These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2010-01-01

2

Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

2011-01-01

3

Life Satisfaction Depending on Socio-Economic Status and Gender among Turkish Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was carried out using the survey method in an attempt to find out the relationship between the life satisfaction and socio-economic status (SES) of adolescents. The research was conducted among 275 young Turkish people chosen by the random sampling method. The research findings determined that there was a significant difference…

Eroglu, Susran Erkan; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Calisir, Vahit

2009-01-01

4

Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

2006-01-01

5

Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

2013-01-01

6

The Contribution of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and Socio-Cultural Influence to Turkish Students' Task Value Beliefs in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…

Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

2014-01-01

7

Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: a cross-national study of less developed countries.  

PubMed

A number of studies have attempted to account for cross-national differences in life expectancy, but relatively few have focused on female life expectancy, and even fewer on the relevance of predictors linked to gender stratification theory. The present study seeks to assess the utility of gender stratification theory in accounting for cross-national differences in female life expectancy in less developed countries. An incremental model building strategy is used to develop a final model that combines predictors linked to both industrialism theory and gender stratification theory. The analysis is based on multiple regression and cross-sectional samples that vary in size from 40 to 97 countries. Evidence is presented that several aspects of women's status have a positive effect on female life expectancy. Indicators of women's educational status, women's economic status, and women's reproductive autonomy all prove to be important predictors of female life expectancy. Analysis of interaction effects suggests that the strength of the effects of some aspects of women's economic status and the effect of some aspects of health status on female life expectancy vary with the level of economic development. A comprehensive assessment of the relative strength of alternative measures of women's education is carried out, and evidence is presented that it does make a difference how the level of women's education is measured. PMID:9225417

Williamson, J B; Boehmer, U

1997-07-01

8

The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

2012-01-01

9

Labour Market Status, Transitions and Gender: a European Perspective  

E-print Network

Octobre 2010 Labour Market Status, Transitions and Gender: a European Perspective Choix d travail #12;#12;Labour Market Status, Transitions and Gender: a European Perspective Choix d MARKET STATUS, TRANSITIONS AND GENDER: A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE Christine Erhel, Mathilde Guergoat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

The Dynamics of a Racialized, Gendered, Ethnicized, and Economically Stratified Society: Understanding the SocioEconomic Status of Women in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist literature attempting to understand the status of women in Zimbabwe has seldom considered patterns of social exclusion and the dynamics of a racialized society that institutionalized racial supremacy as an ideology for organizing social life. Even now, too often we believe, feminist theorists analyze the status of women with the assumption that patriarchy is the single source of the

Otrude N. Moyo; Saliwe M. Kawewe

2002-01-01

11

Economic Status of Academic Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines some of the factors affecting the current economic status of academic librarians, as well as the history of changes in that economic picture. Issues discussed include the ranking of beginning academic librarian salaries in comparison to others in the profession, historical differences between academic librarian salaries and…

Perret, Robert; Young, Nancy J.

2011-01-01

12

Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

Inoue, Yukiko

13

Another View of the Gender-Status Relation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Gerber (2009) proposes an integration of status and gender stereotypes with status mediating the influence of gender. In her model, status\\u000a is assumed to explain gender stereotypes, as well as self perceptions of such traits and their evaluation. The person-situation\\u000a personality literature, cross-cultural gender research, and developmental studies of gender stereotypes and behavior are reviewed.\\u000a A

Deborah L. Best

2009-01-01

14

Gender equality, poverty and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews empirical findings from economic analyses of the role of gender equality and women's empowerment in reducing poverty and stimulatinggrowth. Going beyond the large literature documenting the impact of female education on a range of development outcomes, the paper presents evidence on the impact of women's access to markets (labor, land, and credit) and women's decision-making power within

Nistha Sinha; Dhushyanth Raju; Andrew Morrison

2007-01-01

15

Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

2011-01-01

16

ECON 461: Economics of Gender and Family Seattle University  

E-print Network

and Outcomes This course will enhance students' understanding of the role of gender in the familyECON 461: Economics of Gender and Family Seattle University Fall 2013 Tuesdays and Thursdays 1 School of Business and Economics Office: Pigott 523 Phone: (206) 296-2803 Email: bgh@seattleu.edu Office

Carter, John

17

Gender and Identity Status Differences in Late Adolescents' Possible Selves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined gender and identity status differences in late adolescents' possible selves. The intent of the study was to clarify conflicts between theory and research on gender differences in identity by investigating the content of participants' possible selves. Participants completed measures of identity and possible selves. The…

Anthis, Kristine S.; Dunkel, Curt S.; Anderson, Brian

2004-01-01

18

Status, Personality, and Gender Stereotyping: Response to Commentators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Status differences between women and men can explain why they perceive themselves as having different personality traits.\\u000a The status explanation of gender stereotyping is discussed in relation to two views that have shaped research and theory on\\u000a gender and personality: the traditional view that men and women are characterized by stable, enduring dispositions and the\\u000a more recent view that women’s

Gwendolyn L. Gerber

2009-01-01

19

Status and the Gender Stereotyped Personality Traits: Toward an Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper integrates research findings on status and the gender stereotyped personality traits and examines the extent to\\u000a which women’s lower status than men can account for two components of gender stereotyping in the United States: the belief\\u000a that women and men have different personality traits and the differences in men’s and women’s perceptions of their own personality\\u000a traits. In

Gwendolyn L. Gerber

2009-01-01

20

Gender hierarchy in the space: the role of gender status in shaping the spatial agency bias.  

PubMed

According to the Spatial Agency Bias (SAB), more agentic groups (men) are envisioned to the left of less agentic groups (women). This research investigated the role of social status in shaping the spatial representation of gender couples. Participants were presented pairs consisting of one male and one female target who confirmed gender stereotypes. The status of the targets in each pair was systematically varied (high-status vs. low-status job). Participants chose the target order (female/male vs. male/female) they preferred. In line with gender-status expectations (male: high-status, female: low-status), a male in a high-status job led to a spatial arrangement that favored the male/female order, regardless of the status of the female target. The female/male order was favored only when the female had a high-status job and the male a low-status job. No SAB occurred for pairs in which both targets displayed low-status jobs. The implications of status for the SAB are discussed. PMID:24765816

Carnaghi, Andrea; Piccoli, Valentina; Brambilla, Marco; Bianchi, Mauro

2014-01-01

21

Socioeconomic Status, Economic Problems, and Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and delinquency is not as strong as suggested by the leading crime theories. This article argues that such theories do not predict that SES in and of itself causes delinquency but rather that the economic problems associated with SES cause delinquency. Such problems…

Agnew, Robert; Matthews, Shelley Keith; Bucher, Jacob; Welcher, Adria N.; Keyes, Corey

2008-01-01

22

Seeing through Race, Gender and Socioeconomic Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the history of discrimination in the United States and the length of time it took to abolish the legal support of racism. The paper then discusses the problems of diversity in the United States. Acknowledging and accepting U.S. diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religious background, and national origin would…

Gundi, Kirmanj

23

Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesStudies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish gendered job status (affected by family composition and other personal characteristics) from sex-linked biological differences influencing physiological response to workplace physical hazards.MethodsWe examined the effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims

Jane E Clougherty; Ellen A Eisen; Martin D Slade; Ichiro Kawachi; Mark R Cullen

2010-01-01

24

Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

Closson, Leanna M.

2009-01-01

25

The Impact of Gender and Organizational Status on Workplace Anger Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social rules for communicating anger in the workplace are multifaceted, and standards vary for different groups. Previous research addresses either gender differences in anger expression or organizational status differences, but not the combined impact of gender and status. The authors close this gap by investigating both the independent and joint influence of gender and rela- tive organizational status on

Theresa A. Domagalski; Lisa A. Steelman

2007-01-01

26

Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

Akubue, Anthony I.

2001-01-01

27

Gender and the Study of Economics: The Role of Gender of the Instructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the question of whether the gender of the instructor in first year university microeconomis might play a role either in the performance of students, and espatially the performance of female students, in microeconomics, or, in the likelihood that student will continue in economics.

R. E. Robb; A. L. Robb

1996-01-01

28

Emotions under Discussion: Gender, Status and Communication in Online Collaboration  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the undisputed role of emotions in teamwork, not much is known about the make-up of emotions in online collaboration. Publicly available repositories of collaboration data, such as Wikipedia editor discussions, now enable the large-scale study of affect and dialogue in peer production. Methods We investigate the established Wikipedia community and focus on how emotion and dialogue differ depending on the status, gender, and the communication network of the editors who have written at least 100 comments on the English Wikipedia's article talk pages. Emotions are quantified using a word-based approach comparing the results of two predefined lexicon-based methods: LIWC and SentiStrength. Principal Findings We find that administrators maintain a rather neutral, impersonal tone, while regular editors are more emotional and relationship-oriented, that is, they use language to form and maintain connections to other editors. A persistent gender difference is that female contributors communicate in a manner that promotes social affiliation and emotional connection more than male editors, irrespective of their status in the community. Female regular editors are the most relationship-oriented, whereas male administrators are the least relationship-focused. Finally, emotional and linguistic homophily is prevalent: editors tend to interact with other editors having similar emotional styles (e.g., editors expressing more anger connect more with one another). Conclusions/Significance Emotional expression and linguistic style in online collaboration differ substantially depending on the contributors' gender and status, and on the communication network. This should be taken into account when analyzing collaborative success, and may prove insightful to communities facing gender gap and stagnation in contributor acquisition and participation levels. PMID:25140870

Iosub, Daniela; Laniado, David; Castillo, Carlos; Fuster Morell, Mayo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

2014-01-01

29

The Impact of Gender and Marital Status on Attitudes and Responses to Unemployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined differences in job search intensity, attitudes toward unemployment, and related responses among a sample of Israelis, based on gender and marital status (single vs. married). The findings indicate that gender-based differences were greater than those based on marital status. Regarding the impact of gender, women were more likely than men to reject jobs because of conflict with

Liat Kulik

2001-01-01

30

Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life. PMID:18826562

Weires, Marianne; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

2008-01-01

31

Economic Inequities in Child Support: The Role of Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their increasing numbers, divorced families with a noncustodial mother and a custodial father have received scant research attention. Our study attempts to provide some initial insight into the economic status of these families. Examining the child support obligation, we find that noncustodial mothers face a much smaller award than noncustodial fathers, both in terms of the absolute dollar amount

Kate Stirling; Thomas Aldrich

2012-01-01

32

Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…

Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

2009-01-01

33

Connecting gender and economic competitiveness: lessons from Cambridge’s high-tech regional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recognition of the significance of gender divisions continues to transform economic geography, the discipline nevertheless remains highly uneven in its degree of engagement with gender as a legitimate focus of analysis. In particular, although social institutions are now widely regarded as key determinants of economic success, the regional learning and innovation literature remains largely gender blind, simultaneously subordinating the

Mia Gray; Al James

2007-01-01

34

Economic strain, social relations, gender, and binge drinking in Moscow.  

PubMed

The harmful effects of alcohol consumption are not necessarily limited to the amounts consumed. Drinking in binges is a specific feature of Russian alcohol consumption that may be of importance even for explaining the current mortality crisis. Based on interviews conducted with a stratified random sample of 1190 Muscovites in 2004, this paper examines binge drinking in relation to the respondents' economic situation and social relations. Consistent with prior research, this study provides further evidence for a negative relationship between educational level and binge drinking. Our results also indicate a strong but complex link between economic strain and binge drinking. The odds ratios for binge drinking of men experiencing manifold economic problems were almost twice as high compared to those for men with few economic problems. However, the opposite seemed to be true for women. Being married or cohabiting seemed to have a strong protective effect on binge drinking among women compared to being single, while it seemed to have no effect at all among men. Women having regular contact with friends also had more than twice the odds for binge drinking compared to those with little contact with friends, while again no effect was found among men. Gender roles and the behavioural differences embedded in these, may explain the difference. The different effects of economic hardship on binge drinking may also constitute an important factor when explaining the large mortality difference between men and women in Russia. PMID:18023952

Jukkala, Tanya; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Kislitsyna, Olga; Ferlander, Sara; Vågerö, Denny

2008-02-01

35

Status Aspirations, Wealth Inequality, and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper argues that an increase in the inequality of wealth prompts a stronger quest for status that in turn fosters the accumulation of wealth. It proposes a measure for an individual's want of social status. For a given level of a population's wealth, the corresponding aggregate measure of want of social status is shown to be positively related to

Oded Stark

2006-01-01

36

Gender-typicality of economic sectors and gender-composition of working groups as moderating variables in leadership research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Meta-analytic evidence exists that the numerical dominance of one gender group among employees can affect the behaviour of female and male leaders. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesis that leaders will show more transformational behaviour when they hold a minority status. Transformational behaviour might help to mitigate discrepancies between male leaders' gender and the feminine context,

Hans-Joachim Wolfram; Gisela Mohr

2010-01-01

37

The role of grade sensitivity in explaining the gender imbalance in undergraduate economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a gender imbalance in undergraduate economics departments with most departments educating a strong majority of young men. This imbalance has led many economists to ponder the question of why relatively few women choose to take courses and major in economics. Our hypothesis is that the gender imbalance in undergraduate economics, particularly at institutions with traditional liberal arts curriculums,

Kevin Rask; Jill Tiefenthaler

2008-01-01

38

Gender Inequality, Endogenous Cultural Norms and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the role played by cultural norms in the long run persistence of gender inequalities. Cultural norms about gender roles are considered to be endogenous and can generate gender inequality and low development traps. Indeed, when the gender gap is internalized, it leads to inegalitarian views about gender roles. Due to these inegalitarian beliefs, boys receive more

Victor Hiller

2008-01-01

39

Gender Equality and Economic Development The Role for Information and Communication Technologies  

E-print Network

This paper focuses on the role that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can play in improving gender equality, so as to enhance long-term economic growth. Employing OLS and IV panel regressions with country fixed-effects, the paper shows that increases in the level of ICT infrastructure tend to improve gender equality in education and employment. In addition, it shows that education among the general population is important for improving gender equality. The results provide evidence indicating that gender equality in education is an important contributor to gender equality in employment. Lastly, the results show that economic development itself tends to lead to some improvements in gender equality in the labor market. Hence, the use of ICTs to improve gender equality in education and employment may initiate a continuous cycle of positive reinforcing feedback effects between gender equality in employment and economic development, leading to further improvements in both.

Derek H. C. Chen

40

Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

Edmonds, Eric V.

2005-01-01

41

The Economic Status of the African American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the economic status of the African American family in Cleveland (Ohio) and in the United states as a whole and describes a model of interactions of social forces and economic factors that have influenced the declining earnings of African American families. The proportion of African American families in poverty in the United…

Reed, Wornie L.

42

[Obesity and health economics. Review and status].  

PubMed

Cost-of-illness analyses are concerned with the societal economic impact of obesity such as treatment-costs and lost production related to morbidity and mortality. As regards allocation of resources a growing number of cost-effectiveness analyses of different interventions have appeared. In addition several economic analyses look at how obesity affects wage level and how the use of price-subsidies affects the consumption of products and services. Most recently health economic analyses of possible explanations of the rise in the prevalence of obesity have emerged. PMID:16403351

Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Worre-Jensen, Ann Louise

2006-01-01

43

Back to the Basics: SocioEconomic, Gender, and Regional Disparities in Canada's Educational System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reassessed the extent to which socio-economic background, gender, and region endure as sources of educational inequality in Canada. The analysis utilized the 28,000 student Canadian sample from the data set of the OECD's 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Results, consistent with previous findings, highlight the uneven distribution of educational achievement in Canada along socio- economic, gender,

Jason D. Edgerton; Tracey Peter; Lance W. Roberts

2008-01-01

44

Gender Differences in the Economic Well-Being of Nonaged Adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment of economic parity between men and women has been a focal point of the women's movements in many countries. How much worse off are women economically? What are the net, gender differences in economic well-being when other factors are taken into account? What factors explain the level of economic well-being of women compared to men's? This article reports

Martha N. Ozawa; Hong-Sik Yoon

2003-01-01

45

Maternal mortality, women's status, and economic dependency in less developed countries: a cross-national analysis.  

PubMed

While much has been written about the medical, economic, and social causes of cross-national differences in some mortality related phenomena such as in life expectancy and infant mortality, much less attention has been given to maternal mortality, the focus of the present study. In the studies of maternal mortality that have been done, there has been very little effort to assess the potential relevance of the gender stratification and dependency theory perspectives. Using lagged cross-sectional and path analysis with a sample of 79 less developed countries, this article focuses on the impact of predictors linked to three theoretical perspectives - modernization, economic dependency, and gender stratification. We find that women's status, as measured by indicators such as level of education relative to men, age at first marriage, and reproductive autonomy, is a strong predictor of maternal mortality. We find that economic dependency, especially multinational corporate investment, has a detrimental effect on maternal mortality that is mediated by its harmful impacts on economic growth and the status of women. We also find support for developmental theory, a variant of modernization theory. PMID:10414829

Shen, C; Williamson, J B

1999-07-01

46

Nutritional Status During an Economic Crisis: Evidence from Russia &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1996 and 1998, Russia experienced a spectacular decline in economic activity which was followed by a dramatic rebound between 1998 and 2000. We use panel data to examine the impact of variation in household resources on six dimensions of nutritional status, distinguishing longer-run from short-term fluctuations in resources. Nutritional status is very resilient to short-term variation in household resources.

Steven Stillman; Duncan Thomas

2008-01-01

47

Nonverbal Behavior, Status, and Gender: How Do We Understand Their Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The causes of gender differences in nonverbal behavior are not well understood. The present article discusses status as a possible explanation and analyzes some of the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with testing that hypothesis. The study by Helweg-Larsen, Cunningham, Carrico, and Pergram (2004), which investigated gender in…

Hall, Judith A.

2006-01-01

48

Effects of Experimenter Gender, Testing Context and Marital Status Upon Marital Role Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of participant (P) gender, experimenter (E) gender, presence or absence of P's dating partner, marital status, and age upon scores from college students using the Dunn (1960) Marital Role Expectations Inventory in a series of two experiments. In Experiment 1 with P couples, there were two significant interactions: (1) presence or absence of partner × E

Carl Bartling; Brenda Broussard

1999-01-01

49

Race, Gender, and Status: A Content Analysis of Print Advertisements in Four Popular Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we consider the continuation of race gender stereotypes in advertising images by way of the product's suggestive messages, specifically, connotations of higher or lower social status and promises of intangible social rewards (e.g., friendship, appearance, romance). We examined 1, 709 advertisements in magazines whose primary reading audiences differ by race and\\/or gender: Life, Cosmopolitan, Ebony, and Essence

Linda A Treiber

2000-01-01

50

The Economics of Status and future perspectives  

E-print Network

load hours per year c/kWh 900 /kW 1100 /kW Coastal areas Medium wind areas Low wind areas Assumptions: ·Simple economic analysis ­ no taxes, depreciation, risk premium etc. ·O&M of 1.2 c/kWh ·Lifetime 20 Years 2100 2300 2500 2700 2900 Number of full load hours per year c/kWh 5% p.a. 7.5% p.a. 10% p.a. Coastal

51

Nutritional and health status among nursing home residents in Lebanon: comparison across gender in a national cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. Results The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported “good” health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. Conclusions This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents. PMID:24950594

2014-01-01

52

Peer Group Status of Gender Dysphoric Children: A Sociometric Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this sociometric study, we aimed to investigate the social position of gender-referred children in a naturalistic environment.\\u000a We used a peer nomination technique to examine their social position in the class and we specifically examined bullying and\\u000a victimization of gender dysphoric children. A total of 28 children (14 boys and 14 girls), referred to a gender identity clinic,\\u000a and

Madeleine S. C. Wallien; René Veenstra; Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis

2010-01-01

53

Economic Development and Educational Status in Appalachian Kentucky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates competing explanations for the relatively poor educational performance in Appalachian Kentucky. Concludes that substantial economic diversification would probably result in improved educational status. Warns against reliance on extractive industries and presents data showing increased income from mining to be significantly correlated…

DeYoung, Alan J.

