care and social service providers, and community members. This article reveals that as many immigrant women live at the intersections of structural, normalized, and gender-based partner violence, integrated social service responses emerge as key health care responses to GBPV. The health impacts of undocumented and precariously documented migration and GBPV demand policy interventions and dedication of resources to address the multi-faceted needs of this population. PMID:25148835

  11. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  12. The Impact of Faculty Status and Gender on Employee Well-Being in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Quinn; Fry, Leanna; Garrison, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This study measures job satisfaction, personal fulfillment, work/life balance, and stress levels of male and female librarians. Researchers surveyed 719 librarians at ARL institutions that either offer faculty status and tenure or offer neither. Females at libraries offering faculty status indicated poor work/life balance and high levels of stress

  13. The Impact of Faculty Status and Gender on Employee Well-Being in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Quinn; Fry, Leanna; Garrison, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This study measures job satisfaction, personal fulfillment, work/life balance, and stress levels of male and female librarians. Researchers surveyed 719 librarians at ARL institutions that either offer faculty status and tenure or offer neither. Females at libraries offering faculty status indicated poor work/life balance and high levels of stress…

  14. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant

  15. Trajectories of Adolescent Alcohol Use by Gender and Early Initiation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolland, Kathleen A.; Bolland, John M.; Tomek, Sara; Devereaux, Randolph S.; Mrug, Sylvie; Wimberly, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Within the adolescent risk behavior literature, questions remain about relationships among behaviors in early adolescence, gender, context, and negative social and health outcomes. Additionally, little attention has focused on trajectories of adolescent risk behavior among impoverished African American youth. Using data from the Mobile Youth

  16. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    PubMed

    Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Yunhwan

    2011-01-01

    With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population. PMID:20947184

  17. Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in University Students' Perception of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinajero, Carolina; Martnez-Lpez, Zeltia; Rodrguez, M Soledad; Guisande, M Adelina; Pramo, M Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Perceived social support has been shown to be one of the most important protective factors for emerging adult students during their transition to university. However, the relationships between perceived social support and dimensions of gender and family background, which have been shown to affect adjustment to college life, remain unexplored. The

  18. Trajectories of Adolescent Alcohol Use by Gender and Early Initiation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolland, Kathleen A.; Bolland, John M.; Tomek, Sara; Devereaux, Randolph S.; Mrug, Sylvie; Wimberly, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Within the adolescent risk behavior literature, questions remain about relationships among behaviors in early adolescence, gender, context, and negative social and health outcomes. Additionally, little attention has focused on trajectories of adolescent risk behavior among impoverished African American youth. Using data from the Mobile Youth…

  19. Understanding differences in sexting behaviors across gender, relationship status, and sexual identity, and the role of expectancies in sexting.

    PubMed

    Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A

    2013-08-01

    Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (η(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks. PMID:23675996

  20. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblerssports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers. PMID:24838781

  1. Pulmonary function status of Kolkata inhabitants of different economic class during rainy and winter seasons.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Nandy, A; Hossain, M; Alam, J

    2011-10-01

    The pulmonary function status of the Kolkata inhabitants was evaluated during rainy and winter seasons. The pulmonary function tests (PFT) of the 1st study was carried out in the months of July to August when the environment is pollution free and the 2nd study was carried out between November to January when the environment is polluted. In the 1st study a total of 162 (male-88, female-74) inhabitants were investigated and again they were repeated in same way in the 2nd study. To evaluate the respiratory function status, Slow Vital Capacity (SVC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were recorded. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec as the percentage of FVC (FEV1%), forced expiratory flow at 200mL-1200 mL, 25-75% and 75-85% were calculated from the same tracings. Males were having higher mean PFT values compared to females because of sex difference. In the 2nd study PFT values were significantly lower compared to 1st study. According to different durations of stay category the PFT values were significantly reduced in winter season. The regression lines showed decrement as the duration of stay on that area was increased and it was more in 2nd study compared to 1st study. In both studies the PFT values found higher in high economic class of people. Between the same economic class of people PFT values were significantly lower in winter season. Respiratory impairments were also found higher during winter and males were having more impairment compared to females. Respiratory impairments in both sexes were more in winter and low economic class of people had maximum respiratory impairments. In rainy season and winter season the respiratory impairments were less in non-smokers. Males had more respiratory function impairments compared to females. PMID:23505833

  2. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

  3. Ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index in the United States: The role of parental socioeconomic status and economic contextual factors

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Krauss, Ramona C.; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black–white (63%), male Hispanic–white (78%) and female Hispanic–white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one-half of the female black–white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black–white and Hispanic–white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black–white and Hispanic–white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic–white BMI gap than the black–white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black–white and Hispanic–white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents. PMID:22607746

  4. Looking on the bright side: the role of identity status and gender on positive orientations during emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Carroll, Jason S; Madsen, Stephanie D; Nelson, Larry J

    2008-08-01

    Emerging adulthood has been characterized as an age of possibilities that involves heightened identity exploration and risk-taking. Although some scholars have investigated the relation between identity status and risk behaviors in emerging adulthood, less attention has been paid to the relation between identity status and prosocial orientations. Thus, the current study examined how emerging adults' engagement in positive behaviors (i.e., prosocial tendencies, internalization of values, religiosity) varied as a function of identity status and gender. Results indicated that emerging adults who were in identity diffusion reported fewer prosocial tendencies, lower scores on internalization of values and lower religiosity, but emerging adults who were experiencing moratorium reported prosocial tendencies and levels of religiosity as frequently as emerging adults who had reached identity achievement. Also, young women reported higher levels of emotional and altruistic prosocial tendencies, higher levels of internalization of values, and higher levels of religiosity than did young men. The discussion focuses on emerging adulthood as a period of possibilities and exploration for not only risk behaviors, but prosocial behaviors as well. PMID:17959237

  5. Socio-economic status and socio-emotional health of orphans in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Motsaathebe

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and emotional well-being of orphans in Mangaung, South Africa. Five hundred orphans aged 7-11 years participated in the cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2012. Data was collected by trained fieldworkers, who conducted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires with the orphans, their teachers and caregivers, and the heads of the households where the orphans resided. The caregivers, children and teachers all completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to measure the orphans' mental health, while heads of household provided information about socio-economic indicators. STATA version 12 was used to perform multivariate data analyses to identify socio-economic factors associated with the mental health of orphans. Food security, access to medical services and a male caregiver were factors associated with better emotional well-being of orphans, whereas other variables such as household asset index and monthly household expenditure were not linked with the orphans' mental health. Two of the three variables (food security and access to medical services) associated with better emotional well-being of orphans are also government interventions to assist orphans. Further research is needed to determine whether other government programs also impact the emotional well-being of orphans. PMID:24968757

  6. The association of low socio-economic status in metropolitan Adelaide with maternal demographic and obstetric characteristics and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Jonas, O; Roder, D; Chan, A

    1992-09-01

    The South Australian perinatal statistics collection for 1988 was used to consider the association of low socio-economic status in metropolitan Adelaide (South Australia) with maternal demographic and obstetric characteristics and pregnancy outcome in 12047 singleton births. Socio-economic status--low, middle or high--was inferred from the socio-economic rating of the postcode of residence. Chi-squared analyses were carried out to test for significant trends in proportions of pregnancy and pregnancy outcome variables across the socio-economic groupings. There was trend for the proportions of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes to decrease with increasing level of socio-economic status. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for maternal age, marital status, race, parity and gestational age, confirmed the findings of the trend analyses, namely that mothers from the poor socio-economic areas were at a greater risk for poor pregnancy outcome. These poor outcomes included Apgar scores of less that 7 at both 1 and 5 minutes after birth, delay in onset of regular breathing of 5 minutes or longer; the need for intubation; the use of narcotic antagonists; low birthweight of under 2500 g; the need for special nursey care; and neonatal death. PMID:1426171

  7. Effect of gender on the association between weight status and health-related quality of life in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Methods Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de lALIMentation et de lActivit Physique (PRALIMAP) trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. Results The mean age of adolescents was 15.70.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%), and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042). All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=<0.0001). Weight status was not associated with physical and social scores neither in boys nor in girls. Conversely, it was associated with mental score, but differently in girls than boys. As compared with normal-weight girls, thin girls had better mental HRQoL (?=+6.17, p=0.0010), and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (?=?3.89 and ?=?5.90, respectively, p<0.001). Mental HRQoL was lower for thin, overweight and obese boys than for normal-weight boys (?= ?4.97, ?= ?1.68 and ?= ?3.17, respectively, p<0.0001). Conclusions Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during adolescence. PMID:23157722

  8. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485

  9. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both individual- and area-level SES were independently associated with the presence and severity of VI. PMID:26555141

  10. The Neighborhood Environments of Mutual-help Recovery Houses: Comparisons by Perceived Socio-economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Groh, David R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the setting/House-level characteristics of 160 self-governed, mutual-support substance abuse recovery homes (OHs) across the U.S. These dwellings were located in four different neighborhood types: upper/middle class (n = 23 Houses), urban working/lower class (n = 71 Houses), suburban upper/middle-class (n = 39 Houses), and suburban working/lower class (n = 27 Houses). Interior dwelling characteristics and amenities located within a 2-block radius were similar across the four neighborhood types. However, Houses in urban, working, and lower class neighborhoods reported more alcohol/drug intoxicated persons. Most importantly, despite the greater potential for environmental temptations and easier access for substances, none of the neighborhood factors including neighborhood socio-economic status significantly predicted relapse rates over a 12 month period. PMID:20668641

  11. Endorsement of Interpersonal Strategies for Dealing with Hypothetical Everyday Arthritis Problems as a Function of Marital Status, Gender, and Problem Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strough, Jonell; McFall, Joseph P.; Schuller, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    We used hypothetical vignettes to examine whether older adults' endorsement of interpersonal strategies for dealing with health-related (arthritis) everyday problems varied as a function of marital status, gender, and the severity of the problem. Adults 60 years and older (N= 127, M= 71.40 years, SD = 7.21) rated interpersonal (i.e., discuss with

  12. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14

  13. The Relation of Student Behavior, Peer Status, Race, and Gender to Decisions about School Discipline Using CHAID Decision Trees and Regression Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Stacy B.; Fireman, Gary D.; Wang, Eugene W.

    2010-01-01

    Peer nominations and demographic information were collected from a diverse sample of 1493 elementary school participants to examine behavior (overt and relational aggression, impulsivity, and prosociality), context (peer status), and demographic characteristics (race and gender) as predictors of teacher and administrator decisions about

  14. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  15. Portuguese Children's Knowledge of Sex Stereotypes: Effects of Age, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Felix; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The development of sex stereotype knowledge (SSK) was studied using 120, 120, and 204 Portuguese children aged 5, 8, and 11 years, respectively. SSK increased with age and socioeconomic status. Results are compared with findings from Brazil, Latin America, and a 24-country study by D. Best and others (1977). (SLD)

  16. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents

  17. Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender.

    PubMed

    Hong, Juhee; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for each child who died when aged < or = 8 years. Parental age, birth order, marital status, residence area, educational level, and occupation were used as indices for SES. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was employed. Our results indicate that nonmetropolitan residence, low parental education level, and a father working in a nonadministrative job or as a farmer were associated with a higher risk of death from injury for both boys and girls. A mother aged younger than 20 years and parents working in manual jobs were associated with a higher risk in boys only. The risks of some socioeconomic factors (low parental education and a father working in a manual job or as a farmer) were evident for children aged 1-4 years. The risks of rural residency tended to increase in older children, and the risk of injury from having a mother aged younger than 20 years increased for younger children. The risks of childhood injury deaths from traffic accidents, falls, and fire/burns were associated with the SES of the parents. Younger parents were associated with higher risks of injury deaths from traffic accidents (hazard ratio [HR]: father, 7.9; mother, 1.9) and falls (HR: father, 2.0; mother, 2.5). A father working as a farmer was associated with a higher risk of childhood injury death from fire/burns (HR = 4.0). In conclusion, the parental SES risk profiles of childhood injury deaths varied with the age and gender of the child, and with the injury mechanism. Therefore, reducing excess injury deaths during early childhood requires preventive efforts targeted at high-risk parents, and based on injury mechanism and on the gender and age of the child. PMID:19887173

  18. [The present status and attempts toward the achievement of gender equality in the JAA].

    PubMed

    Senba, Emiko

    2013-09-01

    The proportion of female members in The Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) is 18% with the proportion of female members higher among the young generation (20-30 Y.O.; 34.8%, 30-40 Y.O.; 26.8%). However, the number of female members in the Board of Directors has been zero or one (0 or 6%) for many years. More than two female members are necessary on the Board to promote the diversity in the management of the JAA. The numbers of female members in other committees has shown gradual increase in recent years. A substantial increase in female faculty members including professors in each university and school will support the future development of the anatomical research field and the association. We have made the first great step by setting up the committee on promotion of gender equality in JAA in March, 2011. In the next year, JAA became a member of Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). Our committee's activity includes holding workshops and seminars at the annual meetings to promote gender equality in the research field and to encourage mutual support and friendship, not only among women members but also among all members. PMID:24066390

  19. Periodontal Health Status of Different Socio-economic Groups in Out-Patient Department of TMDC & RC, Moradabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, D.J.; Agali, Chandan; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Batra, Manu; Singh, Vikas; Bumb, Swapnil S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Objective: To assess the oral health awareness and periodontal health status of different socio-economic groups in out-patient department of the Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre (TMDC&RC), Moradabad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 416 subjects of 30-60 years age group with different socio-economic status classified according to modified Kuppuswamy scale (2012). Subjects were interviewed by the questionnaire and Community Periodontal Index was recorded. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test (SPSS version 17). Result: This study showed that the code 2 and code 3 is more in lower socio-economic status (p =0.115 and p=0.079 respectively). Significant association was seen in Code 0, code 1 & code 4 (p<0.01) which is indicative that upper class have more healthy periodontal status than lower. Conclusion: Significant association exists between oral health awareness and periodontal health with the socio-economic status of the individual. PMID:25177641

  20. Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mzimche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Bji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prvel, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agns; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Maire, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 3570 year old adults in Algeria, (women n?=?2741, men n?=?2004) and Tunisia (women n?=?2964, men n?=?2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI)?=?weight/height <18.5 kg/m2, obesity as BMI ?30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ?0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Results Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.98.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.832.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.439.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.111.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.215.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.45.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.14.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.93.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.05.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. Conclusion The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities. PMID:24116063

  1. Sex, Class, and History: An Experiment in Teaching Economics in an Interdisciplinary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Ora

    2008-01-01

    The author reports on various aspects of teaching economics in an interdisciplinary, team-taught course, including reflections on a unique experiment in teaching economics to nonmajors. By the incorporation of selected topics of gender economics into the interdisciplinary course about the changing economic statuses of women throughout history, the

  2. Measuring Gender (In)Equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID). OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 247

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes P.; Morrisson, Christian; Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Drechsler, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to establish, test and analyse hypotheses regarding cross-country variations in women's economic status are hampered by the lack of a readily accessible and easily used information resource on the various dimensions of gender inequality. Addressing this gap, this paper introduces the Gender, Institutions and Development data base (GID)

  3. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  4. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores. PMID:26999169

  5. Relation between socioeconomic status, employment, and health during economic change, 1973-93.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, M.; Owen, C.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the national unemployment rate and class differences in the relation between health and employment during the period 1973-93. DESIGN: Data from general household surveys, 1973-93. Comparison of rates of employment, unemployment, and economic inactivity among those with and without limiting longstanding illness in different socioeconomic groups and how these varied over 20 years. SUBJECTS: All men aged 20-59 years in each survey between 1973 and 1993. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change over time in class specific rates of employment, unemployment, and economic inactivity in those with and without limiting longstanding illness. RESULTS: Men in socioeconomic groups 1 and 2 with no longstanding illness experienced little decrease in their chances of being in paid employment as the general unemployment rate rose. Those most affected were men in manual groups with limiting longstanding illness. The likelihood of paid employment was affected far less by such illness in non-manual than in manual groups. In group 1 about 85% of men with such illness were in paid employment in 1979 and 75% by 1993; in group 4 the equivalent proportions were 70% and 40%. In men in manual groups with limiting longstanding illness there was no sign of employment rates rising again as the economy recovered. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status makes a large difference to the impact of illness on the ability to remain in paid employment, and this impact increases as unemployment rises. Men with chronic illness in manual occupations were not drawn back into the labour force during the economic recovery of the late 1980s. PMID:8776309

  6. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?