1985-01-01

54

The Measurement of Socio-Economic Status: A Technical Note.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the socioeconomic status (SES) concept was conducted to determine whether an already established index could be used in Toronto's Study of Achievement of children from kindergarten through the elementary grades. The examination of the SES concept and the results of analyses concerning the applicability of the Blishen Socio-Economic

Eason, Gary; Crawford, Patricia

55

Labor Market Effects on Dropping out of High School: Variation by Gender, Race, and Employment Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping…

McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

2011-01-01

56

Explanatory Models of ADHD: Do They Differ by Ethnicity, Child Gender, or Treatment Status?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined 127 parents' understanding of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and differences by ethnicity, child gender, treatment status, and sociodemographic status. White parents were more likely than African-American parents to apply medical labels, expect a lifelong course, seek school interventions, and address academic…

Bussing, Regina; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Rogers, Kenneth M.; Zima, Bonnie T.; Angus, Sherwin

1998-01-01

57

Gender Wage Inequality and Economic Growth: Is There Really a Puzzle?-A Comment.  

PubMed

Seguino (2000) shows that gender wage discrimination in export-oriented semi-industrialized countries might be fostering investment and growth in general. While the original analysis does not have internationally comparable wage discrimination data, we replicate the analysis using data from a meta-study on gender wage discrimination and do not find any evidence that more discrimination might further economic growth-on the contrary: if anything the impact of gender inequality is negative for growth. Standing up for more gender equality-also in terms of wages-is good for equity considerations and at least not negative for growth. PMID:21857765

Schober, Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

2011-08-01

58

Relationships of Employment Status, Gender Role, Insult, and Gender with Use of Influence Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that men and womenuse different tactics to influence others. This paperexamines the worth of using personality andenvironmental variables to study phenomena that havebeen previously studied with gender as a variable.Study One examined the relationship between gender roleand choice of influence tactics for 31 male and 103female, mostly Caucasian college students. Study Two examined the role of traditional

Bobbi J. Carothers; James B. Allen

1999-01-01

59

"Doing Gender," Ensuring Survival: Mexican Migration and Economic Crisis in the Rural Mountain West  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…

Schmalzbauer, Leah

2011-01-01

60

SocioEconomic Status and Obesity in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Historically, obesity was a disease of affluence; while the wealthy were able to afford ample, energy-dense food, the poor\\u000a often went hungry. This pattern can still be seen in many developing countries, where lower socio-economic status (SES) is\\u000a associated with food insecurity, inadequate energy intake, and malnutrition among both adults and children (UN FAO 2009).\\u000a In such situations, obesity continues

Fiona Johnson; Michelle Pratt; Jane Wardle

61

Perceived control and emotional status in abusive college student relationships: an exploration of gender differences.  

PubMed

The authors assessed perceived control, dysphoria, hopelessness, self-esteem, and optimism in 280 college students involved in abusive and nonabusive relationships. Women reported higher levels of dysphoria and lower levels of self-esteem and optimism than men. Women in abusive relationships reported more psychological symptoms than men in abusive relationships. After controlling for gender differences in emotional status, participants in abusive relationships showed more psychological symptoms than those in nonabusive relationships. Women showed lower perceived control of relationship conflicts than men. Men experiencing high levels of abuse reported higher perceived control of relationship conflict than females experiencing low levels of abuse. Perceived control was affected more by gender than emotional status, abuse level, and gender-affected emotional status. The authors discuss the results in terms of their implications for future investigations of emotional reactions to abuse. PMID:16051727

Clements, Caroline; Ogle, Richard; Sabourin, Caryn

2005-09-01

62

Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

2008-01-01

63

Vitamin D Status in Jordan: Dress Style and Gender Discrepancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide and has been linked to many diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess the vitamin D status of Jordanians at the national level and to identify groups of the population at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. Methods: Vitamin D status was assessed in a national sample of 5,640

A. Batieha; Y. Khader; H. Jaddou; D. Hyassat; Z. Batieha; M. Khateeb; A. Belbisi; K. Ajlouni

2011-01-01

64

Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a unique set of data drawn from the US census, statistics, city directories, and other sources, the author looks at the differences between men and women in the US labour force. She shows that the `gender gap' in income and job level that has existed throughout history cannot be explained simply as a matter of sex discrimination, nor as

Claudia Goldin

1990-01-01

65

Lehigh University seeks talented faculty, staff, and students from diverse backgrounds. Lehigh University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sex  

E-print Network

University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, or veteran status in any area...................................................................................................4 LEHIGH UNIVERSITY NON-DISCRIMINATION STATEMENT

Gilchrist, James F.

66

Lehigh University seeks talented faculty, staff, and students from diverse backgrounds. Lehigh University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sex  

E-print Network

University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, or veteran status in any area

Gilchrist, James F.

67

Lehigh University seeks talented faculty, staff, and students from diverse backgrounds. Lehigh University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sex  

E-print Network

backgrounds. Lehigh University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, or veteran status

Napier, Terrence

68

Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being  

PubMed Central

Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

2014-01-01

69

Association of HLA-B27 status and gender with sacroiliitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe the influence of human leucocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) status and gender on sacroiliitis on computed tomography (CT) in ankylosingspondylitis (AS). Methods: We reviewed the archived medical records of the AS inpatients admitted in the Rheumatology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University during the period from January 2007 through January 2013 and finally 386 patients were included in the study. The severity of sacroiliitis on CT was evaluated according to the grading used in the modified New York criteria for AS. Two-way classification analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to examine the effect of HLA-B27 status and gender on age at disease onset. The impact of HLA-B27 and gender on sacroiliitis on CT was tested by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: There were 350 HLA-B27 positive patients (90.7%) and 36 HLA-B27 negative patients (9.3%). The ANOVA test indicated that HLA-B27 positive patients and male patients respectively had an earlier age at disease onset than HLA-B27 negative patients and female patients. The logistic regression analysis indicated that positive HLA-B27 status (OR 2.601, p=0.004) and male gender (OR 1.923, p=0.004) were significant predictors of worse sacroiliitis. In addition, elevated ESR (OR 2.181, p=0.013) and longer disease duration (OR 1.100, p<0.001) contributed to worse sacroiliitis likewise. Conclusion: Positive HLA-B27 status and male gender are associated with worse sacroiliitis on CT, acting as predictors of sacroiliitis. Elevated ESR and longer disease duration also contribute to worse sacroiliitis. Meanwhile, positive HLA-B27 status and male gender are associated with earlier age at disease onset. PMID:24639824

Xiong, Jiangbiao; Chen, Jing; Tu, Jianxin; Ye, Wenjing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Qiaoqiong; Zhu, Xiaochun

2014-01-01

70

Gender Differences in Aggression: The Role of Status and Personality in Competitive Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southwest US undergraduates (78 female, 72 male) were tested in a laboratory aggressive behavior paradigm involving noise\\u000a blasts participants could use against another (bogus) same-sex competitor in a point-earning task. Status of the competitor\\u000a (low vs. high) and expectation to meet the competitor (meet vs. no meet) were experimentally manipulated. A significant gender\\u000a × aggression proneness × status interaction indicated

Heather K. Terrell; Eric D. Hill; Craig T. Nagoshi

2008-01-01

71

Improving models of democracy: the example of lagged effects of economic development, education, and gender equality.  

PubMed

The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy. PMID:24767598

Balaev, Mikhail

2014-07-01

72

Information processing deficits of schizophrenia patients: relationship to clinical ratings, gender and medication status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information processing deficits were explored in a large cohort of schizophrenia patients (N=125) and non-psychiatric subjects (N=52). Gender, medication status and symptom factors were assessed relative to measures of performance in critical stimulus duration (CSD), visual backward masking (VBM) and auditory reaction time (RT) paradigms. Schizophrenia patients exhibited significant impairments in measures of CSD, VBM and both RT speed and

Kristin S Cadenhead; Mark A Geyer; Robert W Butler; William Perry; Joyce Sprock; David L Braff

1997-01-01

73

Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

Nomaguchi, Kei M.

2012-01-01

74

"I Don't Need Your Help!" Peer Status, Race, and Gender during Peer Writing Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article relies on year-long ethnographic data to examine how the intersection of peer status, gender, and race influenced the role stances children took in one urban fifth grade classroom while participating in three different pedagogies: peer tutoring, cooperative peer editing, and collaborative writing. Informed by the sociocultural…

Christianakis, Mary

2010-01-01

75

Effects of Applicant Overeducation, Job Status, and Job Gender Stereotype on Employment Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employment preferences of personnel representatives in electronics firms regarding job applicants who had varying levels of education were investigated. The applicants had either obtained a 4-year college degree, completed 2 years of college, or completed high school. The stimulus jobs required the equivalent of a high school education but varied in terms of status and gender stereotype. The personnel representatives

Timothy R. Athey; Jacob E. Hautaluoma

1994-01-01

76

Gender and Marital Status Clarify Associations between Food Insecurity and Body Weight1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research shows that food insecurity is associated with being overweight in women, with few and ambiguous results in men. Little is known about the characteristics and roles of individuals who are most likely to be both food insecure and overweight or obese. This study analyzed associations between food insecurity and body weight, and whether gender and marital status are

Karla L. Hanson; Jeffery Sobal; Edward A. Frongillo

77

Conviction, Gender and Labour Market Status: A Propensity Score Matching Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies propensity score matching methods to National Child Development Study dataset to evaluate the effect of conviction on labour market status, paying specific attention to gender differences. Estimation results show that employment is strongly and negatively affected by conviction, while it increases self-employment, unemployment and inactivity. This possibly indicates employers’ stigmatization against convicted and discouragement effect after a

Dario Sciulli

2010-01-01

78

Balancing Parenthood and Academia: Work/Family Stress as Influenced by Gender and Tenure Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research investigated the influence of gender and tenure status in academicians' experiences of balancing parenthood and an academic career. Men (n = 85) and women (n = 179) employed full-time in tenure-track academic positions with at least one child younger than the age of 16 responded via the Internet to a 36-item questionnaire…

O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Bischoff, Lisa G.

2005-01-01

79

Gender, Delinquent Status, and Social Acceptance as Predictors of the Global Self-Esteem of Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combinations of gender, delinquent status, and social acceptance were examined as predictors of the global self-esteem of teens. Participants (N = 225) were aged 13 to 17 and included juvenile delinquents (n = 60) and high school students (n = 165) in one county in a southwest state. Factor analyses identified two dimensions of social acceptance (social verification, social

William Scott Forney; Judith Cardona Forney; Christy Crutsinger

2005-01-01

80

The Interaction Effects of Gender, Race, and Marital Status on Faculty Salaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large national surveys of faculty afford analysts the opportunity to examine differences in faculty salary based on combinations of all three dimensions--gender, race/ethnicity, and marital status--as well as the possible interactive effects among them. In this study, the authors used data from the 1999 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty…

Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Bellas, Marcia L.; Moore, John V.

2007-01-01

81

Likability of Strangers as a Function of Their Winner\\/Loser Status, Gender, and Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of adult American white women and men (N = 384), approached randomly in shopping malls, read and responded to newspaper stories that differed in the winner\\/loser status (situation), gender, and race of the person who was the focus of the story. After reading a news story, each participant responded to three dependent measures—an Adjective Checklist, a Liking Rating

Bernice Lott; Albert J. Lott

1986-01-01

82

Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking among Taiwanese College Students: Role of Gender and Student Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between psychological distress and attitudes toward seeking professional help and whether the relationship was moderated by gender and student status (traditional vs. non-traditional) among Chinese college students in Taiwan. 961 first-year university students completed standardised measures of depression,…

Chang, Hsiaowen

2007-01-01

83

Students' Help-Seeking Behaviours by Gender, Racial Background, and Student Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, university counseling centers have been challenged to provide services that are accessible to an increasingly diverse student population. With this focus, this study examined students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors in relation to their gender, racial background, and their student status (graduate or undergraduate). Based on…

Morgan, Ness T.; Robinson, M.

2003-01-01

84

Preservice Teachers' Career Expectations by Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Academic Achievement Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The career expectations of 200 randomly selected preservice teachers (143 females and 57 males) were examined to determine differences associated with gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and academic achievement (as indicated by grade point average). The study was conducted at the University of Central Florida (Orlando) from 1986 to 1987. Subjects…

Biraimah, Karen

1988-01-01

85

Psychological distress and help-seeking among Taiwanese college students: role of gender and student status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between psychological distress and attitudes toward seeking professional help and whether the relationship was moderated by gender and student status (traditional vs. non-traditional) among Chinese college students in Taiwan. 961 first-year university students completed standardised measures of depression, anxiety, attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help, and a demographic questionnaire. Results from the multiple regression analysis

Hsiaowen Chang

2007-01-01

86

An Examination of the Relationship of Gender, Marital Status, and Prior Educational Attainment and Learner Autonomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a conceptual model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conative factors of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in autonomous learning considered the related variables of gender, education level, age, and marital status. The relevance of these demographic variables is based on prior…

Derrick, M. G.; Rovai, A. P.; Ponton, M.; Confessore, G. J.; Carr, P. B.

2007-01-01

87

An examination of the relationship of gender, marital status, and prior educational attainment and learner autonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a conceptual model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conative factors of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in autonomous learning consi- dered the related variables of gender, education level, age, and marital status. The relevance of these demographic variables is based on prior research in the area of self-directed learning that suggested additional consideration in

M. G. Derrick; A. P. Rovai; M. Ponton; G. J. Confessore; P. B. Carr

2007-01-01

88

Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-07-01

89

Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

Toglia, Thomas V.

2013-01-01

90

Undergraduate engineering student experiences: Comparing sex, gender and switcher status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores undergraduate engineering experiences, comparing men with women and switchers with non-switchers. Factors related to a chilly academic climate and gender-role socialization are hypothesized to contribute to variations in men's and women's academic experiences and persistence rates. Both quantitative and qualitative data are utilized in an effort to triangulate the findings. Secondary survey data, acquired as result of a 1992 Academic Environment Survey, were utilized to test the hypothesis that sex is the most important predictor (i.e., demographic variable) of perceptions of academic climate. Regression analyses show that sex by itself is not always a significant determinant. However, when sex and college (engineering vs. other) are combined into dummy variables, they are statistically significant in models where sex was not significant alone. This finding indicates that looking at sex differences alone may be too simplistic. Thirty personal interviews were conducted with a random stratified sample of undergraduate students from the 1993 engineering cohort. The interview data indicate that differences in childhood socialization are important. With regard to persistence, differences in socialization are greater for switchers vs. non-switchers than men vs. women. Thus, gender-role socialization does not appear to play as prominent a role in women's persistence as past literature would indicate. This may be due to the self-selection process that occurs among women who choose to pursue engineering. Other aspects of childhood socialization such as parents' level of educational and occupation, students' high school academic preparation and knowledge of what to expect of college classes appear to be more important. In addition, there is evidence that, for women, male siblings play an important role in socialization. There is also evidence that women engineering students at Midwestern University face a chilly academic climate. The factors which appear to contribute the most to an inhospitable atmosphere include subtle behaviors on the part of faculty and administrators and blatant sexist, derogatory and hostile comments and jokes on the part of male undergraduate students. Personal interview data indicate continued resistance among some male administrators, faculty and students to women pursuing majors in engineering.

Fergen, Brenda Sue

91

Micronutrient deficiencies and gender: social and economic costs.  

PubMed

Vitamin and mineral deficiencies adversely affect a third of the world's people. Consequently, a series of global goals and a serious amount of donor and national resources have been directed at such micronutrient deficiencies. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors in a variety of institutional settings, the article used a computer search of the published scientific literature of the topic, supplemented by reports and published and unpublished work from the various agencies. In examining the effect of sex on the economic and social costs of micronutrient deficiencies, the paper found that: (1) micronutrient deficiencies affect global health outcomes; (2) micronutrient deficiencies incur substantial economic costs; (3) health and nutrition outcomes are affected by sex; (4) micronutrient deficiencies are affected by sex, but this is often culturally specific; and finally, (5) the social and economic costs of micronutrient deficiencies, with particular reference to women and female adolescents and children, are likely to be considerable but are not well quantified. Given the potential impact on reducing infant and child mortality, reducing maternal mortality, and enhancing neuro-intellectual development and growth, the right of women and children to adequate food and nutrition should more explicitly reflect their special requirements in terms of micronutrients. The positive impact of alleviating micronutrient malnutrition on physical activity, education and productivity, and hence on national economies suggests that there is also an urgent need for increased effort to demonstrate the cost of these deficiencies, as well as the benefits of addressing them, especially compared with other health and nutrition interventions. PMID:15883452

Darnton-Hill, Ian; Webb, Patrick; Harvey, Philip W J; Hunt, Joseph M; Dalmiya, Nita; Chopra, Mickey; Ball, Madeleine J; Bloem, Martin W; de Benoist, Bruno

2005-05-01

92

University of Technology, Sydney response to Measuring the Socio-economic Status of Higher Education Students  

E-print Network

1 University of Technology, Sydney response to Measuring the Socio-economic Status of Higher there is a lack of aspiration for their children. In these situations educational status and occupation (except

University of Technology, Sydney

93

The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.  

PubMed

Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

2012-06-01

94

Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women  

PubMed Central

The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

2009-01-01

95

Do multidimensional intrinsic and extrinsic motivation profiles discriminate between athlete scholarship status and gender?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether levels of multidimensional intrinsic, multidimensional extrinsic motivation and amotivation could accurately discriminate scholarship status and gender in United States collegiate athletes. Participants comprised 82 male (M age?=?19.89, SD=1.39) and 90 female (M age?=?20.26, SD=1.63) collegiate athletes. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire and the Sports Motivation Scale (Pelletier, L.G., Fortier, M.S.,

Kieran M. Kingston; Chris S. Horrocks; Sheldon Hanton

2006-01-01

96

Counselor perceptions of students who vary in gender and socioeconomic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study experimentally examined how counselor perceptions of hypothetical students are affected by student gender\\u000a and socioeconomic status (SES). Results showed that counselors perceive students from low SES backgrounds as having less promising\\u000a futures and lower math abilities. Counselors also rated female students as lower in math abilities than male students. Our\\u000a results indicate that institutions should consider providing

Amy E. Auwarter; Mara S. Aruguete

2008-01-01

97

Quality of life in terminal care—with special reference to age, gender and marital status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  This study was conducted to explore symptoms, other quality of life (QoL) aspects and impact of age, gender, marital status, cancer diagnosis and time of survival in patients with advanced cancer admitted to palliative care.Patients and methods  A cross-sectional study of 278 cancer patients completing the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 at referral to palliative care.Main

C. Lundh Hagelin; Åke Seiger; C. J. Fürst

2006-01-01

98

Hidden Sexism: Facial Prominence and Its Connections to Gender and Occupational Status in Popular Print Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 779 article-embedded photographs from six popular US magazines during 2004 (Newsweek, Time, Fortune, Money, People, and Sports Illustrated) were examined assessing the relationship between occupational status and gender and the depiction of men and women in print\\u000a media. Results show individuals depicted in intellectually focused occupations had higher face-to-body ratios than individuals\\u000a depicted in physically focused occupations.