    PubMed

    Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children. PMID:18086547

  7. HIV status, gender, and marriage dynamics among adults in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Anglewicz, Philip; Reniers, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Marriage and partnerships bring about non-negligible health risks in populations with generalized HIV epidemics, and concerns about the possible transmission of HIV thus often factor in the decision-making about partnership formation and dissolution. The awareness of and responses to HIV risk stemming from regular sexual partners have been well documented in African populations, but few studies have estimated the effects of observed HIV status on marriage decisions and outcomes. We study marriage dissolution and remarriage using longitudinal data with repeated HIV and marital status measurements from rural Malawi. Results indicate that HIV positive individuals face greater risks of union dissolution (both via widowhood and divorce) and lower remarriage rates. Modeling studies suggest that the exclusion of HIV positives from the marriage or partnerships market will decelerate the propagation of HIV. PMID:25469927

  8. Socio-economic determinants of nutritional status of children in rural peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Marjan, Z M; Taib, M N; Lin, K G; Siong, T E

    1998-12-01

    The data presented is part of the findings from a four-year collaborative research project between Universiti Putra Malaysia, the Institute for Medical Research and the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The project assessed the nutritional status of the major functional groups in Peninsular Malaysia. Mukim Sayong and Pulau Kemiri in the District of Kuala Kangsar, Perak were two of the subdistricts selected to represent small rubber holdings in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper attempts to analyse the socio-economic profile of the households and the nutritional status of children below 9 years of age. A total of 307 households were studied. Approximately 63% of the households were involved in rubber activities and the majority of them were hired tappers. The average monthly income of the households was RM467 and the income ranged between RM30 to RM2120. Based on the per capita poverty line income of RM84.38, it was found that 14.1% of the households earned less than RM42.19, which can be considered as hard-core poor, while 32.7% were poor (monthly per capita income between RM42.19 and RM84.38). Slightly more than half (52.7%) earned income above the poverty line. The average family size was 4.5, ranging from 1 through to 16. The majority of the heads of households (56.6%) had between 3 and 6 years of education, and 14.5% did not receive any formal education. The prevalence of stunting among children 0-5 years of age was 26%, while 31.5% were underweight and 3.8% wasted. Among children aged between 5 and 9 years, almost the same pattern of nutritional status was noted. The overall percentages of stunting, underweight and wasting among these children were 29.2%, 26.1% and 0.62%, respectively. Analysis on nutritional status according to income level showed a noticeable difference in the prevalence of malnutrition in children above and below the poverty line income. The Student's t-test indicated significant differences in weight-for-age and weight-for-height between the two poverty line income for children below 5 years of age. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between height-for-age with household size (r = -0.26, p<0.05), and monthly per capita income with weight-for-height (r = 0.25, p<0.05). There was a highly significant correlation between acreage of land cultivated and weight-for-height (r = 0.42, p<0.01), and weight-for-age (r = 0.25, p<0.05). The findings indicated the influence of socio-economic factors on the nutritional status of children. PMID:24393689

  9. Gender and hormonal status affect the hypolipidemic mechanisms of dietary soluble fiber in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Vega-Lopez, S; Fernandez, M L

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of gender on the secondary mechanisms by which dietary soluble fiber lowers plasma LDL cholesterol. For that purpose, male, female and ovariectomized (to mimic menopause) guinea pigs (8-10 per group) were allocated to two dietary treatments. Diets were identical in composition except for the fiber source: the control diet contained 10 g/100 of cellulose and 2.5 g/100 g of guar gum, while the soluble fiber (SF) diet contained 5 g/100 of psyllium, 5 g/100 of pectin and 2.5 g/100 g of guar gum. SF intake resulted in 44% lower plasma LDL cholesterol, 64% lower apo B and 22% lower plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations (P < 0.01) compared to guinea pigs fed the control diet. However, ovariectomized guinea pigs had higher plasma cholesterol, apo B and TAG concentrations (P < 0.01) compared to males and females, even those fed SF. Plasma HDL-cholesterol was higher in females than in males (P < 0.05). LDL size, as measured by LDL composition and fast protein liquid chromatography, was larger in females than males. Guinea pigs fed SF had smaller LDL than controls. LDL susceptibility to oxidation was 80% lower in male and females fed the SF diet (P < 0.001) than in controls, while there was no effect of diet in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Hepatic free cholesterol and TAG were lower, and activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase were higher in guinea pigs fed SF (P < 0.05) than in controls. These results indicate that gender plays an important role in the metabolic responses to dietary soluble fiber and that estrogen deprivation leads to a detrimental lipoprotein profile. PMID:10702591

  10. Limited English Proficiency, Race/Ethnicity and Socio-Economic Status as Influences on Scores in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terwilliger, James S.; Magnuson, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three basic demographic variables on reading test scores for students in the middle elementary grades. Limited English proficiency (LEP), race/ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) were studied to determine their influence individually and in combination on performance in large-scale

  11. Does Socio-Economic Status Moderate the Associations between Psychosocial Predictors and Fruit Intake in Schoolchildren? The Pro Children Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandvik, C.; Gjestad, R.; Samdal, O.; Brug, J.; Klepp, K. -I.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether socio-economic status (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and

  12. Self-Perception, Socio-Economic Status and Related Variables in Black, Mexican-American and White Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Robert W.; Oles, Henry J.

    This study was designed to both replicate and expand upon previous research on self-concept formation in selected ethnic and socio-economic status (SES) groups, and to assess its relationship with specific academically related variables. Subjects were 785 students drawn from large urban and small city schools. The Soares and Soares Self Concept

  13. A Grounded Theory Approach to Understanding the Persistence Issue That Exists for Lower-Socio Economic Status College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research and program implementation in both the K-12 and higher educational systems, students of low socio-economic status (SES) still have access to and persist in higher education at significantly lower numbers than their more affluent peers (Gollnick & Chinn, 2012; Perna, 2005). This study employed a grounded-theory

  14. Examination of Science Learning Equity through Argumentation and Traditional Instruction Noting Differences in Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, O.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared student scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge in argumentation-based and traditional instruction, taught in school regions with low and high socio-economic status (SES) respectively. Furthermore, concrete and formal reasoning students' scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge were compared during both instructions

  15. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…

  16. A Grounded Theory Approach to Understanding the Persistence Issue That Exists for Lower-Socio Economic Status College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research and program implementation in both the K-12 and higher educational systems, students of low socio-economic status (SES) still have access to and persist in higher education at significantly lower numbers than their more affluent peers (Gollnick & Chinn, 2012; Perna, 2005). This study employed a grounded-theory…

  17. Parents' Socio-Economic Status as Predictor of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated parents' socio-economic status on secondary school students' academic performance in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted. The population for the study comprised all Junior Secondary School students in Ekiti State. The sample consisted of 960 students from 20 secondary schools randomly…

  18. A Very Slow Recovery: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2011-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna; Curtis, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the annual report on the economic status of the profession. Although the results of this year's survey of full-time faculty compensation are marginally better than they have been the last two years, 2011-12 represents the continuation of a historic low period for faculty salaries. The overall average salary for full-time

  19. LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

    1993-01-06

    The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

  20. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The

  1. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F Protests at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  2. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F Protests at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  3. 48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Status Protest. SBA's protest regulations are found in subpart F Protests at 13 CFR 127.600 through 127... unless overturned on appeal by SBA's Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) pursuant to 13 CFR part 134. (1... as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned...

  4. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Parental Involvement in Turkish Primary Schools: Perspective of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Gumus, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on parental involvement in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental involvement, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental involvement, and whether…

  5. Explaining socio-economic status differences in walking for transport: An ecological analysis of individual, social and environmental factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of potential mechanisms of influence (mediators) of socio-economic status (SES) on walking for transport is important, because the likely opposing forces of influence may obscure pathways for intervention across different SES groups. This study examined individual, and perceived s...

  6. The Legal and Economic Status of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (9th, April 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1981 conference on the legal and economic status of collective bargaining in higher education, sponsored by the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions, are presented. Papers and authors are as follows: "Yeshiva Shock Waves" (David Kuechle); "The Yeshiva Case: One Year

  7. Gender norms, poverty and armed conflict in Côte D’Ivoire: engaging men in women’s social and economic empowerment programming

    PubMed Central

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men’s perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men’s experiences with a women’s empowerment program and highlights men’s perceptions of gender norms, poverty and armed conflict, as they relate to achieving programmatic goals. Data are from 32 Ivorian men who participated in indepth interviews in 2012. Interviews were undertaken as part of an intervention that combined gender dialogue groups for both women and their male partners with women’s only village savings and loans programs to reduce IPV against women. Findings suggested that in the context of armed conflict, traditional gender norms and economic stressors experienced by men challenged fulfillment of gender roles and threatened men’s sense of masculinity. Men who participated in gender dialogue groups discussed their acceptance of programming and identified improvements in their relationships with their female partners. These men further discussed increased financial planning along with their partners, and attributed such increases to the intervention. Addressing men’s perceptions of masculinity, poverty and armed conflict may be key components to reduce men’s violence against women in conflict-affected settings. PMID:25274720

  8. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    PubMed

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Cline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University. PMID:23951219

  9. Gender Differences, Aging and Hormonal Status in Mucosal Injury and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Grishina, Irina; Fenton, Anne; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi

    2014-01-01

    As the “baby boomers” age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult. This susceptibility has been known to increase with age. Therefore it is important to understand the interplay between aging, injury and recovery at the mucosal surface. Sex hormones play an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier function as well as the mucosa associated immune function in both genders. Menopause in women is a defined time period in which major hormonal changes occur such as a decline in systemic estradiol levels. The differential levels of sex hormones contribute to the sexual dimorphism seen in response to injury at the mucosal surface, prior to and following menopause. Thus the effect of sex hormone and aging on mucosal mechanisms in response to injury is an important area of investigation. PMID:24729941

  10. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for

  11. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  12. Impact of gender and menopausal status on metabolic parameters in chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C A; Bacchetti, P; Khalili, M

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis C infection (HCV) and menopause are associated with insulin resistance (IR), and IR accelerates HCV-induced liver disease. The relationship between menopause and IR has not been studied in this population. This study aimed to assess the impact of menopause on IR and metabolic syndrome in HCV. One hundred and three (69 men, 16 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal women) noncirrhotic, nondiabetic HCV-infected adults underwent IR measurement via steady-state plasma glucose during a 240-min insulin suppression test. Metabolic syndrome was defined by at least three of five standard laboratory/clinical criteria. The patient characteristics were as follows: mean age 48 years, waist circumference 94.4 12.4 cm and 37.9% Caucasian. SSPG was higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal women or men (mean difference 18, 95% CI -41 to 76 and 35, 95% CI -3 to 72 mg/dL; respectively). After adjusting for waist circumference, female gender, nonwhite race and triglycerides were positively associated and high-density lipoprotein negatively associated with steady-state plasma glucose. Compared to men, both pre- (Coef 48, 95% CI 12-84) and postmenopausal women (Coef 49, 95% CI 17-82) had higher steady-state plasma glucose. Compared to premenopausal women, men (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.38-10.2) and postmenopausal women (OR 2.9, 95% CI 0.46-18.8) had higher odds of metabolic syndrome, but this was statistically nonsignificant. Both liver inflammation (OR 7.9) and nonwhite race (OR 6.9) were associated with metabolic syndrome. We conclude that women are at inc-reased risk for IR in HCV. There may also be an increased risk of metabolic syndrome postmenopause. Along with lifestyle modification and weight loss, women with metabolic abnormalities represent an especially at-risk group warranting HCV treatment to prevent adverse metabolic outcomes. PMID:26554398

  13. Gender Effects in Assessment of Economic Knowledge and Understanding: Differences among Undergraduate Business and Economics Students in Germany, Japan, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Happ, Roland; Walstad, William B.; Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Gender effects in large-scale assessments have become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Yet few studies have linked differences in assessment results of male and female students in higher education to construct-relevant features of the target construct. This paper examines gender effects on students' economic…

  14. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Adherence challenges in environments of low socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficacy of treatment for clients with diabetes is highly dependent on the individual's ability to manage the disease. Several constraints, such as poverty, illiteracy and insufficient resources (finances and specialised healthcare professionals), especially communities of low socio-economic status, could influence clients ability to manage their disease. Aim The main aim of this study was to outline the obstacles encountered by individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus from an urban community with regard to management of their disease. Setting The study was conducted at a primary health care facility in the Western Cape, South Africa. Methods Ethical clearance was obtained from all relevant authorities. Eight (8) conveniently selected clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus per participating community healthcare centre (six approved centres in total) were invited to take part in focus group discussions. Twenty six clients, 15 females and 11 males, with a mean age of 58.92 years (SD = 7.33), agreed to participate. Audiotaped data were transcribed verbatim followed by content analysis and identification of themes. Results Themes that emerged were challenges with: a healthy eating plan, physical activity, financial constraints, other people's understanding of the disease, and service received at the community healthcare centre. Verbatim quotes were used to exemplify the themes. Conclusion Clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experienced several challenges in the management of their disease. These challenges should be addressed to assist with better glycaemic control and to curb the emergence of diabetic complications and their attendant cost implications. PMID:26245413

  15. Personality, Socio-Economic Status and Inflammation: Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Keith; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; McLean, Jennifer S.; Batty, G. David; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A.; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; Mttus, Rne; Packard, Chris J.; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G.; Velupillai, Yoga N.; Tannahill, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived MD) and low (least deprived LD) deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured along with demographic and health-behaviour variables, and personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism (hostility). Regression models assessed the prediction of inflammation as a function of personality, deprivation and their interaction. Results Levels of CRP and IL-6 were an increasing function of neuroticism and extraversion only in LD subjects opposite trends were seen in MD subjects. The result was ascribed parsimoniously to an inflammatory ceiling effect or, more speculatively, to SES-related health-behaviour differences. Psychoticism was strongly associated with ICAM-1 in both MD and LD subjects. Conclusions The association between neuroticism, CRP and IL-6 may be reduced in MD subjects confirming speculation that the association differs across population sub-groups. The association between psychoticism and ICAM-1 supports evidence that hostility has adverse effects upon the endothelium, with consequences for cardiovascular health. Health interventions may be more effective by accounting for personality-related effects upon biological processes. PMID:23516457