Justin L. Matthews

2007-01-01

99

Individual differences in food perceptions and calorie estimation: An examination of dieting status, weight, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

People frequently place foods into “health” or “diet” categories. This study examined whether (1) evaluations of “healthiness\\/unhealthiness” influence “caloric” estimation accuracy, (2) people evaluate foods for “healthiness\\/unhealthiness” or “weight gain\\/loss” differently, and (3) food evaluations differ by gender, diet status, and weight. Also, undergraduate dieters attempting to lose weight on their own were compared to obese weight loss program participants.

Robert A. Carels; Krista Konrad; Jessica Harper

2007-01-01

100

FACTBOOK 2013-2014 Faculty and Staff Instructional Faculty by Gender and Minority Status by School/College  

E-print Network

FACTBOOK 2013-2014 Faculty and Staff Instructional Faculty by Gender and Minority Status by School to previous years due to the consolidation, reassignment, or suspension of selected academic programs. Note C

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

101

The Pipeline Still Leaks and More Than You Think: A Status Report on Gender Diversity in Biomedical Engineering  

E-print Network

The Pipeline Still Leaks and More Than You Think: A Status Report on Gender Diversity in Biomedical-racial interac- tions later.14 Second, students with the most classroom experience with diversity and the most

Chesler, Naomi C.

102

Truck Driver or Nurse? The Impact of Gender Roles and Occupational Status on Children’s Occupational Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined how US children perceive occupational status and gender roles. In Experiment 1, 107 6-to-12-year-olds\\u000a rated the status and gender roles of 54 occupations. Feminine occupations were underrepresented among the perceived high status\\u000a jobs. In Experiment 2, 28 6-to-8-year-olds, and in Experiment 3, 36 9-to-12-year-olds, reported their preferences for equally\\u000a high status masculine and feminine occupations and low

Stacey Teig; Joshua E. Susskind

2008-01-01

103

Pornography and gender equality: An empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between the circulation rates of soft?core pornographic magazines and gender equality in the 50 American states. Gender equality is measured with the Gender Equality Index (GEX) which combines 24 indicators of the status of women relative to men in the three institutional domains of politics, economics, and legal rights. Multiple regression analysis is used to

Larry Baron

1990-01-01

104

Relative Health Effects of Education, Socioeconomic Status and Domestic Gender Inequity in Sweden: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities. Methods Using the 2007 Northern Swedish Cohort (n?=?773) we identified relative contributions of perceived gender inequities in relationships, financial strain, and education to self-reported health to determine whether controlling for sex, examining interactions between sex and other social variables, or sex-disaggregating data yielded most information about sex differences. Results and Discussion Men had lower education but also less financial strain, and experienced less gender inequity. Overall, low education and financial strain detracted from health. However, sex-disaggregated data showed this to be true for women, whereas for men only gender inequity at home affected health. In the relatively egalitarian Swedish environment where women more readily enter all work arenas and men often provide parenting, traditional primacy of the home environment (for women) and the work environment (for men) in shaping health is reversing such that perceived domestic gender inequity has a significant health impact on men, while for women only education and financial strain are contributory. These outcomes were identified only when data were sex-disaggregated. PMID:21747922

Phillips, Susan P.; Hammarstrom, Anne

2011-01-01

105

Gender differences on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status subtests in older adults: Baseline and retest data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences have been widely reported across a range of cognitive ability tasks, and these differences appear to persist across the lifespan into later adulthood. The current study assessed the influence of gender on the subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in a large cohort (n = 718) of older adult primary care patients.

Kevin Duff; Mike R. Schoenberg; James W. Mold; James G. Scott; Russell L. Adams

2011-01-01

106

The combined impact of rural residence and socio-economic status on premature mortality.  

PubMed

The health of rural and urban populations differs, with rural areas appearing healthier. However, it is unknown whether the benefit of living in rural areas is felt by individuals in all levels of deprivation, or whether some suffer a disadvantage of rural residence. For England and Wales 2001-2003 premature mortality rates were calculated, subdivided by individual deprivation and gender, for areas with differing rurality characteristics. Premature mortality data (age 50-retirement) and a measure of the individual's deprivation (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification 1-7) was obtained from death certificates. Overall premature mortality was examined as well as premature mortality subdivided by major cause. Male premature mortality rates (age 50-64) fell with increasing rurality for individuals in all socio-economic status classifications. The most deprived individuals benefitted most from residence in increasingly rural areas. Similar trends were observed when premature mortality was subdivided by the major causes of death. Female premature mortality rates (age 50-59) demonstrated similar trends but the differences between urban and rural areas were less marked. PMID:24071654

Jones, Natalia R; Lake, Iain R

2013-11-01

107

Dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing: the relevance of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status.  

PubMed

The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked. PMID:22822989

Khallad, Yacoub

2013-01-01

108

Idle Hands and Empty Pockets?: Youth Involvement in Extracurricular Activities, Social Capital, and Economic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Survey of Adults and Youth, the authors examine the effect of economic status on youths' involvement in both school- and nonschool-related extracurricular activities. Specifically, they assess the association between four alternative measures of economic status--recipiency of food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent…

White, Amanda M.; Gager, Constance T.

2007-01-01

109

Labour market status, transitions and gender: a European perspective Christine Erhel (CEE, Universit Paris 1, Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)  

E-print Network

1 Labour market status, transitions and gender: a European perspective Christine Erhel (CEE markets (with the goal of 60% female employment rate in 2010 and several indicators of gender equality1, empirical evidence combining gender, labour market status and transitions perspective remains relatively

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Measuring SocioEconomic GENDER Inequality: Toward an Alternative to the UNDP Gender-Related Development Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the United Nations Development Program’s (UNDP) Gender-Related Development Index (GDI). Although the GDI has increased attention on gender equality in human development, it suffers from several limitations. A major problem is that it conflates relative gender equality with absolute levels of human development and thus gives no information on comparative gender inequality among countries. Using the same

A. Geske Dijkstra; Lucia C. Hanmer

2000-01-01

111

Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry  

PubMed Central

Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

2012-01-01

112

Gender Obesity Inequities Are Huge but Differ Greatly According to Environment and Socio-Economics in a North African Setting: A National Cross-Sectional Study in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35–70 years Tunisians (women: n?=?2964, men: n?=?2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI?=?weight(kg)/height(m)2 and obesity was BMI?30, WHtR?=?waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR?0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). Results BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), P<0.0001) as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR?=?3.8[3.1–7.4], P<0.0001) and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3–4.8], P<0.0001). Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.7]) than rural (OR?=?2.0[0.7–5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR?=?6.9[2.0–23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR?=?1.4[0.5–4.3]) or even employees/workers OR?=?2.3[1.0–5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. Conclusion The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings. PMID:23118943

El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Delpeuch, Francis; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Beji, Chiraz; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Bougatef, Souha; Kolsteren, Patrick; Maire, Bernard; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

2012-01-01

113

Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

2010-01-01

114

Association between harmful alcohol use and periodontal status according to gender and smoking  

PubMed Central

Background the aim of this study is to assess the association of harmful alcohol use based on the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score with periodontal status according to gender and smoking in a representative sample of Korean adults. Methods This study analyzed 5,291 participants older than 19 years whose data of harmful alcohol use and periodontal status were available. Harmful alcohol use was defined by the WHO guidelines for the administration of AUDIT. The periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, oral and general health behavior, oral health status and systemic conditions. All analyses considered a complex sampling design, and multivariate analysis was also performed in the subgroups. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a marginal association between harmful alcohol use and higher CPI in the total sample. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of harmful alcohol use was 1.16 (0.97 to 1.38) for higher CPI. Higher CPI was significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60) and non-smokers (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57). Conclusion Periodontal status is significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men and non-smokers in a representative sample of Korean adults. PMID:24950716

2014-01-01

115

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2013-10-01

116

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2012-10-01

117

48 CFR 19.308 - Protesting a firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...

2011-10-01

118

Married With Children: The Influence of Parental Status and Gender on Ambulatory Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although there is substantial evidence that social relationships and marriage may influence both psychological and physical\\u000a health, little is known about the influence of children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study examined the competing predictions regarding the directional influence of parental status and its interaction with\\u000a gender—given that mothers are typically disproportionately more responsible for everyday care of children—on cardiovascular\\u000a functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  We examined ambulatory

Julianne Holt-Lunstad; Wendy Birmingham; Adam M. Howard; Dustin Thoman

2009-01-01

119

Comparing Self-stereotyping with In-group-stereotyping and Out-group-stereotyping in Unequal-status Groups: The Case of Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared self-stereotyping, in-group-stereotyping, and out-group-stereotyping, among members of high- and low-status groups. Because gender inequality is still present in society, we operationalized status in terms of gender. We considered the male (female) gender category to possess relatively high (low) status. As predicted on the basis of an extension of Mullen's model (1991), Italian men showed significant levels of out-group-stereotyping,

Mara Cadinu; Marcella Latrofa; Andrea Carnaghi

2012-01-01

120

Gender, socio-economic variables and target organ damage in new-diagnosed hypertensive patients.  

PubMed

The aim of the study as to ascertain whether gender and socio-economic variables can explain differences in the degree of severity of hypertension (HT) at the time of diagnosis. Patients were recently diagnosed and never-treated hypertensives, seen in primary care sites and aged 15-75. This study also included a cohort of normotensive patients. All individuals were invited to respond a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and socio-economic data. Target organ damage (TOD) is considered a marker of severity. Three hundred and eighty-eight individuals responded to the questionnaire, 277 hypertensive, 111 normotensive. In an ordered probit model, the odds ratio of presenting with more than one TOD were: Aged >67 (OR=1.22; 1.06-1.38), being a smoker (OR=1.21; 1.02-1.40) or ex-smoker (OR=2.89; 1.27-4.51), primary school education (OR=2.17; 1.47-2.87), being male (OR=0.75; 0.59-0.90), being an agricultural worker (OR=0.03; 0.00-0.05) or a salaried professional (OR=0.96; 0.94-0.99). The results show differences in the severity of the HT in the initial assessment of the patient according to gender or other socio-economic variables. It is particularly important at the time of carrying out the diagnosis and the HT assessment. PMID:19591005

de Tuero, Gabriel Coll; Barcelò, Maria Antònia; Saez, Marc

2009-01-01

121

Individual differences in food perceptions and calorie estimation: an examination of dieting status, weight, and gender.  

PubMed

People frequently place foods into "health" or "diet" categories. This study examined whether (1) evaluations of "healthiness/unhealthiness" influence "caloric" estimation accuracy, (2) people evaluate foods for "healthiness/unhealthiness" or "weight gain/loss" differently, and (3) food evaluations differ by gender, diet status, and weight. Also, undergraduate dieters attempting to lose weight on their own were compared to obese weight loss program participants. Undergraduate students (N=101) rated eight "healthy" and "unhealthy" foods on perceived "healthiness/unhealthiness," "weight loss/gain capacity" and "caloric" content. Open-ended questions inquiring why a food was "healthy/unhealthy" or would "contribute to weight gain/loss" were coded into independent food categories (e.g., high fat). Results indicate that calories were systematically underestimated in healthy/weight loss foods, while they were systematically overestimated in unhealthy/weight gain foods. Dieters were more accurate at estimating "calories" of healthy foods and more attentive to the foods' fat, "calorie", and sugar content than non-dieters. Overweight participants commented more on fat and sugar content than normal weight participants. Undergraduate dieters used fewer categories for evaluating foods than weight loss program participants. Individual difference characteristics, such as diet-status, weight, and gender, influence people's perceptions of foods' healthiness or capacity to influence weight, and in some instances systematically bias their estimates of the caloric content of foods. PMID:17428574

Carels, Robert A; Konrad, Krista; Harper, Jessica

2007-09-01

122

Gender Differences in the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Subclinical Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study explored the pattern of associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and atherosclerosis progression (as indicated by carotid intima media thickness, CIMT) across gender. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 5474 older persons (mean age 73 years) recruited between 1999 and 2001 in the 3C study (France). We fitted linear regression models including neighborhood SES, individual SES and cardiovascular risk factors. Results CIMT was on average 24 µm higher in men (95% CI: 17 to 31). Neighborhood SES was inversely associated with CIMT in women only (highest versus lowest tertiles: ?12.2 µm, 95%CI ?22 to ?2.4). This association persisted when individual SES and risk factors were accounted for. High individual education was associated with lower CIMT in men (?21.4 µm 95%CI ?37.5 to ?5.3) whereas high professional status was linked to lower CIMT among women (?15.7 µm 95%CI: ?29.2 to ?2.2). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors resulted in a slightly more pronounced reduction of the individual SES-CIMT association observed in men than in women. Conclusion In this sample, neighborhood and individual SES displayed different patterns of associations with subclinical atherosclerosis across gender. This suggests that the causal pathways leading to SES variations in atherosclerosis may differ among men and women. PMID:24282522

Grimaud, Olivier; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Berr, Claudine; Helmer, Catherine; Dufouil, Carole; Kihal, Wahida; Alperovitch, Annick; Chauvin, Pierre

2013-01-01

123

An Examination of the Relationships Among Gender, Health Status, Social Support, and HIV Related Stigma  

PubMed Central

This secondary analysis used Goffman’s (1963) model of stigma to examine how social support and health status are related to HIV stigma, after controlling for specific socio-demographic factors, and how these relationships differed between men and women living with HIV. Baseline data from 183 subjects in a behavioral randomized clinical trial were analyzed using multi-group structural equation modeling. Women reported significantly higher levels of stigma than men after controlling for race, history of injecting drug use, and exposure category. HIV-related stigma was negatively predicted by social support regardless of gender. The theorized model explained a significant amount of the variance in stigma for men and women (24.4% and 44%, respectively) and may provide novel and individualized intervention points for health care providers to affect positive change on perceived stigma for the person living with HIV. The study offers insight into understanding the relationships among gender, health status, social support, and HIV-related stigma. PMID:20116295

Colbert, Alison M.; Kim, Kevin H.; Sereika, Susan M.; Erlen, Judith A.

2009-01-01

124

The Impact of Parental Status and Gender Role Orientation on Caring and Postconventional Reasoning in Young Marrieds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the influence of sex and gender role orientation on adoption of the ethic of care and on\\u000a postconventional reasoning in married men and women, with and without children. Parental status was unrelated to gender role\\u000a orientation in men but was associated with masculinity in women, such that women with children had lower masculinity scores.

Rachel Karniol; Gali Bar-Av Ekbali; Dana R. Vashdi

2007-01-01

125

A Critical Examination of Texas Mathematics Achievement in Grades Three through Eight by Mathematical Objective across Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status  

E-print Network

were performed to examine race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status individually by mathematical objective. Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status at a .05 level of significance...

Fox, Brandon

2012-02-14

126

Prognosis in proliferative lupus nephritis: the role of socio-economic status and race\\/ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Studies of proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN) suggest that African-Americans have a poorer prognosis than Whites. However, no study has simul- taneously examined socio-economic status. We studied rates of progression of PLN among a tri-ethnic popula- tion with respect to socio-economic status and race\\/ ethnicity. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was carried out using individual and census-based neighbourhood data. Consecutive

R. Graham Barr; Stephen Seliger; Gerald B. Appel; Ricardo Zuniga; Vivette D'Agati; Jane Salmon; Jai Radhakrishnan

2003-01-01

127

Exploring the Latino Paradox: How Economic and Citizenship Status Impact Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…

Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.

2012-01-01

128

Gender \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,

Jacqueline Lecarme

2002-01-01

129

Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of religious beliefs and religious practices seem to be obvious to just about everyone except those whose research\\u000a and passion is linked to feminism or gender studies. We selected from our bookshelves five recent books discussing gender\\u000a issues or women’s lives.1 Even though thiswas not a random experiment, it revealed a stark and rather troubling finding: in not one

Nancy Nason-Clark; Barbara Fisher-Townsend

130

Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.  

PubMed

The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (?(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (?(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (?(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (?(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (?(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (?(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981

Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

2014-09-01

131

Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

Glance, Dorea E.

2012-01-01

132

A Reconstruction of the Gender Agenda: The Contradictory Gender Dimensions in New Labour's Educational and Economic Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory…

Arnot, Madeleine; Miles, Philip

2005-01-01

133

A reconstruction of the gender agenda: the contradictory gender dimensions in New Labour's educational and economic policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory elements ranging from an increased feminisation of teaching and the (re)masculinisation of

Madeleine Arnot; Philip Miles

2005-01-01

134

Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5–6 and 10–12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage\\/Disadvantage

David Crawford; Anna Timperio; Billie Giles-Corti; Kylie Ball; Clare Hume; Rebecca Roberts; Nick Andrianopoulos; Jo Salmon

2008-01-01

135

A Report on the Undergraduate Women of Greater Guam and Micronesia: Their Status Aspirations and Gender Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on a study to determine Guamanian women's identification of their social status and gender awareness. Participants of the study were 350 randomly selected undergraduate women who responded to questionnaires. A statistical profile of the Guamanian undergraduate women was derived as follows: (1) is a traditional aged student;…

Inoue, Yukiko

136

Predictiveness of Identity Status, Main Internet Use Purposes and Gender on University Students' the Problematic Internet Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at revealing the relationships between the problematic Internet use of university students and their identity status, main Internet use purposes, and gender. A total of 464 university students participated in the study, and the research data were collected through the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Extended Objective Measure…

Ceyhan, Esra

2010-01-01

137

Differential prognosis of reading-disabled children as a function of gender, socieconomic status, IQ, and severity: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 104 reading-disabled subjects tested on two occasions over an average interval of nearly five years were used to test hypotheses of differential prognosis for reading performance and symbol-processing speed as a function of gender, socioeconomic status, general intelligence, and initial severity. With respect to reading performance, significant main effects due to intelligence and severity were found. Moreover, the

Michele C. Labuda; J. C. Defries

1989-01-01

138

The Influences of Gender, School Year, and Socioeconomic Status on Assertiveness for Blacks at Predominantly White Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influences of gender, school year, and socioeconomic status on assertiveness for black students attending four predominantly white, southeastern universities. The study employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Quantitative data on assertiveness were collected from 560 black freshmen and juniors…

Haralson, Mitchel, Jr.

139

Elderly support and intergenerational transfer in Zimbabwe: an analysis by gender, marital status, and place of residence.  