  16. Socio Economic Status and Traumatic Brain Injury amongst Pediatric Populations: A Spatial Analysis in Greater Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie L; Friger, Michael; McBeth, Paul B.; Griesdale, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Within Canada, injuries are the leading cause of death amongst children fourteen years of age and younger, and also one of the leading causes of morbidity. Low Socio Economic Status (SES) seems to be a strong indicator of a higher prevalence of injuries. This study aims to identify hotspots for pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and examines the relationship between SES and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods: Pediatric TBI data from the BC Trauma Registry (BCTR) was used to identify all pediatric TBI patients admitted to BC hospitals between the years 2000 and 2013. Spatial analysis was used to identify hotspots for pediatric TBI. Multivariate analysis was used to distinguish census variables that were correlated with rates of injury. Results: Six hundred and fifty three severe pediatric TBI injuries occurred within the BC Lower Mainland between 2000 and 2013. High rates of injury were concentrated in the East, while low rate clusters were most common in the West of the region (more affluent neighborhoods). A low level of education was the main predictor of a high rate of injury (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03–1.23, p-Value 0.009). Conclusion: While there was a clear relationship between different SES indicators and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, income-based SES indicators did not serve as good predictors within this region. PMID:26670241

  17. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact). PMID:26164418

  18. Dynamics of people's socio-economic status in the face of schistosomiasis control interventions in Ukerewe district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Rumisha, Susan F; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jrg

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of research on micro-level assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic status following health interventions. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in low-income countries. Indeed, in such settings information about income is usually lacking and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 159 households in a village in north-western Tanzania before and 1 year after participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based on durable assets ownership (e.g. bicycle and radio) and household characteristics dealing with ownership of land and house construction features (e.g. type of walls and roof). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.761 to -0.448, and the mean from -0.204 (standard deviation (SD) 1.924) to 0.193 (SD 2.079) between pre- and post-intervention phases. The difference in socio-economic status of the people comparing the pre- and post-intervention phases was highly statistically significant (p<0.001). This observation was confirmed by a multinomial model with a random effect on the households. We argue that significant changes in the socio-economic status observed in our study are attributable to the PHAST intervention, despite other sporadic interventions against schistosomiasis. PMID:23333229

  19. Toward an Intersectional Approach in Developmental Science: The Role of Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Immigrant Status.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Katsiaficas, Dalal; Rogers, Leoandra Onnie

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theory and research have often focused on a single social identity category, for example, race or sexual orientation, and examined the consequences of that category on life outcomes. Yet intersectional models of social disadvantage (eg, Cole, 2009; Crenshaw, 1995; King, 1988) suggest that social categories combine to shape the experiences and life outcomes of individuals across life domains. In this chapter, we review empirical research that offers insight into the intersectionality of social identities across three critical developmental periods, namely, middle childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. We also consider the consequences of intersecting identities across several life domains, including intergroup relations and political and civic engagement. Recognizing that the body of work on social identities is expansive, we focus our review on race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and immigrant status. In each developmental stage, we discuss what we know, drawing from the limited empirical literature, and offer suggestions on where we need to go moving forward. We conclude that research that focuses on as a single category and ignores the specific domain of development provides an incomplete and inaccurate picture that will hinder efforts to develop culturally appropriate and clinically effective prevention and intervention programs to meet the needs of our diverse children and youth living in the United States. PMID:26956069

  20. Who donates their bodies to science? The combined role of gender and migration status among California whole-body donors.

    PubMed

    Asad, Asad L; Anteby, Michel; Garip, Filiz

    2014-04-01

    The number of human cadavers available for medical research and training, as well as organ transplantation, is limited. Researchers disagree about how to increase the number of whole-body bequeathals, citing a shortage of donations from the one group perceived as most likely to donate from attitudinal survey data - educated white males over 65. This focus on survey data, however, suffers from two main limitations: First, it reveals little about individuals' actual registration or donation behavior. Second, past studies' reliance on average survey measures may have concealed variation within the donor population. To address these shortcomings, we employ cluster analysis on all whole-body donors' data from the Universities of California at Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Two donor groups emerge from the analyses: One is made of slightly younger, educated, married individuals, an overwhelming portion of whom are U.S.-born and have U.S.-born parents, while the second includes mostly older, separated women with some college education, a relatively higher share of whom are foreign-born and have foreign-born parents. Our results demonstrate the presence of additional donor groups within and beyond the group of educated and elderly white males previously assumed to be most likely to donate. More broadly, our results suggest how the intersectional nature of donors' demographics - in particular, gender and migration status - shapes the configuration of the donor pool, signaling new ways to possibly increase donations. PMID:24534732

  1. A psychometric study of restraint: the impact of race, gender, weight and marital status.

    PubMed

    Klem, M L; Klesges, R C; Bene, C R; Mellon, M W

    1990-01-01

    This investigation examined the psychometric characteristics of the Revised Restraint Scale and its two subscales (Weight Fluctuation, Concern for Dieting) in a university with a diverse student population. Subjects were 497 individuals (151 men, 346 women) ranging in age from 17 to 57 years (mean age = 21 years). Of the total sample, 70% were White (n = 348) and 22% were Black (n = 109). Results indicated significant between-groups differences on the total Restraint scores, with Whites scoring higher than Blacks, females scoring higher than males, and overweight individuals scoring higher than normal weight individuals. Similar results were found with both of the subscales. Despite the large number of between-groups differences observed, internal reliabilities of the total scale and the two subscales were similar and generally high within each of the categories surveyed. In general, however, lower reliabilities were observed for overweight subjects compared to normal weight subjects. The results of this study suggest that restraint status may vary as a function of individuals' demographic characteristics. PMID:2343788

  2. Self-reported functional and general health status among older respondents in China: the impact of age, gender, and place of residence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Yue, Yuwen; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-03-01

    This study made comparisons of self-reported functional and general health status between Chinese women and men in different age-groups in rural and urban settings and examined multiple factors relating to these health statuses in older adults. This study included a sample of 4017 respondents, aged 55 years and older, from the Hubei subsample of the Chinese National Health Service Survey III in 2003. The results illustrate that the differences in self-rated functional and general health status between genders and between urban and rural areas diminished with age. Access to health care was strongly associated with health status. The quality of the local environment, measured by access to tap water, was a significant factor for rural residents. Our study suggests that improving access to health care services and reducing environmental health risks are critical for improving physical functioning, psychological functioning, and self-rated general health for older adults in China. PMID:22199153

  3. Effects of health disparities on survival after neonatal heart surgery: why should racial, ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic status be included in the risk analysis?

    PubMed

    Sistino, Joseph J; Ellis, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Health disparities are "differences in the quality of health and health care across different populations." Potential disparities associated with race, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status should be considered when attempting to develop models for survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates undergoing congenital heart surgery. Each of the aforementioned sociodemographic factors is related to postsurgical mortality because they are frequently linked to measures of access to care in addition to location of care (geographically) and the type of institution (teaching vs. nonteaching) where patients receive care. Traditionally these factors have not been considered in models of surgical treatment outcomes in conditions such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome. However, we believe these factors should at least be included in risk analysis models to help explain their impact on outcomes and in predicting outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to highlight some of the nonsurgical influences that affect survival after neonatal heart surgery such as race, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. PMID:22416603

  4. Relative residential property value as a socio-economic status indicator for health research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residential property is reported as the most valuable asset people will own and therefore provides the potential to be used as a socio-economic status (SES) measure. Location is generally recognised as the most important determinant of residential property value. Extending the well-established relationship between poor health and socio-economic disadvantage and the role of residential property in the overall wealth of individuals, this study tested the predictive value of the Relative Location Factor (RLF), a SES measure designed to reflect the relationship between location and residential property value, and six cardiometabolic disease risk factors, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL), hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and high low density lipoprotein (LDL). These risk factors were also summed and expressed as a cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score. Methods RLF was calculated using a global hedonic regression model from residential property sales transaction data based upon several residential property characteristics, but deliberately blind to location, to predict the selling price of the property. The predicted selling price was divided by the actual selling price and the results interpolated across the study area and classified as tertiles. The measures used to calculate CMR were collected via clinic visits from a population-based cohort study. Models with individual risk factors and the cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score as dependent variables were respectively tested using log binomial and Poisson generalised linear models. Results A statistically significant relationship was found between RLF, the cumulative CMR score and all but one of the risk factors. In all cases, participants in the most advantaged and intermediate group had a lower risk for cardio-metabolic diseases. For the CMR score the RR for the most advantaged was 19% lower (RR?=?0.81; CI 0.76-0.86; p <0.0001) and the middle group was 9% lower (RR?=?0.91; CI 0.86-0.95; p <0.0001) than the least advantaged group. Conclusions This paper advances the understanding of the nexus between place, health and SES by providing an objective spatially informed SES measure for testing health outcomes and reported a robust association between RLF and several health measures. PMID:23587373

  5. Gender and Socio-economic Differences in Daily Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among Adult Residents in a Greek Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Birmpili, Evangelia; Katsiki, Niki; Malhotra, Aseem; Dimopoulou, Evelina; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Tsiligiroglou-Fachantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-known health risks, smoking is still highly prevalent worldwide. Greece has the highest level of adult smoking rate (40%) across the European Union. We investigated gender and socio-economic differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation among Greek adults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October and November 2009 in 434 adults residing in a Greek rural area. Data were collected with the use of the World Health Organization Global Adult Tobacco Survey (WHO GATS) Core Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into smokers (if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and continued to smoke) or non-smokers. Overall, 58.1% (n=252) were smokers (58.5% male, n=127 and 57.8% female, n=125); 51.2% (n=222) were younger than 18 years-old when they started smoking. Men tended to start smoking at a younger age, to smoke more cigarettes/day and to have smoked a greater average of cigarettes during the last 5 days. Overall, 82.5% of smokers attempted to stop smoking a year prior to the study, with women having a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. The main source of information on smoking was the mass media (73.5%) and books (53.7%), whereas doctors and other health professionals were the least listed source of relative information (27.7 and 8.1%, respectively). Smoking rates among Greek adults were high, but a considerable number of individuals who smoked, wished to quit and had attempted to do so. Smoking cessation clinics are not perceived as a valuable support in quitting effort. PMID:22435078

  6. Associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in US black and white adults

    PubMed Central

    Kell, K. P.; Judd, S. E.; Pearson, K. E.; Shikany, J. M.; Fernández, J.R

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17 062 black (34·6 %) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, racial group and geographic region were used to examine adherence to five emergent dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, southern and alcohol/salads) according to four levels each of individual education, household income and community-level SES. Further models assessed adherence to these dietary patterns by racial group, and an overall model including both racial groups examined whether the relationships between SES and adherence to these dietary patterns differed among black and white participants. For all the three measures of SES, higher SES had been associated with greater adherence to plant-based and alcohol/salads patterns, but lower adherence to sweets/fats and southern patterns. Statistically significant differences between black and white participants were observed in the associations between household income and adherence to alcohol/salads, individual education and adherence to plant-based and sweets/fats, and community SES and adherence to convenience patterns. As adherence to dietary patterns has been shown to be associated with health outcomes in this population (e.g. stroke), the present study offers valuable insight into behavioural and environmental factors that may contribute to health disparities in the diverse US population. PMID:25869232

  7. Associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in US black and white adults.

    PubMed

    Kell, K P; Judd, S E; Pearson, K E; Shikany, J M; Fernández, J R

    2015-06-14

    Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17,062 black (34·6%) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, racial group and geographic region were used to examine adherence to five emergent dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, southern and alcohol/salads) according to four levels each of individual education, household income and community-level SES. Further models assessed adherence to these dietary patterns by racial group, and an overall model including both racial groups examined whether the relationships between SES and adherence to these dietary patterns differed among black and white participants. For all the three measures of SES, higher SES had been associated with greater adherence to plant-based and alcohol/salads patterns, but lower adherence to sweets/fats and southern patterns. Statistically significant differences between black and white participants were observed in the associations between household income and adherence to alcohol/salads, individual education and adherence to plant-based and sweets/fats, and community SES and adherence to convenience patterns. As adherence to dietary patterns has been shown to be associated with health outcomes in this population (e.g. stroke), the present study offers valuable insight into behavioural and environmental factors that may contribute to health disparities in the diverse US population. PMID:25869232

  8. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia. Methods We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4. Findings Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians. Interpretation The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults’ cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among older adults. PMID:26863443

  9. Socio-economic status and motor performance of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Klein, Markus; Fröhlich, Michael; Pieter, Andrea; Emrich, Eike

    2016-03-01

    The study examines the question to what extent children and adolescents differ in terms of motor performance in dependence of their socio-economic status (SES). A sample of 1389 students in Saarland (Germany) in various grades (1st grade: age 7.26 ± 0.38 years, 4th grade: 10.3 ± 0.4 years, 7th grade: 13.44 ± 0.49 years, 10th grade: 16.36 ± 0.69 years) has been examined. Their motor performance has been measured by means of 20-m sprint, standing long jump and a 6-minute run, and the SES by means of a parent survey. Based on the indicators school education, professional education, job position and household income, the SES was categorised in a three-step approach (low, middle, high). The influence on dependent variables was analysed by using multivariate analysis of variance. Students with a higher SES exhibit a higher motor performance compared with that of lower SES (results of the multivariate: Pillai's Trace = .05, F[6; 2526] = 12.56, p = .001; [Formula: see text]). In addition, the data for students of higher SES differ significantly from the data of a German reference sample (higher motor performance compared with standard values). In contrast, persons of lower SES do not differ from the reference sample, and those of middle SES differ only slightly from the reference sample. The results are relevant when considering specific prevention efforts concerning motor performance of certain groups. Especially those institutions and schools should be focused upon whose catchment area includes a high share of socially disadvantaged population groups. PMID:25611321

  10. Gender differences in public and private drinking contexts: a multi-level GENACIS analysis.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jason C; Roberts, Sarah C M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B

    2010-05-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women's compared to men's drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. PMID:20623016

  11. Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jason C.; Roberts, Sarah C.M.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B.

    2010-01-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of womens compared to mens drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. PMID:20623016

  12. The age-gender-status profile of high performing athletes in the UK taking nutritional supplements: Lessons for the future

    PubMed Central

    Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6%) and vitamin C (70.7%) were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%), whey protein (31.7%), echinacea (30.9%), iron (29.9%) and caffeine (23.7%). Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously shown to increase the probability of prohibited substance use, groups exhibiting high use of nutritional supplements should be monitored. Future research should incorporate a wide range of supplements and enquire about the daily amount ingested. In addition to tutoring, preventive measures should incorporate offering acceptable and healthy alternatives for assisted performance enhancement. PMID:18186936

  13. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Role of Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Esteem, Body Image, Stressful Life Events, and Pubertal Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Diane; Fortin, Laurier; Potvin, Pierre; Papillon, Myra

    2002-01-01

    In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…

  14. Gender differences in oral health status and behavior of Greek dental students: A meta-analysis of 1981, 2000, and 2010 data

    PubMed Central

    Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Margaritis, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status and behavior of Greek dental students over time, and to meta-analyze these findings to test the widely documented hypothesis that women have better oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and periodontal status but higher dental caries rates than men. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 385 students was examined using identical indices to assess oral health and behavioral data initially in 1981 while the years 2000 and 2010 were selected due to significant changes that took place in the dental curriculum in the 1990s and 2000s. Data by gender concerning the outcome variables recorded in every one of the three surveys were analyzed using Mantel–Haenszel and continuous outcomes methods. Results: A significant improvement in the oral health status and behavior of students was observed over time. The meta-analysis of data by gender showed that females brushed their teeth significantly more often than males [summary odds ratio (OR): 1.95 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–3.54]. Males and females were found to have a similar risk of developing dental caries. Conclusion: The hypothesis that young women have better oral hygiene habits compared to men was confirmed. However, the hypothesis that women have better oral hygiene and periodontal status but exhibit higher dental caries experience than men was not supported by the findings of the study. PMID:27011935

  15. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  16. Fair play doesn't matter: MEP modulation as a neurophysiological signature of status quo bias in economic interactions.

    PubMed

    Pisoni, Alberto; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; Zarri, Luca; Vergallito, Alessandra; Romero Lauro, Leonor Josefina

    2014-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies show that watching others' movements enhances motor evoked potential (MEPs) amplitude of the muscles involved in the observed action (motor facilitation, MF). MF has been attributed to a mirror neuron system mediated mechanism, causing an excitability increment of primary motor cortex. It is still unclear whether the meaning an action assumes when performed in an interpersonal exchange context could affect MF. This study aims at exploring this issue by measuring MF induced by the observation of the same action coupled with opposite reward values (gain vs loss) in an economic game. Moreover, the interaction frame was manipulated by showing the same actions within different economic games, the Dictator Game (DG) and the Theft Game (TG). Both games involved two players: a Dictator/Thief and a receiver. Experimental participants played the game always as receivers whereas the Dictator/Thief roles were played by our confederates. In each game Dictator/Thief's choices were expressed by showing a grasping action of one of two cylinders, previously associated with fair/unfair choices. In the DG the dictator decides whether to share (gain condition) or not (no-gain condition) a sum of money with the receiver, while in TGs the thief decides whether to steal (loss condition) or not to steal (no-loss condition) it from the participants. While the experimental subjects watched the videos showing these movements, a single TMS pulse was delivered to their motor hand area and a MEP was recorded from the right FDI muscle. Results show that, in the DG, MF was enhanced by the status quo modification, i.e. MEP amplitude increased when the dictator decided to change the receivers' status quo and share his/her money, and this was true when the status quo was more salient. The same was true for the TG, where the reverse happened: MF was higher for trials in which the thief decided to steal the participants' money, thus changing the status quo, in the block in which the status quo maintenance occurred more often. Data support the hypothesis that the economic meaning of the observed actions differently modulates MEP amplitude, pointing at an influence on MF exerted by a peculiar interaction between economic outcomes and variation of the subjects' initial status quo. PMID:24983714

  17. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio-economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the additive effects of socio-economic factors, number of psychiatric disorders, and religiosity on suicidal ideation among Blacks, based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001–2003, which included 3570 African-American and 1621 Caribbean Black adults. Socio-demographics, perceived religiosity, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime suicidal ideation were measured. Logistic regressions were fitted specific to groups based on the intersection of gender and ethnicity, while socioeconomics, number of life time psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity were independent variables, and lifetime serious suicidal ideation was the dependent variable. Results: Irrespective of ethnicity and gender, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] ranging from 2.4 for Caribbean Black women to 6.0 for Caribbean Black men). Only among African-American men (OR = 0.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–0.9), perceived religiosity had a residual protective effect against suicidal ideation above and beyond number of lifetime psychiatric disorders. The direction of the effect of education on suicidal ideating also varied based on the group. Conclusions: Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:26180624

  18. Reading Performances as Related to Race and Socio-economic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carron, Theodore J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship of race and socioeconomic status to the learning of reading skills among ninth-grade black and white students in the Tuscaloosa, Alabama, city and county schools. Each student was given diagnostic reading tests by timed, untimed, and auditory administration. Socioeconomic status was measured by

  19. A Ray of Sunshine? The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The American Association of University Professors' annual faculty salary survey is summarized and extensive tabulated data are presented. The survey reports full-time faculty salaries, academic rank, and gender patterns by region, sector, and institution type. Over 2,200 colleges and universities participated in the survey. (MSE)

  20. Gender and hormonal status affect the regulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA abundance by dietary soluble fiber in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suheeta; Freake, Hedley C; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2002-07-01

    Dietary soluble fiber (SF) consistently lowers plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, however, secondary mechanisms governing this reduction are not completely defined. Moreover, these mechanisms appear to differ with gender. Male, female and ovariectomized (to mimic menopause) guinea pigs were used to assess effects of gender, hormonal status and SF on activity and expression of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7). Diets were identical except for fiber source (control 10% cellulose, SF 5% psyllium/5% pectin). SF intake resulted in 44% lower plasma total cholesterol, 51% lower plasma LDL-C and 22% lower plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. However, ovariectomized guinea pigs fed either the control or SF diets, had the highest plasma LDL-C and TAG levels (P<0.01). SF altered hepatic cholesterol metabolism by effectively reducing hepatic free cholesterol, TAG and microsomal free cholesterol, while activity of CYP7, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol catabolism, was up-regulated. Hepatic CYP7 mRNA abundance paralleled the increase in enzyme activity. Ovariectomized guinea pigs had lowest activity and expression of hepatic CYP7 even after intervention with SF. These results suggest that induction of hepatic CYP7 activity may account, in large part, for the hypocholesterolemic effect of SF. Gender and hormonal status influence metabolic responses to dietary SF with estrogen deprivation leading to the most detrimental lipid profile. PMID:12048119

  1. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  2. Spatial patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and their relationship to socio-economic status in Vitoria, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, E. L. N.; Pan, W.; Dietze, R.; Peres, R. L.; Vinhas, S. A.; Ribeiro, F. K.; Palaci, M.; Rodrigues, R. R.; Zandonade, E.; Golub, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economic status in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. DESIGN In a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance study of all new pulmonary TB cases conducted in Vitoria between 2002 and 2006, spatial patterns of disease incidence were compared using spatial clustering statistics (Anselins local indicators of spatial association [LISA] and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics), smoothed empirical Bayes estimates and model-predicted incidence rates. Spatial Poisson models were fit to examine the relationship between socio-economic status and TB incidence. RESULTS A total of 651 TB cases were reported across 78 neighborhoods, with rates ranging from 0 to 129 cases per 100 000 population. Morans I indicated strong spatial autocorrelation among incidence rates (0.399, P < 0.0001), and four areas of high incidence were identified by LISA and Gi* statistics. Smoothed spatial empirical Bayes estimates demonstrate that two of these areas range from 70 to 90 cases/100 000, while the other two range from 40 to 70 cases/100 000. TB incidence and socioeconomic status had a significant curvilinear relationship (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Data derived from these spatial statistical tools will help TB control programs to allocate TB resources to those populations most at risk of increasing TB rates and to target areas where TB control efforts need to be concentrated. PMID:20937178

  3. Regulation of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor by nutritional status, metformin, gender and pituitary factors in rat white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    González, C R; Caminos, J E; Vázquez, M J; Garcés, M F; Cepeda, L A; Ángel, A; González, A C; García-Rendueles, M E; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; López, M; Bravo, S B; Nogueiras, R; Diéguez, C

    2009-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a recently discovered adipocytokine mainly secreted from visceral adipose tissue, which plays a main role in insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of vaspin gene expression in rat white adipose tissue (WAT) in different physiological (nutritional status, pregnancy, age and gender) and pathophysiological (gonadectomy, thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency) settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis and alterations in insulin sensitivity. We have determined vaspin gene expression by real-time PCR. Vaspin was decreased after fasting and its levels were partially recovered after leptin treatment. Chronic treatment with metformin increased vaspin gene expression. Vaspin mRNA expression reached the highest peak at 45 days in both sexes after birth and its expression was higher in females than males, but its levels did not change throughout pregnancy. Finally, decreased levels of growth hormone and thyroid hormones suppressed vaspin expression. These findings suggest that WAT vaspin mRNA expression is regulated by nutritional status, and leptin seems to be the nutrient signal responsible for those changes. Vaspin is influenced by age and gender, and its expression is increased after treatment with insulin sensitizers. Finally, alterations in pituitary functions modify vaspin levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating vaspin will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19470778

  4. Gender-specific influence of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache: the results from the Korean headache survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status plays an important role in pain coping strategy. Its influence on migraine and tension-type headache may differ by gender. This study aimed to evaluate how socioeconomic status affects the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache by gender. Methods We used data from the Korean Headache Survey, a population-based sample of Koreans aged 19–69 years. Education level, district size, and household income were evaluated as socioeconomic variables. Results Among 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 8.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-4.6%] and 29.1% (95% CI 25.7-32.5%) in women and 3.2% (95% CI 1.9-4.6%) and 32.5% (95% CI 29.1-35.9%) in men, respectively. In women, multiple regression analysis found that living in rural areas was related to higher prevalence of migraine [odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% CI 1.85-11.02] and lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.58) and college-level education was related to lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18–0.74). In men, multiple regression analysis failed to reveal significant influences of any socioeconomic variable on the prevalence of migraine or tension-type headache. Conclusions The influence of socioeconomic status on migraine and tension-type headache differs by gender, with women being more susceptible to socioeconomic influence. PMID:24093215

  5. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  6. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports

  7. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families. PMID:26699446

  8. Posttraumatic recovery to distress symptoms ratio: a mediator of the links between gender, exposure to fire, economic condition, and three indices of resilience to fire disaster.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Yohanan; Majdoob, Hadeal; Goroshi, Marina

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of demographic predictors on level of resilience following a potentially traumatic event. We hypothesized that the direct effects of three variables (exposure to fire hazards, gender, and economic condition) on resilience following a fire disaster would be mediated by the proportion of posttraumatic recovery to post-fire distress symptoms. The sample consisted of 234 Israeli Druze youth whose hometown was endangered and damaged by the Mount Carmel fire disaster in December 2010. Results partially supported the research hypotheses. PMID:24825510

  9. Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries: does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?

    PubMed Central

    Houweling, Tanja AJ; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2003-01-01

    Background Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economic status in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now, there is a lack of evidence on the extent to which the use of different measures of economic status affects the observed magnitude of health inequalities. Methods This paper provides this empirical evidence for 10 developing countries, using the Demographic and Health Surveys data-set. We compared the World Bank asset index to three alternative wealth indices, all based on household assets. Under-5 mortality and measles immunisation coverage were the health outcomes studied. Poor-rich inequalities in under-5 mortality and measles immunisation coverage were measured using the Relative Index of Inequality. Results Comparing the World Bank index to the alternative indices, we found that (1) the relative position of households in the national wealth hierarchy varied to an important extent with the asset index used, (2) observed poor-rich inequalities in under-5 mortality and immunisation coverage often changed, in some cases to an important extent, and that (3) the size and direction of this change varied per country, index, and health indicator. Conclusion Researchers and policy makers should be aware that the choice of the measure of economic status influences the observed magnitude of health inequalities, and that differences in health inequalities between countries or time periods, may be an artefact of different wealth measures used. PMID:14609435

  10. Men and women who attend Al-Anon: gender differences in reasons for attendance, health status and personal functioning, and drinker characteristics.

    PubMed

    Short, Nicole A; Cronkite, Ruth; Moos, Rudolf; Timko, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although Al-Anon Family Groups (Al-Anon) is the most common source of help for people concerned about someone else's drinking, only 16% of members are men. To identify gender differences, we compared demographics, reasons for attendance, health status, and personal functioning, and drinker characteristics of 174 men and women attending Al-Anon. Men and women were similar in most areas; however, some key differences emerged. Men reported better overall mental health than women, and described some differing concerns and drinker characteristics. With this information, healthcare providers may facilitate men's participation in Al-Anon by addressing their unique concerns and possible barriers to attendance. PMID:25245105

  11. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and the Frequency of School Web Page Access to Both Mobile and Non-Mobile Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richmond Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that student performance increases when parents become more involved in their children's education, and the positive influence of parental involvement has been shown to persist across racial, gender, and socio-economic barriers (Miller, Adsit, & Miller, 2005). As a result, an increasing number of schools have sought to use

  12. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and the Frequency of School Web Page Access to Both Mobile and Non-Mobile Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richmond Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that student performance increases when parents become more involved in their children's education, and the positive influence of parental involvement has been shown to persist across racial, gender, and socio-economic barriers (Miller, Adsit, & Miller, 2005). As a result, an increasing number of schools have sought to use…

  13. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Cte dIvoire: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding gender dialogue groups to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Cte dIvoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to gender dialogue groups added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a womans ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?gender inequities alongside economic programming, because this type of combined intervention has potential to reduce levels of IPV. Additional large-scale intervention research is needed to replicate these findings. Trial registration Registration Number: NCT01629472. PMID:24176132

  14. Can neighborhood green space mitigate health inequalities? A study of socio-economic status and mental health.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Francis, Jacinta; Foster, Sarah; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether the association of psychological distress with area-level socio-economic status (SES) was moderated by the area and attractiveness of local green space. As expected, the odds of higher psychological distress was higher in residents in lower SES areas than those in higher SES areas. However, our results were inconclusive with regard to the moderating role of green space in the relationship between psychological distress and SES. Further investigations incorporating safety and maintenance features of green space and street-level greenery are warranted. PMID:26796324

  15. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    PubMed

    Waret-Szkuta, Agns; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jrn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Hreth-Bntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Strk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Hsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians. PMID:25631884

  16. The association of economic status with the occurrence of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Brown, S M; Selvin, S; Winkelstein, W

    1975-11-01

    Lung cancer in men was shown to be inversely associated with economic class by analysis of 1959-61 mortality rates from Buffalo, New York. Using five economis strata, white men below and above age 55 in the poorest group had rates 2.6 and 3.8 times higher than those in the richest. For women, the trend was not significant. The question that was investigated was whether, for males, an economic-class trend for smoking existed which paralleled that for lung cancer. Individuals from a Buffalo sample survey were classified according to cigarette smoking habits. Age was found highly associated with both smoking and economic class. In data from white males stratified for age, no significant association was observed between smoking and econimic class. In women, the upper economic groups smoked more, particularly those above age 55. Thus, a strong inverse economic class gradient for lung cancer in men, observed by other investigators among women, cannot be explained by class-related cigarette smoking patterns alone. The possible interaction of cigarette-smoking with other potential etiologic factors that may be associated with economic class is discussed. PMID:1192375

  17. Economic Opportunities and Gender Differences in Human Capital: Experimental Evidence for India. NBER Working Paper No. 16021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in health and education are a concern for a number of developing countries. While standard theory predicts human capital should respond to market returns, social norms (e.g., disapproval of women working outside the home) may weaken or even sever this link for girls. Though many studies have examined the link between women's

  18. Can Tobacco Control Be Transformative? Reducing Gender Inequity and Tobacco Use among Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065

  19. Accounting for institutional change in health economic evaluation: a program to tackle HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jan, Stephen; Pronyk, Paul; Kim, Julia