PubMed

This paper describes elderly support and intergenerational transfer by gender, marital status, and place of residence for 150 elderly persons in Zimbabwe. The survey was conducted in September 1988, and includes information on background characteristics, income, and cash support from all sources, noncash support, and the support of elders to others. Conclusions and implications are discussed. PMID:1894155

Adamchak, D J; Wilson, A O; Nyanguru, A; Hampson, J

1991-08-01

140

Trace Elements in Blood and Serum of Swedish Adolescents: Relation to Gender, Age, Residential Area, and Socioeconomic Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of gender, age, residential area, and socioeconomic status on the blood and serum levels of 13 trace elements was studied in boys and girls living in two Swedish cities with different socioeconomic and environmental characters. The same groups of adolescents were sampled twice, at ages 15 (n=372) and 17 (n=294) years. All the investigated factors were shown to

Ebba Bárány; Ingvar A. Bergdahl; Lars-Eric Bratteby; Thomas Lundh; Gösta Samuelson; Andrejs Schütz; Staffan Skerfving; Agneta Oskarsson

2002-01-01

141

Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

2013-01-01

142

The Individual And Joint Effects Of Race, Gender, And Family Status On Juvenile Justice Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relying on interpretations of the symbolic threat thesis as a theoretical framework, in particular the emphasis on the perceptions of decision-makers and stereotyping, the authors examine the extent to which the effects of race on youth justice outcomes are influenced by gender and family status. They are especially interested in the individ- ual and joint effects among the three. Although

Michael J. Leiber; Kristin Y. Mack

2003-01-01

143

Technical and economic status of wood energy feedstock production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We update the technical status of wood feedstock production and highlight areas where the technology used to produce energy crops has changed since publication of an earlier paper. Most of the research findings presented earlier still hold, but the target dates for achieving them are in the distant future. We estimate current delivered costs in the range of about $2.30\\/GJ

Robert D. Perlack; Lynn L. Wright

1995-01-01

144

Economic Consequences of Health Status: A Review of the Evidence  

E-print Network

in determining health status, including a number of geographical, environmental, and evolutionary factors in certain contexts due to climate, topography, and evolutionary history, and not simply due to poverty this relationship for over 30 years (Mushkin 1962, 70:129-57). In recent years, this analysis has received

145

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

146

Regulation of NR4A by nutritional status, gender, postnatal development and hormonal deficiency  

PubMed Central

The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. However, its potential role in white adipose tissue (WAT), one of the most important tissues involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is not well-studied. The aim of this work was to elucidate the regulation of NR4A in WAT under different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance such as fasting, postnatal development, gender, hormonal deficiency and pregnancy. We compared NR4A mRNA expression of Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor 1 and found a clear regulation by nutritional status, since the expression of the 3 isoforms is increased after fasting in a leptin-independent manner and sex steroid hormones also modulate NR4A expression in males and females. Our findings indicate that NR4A are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in glucose metabolism and energy status. PMID:24584059

Perez-Sieira, S.; Lopez, M.; Nogueiras, R.; Tovar, S.

2014-01-01

147

Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.  

PubMed

A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

2013-03-01

148

The Relation of Economic Status to Subjective Well-Being in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least…

Howell, Ryan T.; Howell, Colleen J.

2008-01-01

149

Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Likeability: Associations With Popularity and Status Enhancement: The TRAILS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the associations of popularity, substance use, athletic abilities, physical attractiveness, and physical and relational aggression with likeability by same-gender and cross-gender peers among early adolescents (N = 3,312; M age = 13.60, with 92.7% of the participants in the 12-14 age range). Data collection consisted of peer nominations in 172 classrooms of 34 secondary schools. Taking a

Jan Kornelis Dijkstra; Antonius H. N. Cillessen; Siegwart Lindenberg; René Veenstra

2010-01-01

150

Economic Status and Social Attitudes of Migrant Workers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractMigrant workers, meaning those who used to be farmers but have left rural areas and found jobs in cities as a result of economic reform and rapid development in China, have made a significant contribution to the burgeoning labor market and played an important role in speeding up the transition from a planned to a market economy. This present paper

Peilin Li; Wei Li

2007-01-01

151

Gender Role Beliefs and Family Migration Decision-Making - Consequences for Married Women's Economic and Labor Force Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in educational attainment and attitudes toward women in the labor force, women continue to lag behind men in economic and labor market success. The role of family migration in social science and policy discussions of this gender-gap has gone unnoticed, in spite of the fact that nearly 25 years ago the noted economist Jacob Mincer proposed that

Thomas Cooke

2005-01-01

152

Neoliberalism and the World Bank: Economic Discourse and the (Re)Production of Gendered Identity(ies)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…

Griffin, Penny

2007-01-01

153

Economic Growth, Comparative Advantage, and Gender Differences in Schooling Outcomes: Evidence from the Birthweight Differences of Chinese Twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from two surveys of twins in China are used to contribute to an improved understanding of the role of economic development in affecting gender differences in the trends in, levels of, and returns to schooling observed in China and in many developing countries in recent decades. [BREAD Working Paper No. 323]. URL:[http:\\/\\/ipl.econ.duke.edu\\/bread\\/papers\\/working\\/323.pdf].

Mark Rosenzweig; Junsen Zhang

2012-01-01

154

Economic Growth, Comparative Advantage, and Gender Differences in Schooling Outcomes: Evidence from the Birthweight Differences of Chinese Twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from two surveys of twins in China are used to contribute to an improved understanding of the role of economic development in affecting gender differences in the trends in, levels of, and returns to schooling observed in China and in many developing countries in recent decades. In particular, we explore the hypothesis that these phenomena reflect differences in comparative

Mark Rosenzweig; Junsen Zhang

2012-01-01

155

Television and the behaviour of adolescents: does socio-economic status moderate the link?  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationship between adolescent behaviour, television viewing and family socio-economic status (SES) using the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). The effect of television viewing on adolescents' behaviour, ranging from pro-social to aggressive, and whether this effect is moderated by family socio-economic status is investigated. An adolescent fixed effects model is used to estimate the effect of television viewing on behaviour. The results indicate that the effect of television viewing varies between males and females. Family SES has a role in the effect of television on adolescents' behaviour, although the results do not distinguish between the two proposed hypotheses. PMID:17587476

Chowhan, James; Stewart, Jennifer M

2007-10-01

156

Constipation Misperception Is Associated With Gender, Marital Status, Treatment Utilization and Constipation Symptoms Experienced  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims It is essential that clinicians have an understanding of patients’ perceptions of constipation as well as constipation mis-perception (CM), which can be defined as failure to recognize the six constipation symptoms (infrequency, straining, hard stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction or manual maneuver). The aims of our study were to identify the prevalence of CM and its association with demographics and clinical features. Methods This nationwide survey included 625 self-reported constipated subjects (431 females; mean age, 41.2 years) among random participants in the National Health Screening Program. The prevalence of CM for each constipation symptom was estimated, and the participants were classified into nil (0), low (1–2), mid (3–4) and high (5–6) level CM subgroups according to the number of misperceived symptoms. Results The highest rate of CM was observed for manual maneuver (48.3%), followed by anorectal obstruction (38.4%), stool infrequency (34.6%), incomplete evacuation (32.2%), hard stool (27.2%) and straining (25.4%). Among the nil (n = 153), low (n = 242), mid (n = 144) and high level (n = 86) subgroups, there were significant differences in the proportions of males (18.3%, 34.3%, 39.6% and 30.2%; P = 0.001, respectively), never-married status (25.7%, 38.2%, 36.8% and 45.9%; P = 0.030, respectively) and those who did not receive treatment for constipation (41.8%, 47.5%, 58.3% and 66.3%; P < 0.001, respectively). There was a significant linear trend of increasing degree of CM with decreasing symptoms experienced (P < 0.001). Conclusions CM is significantly associated with gender, marital status, treatment utilization and the range of constipation symptoms experienced. PMID:24935009

Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Suck Chei; Park, Moo In; Park, Kyung Sik; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Kee Wook; Koo, Hoon Sup; Kim, Wan Jung; Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Ji Sung

2014-01-01

157

It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability, sexual orientation, genetic information, veteran's status, marital status, religion or  

E-print Network

, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability, sexual orientation, genetic information, veteran's status, marital status, religion or political affiliation. On March 29th & 30th's Commission on the Status of Women. All staff members are welcome. For more information, contact Kelly Payne

Farritor, Shane

158

Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory  

SciTech Connect

Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

Al-Khatib, Issam A. [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies (IEWS), Birzeit University, Ramallah (Palestinian Territory, Occupied); Arafat, Hassan A. [Chemical Engineering Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)], E-mail: harafat@najah.edu; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel [College of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

2009-01-15

159

Different Patterns of Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: An Analysis by Student Gender, Race, SES, and First-Generation Status. A Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) Project Research Paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.07  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the conditional effects of student-faculty interaction in a large research university system, based on various student characteristics including gender, race, and socio-economic and first-generation status. The study utilized data from the 2006 University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES), a longitudinal…

Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

2007-01-01

160

Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies  

PubMed Central

Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ?25%, women: ?32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

2014-01-01

161

Resisting Gendered Smoking Pressures: Critical Consciousness as a Correlate of Women's Smoking Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender is one of the social structures, along with social class and ethnicity, that shapes women's smoking behaviors. We examined how different responses to gender pressures (internalization and resistance) relate to smoking. We analyzed data from a national random digit dial survey of 945 women and found that never smokers scored high on resistance to gender pressure (indicated by high

Alyssa N. Zucker; Abigail J. Stewart; Cynthia S. Pomerleau; Carol J. Boyd

2005-01-01

162

Gender norms, poverty and armed conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: engaging men in women's social and economic empowerment programming.  

PubMed

Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights men's perceptions of gender norms, poverty and armed conflict, as they relate to achieving programmatic goals. Data are from 32 Ivorian men who participated in indepth interviews in 2012. Interviews were undertaken as part of an intervention that combined gender dialogue groups for both women and their male partners with women's only village savings and loans programs to reduce IPV against women. Findings suggested that in the context of armed conflict, traditional gender norms and economic stressors experienced by men challenged fulfillment of gender roles and threatened men's sense of masculinity. Men who participated in gender dialogue groups discussed their acceptance of programming and identified improvements in their relationships with their female partners. These men further discussed increased financial planning along with their partners, and attributed such increases to the intervention. Addressing men's perceptions of masculinity, poverty and armed conflict may be key components to reduce men's violence against women in conflict-affected settings. PMID:25274720

Falb, K L; Annan, J; King, E; Hopkins, J; Kpebo, D; Gupta, J

2014-12-01

163

Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery-Oriented  

E-print Network

Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

On the Relation between SocioEconomic Status and Physical Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In emerging economies, the socio-economic status is a key element to evaluate social improvement as it provides an understanding of the population's access to housing, education, health or basic services, such as water and electricity. The relationship between such indicators and human physical mobility has been researched mostly in areas like access to medical infrastructures and public transportation. However, such

Vanessa Frias-Martinez; Jesus Virseda-Jerez; Enrique Frias-Martinez

2012-01-01

165

Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

2009-01-01

166

Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

2005-01-01

167

Wives' Off-Farm Employment, Farm Family Economic Status, and Family Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined farm families with and without employed wife on economic and relationship status. Data from 1,067 farm spouses revealed that, compared to families with nonemployed wives, families with employed wives had higher debt loads, wives who worked longer hours in all production, wives who were less satisfied with marital relationship, and…

Godwin, Deborah D.; And Others

1991-01-01

168

Respiratory performance and grip strength tests in Indian school bodys of different socio-economic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical efficiency tests were performed on urban school boys drawn from high socio-economic status in comparison to rural school boys. The height and weight records of the subjects indicating growing process showed that the rural boys attained less physical growth than their urban counterparts. The Vital Capacity and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate data expressed either per unit of height or

A. K. De; P. K. Debnath; N. K. Dey; J. Nagchaudhuri

1980-01-01

169

Economic status and prospects of solar thermal industrial heat  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides estimates of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of a mid-temperature parabolic trough system for three different development scenarios. A current technology case is developed that is representative of recent designs and costs for commercial systems, and is developed using data from a recent system installed in Tehachapi, California. The second scenario looks at design enhancements to the currenttechnology case as a way to increase annual energy output and decrease costs. The third scenario uses the annual energy output of the enhanced design, but allows for cost reductions that would be possible in higher volume production than currently exist. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system, and the results were combined with cost data in an economic analysis model. The study indicates that R D improvements in the current trough system show promise of reducing the (LEC) by about 40%. At higher production rates, the LEC of the solar system with R D improvements could potentially be reduced by over 50%.

Williams, T.A.; Hale, M.J.

1992-12-01

170

Economic status and prospects of solar thermal industrial heat  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides estimates of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of a mid-temperature parabolic trough system for three different development scenarios. A current technology case is developed that is representative of recent designs and costs for commercial systems, and is developed using data from a recent system installed in Tehachapi, California. The second scenario looks at design enhancements to the currenttechnology case as a way to increase annual energy output and decrease costs. The third scenario uses the annual energy output of the enhanced design, but allows for cost reductions that would be possible in higher volume production than currently exist. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system, and the results were combined with cost data in an economic analysis model. The study indicates that R&D improvements in the current trough system show promise of reducing the (LEC) by about 40%. At higher production rates, the LEC of the solar system with R&D improvements could potentially be reduced by over 50%.

Williams, T.A.; Hale, M.J.

1992-12-01

171

Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods  

PubMed Central

Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

2012-01-01

172

Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Urban African American Clinic Patients: Differences by Gender and Screening Status  

PubMed Central

African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening. Few studies have explored African Americans’ own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were patients in a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital. Focus groups were delimited by gender and CRC screening status. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using an iterative coding process with consensus and triangulation to develop thematic categories. Results indicated key thematic differences in perceptions of screening by gender and CRC screening status. While both men and women who had never been screened had a general lack of knowledge about CRC and screening modalities, women had an overall sense that health screenings were needed and indicated a stronger need to have a positive relationship with their doctor. Women also reported that African American men do not get colonoscopy because of the perceived sexual connotation. Men who had never been screened, compared to those who had been screened, had less trust of their doctors and the health care system and indicated an overall fear of going to the doctor. They also reiterated the sexual connotation of having a colonoscopy and were apprehensive about being sedated during the procedure. Overall, men expressed more fear and were more reluctant to undergo CRC screening than women, but among those who had undergone CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, men expressed advantages of having the screening. All groups were also found to have a negative attitude about the use of fecal occult blood testing and felt colonoscopy was the superior screening modality. Results suggest that messages and education about CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, might place more emphasis on accuracy and might be more effective in increasing screening rates among African Americans if tailored to gender and screening status. PMID:20443096

Gordon, Thomas F.; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Ruggieri, Dominique G.

2010-01-01

173

Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Urban African American Clinic Patients: Differences by Gender and Screening Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening.\\u000a Few studies have explored African Americans’ own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences\\u000a in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were\\u000a patients in a general

Sarah Bauerle Bass; Thomas F. Gordon; Sheryl Burt Ruzek; Caitlin Wolak; Stephanie Ward; Anuradha Paranjape; Karen Lin; Brian Meyer; Dominique G. Ruggieri

2011-01-01

174

Social Status, Not Gender Alone, Is Implicated in Different Reactions By Women and Men to Social Ostracism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams and Sommer found that ostracized women, but not men, worked harder on a subsequent collective task, speculating that\\u000a women’s social compensation was motivated by threatened belongingness. The present 2?×?3 design with 180 U.S. women and men\\u000a replicated this gender gap in work contributions then closed it using two status-manipulations that favored women’s task abilities\\u000a or the higher education of

Marie A. Bozin; Janice D. Yoder

2008-01-01

175

Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries: does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economic status in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now, there is a lack of evidence on the extent to which the use of different measures of economic status

Tanja AJ Houweling; Anton E Kunst; Johan P Mackenbach

2003-01-01

176

Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. METHODS: Data were from two cohorts

Clemens Drenowatz; Joey C Eisenmann; Karin A Pfeiffer; Greg Welk; Kate Heelan; Douglas Gentile; David Walsh

2010-01-01

177

Blinded to science: gender differences in the effects of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on academic and science attitudes among sixth graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race\\/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational aspirations, persistence, views of science, and educational self-efficacy are examined. African American and Latino

Brea L. Perry; Tanja Link; Christina Boelter; Carl Leukefeld

2012-01-01

178

Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies. PMID:22839762

2012-01-01

179

Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment  

PubMed Central

Background The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Methods The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. Results The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. Conclusions We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:23565918

2013-01-01

180

Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.  

PubMed

Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy. PMID:24765817

Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

2014-01-01

181

Health status and preventative behaviors of immigrants by gender and origin: a Portuguese cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P?Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time. PMID:23347097

Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O

2013-09-01

182

Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents' friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status.  

PubMed

The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. PMID:21688275

Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

2011-01-01

183

Personality characteristics and affective status related to cognitive test performance and gender in patients with memory complaints.  

PubMed

The aims are to study personality characteristics of patients with memory complaints and to assess the presence of objective (OMI) versus subjective (SMI) memory impairment, the affective status, as well as potential gender differences. The patients were assessed by means of a neuropsychiatric examination and a neuropsychological test-battery. The Swedish version of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The 57 patients (38 women, 19 men, mean age 56.9) differed from the Swedish normative group in three of the five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. This was mainly because of the scores of the female patients. Approximately half of the patients had OMI. No differences regarding personality factors or affective status were found between OMI and SMI patients. The female patients scored significantly higher than the male patients on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Neuroticism and symptoms of depression interacted with memory performance and gender. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an objective assessment of memory functions and a gender perspective when studying patients with memory complaints. PMID:17942009

Vestberg, Susanna; Passant, Ulla; Risberg, Jarl; Elfgren, Christina

2007-11-01

184

Gender Differences in Body Mass Index in Rural India Are Determined by SocioEconomic Factors and Lifestyle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the nutritional status of women in 6 villages of the Pune district of Maharashtra, India, found young women to have a significantly lower BMI than their male peers. The purpose of this study was to identify social and economic factors associated with this difference in thinness and to explore the behavior in men and women that might

Mary Barker; Ginny Chorghade; Sarah Crozier; Sam Leary; Caroline Fall

185

Gendered Inequity in Society and the Academy: Policy Initiatives, Economic Realities and Legal Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all the social constructs impacting the contemporary world, gender is perhaps the most pervasive and the most insidious. Its inequities creep into our everyday lives with impunity. Across the globe, gender construction has evoked challenge, undergone reform and, in some instances, transformed thinking in societies. Yet, for all the gains made…

Waldron-Moore, Pamela; Jacobs, Leslie R.

2010-01-01

186

Transactional sex and economic exchange with partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence  

PubMed Central

We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702

Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P

2009-01-01

187

Quality of life in Lithuanian population: the impact of country residence and socio-economic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life (QoL) and individual perception of health has become a subject of great interest in Lithuania. The relationships\\u000a between country residence, socio-economic status (SES), and QoL have not been well characterized among the Lithuanian urban\\u000a and rural populations. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of country residence and SES on QoL in Lithuanian\\u000a urban

Regina R?klaitien?; Migl? Bacevi?ien?; K. Andrijauskas

2009-01-01

188

Perceived Socio?Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5–10 (aged 11–16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio?economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a sub?sample of students with

Jarmund Veland; Unni Vere Midthassel; Thormod Idsoe

2009-01-01

189

Role identification, community socio-economic status demands, and stress outcomes in police officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied the job demands–resources and conservation of resources models to police work, with the specific aim to examine the possible interaction between objectively measured work demands (community socio-economic status (SES)) and personal resources (role identification) on stress-related outcomes. A total of 89 officers from 10 small, suburban police departments (five from high SES areas and five from low

Matthew J. Grawitch; Larissa K. Barber; Mark H. Kruger

2010-01-01

190

Integration of gender-specific aspects into medical curricula - status quo und future perspectives  

PubMed Central

The consideration of gender aspects in clinical routine is of high importance towards an individualized patient care and a starting point of diversity medicine. Gender-specific awareness is an indispensable basis for an optimized medical treatment. A current study at the medical faculties of Muenster and Duisburg-Essen University (Germany) revealed an insufficient knowledge among students and lecturers in this area. An interdisciplinary, international workshop took place in Muenster (Germany) in May 2012 on the topic how to integrate gender aspects into medical curricula in the future aiming at a better health care for both sexes in long term. This position paper summarizes the conclusions. It was suggested to teach gender-specific contents from the first semester comprehensively – using standardized definitions and a gender-neutral language, since it is crucial not to increase the students’ workload any further. The key to success is to implement gender aspects by using meaningful examples on a regular basis – ideally in a longitudinal manner. The content of teaching should be selected by the lecturers and full professors and be considered within students´ exams. To reach these goals, an absolute support of the respective medical faculties as well as the integration of these gender-specific learning objectives into the national competence-based learning catalogue for medical education (NKLM) is obligatory. PMID:23255960

Pfleiderer, Bettina; Burghaus, Désirée; Bayer, Gudrun; Kindler-Röhrborn, Andrea; Heue, Matthias; Becker, Jan Carl

2012-01-01

191

Economic Status of Women. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a transcript of a Congressional hearing on the economic status of women held by the Joint Economic Committee on February 3, 1982. Witnesses who testified at the hearing included Representatives Reuss, Richmond, Heckler, Wylie and Schroeder, Senators Jepsen and Kassenbaum, and a number of women active in women's equality programs.…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

192

Gender, ethnicity and graduate status, and junior doctors' self-reported preparedness for clinical practice: national questionnaire surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives Medical schools need to ensure that graduates feel well prepared for their first medical job. Our objective was to report on differences in junior doctors’ self-reported preparedness for work according to gender, ethnicity and graduate status. Design Postal and electronic questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants Medical graduates of 2008 and 2009, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was the doctors’ level of agreement with the statement that ‘My experience at medical school prepared me well for the jobs I have undertaken so far’, to which respondents were asked to reply on a scale from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. Results Women were slightly less likely than men to agree that they felt well prepared for work (50% of women agreed or strongly agreed vs. 54% of men), independently of medical school, ethnicity, graduate entry status and intercalated degree status, although they were no more likely than men to regard lack of preparedness as having been a problem for them. Adjusting for the other subgroup differences, non-white respondents were less likely to report feeling well prepared than white (44% vs. 54%), and were more likely to indicate that lack of preparedness was a problem (30% non-white vs. 24% white). There were also some gender and ethnic differences in preparedness for specific areas of work. Conclusions The identified gender and ethnic differences need to be further explored to determine whether they are due to differences in self-confidence or in actual preparedness. PMID:24108533

Svirko, Elena; Lambert, Trevor; Goldacre, Michael J

2014-01-01

193

Gender, Self-Employment, and EarningsThe Interlocking Structures of Family and Professional Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1979 to 1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the author explores how gender, family, and class alter the impact of self-employment on earnings. Fixed-effect regression results show that while self-employment positively influences men’s earnings, not all women similarly benefit. Professionals receive the same self-employment earnings premium, regardless of gender. However, self-employment in nonprofessional

Michelle J. Budig

2006-01-01

194

Locus of control and affectivity by gender and occupational status: A 14 nation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent to which reported gender differences in values are attributable to differences in national\\u000a culture and organizational seniority. Locus of control and affectivity scores were obtained from 4599 managers and employees\\u000a in business organizations located in 14 countries. Across nations, men and those in senior positions were more internal and\\u000a less affective. Gender effects were additional

Peter B. Smith; Shaun Dugan; Fons Trompenaars

1997-01-01

195

Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

2012-01-01

196

Accounting for institutional change in health economic evaluation: A program to tackle HIV\\/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV\\/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations.

Stephen Jan; Paul Pronyk; Julia Kim

2008-01-01

197

Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.  

PubMed

There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions. PMID:16261994

Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

2005-08-01

198

Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status  

PubMed Central

Background Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child. Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. Methods A descriptive analysis of trends in place of delivery using data from two national representative sample surveys in 1992 and 1998 is followed by a two-level (child/mother and community) random-effects logistical regression model using the second survey to investigate the determinants. Results In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Conclusion Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect. In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India. PMID:20525393

2010-01-01

199

Understanding differences in sexting behaviors across gender, relationship status, and sexual identity, and the role of expectancies in sexting.  

PubMed

Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (?=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (?(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks. PMID:23675996

Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A

2013-08-01

200

Gender, Family Status, and Career Patterns of Graduates of the University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 745 physicians graduated from the University of Calgary (Canada) women were more likely to take parental leave, but gender differences in breaks taken for other reasons were less. Women worked fewer hours in direct patient care. Female parents under 35 spent fewer hours on patient care than all male parents. (Author/MSE)

Bryant, Heather E.; And Others

1991-01-01

201

Gender and Widowhood: Disparity in Health Status and Health Care Utilization Among the Aged in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an increasing feminization of India's older population marked by a high incidence of widowhood among aged women, women's health in later life and the health consequences of widowhood has received little attention in the existing gender and gerontological scholarship in India. Based on data of a nationally representative survey by the National Sample Survey Organization (N = 34,831, ages

Sreerupa; S. Irudaya Rajan

2010-01-01

202

Economic Opportunities and Gender Differences in Human Capital: Experimental Evidence for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in health and education are a concern for a number of developing countries. While standard theory predicts human capital should respond to market returns, social norms (e.g., disapproval of women working outside the home) may weaken or even sever this link for girls. Though many studies have examined the link between women's wages or labor force participation and

Robert T. Jensen

2010-01-01

203

Transforming time into money using water: A participatory study of economics and gender in rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

When water supply improvements are coupled with opportunity to create income through micro-enterprises, time released from water collection is converted into income earned. This brings several benefits: reduced drudgery, higher household income, and, consequently, greater women's empowerment through changing gender relations within the household. This article documents the performance of one such scheme in Banaskantha District in the state of

A. J. James; Joep Verhagen; Christine van Wijk; Reema Nanavaty; Mita Parikh; Mihir Bhatt

2002-01-01

204

Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

Browne, Irene, Ed.

205

Exploring the Literature on Relationships Between Gender Roles, Intimate Partner Violence, Occupational Status, and Organizational Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate experiences of women in high-wage high-status (HWHS)

Eileen Kwesiga; Myrtle P. Bell; Marshall Pattie; Angela M. Moe

2007-01-01

206

Gender and Schooling in Appalachia: Historical Lessons for an Era of Economic Restructuring. Research Paper 9411.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses issues involving the designing of new job training and education programs in central Appalachia in response to national policies for economic improvement. In March 1994, the Reemployment Act of 1994 was announced as the Clinton administration's response to problems caused by radical and worldwide economic restructuring. The…

Maggard, Sally Ward

207

Pathways to Economic Security: Gender and Nonstandard Employment in Contemporary Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiling data from several government surveys, this article identifies key social indicators of economic security associated with nonstandard employment in Japan. Empirical trends of nonstandard employment are contextualized in the development of Japanese coordinated capitalism from the economic boom during the 1960s through the recession of the…

Gottfried, Heidi

2008-01-01

208

Exploring gender and sexual minority status among street-involved youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares heterosexual and sexual minority street-involved youth across a number of sociodemographic, risk and current mental health, victimization and delinquency measures with a particular focus on gender differences. The sample consists of 147 homeless and street-involved young men and women aged 16–21 years in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses indicate that many of the differences between the heterosexual

Tyler J. Frederick; Lori E. Ross; Tara L. Bruno; Patricia G. Erickson

2011-01-01

209

Identity economics meets financialisation: gender, race and occupational stratification in the US labour market  

E-print Network

, professional occupations, service occupations, sales occupations, construction occupations, and farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.2 The original CPS data used in the paper offers a breakdown of US earnings by occupations, ethnicity and gender... occupations. Relative wages, i.e. the ratio of the wage bill in the financial sector relative to its full-time-equivalent employment share, enjoyed a steep increase over the period mid-1980s to 2006. What explains this development is financial deregulation...

Arestis, Philip; Charles, Aurelie; Fontana, Giuseppe

2014-07-23

210

Ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index in the United States: The role of parental socioeconomic status and economic contextual factors  

PubMed Central

This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black–white (63%), male Hispanic–white (78%) and female Hispanic–white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one-half of the female black–white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black–white and Hispanic–white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black–white and Hispanic–white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic–white BMI gap than the black–white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black–white and Hispanic–white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents. PMID:22607746

Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Krauss, Ramona C.; Wang, Youfa

2013-01-01

211

Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.  

PubMed

Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485

Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

2013-01-01

212

Working Nine to Five: Economic Impacts on the Gender Gap in Macro Politics .  

E-print Network

A difference in aggregate public opinion and policy preferences between men and women has long been assumed but rarely fully empirically tested. In this analysis, I look at multiple economic factors impacting men and women in similar, yet different...

Scott, Holly Katherine

2013-09-28

213

That's a Boy's Toy: Gender-Typed Knowledge in Toddlers as a Function of Mother's Marital Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more

Julie M. Hupp; Jessi L. Smith; Jill M. Coleman; Amy B. Brunell

2010-01-01

214

The Effects of Teacher-Perceived Academic Achievement Ability, Socioeconomic Status, Gender, and Sociability on the Private Speech of Kindergarten Students during the Performance of a Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the private speech of 40 kindergarten children involved in a problem-solving task differed according to gender, socioeconomic status, sociability, and academic ability. The introductory chapter provides a brief summary of the theoretical views of Piaget and Vygotsky concerning private speech.…

Fisher, Carolyn Hall

215

Counting the Runners Who Don't Have Shoes: Trends in Student Achievement in Science by Socioeconomic Status and Gender within Ethnic Groups. Research Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a meta-analysis of current trends in student achievement in science by socioeconomic status and gender within ethnic groups. Data from a variety of sources, such as the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) reports were used. In addition, trends in student…

Rodriguez, Alberto J.

216

Family, cultural and gender role aspects in the context of HIV risk among African American women of unidentified HIV status: An exploratory qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was an exploratory, qualitative study of contextual cultural and social realities of the sexual interactions of a representative sample of African American women of unidentified HIV status. The study expanded our understanding of family and gender role variables by exploring influences of family of origin and idealistic perceptions of roles on sexual relationships. Data was collected on 51 African

S. L. Jarama; F. Z. Belgrave; J. Bradford; M. Young; J. A. Honnold

2007-01-01

217

Association between socioeconomic status, weight, age and gender, and the body image and weight control practices of 6- to 19-year-old children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and

Jennifer A. O'Dea; Peter Caputi

2001-01-01

218

Social disparities in BMI trajectories across adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime socio-economic position: 1986-2004  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, with long-term health and social consequences. There is also a strong social patterning of obesity and overweight, with a higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities and those from a lower socio-economic position (SEP). Most of the existing work in this area, however, is based on cross-sectional data or single cohort studies. No national studies to date have examined how social disparities in obesity and overweight differ by age and historical period using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Methods We used panel data from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future Study (1986–2004) to examine social disparities in trajectories of body mass index (BMI) over adulthood (age 18–45). Self-reported height and weight were collected in this annual US survey of high-school seniors, followed biennially since 1976. Using growth curve models, we analysed BMI trajectories over adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime SEP (measured by parents’ education and respondent's education). Results BMI trajectories exhibit a curvilinear rate of change from age 18 to 45, but there was a strong period effect, such that weight gain was more rapid for more recent cohorts. As a result, successive cohorts become overweight (BMI > 25) at increasingly earlier points in the life course. BMI scores were also consistently higher for women, racial/ethnic minority groups and those from a lower SEP. However, BMI scores for socially advantaged groups in recent cohorts were actually higher than those for their socially disadvantaged counterparts who were born 10 years earlier. Conclusions Results highlight the importance of social status and socio-economic resources for maintaining optimal weight. Yet, even those in advantaged social positions have experienced an increase in BMI in recent years. PMID:18835869

Clarke, Philippa; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Schulenberg, John E

2009-01-01

219

Influence of birth weight and gender on lipid status and adipose tissue gene expression in lambs.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for obesity, particularly when offspring are born into an unrestricted nutritional environment. In this study, we investigated the impact of IUGR and gender on circulating lipids and on expression of adipogenic, lipogenic and adipokine genes in perirenal adipose tissue. Singleton lambs born to overnourished adolescent dams were normal birth weight (N) or IUGR (32% lower birth weight due to placental insufficiency). IUGR lambs exhibited increased fractional growth rates but remained smaller than N lambs at necropsy (d77). At 48 days, fasting plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol were elevated predominantly in IUGR males. Body fat content was independent of prenatal growth but higher in females than in males. In perirenal fat, relative to male lambs, females had larger adipocytes; higher lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase and leptin and lower IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA expression levels, and all were independent of prenatal growth category; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA expression were not affected by IUGR or gender. Adiposity indices were inversely related to G3PDH mRNA expression, and for the population as a whole the expression of IGF system genes in perirenal fat was negatively correlated with plasma leptin, fat mass and adipocyte size, and positively correlated with circulating IGF1 levels. Higher plasma lipid levels in IUGR males may predict later adverse metabolic health and obesity, but in early postnatal life gender has the dominant influence on adipose tissue gene expression, reflecting the already established sexual dimorphism in body composition. PMID:24928206

Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P; Adam, Clare L

2014-08-01

220

Marital status, spousal coverage, and the gender gap in employer-sponsored health insurance.  

PubMed

Not only do men who work full time earn more than women, but they are more likely to receive employer-sponsored health benefits. This paper provides evidence on the gender gap in employer-sponsored health insurance. The results indicate that the gap is driven largely by the tendency of married women to decline employer-sponsored insurance in favor of being covered through their husbands. Indeed, among single workers, women are more likely than men to be offered insurance. These findings call into question the conclusion made by previous researchers that employers discriminate against women in the provision of health insurance. PMID:9031647

Buchmueller, T C

221

Gender and the attribution of the nurse practitioner and physician status.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to discover whether sex-role sterotypes were used to identify members of two professions, nurse practitioners and physicians. Participants reported whether they believed a videotaped health care provider was a physician or a nurse practitioner. Results showed that male providers tended to be identified as physicians, whereas female providers tended to be identified as nurse practitioners. Findings indicate that understanding and enactment of the nurse practitioner and physician roles are still affected by gender issues and that both physicians and nurse practitioners remain subject to the force of sex-role stereotypes. PMID:3695677

Horman, D J; Campbell, J D; DeGregory, J L

1987-09-01

222

Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

2001-01-01

223

Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Networks: The Factors Affecting Status of Employees' Network Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,150 employees (464 men, 682 women, 149 people of color) indicated that women and minorities who were not Asian, Black, or Latino had network members with significantly lower status because they held positions that limited access to powerful people. Structural rather than personal exclusion explained racial/ethnic and sex differences.…

McGuire, Gail M.

2000-01-01

224

Measuring Gender (In)Equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID). OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 247  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to establish, test and analyse hypotheses regarding cross-country variations in women's economic status are hampered by the lack of a readily accessible and easily used information resource on the various dimensions of gender inequality. Addressing this gap, this paper introduces the Gender, Institutions and Development data base (GID)…

Jutting, Johannes P.; Morrisson, Christian; Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Drechsler, Denis

2006-01-01

225

Gender differences in clinical status at time of coronary revascularisation in Spain  

PubMed Central

Design: Retrospective study of clinical records. Two stage stratified cluster sampling was used to select a nationally representative sample of patients receiving a coronary revascularisation procedure in 1997. Setting: All of Spain. Main outcome measures: Odds ratios (OR) in men and women for different clinical and diagnostic variables related with coronary disease. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the association between coronary symptoms and gender. Results: In the univariate analysis the prevalence of the following risk factors for coronary heart disease was higher in women than in men: obesity (OR=1.8), hypertension (OR=2.9) and diabetes (OR=2.1). High surgical risk was also more prevalent among women (OR=2.6). In the logistic regression analysis women's risk of being symptomatic at the time of revascularisation was more than double that of men (OR=2.4). Conclusions: Women have more severe coronary symptoms at the time of coronary revascularisation than do men. These results suggest that women receive revascularisation at a more advanced stage of coronary disease. Further research is needed to clarify what social, cultural or biological factors may be implicated in the gender differences observed. PMID:12080167

Aguilar, M; Lazaro, P; Fitch, K; Luengo, S

2002-01-01

226

Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.  

PubMed

The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:2071-2073. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24753054

De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

2014-11-01

227

Role identification, community socio-economic status demands, and stress outcomes in police officers.  

PubMed

This study applied the 'job demands-resources' and 'conservation of resources' models to police work, with the specific aim to examine the possible interaction between objectively measured work demands (community socio-economic status (SES)) and personal resources (role identification) on stress-related outcomes. A total of 89 officers from 10 small, suburban police departments (five from high SES areas and five from low SES areas) completed surveys that focused on community SES demands and role identification as factors that potentially influence positive and negative psychological outcomes. Results indicated that community (SES) demands and role identification interacted to predict a variety of the outcomes. Role identification as a psychological resource served to reduce the effects of high community SES demands on emotional exhaustion. Implications of these results for future police research are discussed. PMID:19408135

Grawitch, Matthew J; Barber, Larissa K; Kruger, Mark H

2010-01-01

228

Periodontal Health Status of Different Socio-economic Groups in Out-Patient Department of TMDC & RC, Moradabad, India  

PubMed Central

Aims & Objective: To assess the oral health awareness and periodontal health status of different socio-economic groups in out-patient department of the Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre (TMDC&RC), Moradabad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 416 subjects of 30-60 years age group with different socio-economic status classified according to modified Kuppuswamy scale (2012). Subjects were interviewed by the questionnaire and Community Periodontal Index was recorded. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test (SPSS version 17). Result: This study showed that the code 2 and code 3 is more in lower socio-economic status (p =0.115 and p=0.079 respectively). Significant association was seen in Code 0, code 1 & code 4 (p<0.01) which is indicative that upper class have more healthy periodontal status than lower. Conclusion: Significant association exists between oral health awareness and periodontal health with the socio-economic status of the individual.

Bhaskar, D.J.; Agali, Chandan; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Batra, Manu; Singh, Vikas; Bumb, Swapnil S.