    2008-02-01

    There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations. Their social value stems from their capacity to reduce the uncertainty in human interactions thereby both reducing transaction costs and, importantly, enabling the initiation and sustainability of various activities (instrumental value). Furthermore, institutions tend to be formed around certain ethical positions and as a consequence, act in binding future decision making to these positions (intrinsic value). Incorporating such notions of social value within a conventional welfare-based measure of benefit is problematic as institutional development is not necessarily consistent with individual utility. An institutionalist approach allows for these additional domains to be factored into economic evaluation. IMAGE is an intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV through microfinance, health education and community development, and involves significant initial investment in institution-building activities, notably through training activities with program staff and community members. The key to employing an institutionalist approach to the evaluation of IMAGE is in understanding the nature of those actions that can be seen as institution-building and determining: (1) the instrumental value of follow-up activities by appropriate amortisation of transaction costs over an horizon that reflects the economies gained from the intervention; and (2) the intrinsic value of any transformation in the community through a cost-consequences approach informed by an a priori conceptual model. This case study highlights how health sector interventions can effect institutional changes and how these are captured within a theory-based economic evaluation framework. PMID:18162273

  20. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, General Language Learning Outcome, and Beliefs about Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the probable relationship between Iranian students' socioeconomic status, general language learning outcome, and their beliefs about language learning. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English for specific courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were…

  1. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  2. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary

  3. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  4. Knowledge of Contraceptive Techniques Among A Hospital Population of Low Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, J. Joseph

    1970-01-01

    The results of this study on investigating the knowledge of contraceptive techniques among a hospital population of low socioeconomic status showed that less than half of the respondents possessed knowledge which seemed to be adequate to allow them to use the method effectively. (Author/KJ)

  5. Equity Indicators: Measures of Socio-Economic Status at Victoria University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Genevieve; Doughney, James; Palermo, Josephine

    After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…

  6. Employer Child Care Organizations Eye Changing Economics: Employer Child Care Status Report #16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In the intervening years, the question of whether corporations should be in the child care business has been answered. Employers no longer question whether providing child care support for employees is a good idea; the key question now is whether they can afford it. This article reports that research for the employer child care status report finds…

  7. Association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders in women: a population-based study of 5703 married rural women in India

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries that have described the association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders (CMDs) in rural women. Methods Population-based study of currently married rural women in the age group of 1539 years. The baseline data are from the National Family Health Survey-II conducted in 1998. A follow-up study was conducted 4 years later in 200203. The outcome of CMD was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Due to the hierarchical nature and complex survey design, data were analysed using mixed-effect logistic regression with random intercept model. Results A total of 5703 women (representing 83.5% of eligible women) completed follow-up. The outcome of CMD was observed in 609 women (10.7%, 95% confidence interval 9.811.6). The following factors were independently associated with the outcome of CMD in the final multivariable model: higher age, low education, low standard of living, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), husbands unsatisfactory reaction to dowry, husbands alcohol use and womens own tobacco use. Conclusions Socio-economic and gender disadvantage factors are independently associated with CMDs in this population of women. Strategies that address structural determinants, for example to promote womens education and reduce their exposure to IPV, may reduce the burden of CMDs in women. PMID:21037247

  8. Medical student socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes toward patient centered care: Do race, socioeconomic status and gender matter? A report from the Medical Student CHANGES study

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Rachel R.; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean; Yeazel, Mark; Nelson, David; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether attitudes toward patient-centered care differed by socio-demographic characteristics (race, gender, socioeconomic status) among a cohort of 3191 first year Black and White medical students attending a stratified random sample of US medical schools. Methods This study used baseline data from Medical Student CHANGES, a large national longitudinal cohort study of medical students. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of race, gender and SES with attitudes toward patient-centered care. Results Female gender and low SES were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward patient-centered care. Age was also a significant predictor of positive attitudes toward patient-centered care such that students older than the average age of US medical students had more positive attitudes. Black versus white race was not associated with attitudes toward patient-centered care. Conclusions New medical students' attitudes toward patient-centered care may shape their response to curricula and the quality and style of care that they provide as physicians. Some students may be predisposed to attitudes that lead to both greater receptivity to curricula and the provision of higher-quality, more patient-centered care. Practice implications Medical school curricula with targeted messages about the benefits and value of patient-centered care, framed in ways that are consistent with the beliefs and world-view of medical students and the recruitment of a socioeconomically diverse sample of students into medical schools are vital for improved care. PMID:25499003

  9. HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón, María Virgínia; Tello, Ines Constanza; Rincón-Hoyos, Hernan Gilberto; Galindo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objetive: To determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of Popayan-Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated. Results: Mean age 33.5±10,2; 66 %women. Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86 % (95% CI:1.87-5.85), greater in men (7.38%; p= 0.013). Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 h). Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection. PMID:24892315

  10. Parental status and gender preferences for children: is differential fertility stopping consistent with the trivers-willard hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Kolk, Martin; Schnettler, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    Based on evolutionary reasoning, Trivers & Willard (1973) predicted status-biased sex composition and parental investment with son-preferencing effects in higher, and daughter-preferencing effects in lower status groups. Previous research shows mixed results. This study uses event-history methods and Swedish register data to study one possible mechanism in isolation: do parents in different status groups vary in their proclivities to continue fertility based on the sex composition of previous offspring? The results show no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis on a wide range of different status indicators. Future research on the stated hypothesis should focus on physiological rather than behavioural mechanisms. PMID:22989525

  11. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System (HIS). Methods Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population) were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Results Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5) was higher than in Africa on average (1.8). Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1). The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD) visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient visits attributable to host community members was higher than that for refugees. There was no statistically significant difference between the size of the male and female populations across refugee settlements. Across all settlements reporting to the UNHCR database, the percent of the refugee population that was less than five years of age is 16% on average. Conclusions The availability of a centralized database of health information across UNHCR-supported refugee settlements is a rich resource. The SPHERE standard for emergencies of 1-4 visits per person per year appears to be relevant for Asia in the post-emergency phase, but not for Africa. In Africa, a post-emergency standard of 1-2 visits per person per year should be considered. Although it is often assumed that the size of the female population in refugee settlements is higher than males, we found no statistically significant difference between the size of the male and female populations in refugee settlements overall. Another assumption---that the under-fives make up 20% of the settlement population during the emergency phase---does not appear to hold for the post-emergency phase; under-fives made up about 16% of refugee settlement populations. PMID:21936911

  12. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF GENDER AND REPRODUCTIVE STATUS ON OUTCOMES IN A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL OF NALTREXONE AUGMENTATION OF NICOTINE PATCH

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, C. Neill; Toll, Benjamin; Wu, Ran; Amin, Zenab; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Jatlow, Peter; Mazure, Carolyn M.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    In a series of exploratory analyses, we examined the roles of gender, reproductive status and negative affect on smoking abstinence in subjects participating in a large (n=385) 6-week randomized clinical trial (RCT) of nicotine patch therapy, with varying doses of oral naltrexone (0 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg) treatment. Negative affect was assessed daily during the first post-quit week via telephone interactive voice response (IVR). Weight and adverse events were recorded weekly. In the intent to treat sample, the effects of dose on continuous abstinence were non-significant in the overall model for men and women. In the 295 study completers, there was a significant effect of dose on continuous abstinence in women only (F=8.53, p=0.04). In the 100 mg group, 71% of women were continuously abstinent compared to 41% in the placebo group (p<0.05). Women in the active naltrexone groups gained less weight (F=2.91, df=3, p=0.04). Women in the 100 mg versus placebo group were less adherent with medication (F=3.19, p<0.05). These effects were not significant in men. Naltrexone treatment condition (100 mg vs placebo, p=0.02, odds ratio (OR)=0.28), gender (OR=0.55 p=0.09), and IVR ratings of negative affect (OR 1.02, p=0.04) predicted abstinence at Week-1 in study completers. Menstrual cycle status on quit day had a modest affect on abstinence. These data suggest that naltrexone dose, gender, and negative affect play a role in smoking abstinence, particularly in the early stages of treatment. When used in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy, naltrexone dose may be important in women. PMID:20561758

  13. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early

  14. No Refuge: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2010-01-01

    Rough financial seas had been buffeting many colleges and universities for years before the recession that began in late 2007. Then in mid-September 2008, an economic tsunami crashed into campuses, challenging their ability to provide the accessible, high-quality education necessary to achieve long-term national goals. As the economy weakened at…

  15. Socioeconomic Status of Farmers and Economic Development in Two Communities of Southern Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Alzemiro E.; Riedl, Mario

    This paper is concerned with the problem of social inequalities and economic development in rural communities. Two ethnically different communities were chosen in the most southern state of Brazil: Garibaldi, of descendants from Italian immigrants, and Candelaria, of descendants from German immigrants. The data were gathered through application of…

  16. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20 to 65-year-old...

  17. No Refuge: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2010-01-01

    Rough financial seas had been buffeting many colleges and universities for years before the recession that began in late 2007. Then in mid-September 2008, an economic tsunami crashed into campuses, challenging their ability to provide the accessible, high-quality education necessary to achieve long-term national goals. As the economy weakened at

  18. Economic Status, Community Danger and Psychological Problems among South African Children

    PubMed Central

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    An extensive literature links community violence and poverty in the US to psychological difficulties in children. To test the cross-national generalizability of these relationships, 625 young, South African mothers residing in black townships with different levels of community danger and material hardship rated their 6-year-olds on emotional functioning and behavioral problems. Most mothers were African, employed and of low educational attainment. Community danger was confirmed as a risk factor for anxiety, depression, aggression, opposition and low affability in children. A composite measure of socioeconomic status as indexed by education and job status was unrelated to behavioral and emotional adjustment. However, children experiencing material hardship had fewer problems related to behavioral self-control than children in families with greater access to material resources. PMID:17664957

  19. Socio-Economic Status Determines Risk of Receptive Syringe Sharing Behaviors among Iranian Drug Injectors; A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although needle and syringe sharing is one of the main routs of transmission of HIV in several countries in the middle east, very little is known about how socio-economic status of injecting drug users (IDUs) is linked to the receptive syringe sharing behaviors in these countries. Aim: To study socio-economic correlates of receptive needle and syringe sharing among IDUs in Iran. Methods: The study used data from the Unhide Risk Study, a national survey of IDUs. This study sampled 636 IDUs (91% male) via snowball sampling from eight provinces in Iran in 2009. Socio-demographic and drug use characteristics were collected. We used a logistic regression to determine factors associated with receptive needle and syringe sharing during the past 6 months. Results: From 636 IDUs enrolled in this study, 68% (n = 434) reported receptive needle and syringe sharing behaviors in the past 6 months. Odds of receptive needle and syringe sharing in the past 6 months was lower among IDUs who were male [odds ratios (OR) = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12–0.70], had higher education (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.64–0.86) but higher among those who were unemployed (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.50–10.94), and were single (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02–2.11). Conclusion: This study presented factors associated with risk of receptive needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. This information may be used for HIV prevention and harm reduction purposes. Socio-economic status of Iranian IDUs may be closely linked to high-risk injecting behaviors among them. PMID:25852577

  20. Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Dilling, Thomas J.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Garden, Adam S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Kian Ang, K.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

  1. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, J A S; Drumm, E; Rodrigues, M A S; Spilki, F R

    2010-12-01

    The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32 municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology. PMID:21225153

  2. Economic Well-Being Among Older-Adult Households: Variation by Veteran and Disability Status

    PubMed Central

    Wilmoth, Janet M.; London, Andrew S.; Heflin, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine whether veteran and disability statuses are jointly associated with household-level poverty and material hardship among older adults. Compared to households that do not include a person with a disability or veteran, disabled non-veteran households are more likely to be in poverty and to experience home hardship, medical hardship, and bill-paying hardship. Disabled veteran households are not significantly different in terms of poverty, but exhibit the highest odds of home hardship, medical hardship, bill-paying hardship, and food insufficiency. The implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25750998

  3. Motivation to Study Music in Australian Schools: The Impact of Music Learning, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Gary E.; Osborne, Margaret S.; Barrett, Margaret S.; Davidson, Jane W.; Faulkner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study extends an eight-country mapping exercise (McPherson & O'Neill, 2010; see "Research Studies in Music Education" issues 2010-2011) to include students' motivation to study music within the Australian context. It sought to determine whether music learners (students learning an instrument or voice), might be more motivated to

  4. Development of Phonological Awareness during the Preschool Year: The Influence of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level

  5. Motivation to Study Music in Australian Schools: The Impact of Music Learning, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Gary E.; Osborne, Margaret S.; Barrett, Margaret S.; Davidson, Jane W.; Faulkner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study extends an eight-country mapping exercise (McPherson & O'Neill, 2010; see "Research Studies in Music Education" issues 2010-2011) to include students' motivation to study music within the Australian context. It sought to determine whether music learners (students learning an instrument or voice), might be more motivated to…

  6. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Louise H.; Nicolaou, Mary; van Dam, Rob M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Brants, Henny A. M.; Beukers, Marja H.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254), South Asian Surinamese (n=425), and African Surinamese (n=784) participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move towards more vegetables and fruits with higher SES but continued fidelity to the traditional diet. PMID:26041009

  7. Differential Trends in Weight-Related Health Behaviors Among American Young Adults by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status: 1984–2006

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Lantz, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated temporal patterns from 1984 to 2006 in 6 weight-related health behaviors by using longitudinal data for multiple cohorts of young adults (aged 19–26 years) from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future Study. Methods. We used growth curve models to examine historical trends in 6 health behaviors: frequency of eating breakfast, eating green vegetables, eating fruit, exercising, watching television, and sleeping 7 hours each night. Variations across gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were investigated. Results. Frequency of exercising was consistently lower among young adult women than young adult men over this 23-year period. Compared with White women, Hispanic women, and women from other race/ethnic groups, Black women showed declines in the frequency of exercise since 1984. In general, young adult women showed a marked increase in the frequency of eating breakfast over this period, although Black women did not show any net gains. Conclusions. Social disparities in body weight may increase because Black women, Hispanic women, and men with lower socioeconomic status show declining trends in positive weight-related health behaviors compared with White young adults with higher socioeconomic status. PMID:19696395

  8. Incorporation of Socio-economic Status Indicators into Policies for the Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Candice; Weider, Katie; Konopka, Kristen; Danis, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has an important effect on health. Individuals with lower SES experience more chronic disease, are less likely to receive preventive care, and have shorter life expectancies. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented and increasing numbers of previously uninsured people gain access to health care, the imperative to recognize patients SES and develop health initiatives that account for the social determinants of health increases. Health care providers across the nation are adopting electronic health records (EHRs). Policies such as Meaningful Use offer opportunities to systematically incorporate the collection of standardized SES indicators into EHRs in ways that improve health, increase the understanding of the relationship between SES and health, and inform future policies. This paper examines the use of SES indicators in research, national surveys, and federal programs and finds adding an income question is the most feasible and optimal SES indicator for the inclusion in EHRs. PMID:24509007

  9. Economic Outcomes among Latino Migrants to Spain and the United States: Differences by Source Region and Legal Status

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Using representative national surveys, this paper compares economic outcomes among Latin American migrants to Spain and the United States in the first cross-national comparison using quantitative data. Considering the geographic location and social proximity of each country with respect to Latin America, we detect a critical selection effect whereby the majority of Latin American migrants to Spain originate in South America from middle class backgrounds, whereas most migrants to the United States are Central Americans of lower class origins. This selection effect accounts for cross-national differences in the probability of employment, occupational attainment, and wages earned. Despite differences in the origins and characteristics of Latino immigrants to each country, demographic and human and social capital factors appear to operate similarly in both places; and when models are estimated separately by legal status, we find that effects are more accentuated for undocumented compared with documented migrants, especially in the United States. PMID:21776179