2014-01-01

229

Gender, marital status, and body weight in older U.S. adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marital terminations are life transitions that may lead to changes in diet, activity, and body weight. This investigation\\u000a examined how marital status was associated with relative body weight, underweight, overweight, and obesity among men and women\\u000a in the United States using cross-sectional nationally representative data from the 1992 HRS cohort age 51–61 and the 1993\\u000a AHEAD cohort age 70 and

Jeffery Sobal; Barbara S. Rauschenbach

2003-01-01

230

Gendered Economic, Social, and Cultural Challenges to HIV\\/AIDS Prevention and Intervention for Chinese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is experiencing the most rapidly expanding HIV prevalence in the world, with the percentage of Chinese women living with HIV\\/AIDS also increasing significantly. Chinese women's risk of HIV infection is heavily influenced by patriarchal cultural beliefs, Confucian doctrines, and rapid social and economic changes in China. Chinese women generally have a low level of awareness of HIV\\/AIDS. With inherent

Catherine So-kum Tang

2008-01-01

231

Nutritive value of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in Croatian university students according to gender.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the nutritive value was calculated using food composition tables. Daily menus on average provide an adequate amount of energy, protein and most micronutrients: 88.2% of daily menus provide a balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates, 22.5% of daily menus provide more than 300 mg of cholesterol, and 58.8% have more than 25 g dietary fibre. On average, students had 2.4 meals and 1.3 snacks per day. Breakfast was the most often skipped meal. Red meat, cereals and fast food were consumed more often by males (P<0.05). Low-fat dairy products, whole grain products and breakfast cereals were consumed more often by females (P<0.05). The most common choice for snacks was fruit. Males exercised more than females (4.4 h/week versus 1.6 h/week; P<0.05). A higher percentage of females (29.8%) than males (17.2%) smoked cigarettes. For alcohol consumption it was vice versa: 88.9 and 84.8% of males and females, respectively. A total of 80.4% of students were well nourished. This study showed that meals offered at students' restaurants are adequate. Dietary and other health-related behaviour differed according to gender. Clustering of some behaviours was observed. PMID:14522693

Coli? Bari?, Irena; Satali?, Zvonimir; Lukesi?, Zeljka

2003-11-01

232

Turkish University Students' Perceptions of the World Wide Web as a Learning Tool: An Investigation Based on Gender, Socio-Economic Background, and Web Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the study is to investigate Turkish undergraduate students' perceptions of the Web as a learning tool and to analyze whether their perceptions differ significantly based on gender, socio-economic background, and Web experience. Data obtained from 722 undergraduate students (331 males and 391 females) were used in the analyses.…

Tekinarslan, Erkan

2009-01-01

233

The magnitude of khat use and its association with health, nutrition and socio-economic status.  

PubMed

Although the literature on khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is fairly extensive, and several authors have stated the potential adverse effects of habitual use of khat on mental, physical and social well-being, very few population based studies exist to substantiate those statements in Ethiopia. A house-to-house survey of a representative sample of 1200 adults from a rural Ethiopian community was conducted from January to September of 1997 to determine the prevalence of khat use and its association with health, nutritional status, mental distress, substance use, family and social functioning and economic well-being. The current prevalence of khat chewing was found to be 31.7%. Muslims more than Christians, males more than females, those between the ages 15 and 34 years more than other age groups were habitual users. The following factors were found to be significantly associated with khat use: physical illness, (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.14-2.02); injuries (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.42-3.79), undernutrition (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.24-2.48), mental distress (OR = 8.30, 95% CI = 5.20-13.31). Family functioning among current khat users was significantly higher than non users (OR = 1.56, 95%-CI = 1.04-2.28). Social functioning and economic well-being were not significantly associated with khat use. It is concluded that a fairly large proportion of the population consumes khat and that this is related to physical and mental ill-health, although family and social functioning, and economic well-being seem to be unrelated to khat use. PMID:11144876

Belew, M; Kebede, D; Kassaye, M; Enquoselassie, F

2000-01-01

234

Gender differences, aging and hormonal status in mucosal injury and repair.  

PubMed

As the "baby boomers" age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult. This susceptibility has been known to increase with age. Therefore it is important to understand the interplay between aging, injury and recovery at the mucosal surface. Sex hormones play an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier function as well as the mucosa associated immune function in both genders. Menopause in women is a defined time period in which major hormonal changes occur such as a decline in systemic estradiol levels. The differential levels of sex hormones contribute to the sexual dimorphism seen in response to injury at the mucosal surface, prior to and following menopause. Thus the effect of sex hormone and aging on mucosal mechanisms in response to injury is an important area of investigation. PMID:24729941

Grishina, Irina; Fenton, Anne; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi

2014-04-01

235

Gender Differences, Aging and Hormonal Status in Mucosal Injury and Repair  

PubMed Central

As the “baby boomers” age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult. This susceptibility has been known to increase with age. Therefore it is important to understand the interplay between aging, injury and recovery at the mucosal surface. Sex hormones play an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier function as well as the mucosa associated immune function in both genders. Menopause in women is a defined time period in which major hormonal changes occur such as a decline in systemic estradiol levels. The differential levels of sex hormones contribute to the sexual dimorphism seen in response to injury at the mucosal surface, prior to and following menopause. Thus the effect of sex hormone and aging on mucosal mechanisms in response to injury is an important area of investigation. PMID:24729941

Grishina, Irina; Fenton, Anne; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi

2014-01-01

236

Does Socio-Economic Status Moderate the Associations between Psychosocial Predictors and Fruit Intake in Schoolchildren? The Pro Children Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether socio-economic status (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…

Sandvik, C.; Gjestad, R.; Samdal, O.; Brug, J.; Klepp, K. -I.

2010-01-01

237

A Comparison of the Economic Status of Working-Age Persons with Visual Impairments and Those of Other Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the economic status of adults with visual impairments with those with non-visual impairments using data from the National Health Interview Survey. Employment rates and mean household incomes were lower and receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance higher among those blind in both eyes than those with less severe visual…

Houtenville, Andrew J.

2003-01-01

238

LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

C. J. Pera; C. B. Moyer

1993-01-01

239

Marital Status and Gender Differences in Managing a Chronic Illness: The Function of Health-Related Social Control  

PubMed Central

The attempts of social network members to regulate individuals’ health behaviors, or health-related social control, is one mechanism by which social relationships influence health. Little is known, however, about whether this process varies in married versus unmarried individuals managing a chronic illness in which health behaviors are a key component. Researchers have proposed that social control attempts may have dual effects on recipients’ well-being, such that improved health behaviors may occur at the cost of increased emotional distress. The current study accordingly sought to examine marital status differences in the sources, frequency, and responses to health-related social control in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,477 patients with type 2 diabetes from southern California, USA. Results from two-way ANCOVAs revealed that married individuals reported their spouses most frequently as sources of social control, with unmarried women naming children and unmarried men naming friends/neighbors most frequently as sources of social control. Married men reported receiving social control most often, whereas unmarried men reported receiving social control least often. Regression analyses that examined behavioral and emotional responses to social control revealed that positive social control strategies were associated with better dietary behavior among married patients. Results also revealed a complex pattern of emotional responses, such that social control was associated with both appreciation and hostility, with the effect for appreciation most pronounced among women. Findings from this study highlight the importance of marital status and gender differences in social network members’ involvement in the management of a chronic illness. PMID:20889249

August, Kristin J.; Sorkin, Dara H.

2010-01-01

240

Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse. PMID:22071095

Anitha, Sundari

2011-10-01

241

Weight Loss Attempts and Attitudes toward Body Size, Eating, and Physical Activity in American Indian Children: Relationship to Weight Status and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined dieting, weight perceptions, and self-efficacy to eat healthy foods and engage in physical activity and their relationships to weight status and gender among American Indian elementary schoolchildren.Research Methods and Procedures: Data for this study were collected as part of the baseline examination for the Pathways study. Participants were 1441 second- through third-grade American Indian children in

Mary Story; June Stevens; Marguerite Evans; Carol E. Cornell; Juhaeri; Joel Gittelsohn; Scott B. Going; Theresa E. Clay; David M. Murray

2001-01-01

242

The Impact of Women’s Status and Gender Inequality on Female Homicide Victimization RatesEvidence From U.S. Counties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminists have long argued that structural inequality between men and women influences the prevalence of female homicide victimization. In the present study, a cross-sectional analysis was performed using data on 3,083 U.S. counties in 2000 to assess the impact of women’s absolute status and gender inequality along educational, employment, income, and occupational dimensions and patriarchal culture on their risk of

Lynne M. Vieraitis; Sarah Britto; Tomislav V. Kovandzic

2007-01-01

243

Gender differences in food and nutrient intakes and status indices from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of People Aged 65 Years and Over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994–95.Design: The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed

CJ Bates; A Prentice; S Finch

1999-01-01

244

Personality, Socio-Economic Status and Inflammation: Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived – “MD”) and low (least deprived – “LD”) deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured along with demographic and health-behaviour variables, and personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism (hostility). Regression models assessed the prediction of inflammation as a function of personality, deprivation and their interaction. Results Levels of CRP and IL-6 were an increasing function of neuroticism and extraversion only in LD subjects opposite trends were seen in MD subjects. The result was ascribed parsimoniously to an inflammatory ceiling effect or, more speculatively, to SES-related health-behaviour differences. Psychoticism was strongly associated with ICAM-1 in both MD and LD subjects. Conclusions The association between neuroticism, CRP and IL-6 may be reduced in MD subjects confirming speculation that the association differs across population sub-groups. The association between psychoticism and ICAM-1 supports evidence that hostility has adverse effects upon the endothelium, with consequences for cardiovascular health. Health interventions may be more effective by accounting for personality-related effects upon biological processes. PMID:23516457

Millar, Keith; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; McLean, Jennifer S.; Batty, G. David; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A.; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; Mottus, Rene; Packard, Chris J.; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G.; Velupillai, Yoga N.; Tannahill, Carol

2013-01-01

245

Effect of age, gender and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) status on the inflammatory profile in peripheral blood plasma of Australian blood donors.  

PubMed

Transfusion of blood components has been associated with poor patient outcomes and, an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Differences in the blood components arising from donor health, age and immune status may impact on outcomes of transfusion and transfusion-related immune modulation in recipients. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in inflammatory profile in donors and association with parameters including age, gender and deficiency status of pattern recognition molecule mannose-binding lectin (MBL). MBL level was determined by ELISA. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interferon (IFN)-?, and IFN-? were examined by cytometric bead array (CBA). C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were examined by immunoturbidimetry. This study demonstrated age was a parameter associated with the immune profile of blood donors, with significant increases in MCP-1 (p<0.05) and RF (p<0.05) and decreases in IL-1? evident in the older donors (61-76years). Significant gender-associated differences in MCP-1, IL-12 and CRP plasma levels in the blood donor cohort were also reported. There was no significant difference in the level of any inflammatory markers studied according to MBL status. This study demonstrated that age and gender are associated with inflammatory profile in donors. These differences may be a factor impacting on outcomes of transfusion. PMID:25167768

Kildey, Katrina; Rooks, Kelly; Weier, Steven; Flower, Robert L; Dean, Melinda M

2014-09-01

246

The Influence of Career Beliefs and SocioEconomic Status on the Career Decision-Making of High School Students in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper responds to current discussions in career psychology that emphasise the importance of understanding how socio-economic\\u000a backgrounds and social-cognitive environments influence career development. Located in India, this study examines the interaction\\u000a between career beliefs and socio-economic status within a sample of Indian high school students. Significant socio-economic\\u000a status differences were observed, with the lower SES groups showing higher levels

Gideon Arulmani; Darren van Laar; Simon Easton

2003-01-01

247

Are gender, marital status or parenthood risk factors for outcome of treatment for chronic disabling spinal disorders?  

PubMed

Recent clinical research has suggested that single working mothers may differ in their response to health treatment and outcomes, relative to their married female or male counterparts. The present study explored, on an a priori basis, the existence and extent of differences in chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes of pain report, return-to-work and future health utilization for single working mothers, relative to other patients. A cohort of 1,679 consecutive chronically disabled work related spinal disorder (CDWRSD) patients were placed into one of eight groups as a function of gender, marital status (single/married), and parenthood (with/without children). All patients completed an assessment battery measuring psychosocial variables at pre- and post-treatment, and a structured clinical interview evaluating socioeconomic outcomes at 1 year following completion of a 5-7 week functional restoration program. Results revealed that single females with children differed from all other groups in racial representation, with 57.1% of these individuals being African American, widely disparate from the prevailing local ethnicity. Single females and males with children were represented by a higher incidence of cervical injuries (25.0% and 26.7%, respectively) than all other groups (5.4-16.6%, p < .001). Contrary to expectation, the 8 groups did not differ significantly in program completion rate, work return, work retention, health utilization, recurrent injury or case settlement rates at one-year follow-up. The single females with children group did display greater levels of depression pre-treatment compared to the other groups. However, at post-treatment, these differences no longer existed. This investigation is one of the first to examine if the combination of gender and parenthood distinguishes significantly among CDWRSD patients. Overall, contrary to expectation, the single mothers did not show any significant differences in CDWRSD outcome at one-year post-rehab follow-up, and the single mothers and fathers showed no differences in depression or pain severity post-treatment. Thus, in spite of the societal belief to the contrary, it seems that single parent patients can show similar chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes, relative to other CDWRSD patients, after a prescribed course of tertiary functional restoration rehabilitation. PMID:15844676

Gatchel, Robert J; Mayer, Tom G; Kidner, Cindy L; McGeary, Donald D

2005-06-01

248

Colorado State University and University of Idaho provides equal opportunity in education and employment on the basis or race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or status as a Vietnam-era veteran, as required by state and federal  

E-print Network

Colorado State University and University of Idaho provides equal opportunity in education and employment on the basis or race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or status______________________________________________ Gender_____ Race/Ethnicity _____ Adult/Youth ____ Cut along dotted line and keep bottom portion for your

Stephens, Graeme L.

249

The age-gender-status profile of high performing athletes in the UK taking nutritional supplements: Lessons for the future  

PubMed Central

Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6%) and vitamin C (70.7%) were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%), whey protein (31.7%), echinacea (30.9%), iron (29.9%) and caffeine (23.7%). Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously shown to increase the probability of prohibited substance use, groups exhibiting high use of nutritional supplements should be monitored. Future research should incorporate a wide range of supplements and enquire about the daily amount ingested. In addition to tutoring, preventive measures should incorporate offering acceptable and healthy alternatives for assisted performance enhancement. PMID:18186936

Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

2008-01-01

250

Gender and Disability Among Older Adults in North and South India: Differences Associated with Coresidence and Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in most settings are morelikely than men to experience as well as reportpoor health and functional disabilities. Studies in the economically advanced countries(as in the US) have also shown an associationbetween gender, marital status and health anddisability. However, there is very littleinformation about gender differentials indisability among the elderly in developingcountries, especially those in South Asia. Also, little is

Manisha Sengupta; Emily M. Agree

2002-01-01

251

Relationship between household socio-economic status and under-five mortality in Rufiji DSS, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants. Objectives The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES) and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS), Tanzania. Methods This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan–Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders. Results Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) (23.7–30.4)]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [?0.16; 95% CI (?0.24, ?0.08)] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30–0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22–0.88)]. Conclusion Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania. PMID:23364083

Nattey, Cornelius; Masanja, Honorati; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

2013-01-01

252

Relative residential property value as a socio-economic status indicator for health research  

PubMed Central

Background Residential property is reported as the most valuable asset people will own and therefore provides the potential to be used as a socio-economic status (SES) measure. Location is generally recognised as the most important determinant of residential property value. Extending the well-established relationship between poor health and socio-economic disadvantage and the role of residential property in the overall wealth of individuals, this study tested the predictive value of the Relative Location Factor (RLF), a SES measure designed to reflect the relationship between location and residential property value, and six cardiometabolic disease risk factors, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL), hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and high low density lipoprotein (LDL). These risk factors were also summed and expressed as a cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score. Methods RLF was calculated using a global hedonic regression model from residential property sales transaction data based upon several residential property characteristics, but deliberately blind to location, to predict the selling price of the property. The predicted selling price was divided by the actual selling price and the results interpolated across the study area and classified as tertiles. The measures used to calculate CMR were collected via clinic visits from a population-based cohort study. Models with individual risk factors and the cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score as dependent variables were respectively tested using log binomial and Poisson generalised linear models. Results A statistically significant relationship was found between RLF, the cumulative CMR score and all but one of the risk factors. In all cases, participants in the most advantaged and intermediate group had a lower risk for cardio-metabolic diseases. For the CMR score the RR for the most advantaged was 19% lower (RR?=?0.81; CI 0.76-0.86; p <0.0001) and the middle group was 9% lower (RR?=?0.91; CI 0.86-0.95; p <0.0001) than the least advantaged group. Conclusions This paper advances the understanding of the nexus between place, health and SES by providing an objective spatially informed SES measure for testing health outcomes and reported a robust association between RLF and several health measures. PMID:23587373

2013-01-01

253

Maternal Perception of Neighborhood Safety as a Predictor of Child Weight Status: The Moderating Effect of Gender and Assessment of Potential Mediators  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if there is a relationship between maternal perception of neighborhood safety in 3rd grade and weight status in 5th grade children, to test if gender moderates this relationship, and to identify potential mediators. Method Data from 868 children and their mothers involved in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD-SECCYD) were used to examine the relationship between maternal perception of neighborhood safety in the 3rd grade and child BMI z-score in the 5th grade. Multiple regression models were used to test this relationship, the effect of gender, and potential mediating variables (time outdoors in neighborhood, television viewing, child behavior problems and puberty status). Results Neighborhood safety ratings in the least safe tertile in 3rd grade, compared to the safest tertile, were associated with an increased risk of obesity independent of gender, race and income-to-needs ratio (OR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.03, 2.46), and a higher child BMI z-scores in the 5th grade among girls, but not boys, compared to the safest tertile (? = 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.09, 0.57). Neither amount of time spent outdoors in the neighborhood, television viewing, child behavior problems (internalizing or externalizing), nor puberty status altered the relationship. Conclusions Maternal perception of the neighborhood as unsafe in 3rd grade independently predicted a higher risk of obesity, and a higher BMI z-score among girls, but not boys, in the 5th grade. The relationship was not explained by several potential mediators. Further investigation is needed to explore these gender differences and potential mediators. PMID:19606373

Bacha, Jason M; Appugliese, Danielle; Coleman, Sharon; Kaciroti, Niko; Bradley, Robert H; Corwyn, Robert F; Lumeng, Julie C

2014-01-01

254

Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Line Angle Judgments Are Positively Associated with Gender Equality and Economic Development Across 53 Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental rotation and line angle judgment performance were assessed in more than 90,000 women and 111,000 men from 53 nations.\\u000a In all nations, men’s mean performance exceeded women’s on these two visuospatial tasks. Gender equality (as assessed by United\\u000a Nations indices) and economic development (as assessed by per capita income and life expectancy) were significantly associated,\\u000a across nations, with larger

Richard A. Lippa; Marcia L. Collaer; Michael Peters

2010-01-01

255

Assessment of effects of socio-economic status on IQ in a full cross-fostering study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN important question in studies of mental ability concerns the effect of parental socio-economic status (SES) on the IQ of their offspring. Only a full cross-fostering study, including children born to biological parents from the most highly contrasting SES and adopted by parents with equally constrasting SES, can answer this question. Previous adoption studies using incomplete cross-fostering designs1-3 have indicated

Christiane Capron; Michel Duyme

1989-01-01

256

Leisure of the theory class. [Relationship of socio-economic status and espousals on energy or the economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy debate is evolving into discussions of how to select options capable of meeting long-range social goals and how to apply the appropriate weight to the various perceptions that underlie individual opinions. The causal relationships linking personal status and attitudes is examined to see if there is a correlation between economic well-being and enthusiasm for a no-growth economy. The

Laney

1978-01-01

257

The case against Lynn's doctrine that population IQ determines levels of socio-economic development and public health status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to evaluate the kind of evidence and arguments used to support Richard Lynn's increasingly influential doctrine that genetically determined differences in population IQ are the main cause of differences in regional and national levels of socio-economic development and public health status. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper's approach is two-fold. First, new data on

David Robinson; Aristide Saggino; Marco Tommasi

2011-01-01

258

Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Role of Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Esteem, Body Image, Stressful Life Events, and Pubertal Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…

Marcotte, Diane; Fortin, Laurier; Potvin, Pierre; Papillon, Myra

2002-01-01

259

Long-term care use and socio-economic status in Belgium: a survival analysis using health care insurance data  