  10. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francislia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Ftima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

  11. Retinol and alpha-tocopherol content in breast milk of Bangladeshi mothers under low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Barua, S; Tarannum, S; Nahar, L; Mohiduzzaman, M

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and total solid were determined in the breast milk of Bangladeshi mothers under low socio-economic status. Mature milk samples were collected from 61 lactating mothers who visited a city maternity centre in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Mothers were at varying lactation periods (1.5-26 months). Retinol and alpha-tocopherol in breast milk were determined by HPLC. Mean (+/-SE) concentrations of breast milk retinol and alpha-tocopherol were 283.80 micrograms l-1 (+/-17.4) and 2.04 mg l-1 (+/-0.11) respectively, while that of total solid was 103.30 g l-1 (+/-0.70). Concentration of alpha-tocopherol varied for the variation of the length of lactation, while the content of retinol and total solid did not differ significantly. Alpha-tocopherol concentration beyond 6 months post partum was higher as compared to that of earlier periods. Retinol concentration was found to be higher for the comparatively higher income group. Concentrations of these nutrients were not affected significantly by mother's age. Infant's average daily intake of retinol through breast milk was calculated to be 181.02 micrograms, while that of alpha-tocopherol was calculated to be 1.37 mg. Thus breast milk of Bangladeshi mothers under low socio-economic status cannot cater infant's full requirements for vitamin A (RDA-375RE) and vitamin E (RDA-3-4 alpha-tocopherol equivalent). Improving mother's diet and timely weaning may ameliorate the situation. PMID:9093545

  12. Health status of older immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Filice, John K

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to the Canadian-born in terms of age and gender using multiple measures of health status including self-assessed health. Second, we identify the factors associated with health status using the determinants of health framework. In both cases, the key questions are whether differences in health status exist and whether they are explained primarily by socio-economic, socio-demographic, or lifestyle factors that may point to problems with the Canadian health care system. Findings indicate that there is a relative comparability in the health status of older immigrants, even after controlling for age. PMID:17001585

  13. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates.

    PubMed

    Chipman, A; Morrison, E

    2013-04-23

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction. PMID:23407502

  14. Siblings, Friends, Course-mates, Club-Mates: How Adolescent Health Behavior Homophily Varies by Race, Class, Gender, and Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Jonathan; Margolis, Rachel; Verdery, Ashton M.

    2014-01-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors develop during adolescence, and these behaviors can have fundamental consequences for health and mortality in adulthood. Social network structure and the degree of homophily in a network affect how health behaviors and innovations are spread. However, the degree of health behavior homophily across different social ties and within subpopulations is unknown. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by using a novel regression model to document the degree of homophily across various relationship types and subpopulations for behaviors of interest that are related to health outcomes. These patterns in health behavior homophily have implications for which behaviors and ties should be the subjects of future research and for predicting how homophily may shape health programs focused on specific subpopulations (gender, race, class, health status) or a specific social context (families, peer groups, classrooms, or school activities). PMID:24673889

  15. Body mass index, socio-economic status and socio-behavioral practices among Tz'utujil Maya women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jason M; Valeggia, Claudia R; Barg, Frances K; Bream, Kent D W

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates the associations between body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES) and related socio-behavioral practices including marriage and market visits in a population of adult Tz'utujil Maya women in Santiago Atitln, Guatemala, aged 18-82. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods include cross-sectional anthropometric measurements and semi-structured interviews gathered in 2007, as well as participant observation and purposive interviews conducted in 2007-2008. The regional quota sample of 53 semi-structured interviews was designed to be representative of the cantones (municipal divisions) of Santiago Atitln. BMI was positively associated with years of schooling, income and literacy, all measures of SES. A statistical analysis of our data indicates that increased income, increased market visits and being married are significantly positively associated with BMI. Qualitative analysis based on the grounded theory method reveals relevant themes including a preoccupation with hunger and undernutrition rather than obesity, a preference for food quantity over dietary diversity, the economic and social influence of a husband, the effects of market distance and the increasing consumption of food from tiendas. These themes help to explain how SES, socio-behavioral practices and BMI are positively associated and can inform future public health interventions related to obesity and undernutrition. PMID:19299213

  16. Gender inequalities and demographic behavior.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    A summary was provided of the central findings about gender inequalities in Egypt, India, Ghana, and Kenya published by the Population Council in 1994. These countries exhibited gender inequalities in different ways: the legal, economic, and educational systems; family planning and reproductive health services; and the health care system. All countries had in common a high incidence of widowhood. Widowhood was linked with high levels of insecurity, which were linked with high fertility. Children thus became insurance in old age. In Ghana, women's insecurity was threatened through high levels of marital instability and polygyny. In Egypt, insecurity was translated into economic vulnerability because of legal discrimination against women when family systems were disrupted. In India and all four countries, insecurity was reflective of limited access to education, an impediment to economic autonomy. In all four countries, women's status was inferior due to limited control over reproductive decision making about childbearing limits and contraception. In India, the cultural devaluation of girls contributed to higher fertility to satisfy the desire for sons. In India and Egypt, family planning programs were dominated by male-run organizations that were more concerned about demographic objectives than reproductive health. The universal inequality was the burden women carry for contraception. Family planning programs have ignored the local realities of reproductive behavior, family structures, and gender relations. The assumption that husbands and wives have similar fertility goals or that fathers fully share the costs of children is mistaken in countries such as Ghana. Consequently, fertility has declined less than 13% in Ghana, but fertility has declined by over 30% in Kenya. Family planning programs must be aware of gender issues. PMID:12288918

  17. Issues of Gender. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's status. It…

  18. The Relationship Between Learning Style Preferences and Gender, Educational Major and Status in First Year Medical Students: A Survey Study From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarabi-Asiabar, Ali; Jafari, Mehdi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Tofighi, Shahram; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Peyman, Hadi; Salimi, Mohammad; Shams, Lida

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles in order to improve education. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles preferences and gender, educational major and status in first year students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study employing the visual-aural-read/write-kinesthetic (VARK) learning styles questionnaire was done on 184 first year students of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing and health services management at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed through experts views and reliability was calculated using Cronbachs alpha coefficients (? = 0.86). Data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.18 software and x2 test. Results: Out of 184 participants who responded to and returned the questionnaire, 122 (66.3%) were female; more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the enrolled students were at the professional doctorate level (medicine, pharmacy, dentistry) and 31.5% at the undergraduate level (nursing and health services management). Eighty-nine (48.4%) students preferred a single-modal learning style. In contrast, the remaining 95 students (51.6%) preferred multi-modal learning styles. A significant relationship between gender and single modal learning styles (P = 0.009) and between status and learning styles (P = 0.04) was observed. Conclusions: According to the results, male students preferred to use the kinesthetic learning style more than females, while, female students preferred the aural learning style. Knowledge about the learning styles of students at educational institutes is valuable and helps solve learning problems among students, and allows students to become better learners. PMID:25763269

  19. Tobacco Industry Marketing to Low Socio-economic Status Women in the US

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; England, Lucinda J.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Describe tobacco companies’ marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic-status (SES) females in the US. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, “discount-susceptible” older female smokers, and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females, and promoting luxury images to low SES African American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands. Conclusions Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the US for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include: 1) counter-acting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, 2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display, and 3) creating counter-advertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women. PMID:24449249

  20. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Bghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-Garca, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; ? = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  1. The role of husband's and wife's economic activity status in the demand for children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y

    1987-04-01

    Data from Hong Kong were used to examine how the demand for children is affected by the economic returns to different types of market activities. The specific data used was a 1% sample of the 1976 "Hong Kong By-Census of Population." Only women under 50 who were currently married and living with their husbands were included. The households were restricted to land-based and non-farm families with economically active husbands. There were a total of 4128 families in the sample; in 3768 families the wife had experienced at least 1 birth. A simple 1-period model of household production and fertility demand is outlined. Emphasis was on 2 aspects of the demand for children in households who choose to work in the informal sector: children are more readily employed in a family business; and wife's work in a family business or in a wage employment at home is more compatible with childcare activities. Both effects imply that holding constant other characteristics, a higher desired stock of children will be demanded. As expected, an increase in wife's predicted log earnings in home work had a negative effect on the demand for children. The effect was almost always significant. An increase in wife's productivity in the family business, as proxied by her predicted log earnings in the family business, increased the demand for children significantly. This usually is interpreted to be a result of entering a market activity which is compatible with childcare. Another possible explanation is that the price of children is lowered because if children work in the family business then their productive contributions subsidize their parents' consumption. Yet, without direct measures or proxies for these effects, it is not possible to distinguish between them. An increase in husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment had a significant negative effect on demand for children. This can be interpreted in 2 ways: if an interior solution exists for husband's allocation of time, then a negative effect implies either that children are inferior (or are observed to be so) or husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment increases the probability of specializing in it. Thus, the role of children in the family business vanishes, and the desired number of children is reduced. Both husband's and wife's schooling reduced significantly the demand for children. In general, estimates of coefficients from families with at least 1 child were smaller in absolute magnitude and less significant statistically. PMID:12269084

  2. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 6084 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989

  3. Dietary habits, economic status, academic performance and body mass index in school children: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kukulu, Kamile; Sarvan, Süreyya; Muslu, Leyla; Yirmibesoglu, Serife Gözde

    2010-12-01

    The changes in dietary habits and way of life of adolescents can lead to some nutrition problems. The purpose of this study was to compare dietary habits of children living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas regarding their physical characteristics, socio-economic milieu and educational level. A total of 737 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades of two different primary schools took part in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire including dietary habits of participants. Furthermore, the weight and height of students were measured and their body mass index was calculated. During the study, while 4.3 percent of students living in the non-metropolitan area were found obese, this figure was 8.4 percent in the metropolitan area. A big majority of non-metropolitan students have breakfast and lunch at home. Metropolitan students not having lunch at home have their lunch at restaurants or school canteens and generally consume more snacks. The obesity risk of students participating in the study was found to be high. Intervention programs should be organized in order to inform the students about the importance of healthy nutrition and lead them to change their current consumption behavior. PMID:21078697

  4. Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

  5. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  6. The relationship between survival and socio-economic status for head and neck cancer in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) is emerging as the primary cause for some head and neck cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between head and neck cancer (HNC) survival and socioeconomic status (SES) in Canada, and to investigate changes in the relationship between HNC survival and SES from 1992 to 2005. Methods Cases were drawn from the Canadian Cancer Registry (1992–2005), and were categorized into three subsites: oropharynx, oral cavity, and “other” (hypopharynx, larynx, and nasopharynx). Demographic and socioeconomic information were extracted from the Canadian Census of Population data for the study period, which included three census years: 1991, 1996 and 2001. We linked cases to income quintiles (InQs) according to patients’ postal codes. Results Overall survival, without controlling for smoking, for oropharyngeal cancer increased dramatically from 1992–2005 in Canada. This increase in survival for oropharynx cancer was eliminated by the introduction of controls for smoking. Survival for all head and neck cancer subsites was strongly correlated with SES, as measured by income quintile, with lower InQ’s having lower survival than higher. Lastly, the magnitude of the difference in survival between the highest and lowest income quintiles increased significantly over the time period studied for oropharynx cancer, but did not statistically significantly change for oral cavity cancer or other head and neck cancers. Conclusions These data confirm a significant impact of socioeconomic deprivation on overall survival for head and neck cancers in Canada, and may provide indirect evidence that HPV-positive head and neck cancers are more common in higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:24422754

  7. Letter knowledge in parentchild conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parentchild conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parentchild conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parentchild conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

  8. Social Support and Socioeconomic Status Predict Secondary Students' Grades and Educational Plans Indifferently across Immigrant Group and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, se; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervg, Arne Ola

    2015-01-01

    Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between

  9. Diabetes and depression comorbidity and socio-economic status in low and middle income countries (LMICs): a mapping of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases account for more than 50% of deaths in adults aged 1559 years in most low income countries. Depression and diabetes carry an enormous public health burden, making the identification of risk factors for these disorders an important strategy. While socio-economic inequalities in chronic diseases and their risk factors have been studied extensively in high-income countries, very few studies have investigated social inequalities in chronic disease risk factors in low or middle-income countries. Documenting chronic disease risk factors is important for understanding disease burdens in poorer countries and for targeting specific populations for the most effective interventions. The aim of this review is to systematically map the evidence for the association of socio-economic status with diabetes and depression comorbidity in low and middle income countries. The objective is to identify whether there is any evidence on the direction of the relationship: do co-morbidities have an impact on socio-economic status or vice versa and whether the prevalence of diabetes combined with depression is associated with socio-economic status factors within the general population. To date no other study has reviewed the evidence for the extent and nature of this relationship. By systematically mapping the evidence in the broader sense we can identify the policy and interventions implications of existing research, highlight the gaps in knowledge and suggest future research. Only 14 studies were found to analyse the associations between depression and diabetes comorbidity and socio-economic status. Studies show some evidence that the occurrence of depression among people with diabetes is associated with lower socio-economic status. The small evidence base that considers diabetes and depression in low and middle income countries is out of step with the scale of the burden of disease. PMID:23181626

  10. Improved Socio-Economic Status of a Community Population Following Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Control Interventions on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Joseph R.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on micro-level assessment of the changes of socio-economic status following health interventions is very scarce. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in resource poor settings. In such settings information about income is usually lacking, and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 213 households in a community population in an island in the north-western Tanzania before and 3 year after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based housing construction features (e.g., type of roof, walls, and floor) and durable assets ownership (e.g., bicycle, radio, etc.). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor, and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.4376677 to 0.5001073, and the mean from -0.2605787 (SD; 2.005688) to 0.2605787 (SD; 1.831199). The difference in socio-economic status of the people between the 2 phases was highly statistically significant (P<0.001). We argue that finding of this study should be treated with caution as there were other interventions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections which were running concurrently on Kome Island apart from PHAST intervention. PMID:26537034

  11. Improved Socio-Economic Status of a Community Population Following Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Control Interventions on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Research on micro-level assessment of the changes of socio-economic status following health interventions is very scarce. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in resource poor settings. In such settings information about income is usually lacking, and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 213 households in a community population in an island in the north-western Tanzania before and 3 year after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based housing construction features (e.g., type of roof, walls, and floor) and durable assets ownership (e.g., bicycle, radio, etc.). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor, and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.4376677 to 0.5001073, and the mean from -0.2605787 (SD; 2.005688) to 0.2605787 (SD; 1.831199). The difference in socio-economic status of the people between the 2 phases was highly statistically significant (P<0.001). We argue that finding of this study should be treated with caution as there were other interventions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections which were running concurrently on Kome Island apart from PHAST intervention. PMID:26537034

  12. The associations between unhealthy behaviours, mental stress, and low socio-economic status in an international comparison of representative samples from Thailand and England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status is a recognised determinant of health status, and the association may be mediated by unhealthy behaviours and psychosocial adversities, which, in developed countries, both aggregate in low socioeconomic sectors of the population. We explored the hypothesis that unhealthy behavioural choices and psychological distress do not both aggregate in low socioeconomic status groups in developing countries. Methods Our study is based on a cross-sectional comparison between national population samples of adults in England and Thailand. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) or three anxiety-oriented items from the Kessler scale (K6). Socioeconomic status was assessed on the basis of occupational status. We computed a health-behaviour score using information about smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Results The final sample comprised 40,679 participants. In both countries and in both genders separately, there was a positive association between poor health-behaviour and high psychological distress, and between high psychological distress and low socioeconomic status. In contrast, the association between low socioeconomic status and poor health-behaviour was positive in both English men and women, flat in Thai men, and was negative in Thai women (likelihood ratio test P <0.001). Conclusion The associations between socioeconomic status, behavioural choices, and psychological distress are different at the international level. Psychological distress may be consistently associated with low socioeconomic status, whereas poor health-behaviour is not. Future analyses will test whether psychological distress is a more consistent determinant of socioeconomic differences in health across countries. PMID:24555674

  13. A Comparison Study of the Degree to Which Systemic Techniques and Traditional Techniques Motivate Black Junior High School Students with Low Social Economic Status Towards Engineering Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, William H.

    The purpose of this dissertation was to compare the results of traditional and systemic techniques in motivating black eighth grade junior high school students with low socio-economic status toward careers in engineering. The traditional techniques were directed at the general population and showed the importance of engineering to society as a…

  14. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative

  15. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian

  16. A Genetically Sensitive Investigation of the Effects of the School Environment and Socio-Economic Status on Academic Achievement in Seven-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Although it is well established that school characteristics (SCH) and socio-economic status (SES) are associated with academic achievement (ACH), these correlations are not necessarily causal. Because academic achievement shows substantial genetic influence, it is useful to embed such investigations in genetically sensitive designs in order to

  17. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old

  18. So Young and Already Victims of Stereotype Threat: Socio-Economic Status and Performance of 6 to 9 Years Old Children on Raven's Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert, Michel; Preaux, Marie; Jund, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether children from low socio-economic status (SES) are victims of stereotype threat. Children in first grade (6 to 7 years old) and third grade (8 to 9 years old) performed Raven's progressive matrices, an intellectual ability test commonly used by psychologists. The test was presented either with the

  19. A Comparison Study of the Degree to Which Systemic Techniques and Traditional Techniques Motivate Black Junior High School Students with Low Social Economic Status Towards Engineering Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, William H.

    The purpose of this dissertation was to compare the results of traditional and systemic techniques in motivating black eighth grade junior high school students with low socio-economic status toward careers in engineering. The traditional techniques were directed at the general population and showed the importance of engineering to society as a

  20. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  1. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  2. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region

  3. Toward a New Model of Fertility: The Effects of the World Economic System and the Status of Women on Fertility Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kathryn B.

    A relationship exists between high birth rates and the lowered status of women in developing nations, resulting from their country's economic development. Research was based on data from various sources on 34 developed nations and 92 developing nations throughout the world. Variables included income inequality, foreign trade structure and

  4. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of

  5. Gender differences in the association of depression with career indecisiveness, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization.

    PubMed

    Gadassi, Reuma; Waser, Ayelet; Gati, Itamar

    2015-10-01

    Depression has detrimental effects on broad areas of functioning. However, its association with career decision-making factors has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we focused on the association between career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization, on the one hand, and depression, on the other. The hypothesis that high levels of career decision-making difficulties, less advanced decision status, and low levels of preference crystallization are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms was tested with a sample of 222 college seniors. In addition, since it has been found that work-related stressors are more often associated with depression among men than women, it was hypothesized that the associations between vocational factors and depression would be stronger for men than for women. The participants filled out online self-report questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career preferences. The results indicated that self-concept and identity-related career decision-making difficulties were associated with depressive symptoms for both men and women. In addition, for men, but not for women, less crystallization of career preferences also predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results show how important it is for counseling psychologists to understand the role of the individual's vocational situation in depression. PMID:26460980

  6. Tobacco use prevalence disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Julia A.; Peterson, Erin; Bobo, Matthew; Pickle, Kathryn E.; Rohde, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 20062010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product) among the 3 populations of interest. Results Population segments were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by segment. For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third) of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48%) and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%). Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating population segments based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations. PMID:23967410

  7. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of???50,000IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season, and patient location. Improved 25(OH)D status was observed later in life, a finding that may reflect the previously described increased use of vitamin D-containing supplements in such populations. Severe vitamin D deficiency is much more common than vitamin D toxicity. PMID:24188187

  8. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher…

  9. School Effects, Gender and Socioeconomic Differences in Reading Performance: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shera, Perparim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of Albanian secondary schools, which are associated with reading achievement and the effects of gender and socio-economic status on reading performance of 15-year-old students. This study used data on the background and achievement of 4,596 students in 181 Albanian schools from the 2009

  10. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher

  11. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56)) with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60) in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65) in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16) and 1.73 (1.46-2.06). The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64) in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01) in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations with long-term sickness absence and disability pension tended to be stronger in women. PMID:23067045

  12. [Economic crisis and employment conditions: gender differences and the response of social and employment policies. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Escrib-Agir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. PMID:24863992

  13. Impact of socio-economic status on the hospital readmission of Congestive Heart Failure patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Atefeh; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Naderi, Nasim; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of multiple indicators of Socio-economic Status (SES) on Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) related readmission. Methods: A prospective study consisting of 315 patients without the history of admission due to CHF was carried out in Tehran during 2010 and 2011. They were classified into quartiles based on their SES applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and followed up for one year. Using stratified Cox regression analysis, Hazard Ratios (HRs) were computed to assess the impact of SES on the readmission due to CHF. Results: During the 12 months follow-up, 122 (40%) were readmitted at least once. HR of lowest SES patients vs. the highest SES patients (the fourth versus first quartile) was 2.66 (95% CI= 1.514.66). Variables including abnormal ejection fraction (<40%), poor physical activity, poor drug adherence, and hypertension were also identified as significant independent predictors of readmission. Conclusion: The results showed low SES is a significant contributing factor to increased readmission due to CHF. It seems that the outcome of CHF depends on the SES of patients even after adjusting for some of main intermediate factors. PMID:25337599

  14. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  15. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually

  16. Marital Status and Cognitive Impairment among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults: The Role of Gender and Social Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lei; Ng, Xue-Ting; Yap, Philip; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Tih-Shih; Håkansson, Krister; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between marital status and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling Chinese older adults. Methods We analyzed data from 2,498 Chinese aged 55 and older from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study cohort. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination total score of 23 or below. Odds ratios of associations were reported and adjusted for potential confounders in logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 12.2% (n = 306). Being single was associated with about 2.5 times increased odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married (adjusted OR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.41-4.55). The association between marital status and cognitive impairment was much stronger in men compared to that in women, and was indeed statistically significant only for men. Among the single and widowed persons social engagement was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment. Compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of social engagement scores, the odds of having cognitive impairment was lowered by 50% for subjects in the second and the third tertile. Conclusion Being single or widowed was associated with higher odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married in a cohort of older Chinese men but not women. PMID:25473404

  17. Gender, socioeconomic status, and self-rated health in a transitional middle-income setting: evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-09-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country.The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The Thai cohort in this study mirrors patterns found in developed countries, with females reporting more frequent "poor" or "very poor" SRH (odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.44). Cohort males had better SRH than females, but levels were more sensitive to socioeconomic status. Income and education had little influence on SRH for females. Among educated Thai adults, females rate their health to be worse than males, and unlike males, this perception is relatively unaffected by socioeconomic status. PMID:20460290

  18. Effect of gender, age, and lipid status on low density lipoprotein subfraction distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J R; Campos, H; Ordovas, J M; Peterson, J; Wilson, P W; Schaefer, E J

    1987-01-01

    The presence of low molecular weight low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in plasma has been associated with premature coronary artery disease. In this study we have examined factors affecting LDL subfraction distribution as determined by 2% to 16% polyacrylamide-agarose gradient gel electrophoresis of whole plasma in a normal, primarily middle-aged, population of adult male and female participants (n = 280, ages 25 to 75 years) in the Framingham Offspring Study. Seven major LDL bands (LDL-1 to LDL-7) were observed in different individuals, with most subjects having either one or two major bands. The presence of low molecular weight LDL (LDL-4 to LDL-7) in plasma as the predominant LDL type was significantly more common in men than in women (43.5% versus 14.8%, p less than 0.001). The presence of low molecular weight LDL was correlated (p less than 0.01) with increased age, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (in women only), and apolipoprotein (apo) B concentrations, as well as with decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apo A-I levels. Approximately 69% of the variability in LDL subfractions could be accounted for by alterations in plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels. These data are consistent with the concept that LDL subfraction distribution is influenced by gender and plasma lipoprotein levels and can be determined readily by the use of whole plasma. PMID:3675308

  19. Stroke knowledge among diabetics: a cross-sectional study on the influence of age, gender, education, and migration status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke campaigns are educating about the need to immediately contact the emergency medical system if symptoms occur. Despite higher stroke rates among patients with diabetics and some migrant populations, there are few data about stroke knowledge in these groups. Methods We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 250 diabetes patients from Germany and Turkey in a primary care and diabetes practice center. The two-page questionnaire asked for stroke knowledge and socio-demographic data. Also, medical and communication data were obtained. Stroke knowledge was defined as good if a participant knew (1) at least two stroke symptoms (good symptom knowledge) and (2) that immediate hospital admission or an emergency call is necessary in case of stroke symptoms (good action knowledge). Results A total of 231 of 250 patients took part in the survey (participation rate 92.4%) with 134 natives (53.6%), 84 migrants from Turkey (33.6%) and 13 migrants (5.2%) from other countries. Comparing natives and migrants from Turkey good symptom knowledge was documented in 52.8% of the participants, good action knowledge in 67.9%, and good stroke knowledge in nearly forty percent (39.4%) of patients (n = 218). A logistic regression analysis showed better stroke knowledge if patients were younger than 61 years, had good language abilities and were living in an one-generation household (p < 0.05), while gender, years since migration and diabetes control did not play a role. Conclusions We documented stroke knowledge deficits among patients with diabetes, both natives and migrants. Additional information strategies for these high risk populations are needed. PMID:24330386

  20. Iron Status and Systemic Inflammation, but Not Gut Inflammation, Strongly Predict Gender-Specific Concentrations of Serum Hepcidin in Infants in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jaeggi, Tanja; Moretti, Diego; Kvalsvig, Jane; Holding, Penny A.; Tjalsma, Harold; Kortman, Guus A. M.; Joosten, Irma; Mwangi, Alice; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and its yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.01.1 months (meanSD), we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (SD) serum hepcidin was 6.0 (3.4) ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor) were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA) infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (4.9) vs. 3.4 (4.9) ng/mL; P<0.001). Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation. PMID:23460869

  1. Micronutrient intakes among children and adults in Greece: the role of age, sex and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Ccile

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

  2. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Ccile

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 913-year-old children; 4060-year-old adults; and 5075-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

  3. Regulation of GPR55 in rat white adipose tissue and serum LPI by nutritional status, gestation, gender and pituitary factors.

    PubMed

    Imbernon, Monica; Whyte, Lauren; Diaz-Arteaga, Adenis; Russell, Wendy R; Moreno, Natalia R; Vazquez, María J; Gonzalez, Carmen R; Díaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Lopez, Miguel; Malagón, Maria M; Ross, Ruth A; Dieguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2014-03-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been proposed as a new cannabinoid receptor associated with obesity in humans. We have investigated the regulation of GPR55 in rat white adipose tissue (WAT) in different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance. We compared GPR55 expression with Cannabinoid Receptor type 1 (CB1), which mediates the metabolic actions of endocannabinoids, by real time PCR and western blotting. Circulating levels of lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), the endogenous ligand of GPR55, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both WAT CB1 and GPR55 levels were increased after fasting and recovered after leptin treatment. Their expression was decreased during gestation and increased throughout lifespan. Orchidectomy diminished WAT CB1 and GPR55 expression whereas ovariectomized rats showed increased GPR55 but decreased CB1 levels. Alterations in pituitary functions also modified WAT CB1 and GPR55 levels. Serum LPI levels were inversely regulated by fasting and gonadectomy in comparison to WAT GPR55. Our findings indicate that GPR55 and LPI are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in energy status. PMID:24378736

  4. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality

  5. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

  6. The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population

    PubMed Central

    Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194

  7. The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population.

    PubMed

    Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-22

    Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194

  8. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14

  9. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume IV: Social, Political and Economic Issues in Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural

  10. Gender dysphoria

    MedlinePLUS

    Gender dysphoria used to be known as gender identity disorder. People with gender dysphoria may act as members of the opposite sex. The condition may affect: Choice of sexual partners Mannerisms, behavior, ...

  11. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites. PMID:26282484

  12. Geography and gender.

    PubMed

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs. PMID:12320248

  13. It's Not over Yet: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Great Recession began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009. With a duration of eighteen months, this recession was almost double the length of the average post-World War II economic downturn. Although the worst recession since the Great Depression is now technically over, this analysis…

  14. It's Not over Yet: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Great Recession began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009. With a duration of eighteen months, this recession was almost double the length of the average post-World War II economic downturn. Although the worst recession since the Great Depression is now technically over, this analysis

  15. Gender Equality in Teacher Organisations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Torill Scharning

    1995-01-01

    Most senior trade union posts are held by men, even in organizations where most members are women. The paper examines how the Norwegian Union of Teachers has advanced in this area, noting the status of gender equality in Norway, Norway's work toward gender equality, and the country's focus on educational change. (SM)

  16. Nutritional advice from George Orwell. Exploring the social mechanisms behind the overconsumption of unhealthy foods by people with low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Morten H

    2015-08-01

    Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already tentatively questioned by some nutritionist (Burr et al., 2007) as well as "food" sociologist (Smith & Holm, 2010). PMID:25865664

  17. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  18. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital. PMID:25941756

  19. Do Race, Ethnicity, Citizenship and Socio-economic Status Determine Civic-Engagement? CIRCLE Working Paper #62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Bey, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides descriptive data on differences in civic engagement between advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Because there is not always consensus on what measure best describes disadvantaged, this paper used multiple indicators (race, ethnicity, citizenship status, family income and educational attainment) across four measures of civic

  20. Anxiety among High School Students in India: Comparisons across Gender, School Type, Social Strata and Perceptions of Quality Time with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Chatterjee, Pooja; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    The broad objective of the study was to understand better anxiety among adolescents in Kolkata city, India. Specifically, the study compared anxiety across gender, school type, socio-economic background and mothers' employment status. The study also examined adolescents' perceptions of quality time with their parents. A group of 460 adolescents…

  1. Economic development and gender inequality in cognition: a comparison of China and India, and of SAGE and the HRS sister studies

    PubMed Central

    Weir, David; Lay, Margaret; Langa, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines cognition measures by age and gender from two types of studies in China and India. It finds that despite some notable differences in samples and measures, a general strong association of cognition in older ages with education emerges as a potential explanation for gender gaps and cohort differences. Female disadvantage in cognition is greater in India, both before and after controlling for education. The process of rural-urban migration draws more cognitively able women to cities in China but not in India. The advent of modern longitudinal studies of aging in these developing countries holds great promise for future work. PMID:25506546

  2. Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as

  3. Gaps in the Digital Divide in Higher Education: Economically Disadvantaged Students and a Lack of Access and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…

  4. School Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Status and Teachers' Work Commitment in Finland: Longitudinal Survey with Register Linkage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and

  5. Rapid Industrial Development, Competition, and Relative Economic Status: A Study in Human Ecology. Working Paper RID 73.10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gene F.; Clemente, Frank

    The document has 3 goals (1) to examine the distribution of economic benefits of industrial development as reflected by the concept of competition in human ecology; (2) to provide an empirical test of the ecological model, and (3) to relate the findings to public policy. Two Illinois study areas were identified. First, as an experimental region,

  6. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women

  7. Economics in Asia: Status Reports on Teaching and Research in Nine Countries. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This book contains reports on the teaching of and research in economics in nine countries: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Each report covers the historical development and growth of the discipline in the country; the development of infra-structures for teaching and

  8. The Possible Effects of Nutritional Status and Growth of Children on the Economic Potential of West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Barbara K.