PubMed Central

Background The small but growing literature on socio-economic inequality in morbidity among older persons suggests that social inequalities in health persist into old age. A largely separate body of literature looks at the predictors of long-term care use, in particular of institutional care. Various measures of socio-economic status are often included as control variables in these studies. Review articles generally conclude that the evidence for such variables being a predictor for institutionalization is “inconclusive”. In this paper we look at the association among older persons in Belgium between one particular measure of socio-economic status – preferential status in public health care insurance – and first use of home long-term care and residential care. Preferential status entitles persons to higher reimbursement rates for health care from the public health care insurance system and is conditional on low income. We also study whether preferential status is related to the onset of five important chronic conditions and the time of death. Methods We use survival analysis; the source of the data is a large administrative panel of a sample representative for all older persons in Belgium (1,268,740 quarterly observations for 69,562 individuals). Results We find a strong association between preferential status and the likelihood of home care use, but for residential care it is small for men and non-existent for women. We also find that preferential status is significantly related to the chance of getting two out five chronic conditions – COPD and diabetes, but not dementia, hip fracture and Parkinson’s disease – and to the probability of dying (not for women). For home care use and death, the association with preferential status declines with increasing age from age 65 onwards, such that it is near zero for those aged around 90 and older. Conclusion We find clear associations between an indicator of low income and home care use, some chronic conditions and death. The associations are stronger among men than among women. We also find that the association declines with age for home care use and death, which might be explained by selective survival. PMID:23286530

2013-01-01

260

Social and Economic Characteristics of Street Youth by Gender and Level of Street Involvement in Eldoret, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY) in Eldoret, Kenya. Methods Participants were eligible if they were aged 12–21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time), or nights and days on the street (full-time) and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other). Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3. Results Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01–5.35), name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03–6.45), have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67–18.34), and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01–12.82). Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14–6.18), and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47–7.02). Conclusions These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics. PMID:24827584

Sorber, Rebecca; Winston, Susanna; Koech, Julius; Ayuku, David; Hu, Liangyuan; Hogan, Joseph; Braitstein, Paula

2014-01-01

261

College students’ definitions of an eating “binge” differ as a function of gender and binge eating disorder status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males and females engage in comparable rates of binge eating, but gender differences in what constitutes a “binge” may contribute to the disproportionate likelihood of females meeting diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder (BED). Using data from one university enrolled in the 2010 Healthy Minds Study, we investigated the differences in “eating binge” definitions as a function of gender, BED

Summar Reslan; Karen K. Saules

2011-01-01

262

Food insecurity in South Africa: Where does gender matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article maps food insecurity in South Africa and plumbs the data to women-headed households at the municipal level. Local contexts provide a better understanding of people's experiences by studying the impact their geographical location has on their economic status, and the impact their raced and gendered identities have on that experience. Localised information could also ensure that more nuanced

Michele Ruiters; Alvino Wildschutt

2010-01-01

263

Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Dunn RA, Sharkey JR, Lotade-Manje J, Bouhlal Y, Nayga RM Jr. Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas.

264

Discrimination versus specialization: a survey of economic studies on sexual orientation, gender and earnings in the United States.  

PubMed

Several studies examine the link between sexual orientation and earnings using large data sets that distinguish sexual orientation through questions about sexual behavior and/or by allowing respondents to self-identify as part of a same-sex cohabitating couple. After controlling for other earnings-related characteristics these studies generally show an earnings penalty for gay/bisexual men relative to heterosexual men and an earnings premium for lesbian/bisexual women relative to heterosexual women. Explanations for this gender disparity include gender differences in sexual orientation discrimination, greater labor force attachment for lesbian/bisexual women, and the effects of the overall gender earnings gap. PMID:19042290

Schmitt, Elizabeth Dunne

2008-01-01

265

Gender-specific influence of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache: the results from the Korean headache survey  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic status plays an important role in pain coping strategy. Its influence on migraine and tension-type headache may differ by gender. This study aimed to evaluate how socioeconomic status affects the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache by gender. Methods We used data from the Korean Headache Survey, a population-based sample of Koreans aged 19–69 years. Education level, district size, and household income were evaluated as socioeconomic variables. Results Among 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 8.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-4.6%] and 29.1% (95% CI 25.7-32.5%) in women and 3.2% (95% CI 1.9-4.6%) and 32.5% (95% CI 29.1-35.9%) in men, respectively. In women, multiple regression analysis found that living in rural areas was related to higher prevalence of migraine [odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% CI 1.85-11.02] and lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.58) and college-level education was related to lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18–0.74). In men, multiple regression analysis failed to reveal significant influences of any socioeconomic variable on the prevalence of migraine or tension-type headache. Conclusions The influence of socioeconomic status on migraine and tension-type headache differs by gender, with women being more susceptible to socioeconomic influence. PMID:24093215

2013-01-01

266

Effect of anthropometric characteristics and socio-economic status on physical performances of pre-pubertal children living in Bolivia at low altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously observed that 11-year-old children of low socio-economic status (LSES) showed a delayed physical growth of approximately 2 years and developed lower normalized short-term power output than children of high socio-economic status (HSES) of the same age. In contrast, maximal oxygen uptake\\u000a$$(\\\\dot VO_{2max} )$$\\u000a per unit of fat free mass was no different in either group. The

Robert de Jonge; Mario Bedu; Nicole Fellmann; Stephen Blonc; Hilde Spielvogel; Jean Coudert

1996-01-01

267

Spatial patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and their relationship to socio-economic status in Vitoria, Brazil  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economic status in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. DESIGN In a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance study of all new pulmonary TB cases conducted in Vitoria between 2002 and 2006, spatial patterns of disease incidence were compared using spatial clustering statistics (Anselin’s local indicators of spatial association [LISA] and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics), smoothed empirical Bayes estimates and model-predicted incidence rates. Spatial Poisson models were fit to examine the relationship between socio-economic status and TB incidence. RESULTS A total of 651 TB cases were reported across 78 neighborhoods, with rates ranging from 0 to 129 cases per 100 000 population. Moran’s I indicated strong spatial autocorrelation among incidence rates (0.399, P < 0.0001), and four areas of high incidence were identified by LISA and Gi* statistics. Smoothed spatial empirical Bayes estimates demonstrate that two of these areas range from 70 to 90 cases/100 000, while the other two range from 40 to 70 cases/100 000. TB incidence and socioeconomic status had a significant curvilinear relationship (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Data derived from these spatial statistical tools will help TB control programs to allocate TB resources to those populations most at risk of increasing TB rates and to target areas where TB control efforts need to be concentrated. PMID:20937178

Maciel, E. L. N.; Pan, W.; Dietze, R.; Peres, R. L.; Vinhas, S. A.; Ribeiro, F. K.; Palaci, M.; Rodrigues, R. R.; Zandonade, E.; Golub, J. E.

2013-01-01

268

Gender Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a pervasive pattern of discrimination and prejudice against transgendered people within society. Both economic discrimination and experiencing violence could be the result of a larger social climate that severely sanctions people for not conforming to society's norms concerning gender; as such, both would be strongly associated with each other. Questionnaires were distributed to people either through events or

Emilia L. Lombardi; Riki Anne Wilchins; Dana Priesing; Diana Malouf

2002-01-01

269

The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

2004-01-01

270

Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

2007-01-01

271

Can Tobacco Control Be Transformative? Reducing Gender Inequity and Tobacco Use among Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065

Greaves, Lorraine

2014-01-01

272

The University of Nebraska-Lincoln does not discriminate based on gender, age, disability, race, color, marital status, veteran's status, national or ethnic origin, or sexual orientation.  

E-print Network

The University of Nebraska-Lincoln does not discriminate based on gender, age, disability, race: Build and deploy web applications suiting needs of a student driven internal agency providing marketing or marketing plan when needed. 2. Participates in concept review with client and Creative Director; manages

Farritor, Shane

273

Bridging socio-cultural incongruity: conceptualising the success of students from low socio-economic status backgrounds in Australian higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the conceptual frames that might be used to consider the success and achievement of students from low socio-economic status in Australian higher education. Based on an examination of key literature from Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and North America, it is argued that Australia should avoid adopting either a deficit conception of students from low socio-economic

Marcia Devlin

2011-01-01

274

Land is a vital asset in South Asian agrarian societies, as it determines the overall socio-economic, political, and cultural status of individuals and  

E-print Network

: they are in uenced by multiple factors, including class, caste, gender, culture, politics, religion, and history-violent forms. In Nepal, land was one of the mainy issues of the decade-long armed insurgency (1996 of the broader socio-economic transformation of Nepal. It has become a major subject of disagreement

Richner, Heinz

275

Adaptation of the Participant Role Scale (PRS) in a Spanish youth sample: measurement invariance across gender and relationship with sociometric status.  

PubMed

In recent years, bullying research has transitioned from investigating the characteristics of the bully-victim dyad to examining bullying as a group-level process, in which the majority of children play some kind of role. This study used a shortened adaptation of the Participant Role Scale (PRS) to identify these roles in a representative sample of 2,050 Spanish children aged 8 to 13 years. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed three different roles, indicating that the adapted scale remains a reliable way to distinguish the Bully, Defender, and Outsider roles. In addition, measurement invariance of the adapted scale was examined to analyze possible gender differences among the roles. Peer status was assessed separately by gender through two sociometric procedures: the nominations-based method and the ratings-based method. Across genders, children in the Bully role were more often rated as rejected, whereas Defenders were more popular. Results suggest that although the PRS can reveal several different peer roles in the bullying process, a more clear distinction between bullying roles (i.e., Bully, Assistant, and Reinforcer) could better inform strategies for bullying interventions. PMID:24707035

Lucas-Molina, Beatriz; Williamson, Ariel A; Pulido, Rosa; Calderón, Sonsoles

2014-11-01

276

The role of weight status, gender and self-esteem in following a diet among middle-school children in Sicily (Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background Weight-related issues such as obesity, dieting and eating disorders in adolescents are major public health problems. Moreover, undertaking a diet tends to be common among school children and the reasons for doing so are not always related to weight status. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of body mass index (BMI), gender and self-esteem in the adoption of a diet in middle-school Sicilian children. Methods The survey included middle-school children in some Sicilian provinces. Weight status was determined by sex-specific body mass index for age according to the international BMI cut-off proposed by Cole. Classic chi-square test and linear trend chi-square were used to compare percentages. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were computed to study the risk of dieting according to weight status (with the underweight group as the reference group), gender, self-esteem adjusted for province. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) along with associated p-values were furnished. Results The survey showed that 45.2% of the children were of average-weight, 6.6% were underweight, 12.6% were overweight and 2.9% were clinically obese. The missing data were up to 32.8%. Regarding dieting, 26.3% of the children stated that they had been on a diet during the last three months, 56.4% claimed they had not, and 17.2% did not answer. Age was not associated with dieting (p = 0.76). More girls than boys had undertaken a diet (31.4% versus 21.4%, p < 0.0001). Self-esteem had an influence on the choice of following a diet; in fact, 40.8%, 28.5% and 20.9% of the children with negative, normal and positive self-esteem were following a diet (trend p < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis showed that self-esteem seemed to influence more girls than boys (p = 0.06), and stratified analysis by gender indicated that it seemed more influent in girls (p = 0.0008) than in boys (p = 0.01). Conclusions In addition to the relation between dieting and BMI, our results highlight the link between dieting, gender and self-esteem. We underline the importance of interventions within the context of health education in order to improve global self-esteem and to encourage proper eating habits to prevent weight-related health problems. PMID:20459776

2010-01-01

277

Posttraumatic recovery to distress symptoms ratio: a mediator of the links between gender, exposure to fire, economic condition, and three indices of resilience to fire disaster.  

PubMed

This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of demographic predictors on level of resilience following a potentially traumatic event. We hypothesized that the direct effects of three variables (exposure to fire hazards, gender, and economic condition) on resilience following a fire disaster would be mediated by the proportion of posttraumatic recovery to post-fire distress symptoms. The sample consisted of 234 Israeli Druze youth whose hometown was endangered and damaged by the Mount Carmel fire disaster in December 2010. Results partially supported the research hypotheses. PMID:24825510

Eshel, Yohanan; Majdoob, Hadeal

2014-11-01

278

The Social Status of Elderly Women and Men within the Filipino Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how control over resources, social interaction with children, gender, health, age, employment status, and marital status influence decision-making power of older Filipino adults (n=1,321). Subjects who were younger, employed, well educated, and who owned their homes, provided economic transfer to children and were in more frequent contact…

Williams, Lindy; Domingo, Lita J.

1993-01-01

279

You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

von Stumm, Sophie

2012-01-01

280

Equity Indicators: Measures of Socio-Economic Status at Victoria University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…

Sinclair, Genevieve; Doughney, James; Palermo, Josephine

281

Transitions in Income and Poverty Status: 1985-86. Current Population Reports: Household Economic Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data from the complete 1985 panel file of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) on changes between 1985 and 1986 in the income and poverty status of persons. SIPP data make it possible to gauge movement along the whole income distribution and into and out of poverty for the same persons in two consecutive…

Short, Kathleen S.; Littman, Mark S.

1990-01-01

282

Employer Child Care Organizations Eye Changing Economics: Employer Child Care Status Report #16  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the intervening years, the question of whether corporations should be in the child care business has been answered. Employers no longer question whether providing child care support for employees is a good idea; the key question now is whether they can afford it. This article reports that research for the employer child care status report finds…

Neugebauer, Roger

2008-01-01

283

Onset of Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Interplay of Pubertal Status, Gender, Weight, and Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…

O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

1999-01-01

284

Gender differences in the reemployment status of displaced workers human capital as signals that mitigate effects of bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the Current Population Survey's Displaced Workers Supplement for year 2000 indicate that after job loss, women become reemployed less frequently than do men. To explain this difference, we test sets of hypotheses derived from Human Capital and Gender Queuing theories. The results support the theory that in their hiring of displaced workers, employers tend to place men in

Charles Koeber; David W. Wright

2006-01-01

285

Neonatal size of low socio-economic status Black and White term births in Albany County, NYS.  

PubMed

Birth weight has long been a focus of study by epidemiologists and human biologists, because it reflects the quality of the intrauterine environment and may be used as a predictor of future growth and development. Comparisons of Black and White neonates in the USA have consistently shown differences in birth weight. Confounding variables are a major problem in any such investigation, especially socio-economic status which is highly correlated with race in the USA. This study was distinctive in the sampling of one socio-economic stratum (low income), and the use of five anthropometric measures in addition to birth weight. The goals of this study were as follows: to determine if there were differences in body size and body composition at birth in Black and White neonates of low socio-economic status (SES), and to investigate what variables might account for any observed variability. The sample consisted of full term Black and White neonates of low SES (n = 323) born in Albany, NY (1986-1997). Birth weight, length, head and arm circumference, and subscapular and triceps skinfolds were compared. Race was determined through maternal self-identification. White neonates were significantly larger than Black neonates in birth weight, length and head circumference. Among female neonates none of the anthropometric dimensions differed between Blacks and Whites. Among male neonates, Whites were significantly larger than Blacks in birth weight, length, head and arm circumferences. Principal components analysis reduced the six anthropometric dimensions to two summary measures: body size and composition. When controlling for social and biological variables, race and sex were significant predictors of body composition, but not body size. Interpretation of results and possible causal relationships are discussed. PMID:11293725

Denham, M; Schell, L M; Gallo, M; Stark, A

2001-01-01

286

Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. Methods A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Results Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16–2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16–2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. Conclusions The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in older men, whereas low perceived social support is associated with poor SRH in older women. The hypothesis that the relationship of perceived social support and social networks to SRH differs according to gender has been confirmed. PMID:24229389

2013-01-01

287

Immigrant generation, socioeconomic status, and economic development of countries of origin: a longitudinal study of body mass index among children.  

PubMed

Prior research has yielded mixed evidence of a relationship between immigrant generational status or acculturation and overweight or obesity among children of immigrants. This study examined socioeconomic status (SES) and economic development of the sending country as additional factors influencing children body mass index (BMI) and as moderating the relationship between parental generational status and BMI. Using data from the kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (N=16,664 children) carried out in the USA, the research estimated growth curve models and tested the significance of interaction terms between generational status (i.e., children of the 1.0 generation, who arrived at age 12 or older; children of the 1.5 generation, who arrived between the ages of birth and 11; and children of natives), SES, and the country of origin's gross domestic product per capita. Results indicate that the children of the 1.0 generation from higher-income countries tended to gain more weight than children from lower-income countries. The relationship between family SES and weight gain was positive among the first-generation children and stronger among those from lower-income countries than from higher-income countries. Weight gain was positively associated with generation only among lower SES children from low-income countries. It was negatively associated with generation for higher SES children from low-income countries. The results are consistent with a conceptual model of BMI assimilation that links global nutrition patterns to the levels and socioeconomic variations in BMI among the 1.0-generation and their children, and conceptualizes assimilation as occurring within socioeconomic strata. This approach leads to the expectation that overweight is likely to be positively associated with generation among those from low-income countries (as measured by GDP/capita) with low SES but negatively associated among those from low-income countries with high SES. PMID:17570571

Van Hook, Jennifer; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper

2007-09-01

288

Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon  

PubMed Central

Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48), running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92), shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73), ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67). In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45). Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs) is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs. PMID:18423025

Goesch, Julia N; Schwarz, Norbert G; Decker, Marie-Luise; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Borchert, Lea B; Kombila, Ulrich D; Poetschke, Marc; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P

2008-01-01

289

Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisleia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fatima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

2013-01-01

290

State ideology and the status of Iranian war widows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imbedded in widowhood are emotional loss and change in personal life. For women, depending on social constructions of gender relations, widowhood can also lead to identity change, role adjustment and change in social status. Socio-economic and emotional supports rendered by family, community and society at large can highly impact widows in coping with change and making adjustments. These changes and

Ashraf Zahedi

2006-01-01

291

Self-ratings of materialism and status consumption in a Malaysian sample: effects of answering during an assumed recession versus economic growth.  