    Meeting nutritional needs of children in West Virginia is vital to the state's economic development. A malnourished, uneducable population will be unemployable in a high tech society and the state cannot afford custodial and welfare costs resulting from childhood malnutrition. Evidence of nutritional need in West Virginia includes low rate of

  9. School Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Status and Teachers' Work Commitment in Finland: Longitudinal Survey with Register Linkage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and…

  10. Quite Good News--For Now: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    This annual report shows that economically it would seem that faculty members have much about which to be happy. The academic year 2001-2002 was the fifth consecutive year in which the value of the average faculty salary rose, and the one in which academics saw the largest single-year jump in their real (inflation-adjusted) salaries since the…

  11. Evaluating the ecological association of casino industry economic development on community health status: a natural experiment in the Mississippi delta region.

    PubMed

    Honor, Peggy A; Simoes, Eduardo J; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Wang, Xueyuan; Brown, Lovetta

    2007-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to examine for associations of casino industry economic development on improving community health status and funding for public health services in two counties in the Mississippi Delta Region of the United States. An ecological approach was used to evaluate whether two counties with casino gaming had improved health status and public health funding in comparison with two noncasino counties in the same region with similar social, racial, and ethic backgrounds. Variables readily available from state health department records were used to develop a logic model for guiding analytical work. A linear regression model was built using a stepwise approach and hierarchical regression principles with many dependent variables and a set of fixed and nonfixed independent variables. County-level data for 23 variables over an 11-year period were used. Overall, this study found a lack of association between the presence of a casino and desirable health outcomes or funding for public health services. Changes in the environment were made to promote health by utilizing gaming revenues to build state-of-the-art community health and wellness centers and sports facilities. However, significant increases in funding for local public health services were not found in either of the counties with casinos. These findings are relevant for policy makers when debating economic development strategies. Analysis similar to this should be combined with other routine public health assessments after implementation of development strategies to increase knowledge of health outcome trends and shifts in socioeconomic position that may be expected to accrue from economic development projects. PMID:17299329

  12. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Cte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights

  13. Unequal Access, Unequal Participation: Some Spatial and Socio-Economic Dimensions of the Gender Gap in Education in Africa with Special Reference to Ghana, Zimbabwe and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabaya, Judith; Konadu-Agyemang, Kwadwo

    2004-01-01

    The question of unequal access to education among males and females appears to be universal in the developing world. However, females in Africa seem to suffer more discrimination in terms of access to education. This study revisits the question of gender disparities in educational access in Africa by analyzing data from recent comparative national…

  14. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights…

  15. Unequal Access, Unequal Participation: Some Spatial and Socio-Economic Dimensions of the Gender Gap in Education in Africa with Special Reference to Ghana, Zimbabwe and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabaya, Judith; Konadu-Agyemang, Kwadwo

    2004-01-01

    The question of unequal access to education among males and females appears to be universal in the developing world. However, females in Africa seem to suffer more discrimination in terms of access to education. This study revisits the question of gender disparities in educational access in Africa by analyzing data from recent comparative national

  16. Gender Self-Definition and Gender Self-Acceptance in Women: Intersections with Feminist, Womanist, and Ethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2006-01-01

    The author explored the relationships among women's gender identity constructs as well as the relationships of those constructs to ethnic identity. Nine of the 12 hypothesized relationships between gender self-definition and female identity development statuses and between gender self-acceptance and female identity development statuses were…

  17. Surveillance status and recent data for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the European Union and European Economic Area, January 2012.

    PubMed

    Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D

    2012-01-01

    In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134

  18. Binge drinking among Brazilian students: a gradient of association with socioeconomic status in five geo-economics regions

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Aims 1) To describe the characteristics of binge drinking (BD) among high school students in Brazil and 2) the association of BD with students' socioeconomic status (SES) in the five different Brazilian macroregions. Design A national multistage probabilistic sample of high school students. Setting Students were drawn from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Participants 17,297 high school students, aged 14 to 18 years. Measurement Self-report data about BD practices and SES were analyzed via weighted logistic regressions and a funnel plot. Findings Almost 32% of the students engaged in BD in the past-year. Being in the highest SES stratum doubled the risk of BD among students in all five Brazilian macroregions. There was a gradient in the association between past-year BD and socioeconomic status: as SES increased; the chance of having recently engaged in BD also increased. In the Brazilian capitals as a whole, boys versus girls (aOR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.26 to 1.58]), being older (aOR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.55] per each additional year of age) and those attending private schools versus public schools (aOR = 1.39 [95% CI 1.18 to 1.62]), were at greater risk for BD. Conclusions Contrary to what is observed in developed countries, students living in Brazilian capitals may be at an increased risk of BD when they belong to the highest socioeconomic status. Adolescents growing up in other emerging economies might have the same association between high SES and BD. PMID:22771006

  19. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces—Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor province in the West—in a sense new and old China. Our cognition measures proxy for two different dimensions of adult cognition—episodic memory and intact mental status. On both measures, Chinese women score much lower than do Chinese men, a gender difference that grows among older Chinese cohorts. We relate both these cognition scores to schooling, urban residence, family and community levels of economic resources, and height. We find that cognition is more closely related to mean community resources than to family resources, especially for women, suggesting that in traditional poor Chinese communities there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls. We also find that these gender differences in cognitive ability have been steadily decreasing across birth cohorts as the economy of China grew rapidly. Among cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any gender disparity in cognitive ability. This parallels the situation in the United States where cognition scores of adult women actually exceed those of adult men. PMID:24347682

  20. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    PubMed

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time-bound manner, there could be serious adverse implications for the Indian economy, society and politics. PMID:18032812

  1. Trajectories of health-related quality of life by socio-economic status in a nationally representative Canadian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nancy A; Garner, Rochelle; Bernier, Julie; Feeny, David H; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson; Orpana, Heather M; Oderkirk, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Background Mortality and morbidity have been shown to follow a social gradient in Canada and many other countries around the world. Comparatively little, however, is known about whether ageing amplifies, diminishes or sustains socio-economic inequalities in health. Methods Growth curve analysis of seven cycles of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (n=13 682) for adults aged 20 and older at baseline (1994/95). The outcome of interest is the Health Utilities Index Mark 3, a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Models include the deceased so as not to present overly optimistic HRQL values. Socio-economic position is measured separately by household-size-adjusted income and highest level of education attained. Results HRQL is consistently highest for the most affluent and the most highly educated men and women, and is lower, in turn, for middle and lower income and education groups. HRQL declines with age for both men and women. The rate of the decline in HRQL, however, was related neither to income nor to education for men, suggesting stability in the social gradient in HRQL over time for men. There was a sharper decline in HRQL for upper-middle and highest-income groups for women than for the poorest women. Conclusion HRQL is graded by both income and education in Canadian men and women. The grading of HRQL by social position appears to be set in early adulthood and is stable through mid- and later life. PMID:21441176

  2. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children’s oral health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children’s OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents’ age, and parents’ oral health literacy) on children’s OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project’s Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children’s Perception Questionnaire11-14 were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers’ age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children’s OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed. PMID:24650192

  3. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2014-01-01

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children's OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents' age, and parents' oral health literacy) on children's OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children's Perception Questionnaire were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers' age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children's OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed. PMID:24650192

  4. Using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data to analyze geographical distribution of socio-economic status; an experience from KEMRI/CDC HDSS.

    PubMed

    Amek, Nyaguara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Obonyo, Benson; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; Laserson, Kayla

    2015-04-01

    Continuous monitoring in health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) allows for collection of longitudinal demographic data, health related, and socio-economic indicators of the site population. We sought to use household survey data collected between 2002 and 2006 in the Kenya Medical Research Institute in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and prevention (KEMRI/CDC) HDSS site in Asembo and Gem Western Kenya to estimate socio-economic status (SES) and assess changes of SES over time and space. Data on household assets and characteristics, mainly source of drinking water, cooking fuel, and occupation of household head was annually collected from 44,313 unique households during the study period. An SES index was calculated as a weighted average of assets using weights generated via Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Polychoric PCA, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) methods applied to the pooled data. The index from the best method was used to rank households into SES quintiles and assess their transition over time across SES categories. Kriging was employed to produce SES maps at the start and the end of the study period. First component of PCA, Polychoric PCA, and MCA accounted for 13.7%, 31.8%, and 47.3%, respectively of the total variance of all variables. The gap between the poorest and the least poor increased from 1% at the start to 6% at the end of the study period. Spatial analysis revealed that the increase in least poor households was centered in the lower part of study area (Asembo) over time. No significant changes were observed in Gem. The HDSS sites can provide a platform to assess spatial-temporal changes in the SES status of the population. Evidence on how SES varied over time and space within the same geographical area may provide a useful tool to design interventions in health and other areas that have a close bearing to the SES of the population. PMID:25602533

  5. The impact of socio-economic status on health related quality of life for children and adolescents with heart disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence childrens health-related quality of life. Many SES indicators assess distinct dimensions of a familys position rather than measuring the same underlying construct. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable. The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Validation Study. The SES variables were family income, Hollingshead Index (occupational prestige), and highest parent educational attainment level. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Correlations tested the relationship among the three SES indicators. Regression-based modeling was used to calculate the strength of the association between SES measures and the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Results The correlations among the SES measures were moderately high, with the correlation between the Hollingshead Index and parental education being r?=?0.62 (95% CI?=?0.56-0.65). There were equally high correlations between family income and the Hollingshead (r?=?0.61, 95% CI?=?0.57-0.65) and a slightly lower correlation between family income and parental education (r?=?0.55, 95% CI?=?0.52-0.59). Family income had the highest explanatory value compared to the Hollingshead Index or parental educational attainment, while controlling for sex, race, current cardiac status, and original diagnosis, accounting for 4-5% of the variation in patient and parent Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Total score, respectively, compared to the other SES measures. Conclusion Family income as an SES measure demonstrated the greatest fidelity with respect to health-related quality of life as measured by the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory across respondent groups and explained more of the variation compared to the Hollingshead Index or highest parental educational attainment. PMID:23777248

  6. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing. PMID:26607926

  7. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula. PMID:23819006

  8. Food Security Status and Barriers to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Two Economically Deprived Communities of Oakland, California, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Oddo, Vanessa M.; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food security status may moderate how people perceive barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption. This study aimed to 1) describe the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and microbarriers and mezzobarriers to consumption, and 2) test whether these associations differ by food security status. Methods We surveyed adults (n = 531) living in 2 economically deprived communities in Oakland, California, in 2013 and 2014. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between microbarriers (taste, cost, busyness) and mezzobarriers (produce selection, quality, and purchase ease) and fruit and vegetable consumption, derived from a 26-item dietary screener. Interactions were tested by food security status. Results Respondents consumed a mean 2.4 (standard deviation, 1.5) servings of fruits and vegetables daily; 39% of the sample was food insecure. Being too busy to prepare healthy foods was associated with reduced fruit and vegetable consumption (βbusyness = −0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.52 to −0.28) among all respondents. Food security moderated the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and taste, cost, and perceived ease of purchase of healthy foods. Among the food secure, disliking healthy food taste (βtaste = −0.38; 95% CI, −0.60 to −0.15) and cost (βcost = −0.29; 95% CI, −0.44 to −0.15) concerns were associated with lower consumptions of fruits and vegetables. Mezzobarriers were not significantly associated with consumption in either group. Conclusion Perceived time constraints influenced fruit and vegetable consumption. Taste and cost influenced fruit and vegetable consumption among the food secure and may need to be considered when interpreting analyses that describe dietary intake and designing diet-related interventions. PMID:26866947

  9. The impact of gender norms on condom use among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870

  10. The Impact of Gender Norms on Condom Use among HIV-Positive Adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partners HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.9526.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870

  11. Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position. PMID:23145945

  12. A gender more vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Basu, A M

    1991-12-01

    The greater risks of death faced by females in India are discussed in terms of the differences between the norther and southern regions of India, culture compounding inequality, and intervention strategies. When the assumption of a sex ratio of equality of 950/1000 is make, every region in the north is below (ranging from 874-913), and every region in the south above (ranging from 960-1040). The same north/south division remains for the male probability of dying by age 5 as a proportion of female probability (rural) in 1981. 2 explanations are given for female's greater survival changes in the south. 1) Marriage and kinship systems are different. Girls in the north typically marry earlier; many times marriage is to a stranger in a distant area so that family contact is reduced. The consequence is a reduction in female autonomy and status in both her father's and her husband's home. 2) Economic roles are different. Research has revealed that male/female survival equality occurs in states with high female labor force participation rates. At the micro level, working women's children tend to have more equal death rates. Physical devaluation is not only evidenced in death and survival, but also in the disparity in schooling. The states with the greatest gender differentials in mortality also have the greatest differences in literacy. This has been interpreted as household resources are disproportionately invested in males. Cultural inhibitions about the physical freedoms of girls also are involuntary reasons for the sex differential. The example is given of the apprehension generated for a male doctor's examination of a girl, a coeducational school environment, or a school located a distance from the home. There is the tradition of female seclusion and inhibition. In combination with the dependence on sons to limit the choices open to women, and to limit the growth and development, the product is inequality. Amniocentesis has lead to the increase in numbers of sex determination and abortion clinics. There is evidence that aborted fetuses are primarily female. Without change in these practices, there will not be a reversal in the sex ratio. Interventions suggested include increasing the number of facilities for the equal development of girls and women. There must be increases in female medical staff, more girl's schools in villages, and more nutrition programs for girls, Women's economic independence must be enhanced. PMID:12317118

  13. Gender Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In late 2007, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) expanded its Enrollment Reporting service to include several additional data elements (commonly referred to as the "A2" or "expanded" data elements). One of these expanded data elements is student gender. Although gender is potentially important to a number of research

  14. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's

  15. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  16. Gender Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  17. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants

  18. Gender Workshops with Men in South Asia: Experiences and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhasin, Kamla

    1996-01-01

    Describes the processes and challenges of conducting gender sensitivity workshops for men in India and Nepal to create awareness of the gendered division of labor, clear up misconceptions about feminism, and analyze social and economic systems of oppression. (SK)

  19. Prosocial behavior and gender

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783

  20. Prosocial behavior and gender.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Mara Paz; Kov?k, Jaromr

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in "neutral" baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783