PubMed

Consumers' self-assessments of materialism and status consumption may be influenced by external economic conditions. In this study, 239 Malaysian students were asked to describe their levels of materialism using Richins and Dawson's 1992 Materialism scale and status consumption using Eastman, Goldsmith, and Flynn's 1999 Status Consumption Scale. Half the students were told to respond assuming that they were in an expanding economy, and half as if the economy was in a recession. Comparison of the groups' mean scores showed no statistically significant differences. PMID:11597068

Jusoh, W J; Heaney, J G; Goldsmith, R E

2001-06-01

292

Ringvorlesung Gender Studies: Gender Economies Gender Cultures  

E-print Network

Ringvorlesung Gender Studies: Gender Economies ­ Gender Cultures www.uni-siegen.de/gender Sabine Lebenskonzepten -Klausur- Bei Fragen und Anregungen können Sie sich gerne bei uns melden: gender@uni-siegen.de Weitere Informationen erhalten Sie auch auf unserer Homepage www.uni-siegen.de/gender ! Wintersemester

Siegen, Universität

293

Gender inequality, family planning, and maternal and child care in a rural Chinese county  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the determinants of prenatal and obstetric care utilization within the context of recent social and economic changes in contemporary rural China. The aim of this study is to test the general hypothesis that gender inequality (women's status and son preference) and the state's family planning policy have a significant influence on maternal and childcare utilization. Both qualitative

Jianghong Li

2004-01-01

294

Gender inequality and the spread of HIV-AIDS in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to analyze the low status of women as being a major contributor for the observed gender inequality in the spread of HIV\\/AIDS in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses data from National Aids Control Organization, National Family Health Survey, and the Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Findings – This study highlights the

Aparna Mitra; Dipanwita Sarkar

2011-01-01

295

Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location  

PubMed Central

Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of???50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season, and patient location. Improved 25(OH)D status was observed later in life, a finding that may reflect the previously described increased use of vitamin D-containing supplements in such populations. Severe vitamin D deficiency is much more common than vitamin D toxicity. PMID:24188187

2013-01-01

296

Time Use Among new mothers, the Economic Value of Unpaid Care work and gender aspects of superannuation tax concessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population aging requires policies addressing ‘population, participation and productivity’. By failing to acknowledge women’s productive work in the unpaid care economy, current retirement income policies may reduce incentives to invest in children, the future labour force, and thereby heighten the economic task of addressing the aging problem. A nationwide time use survey of new mothers conducted during 2005-06 highlights the

Julie Smith

2007-01-01

297

Climate Change, Economic crisis and their implications for a Gendered Livestock Water Productivity, reflections from Ethiopia and Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate Change and the global economic crisis are negatively impacting on the resilience of agriculture and rural development in countries such as Ethiopia and Zimbabwe. Livestock Water Productivity (LWP) is becoming a major area of research which aims at increasing agricultural productivity through the use of less water for both livestock and crops as an adaptation and mitigation strategy to

Everisto Mapedza; Tilahun Amede; Kim Geheb; Don Peden; Katrien Deschemaker; Eline Boelee; Sewmehon Demissie; Esther van Hoeve; Barbara van Koppen

2009-01-01

298

Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2095). Regression models were used to examine the associations between economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain and the outcomes of self-rated health, body mass index, and smoking status. Education, occupation, and income were also investigated as correlates of these outcomes. Low correlations were observed between all measures of socioeconomic status. Economic opportunity was robustly negatively associated with poor self-rated health, higher body mass index, and smoking, followed by financial strain, then subjective social status. Findings show that markers of socioeconomic position beyond education, occupation, and income are related to morbidity among Asian Americans. This suggests that potential contributions of social disadvantage to poor health may be understated if only conventional measures are considered among immigrant and minority populations. PMID:19434494

Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

2009-01-01

299

The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

2008-01-01

300

Inequitable walking conditions among older people: examining the interrelationship of neighbourhood socio-economic status and urban form using a comparative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older

Theresa L Grant; Nancy Edwards; Heidi Sveistrup; Caroline Andrew; Mary Egan

2010-01-01

301

Toward a New Model of Fertility: The Effects of the World Economic System and the Status of Women on Fertility Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relationship exists between high birth rates and the lowered status of women in developing nations, resulting from their country's economic development. Research was based on data from various sources on 34 developed nations and 92 developing nations throughout the world. Variables included income inequality, foreign trade structure and…

Ward, Kathryn B.

302

Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

2011-01-01

303

A Genetically Sensitive Investigation of the Effects of the School Environment and Socio-Economic Status on Academic Achievement in Seven-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is well established that school characteristics (SCH) and socio-economic status (SES) are associated with academic achievement (ACH), these correlations are not necessarily causal. Because academic achievement shows substantial genetic influence, it is useful to embed such investigations in genetically sensitive designs in order to…

Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

2005-01-01

304

Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

2012-01-01

305

Preliminary Assessment of the Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of Water Hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin and the Status of Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents preliminary data collected in an assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin. A summary of the status of control and strategies for the future is given. The report draws on field observations made, studies through interviews of affected communities and organisations, personal communications and published reports by scientists

A. M. Mailu

306

Low economic status is associated with suboptimal intakes of nutritious foods by adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death among older Americans. Many of the chronic health conditions that result in the loss of independence, disability, and reduced quality of life in older adults are preventable through healthful lifestyle including proper nutrition. Household income is a major economic factor that impacts food choices and nutritional status of individuals. The study examines

Shanthy Bowman

2007-01-01

307

The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

2011-01-01

308

So Young and Already Victims of Stereotype Threat: Socio-Economic Status and Performance of 6 to 9 Years Old Children on Raven's Progressive Matrices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to verify whether children from low socio-economic status (SES) are victims of stereotype threat. Children in first grade (6 to 7 years old) and third grade (8 to 9 years old) performed Raven's progressive matrices, an intellectual ability test commonly used by psychologists. The test was presented either with the…

Desert, Michel; Preaux, Marie; Jund, Robin

2009-01-01

309

Tobacco use prevalence - disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product) among the 3 populations of interest. Results “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment”. For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third) of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48%) and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%). Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations. PMID:23967410

Dilley, Julia A.; Peterson, Erin; Bobo, Matthew; Pickle, Kathryn E.; Rohde, Kristen

2013-01-01

310

Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children  

PubMed Central

Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females) in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females). The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA) was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day) in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA) in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. Results In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p < 0.05) when controlling for leg length. Lower SES children, however, had higher body mass and BMI compared to higher SES groups (p < 0.05) and PA no longer remained significant when further controlling for BMI. In study 2 results depended on the methodology used to determine time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only one equation resulted in significant group differences (p = 0.015), and these differences remained after controlling for BMI. Significant differences between SES groups were shown for sedentary behavior in both cohorts (P < 0.05) with higher SES groups spending less time watching TV than low SES groups. Conclusions Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher BMI in these children might be another factor contributing to increased health risks among low SES children compared to children from with a higher SES. PMID:20423487

2010-01-01

311

Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56)) with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60) in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65) in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16) and 1.73 (1.46-2.06). The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64) in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01) in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations with long-term sickness absence and disability pension tended to be stronger in women. PMID:23067045

2012-01-01

312

Type 2 diabetes prevalence varies by socio-economic status within and between migrant groups: analysis and implications for Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic diversity is increasing through migration in many developed countries. Evidence indicates that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence varies by ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES), and that in many settings, migrants experience a disproportionate burden of disease compared with locally-born groups. Given Australia’s multicultural demography, we sought to identify groups at high risk of T2DM in Victoria, Australia. Methods Using population data from the Australian National Census and diabetes data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme, prevalence of T2DM among immigrant groups in Victoria in January 2010 was investigated, and prevalence odds versus Australian-born residents estimated. Distribution of T2DM by SES was also examined. Results Prevalence of diagnosed T2DM in Victoria was 4.1% (n?=?98671) in men and 3.5% (n?=?87608) in women. Of those with T2DM, over 1 in 5 born in Oceania and in Southern and Central Asia were aged under 50 years. For both men and women, odds of T2DM were higher for all migrant groups than the Australian-born reference population, including, after adjusting for age and SES, 6.3 and 7.2 times higher for men and women born in the Pacific Islands, respectively, and 5.2 and 5.0 times higher for men and women born in Southern and Central Asia, respectively. Effects of SES varied by region of birth. Conclusions Large socio-cultural differences exist in the distribution of T2DM. Across all socio-economic strata, all migrant groups have higher prevalence of T2DM than the Australian-born population. With increasing migration, this health gap potentially has implications for health service planning and delivery, policy and preventive efforts in Australia. PMID:23517376

2013-01-01

313

The suppression of appetite and food consumption by methylphenidate: the moderating effects of gender and weight status in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Females typically show greater behavioural responses to stimulant drugs than males, including loss of appetite; as seen, for example, in those who use methylphenidate (MP) therapeutically for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is a relevant issue because of the strong link between ADHD and obesity. In a sample (n=132) of normal-weight (BMI <25) and obese (BMI >30) men and women we assessed appetite, cravings, and snack-food intake in response to MP (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo. Results indicated a significant three-way interaction for the three dependent variables--food-related responding diminishing in all groups from placebo to MP, except in obese males who showed no decreases to the MP challenge. These data show for the first time the existence of gender differences in the appetite response to MP, and are relevant for finding a dopamine pathway to new weight-loss medications, which would be utilized differently in males than in females. PMID:21733284

Davis, Caroline; Fattore, Liana; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter, Jacqueline C; Levitan, Robert D; Kennedy, James L

2012-03-01

314

Impact of socio-economic status on the hospital readmission of Congestive Heart Failure patients: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of multiple indicators of Socio-economic Status (SES) on Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) related readmission. Methods: A prospective study consisting of 315 patients without the history of admission due to CHF was carried out in Tehran during 2010 and 2011. They were classified into quartiles based on their SES applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and followed up for one year. Using stratified Cox regression analysis, Hazard Ratios (HRs) were computed to assess the impact of SES on the readmission due to CHF. Results: During the 12 months follow-up, 122 (40%) were readmitted at least once. HR of lowest SES patients vs. the highest SES patients (the fourth versus first quartile) was 2.66 (95% CI= 1.51–4.66). Variables including abnormal ejection fraction (<40%), poor physical activity, poor drug adherence, and hypertension were also identified as significant independent predictors of readmission. Conclusion: The results showed low SES is a significant contributing factor to increased readmission due to CHF. It seems that the outcome of CHF depends on the SES of patients even after adjusting for some of main intermediate factors. PMID:25337599

Noori, Atefeh; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Naderi, Nasim; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

315

The Experience of Schizophrenia: What's Gender Got To Do With It? A Critical Review of the Current Status of Research on Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of gender in schizophrenia is explored, and literature on gender and schizophrenia is critically reviewed. The importance of investigating gender differences in schizophrenia is underscored by the lack of sufficient research in this area to date and the comparative neglect of sociocultural issues during the \\

Elizabeth H. Nasser; Natalie Walders; Janis H. Jenkins

2002-01-01

316

Effects of age, season, gender and urban-rural status on time-activity: CanadianHuman Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2).  

PubMed

Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010-2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523

Matz, Carlyn J; Stieb, David M; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

2014-02-01

317

Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)  

PubMed Central

Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523

Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

2014-01-01

318

Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

Strand, Steve

2014-01-01

319

Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

2014-01-01

320

Cortical networks for vision and language in dyslexic and normal children of variable socio-economic status.  

PubMed

In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. PMID:22387166

Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

2012-05-15

321

Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile

2014-01-01

322

Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

2012-01-01

323

Effects of learning approaches, locus of control, socio-economic status and self-efficacy on academic achievement: a Turkish perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative grade point average and self-efficacy were shown to be an indicator of academic

Nilgün Suphi; Hüseyin Yaratan

2011-01-01

324

John Henryism, self-reported physical health indicators, and the mediating role of perceived stress among high socio-economic status Asian immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between John Henryism (a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high effort coping with difficult barriers to success) and self-reported physical health among high socio-economic (SES) status Asian immigrants to the USA. Cross-sectional data were collected from a community sample of 318 self-identified Chinese and Indian immigrants aged 18–73, averaging 10.2yr lived in the US.

Jana Haritatos; Ramaswami Mahalingam; Sherman A. James

2007-01-01

325

The effect of economic status on height, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein-3 concentrations in healthy Turkish children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The effect of economic status (ES) on growth, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in healthy children is not well characterized. We aimed to study the interrelationship between height, weight, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, mid-parental height (MPH) and ES.Design\\/subjects:Eight hundred and fourteen healthy children (428 boys, 386 girls; age 3–18 years) were classified according to income of the families as

S Turan; A Bereket; A Furman; A Omar; M Berber; A Ozen; C Akbenlioglu; G Haklar

2007-01-01

326

The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population.  

PubMed

Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194

Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D; Lummaa, Virpi

2014-01-22

327

The economics of awards, status and performance: the John Bates Clark Medal and the Fellowship of the Econometric Society.  

E-print Network

??This thesis investigates whether receiving an important award in academia raises recipients’ subsequent research productivity and status compared to a synthetic control group of non-recipient… (more)

Chan, Ho Fai

2013-01-01

328

An analysis of socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountain Villages in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey, with consideration of gender roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to reveal socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountains’ villages\\u000a in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey: with consideration of gender roles. Goat production sector is the most important\\u000a livelihood activity in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. According to various new regulations of the Ministry of Forestry,\\u000a goat production in the mountainous villages of

Müge K. Davran; Sezen Ocak; Arzu Secer

2009-01-01

329

The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey  

PubMed Central

Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more than for boys and for parental occupation more than family affluence. For future studies it might be important to look at the effects of socio-economic status within the context of other peer, family and school related factors in order to assess to what extent those factors might mediate the effects of social class background. PMID:17132161

Richter, Matthias; Leppin, Anja; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

2006-01-01

330

Geography and gender.  

PubMed

Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs. PMID:12320248

Bondi, L

1989-05-01

331

College student's identity development and its relationship to gender, gender role, and family interaction style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some researchers have proposed a link between family environment and identity status (Grotevant & Cooper, 1981; Sabatelli & Mazor, 1985) and a positive relationship between identity status and future time perspective (Erikson, 1968), few studies have examined the relationships between family cohesion and identity development and between identity status and perception about future. Also, both gender and gender roles

Jeong-Ran Kim

1991-01-01

332

Gender dysphoria  

MedlinePLUS

Gender dysphoria used to be known as gender identity disorder. People with gender dysphoria may act as members of the opposite sex. The condition may affect: Choice of sexual partners Mannerisms, behavior, ...

333

Structural explanations of fertility change: the demographic transition, the economic status of women, and the world system.  

PubMed

The current study departs from existing analyses by examining change in crude birthrates in a large sample of societies spanning all levels of development and by considering the effects of changes in independent variables on unit changes in fertility rates. It tests for the effects of levels and changes in female labor force representation and for effects of levels and changes in variables derived from classic demographic transition theory -- energy consumption per capita and child mortality. Additionally, it considers the possibility that these variables have differing impacts in least-developed (periphery) and developing (semiperiphery) nations than they had in already developed (core) nations. Data on dependent and independent variables were obtained from tables compiled by the World Bank (1980). In the 1st stage of the analysis, associations between coterminous trends in the dependent and independent variables were examined. To measure trends in fertility between 1960-77 the 1960 crude birthrates were sXrtracted from 1977 crude birthrates. Also obtained from the World Tables were child mortality rates (ages 1-4), female labor force representation (females per 100 persons in the labor force), and energy consumption per capita for both 1960 and 1977. Energy consumption per capita was chosen as the indicator of general development. Both 1960 values and changes between 1960 and 1977 were used as independent variables in the analysis. The blocks derived by Snyder and Kick (1979) were used to assign nations to either the core, semiperiphery, or periphery of the world system. It was possible to classify 93 of the original 100 cases, meaning only 7 cases were excluded in the analyses of subgroups. In the 2nd stage of the analysis, associations between fertility change and lagged changes in its proposed determinants were examined. Analysis of coterminous trends allowed for determining if overall trends in the dependent and independent variables were associated. All 3 theories underlying the hypotheses on causes of fertility change -- demographic transition theory, Caldwell's (1978) revision of the latter as it would be reflected in the economic status of women, and world system theory -- received some support, but it is argued that the evidence from the indirect test of Caldwell's theory of fertility decline was mixed, second, that a number of the results converged in their support for demographic transition theory, and third, that the overall pattern of findings failed to correspond well with expectations based on world system's theory. PMID:12340268

Nolan, P D; White, R B

1984-01-01

334

ECEN 5018 Social, Economic, and Engineering Networks Lecture: TR 11:0012:15, ECEE 1B32  

E-print Network

with differences of race, color, culture, religion, creed, politics, veteran's status, sexual orientation, gender, pregnancy, age, disability, creed, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression

Marden, Jason R.

335

Gender Constancy and Sibling Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test effects of family constellation on children's acquisition of sex-role, the sex-role behavior of 175 children between the ages of 3 and one half and 6 years from one-child and two-child families was compared. Included in the design were five categories: only children, and four additional categories based on sex and relative age of siblings…

Katz, Phyllis A.; Rank, Sara Anne

336

Maternal Influences on Daughters' Gender Role Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the gender role attitudes ofgirls. These attitudes included their ideas onmotherhood as well as their ideas on female roles ingeneral. We examined whether the relations betweenmothers' employment status and their level of education,and daughters' gender role attitudes were mediated bymothers' own gender role attitudes and child-rearingstyle. In this study, 165 adolescent girls and their mothers participated. Overall,

Carine T. G. M. Ex Jan; M. A. M. Janssens

1998-01-01

337

Anxiety among High School Students in India: Comparisons across Gender, School Type, Social Strata and Perceptions of Quality Time with Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The broad objective of the study was to understand better anxiety among adolescents in Kolkata city, India. Specifically, the study compared anxiety across gender, school type, socio-economic background and mothers' employment status. The study also examined adolescents' perceptions of quality time with their parents. A group of 460 adolescents…

Deb, Sibnath; Chatterjee, Pooja; Walsh, Kerryann

2010-01-01

338

The Impact of Traditional Gender Role Beliefs and Relationship Status on Depression in Mexican American Women: A Study in Self- Discrepancies  

E-print Network

Limited research has been conducted to examine traditional female Mexican American gender role beliefs and its impact on depression. In order to address the research questions, this dissertation developed two manuscripts. The first manuscript is a...

Perez, Flor

2012-02-14

339

A Survey of the Nutritional Status of School Children : Relation Between Nutrient Intake and Socio-Economic Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey focused on school children 8-11 and 13-15 years in Kent (England) between September 1968 and March 1970. Sex, age, and weight were found independently associated with highly significant differences in nutritional intake. Social class, number of siblings, and mother's work status were not generally associated with significant differences in…

Cook, Judith; And Others

1973-01-01

340

Factors affecting the career progress of academic accountants in Australia: Cross-institutional and gender perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1980s, Australian highereducation has undergone significant reforms andpolicy changes based on economic rationalismand modernisation of management. This paperexamines the outcomes of the reform processesbased on the career attributes, status andperceptions of work environment of academicaccountants in Australian universities.Similarities and differences between academicaccountants are explored fromcross-institutional and gender perspectives.The data provide insight into a number ofsystemic inequalities between

Nava Subramaniam

2003-01-01

341

Gender Differences in Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on gender differences in economic experiments. In the three main sections, we identify robust differences in risk preferences, social (other-regarding) preferences, and competitive preferences. We also speculate on the source of these differences, as well as on their implications. Our hope is that this article will serve as a resource for those seeking to understand

Rachel Croson; Uri Gneezy

2009-01-01

342

Sitting time and cardiometabolic risk in U.S. adults: Associations by sex, race, socio-economic status, and activity level  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background Sitting time is associated with adverse health outcomes including chronic disease and premature mortality. However, it is not known if the association of sitting time with cardiometabolic risk factors varies across socio-demographic or health factors. Methods The sample included 4560 adults (? 20 years) who participated in the cross-sectional 2007–2010 U.S. NHANES. Participants self-reported typical daily sitting time. Weight, height, blood pressure, and fasting triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose, and insulin were measured. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-%B) were calculated. A sub-sample of 3727 participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to obtain 2-h post-load glucose levels. Population-weighted linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between sitting time and each cardiometabolic risk factor, stratified by sex, race, socio-economic status, and activity level. Analyses were controlled for demographics, socio-economic status, survey cycle, personal and family medical history, diet, and physical activity. Results Sitting time was significantly associated with adverse levels of waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides, HDL-C, insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-%B, and 2-h post-load glucose, but not with blood pressure or glucose level. In stratified analyses, sitting time was most consistently related to cardiometabolic risk factors among low and middle socio-economic groups and for those who reported no weekly physical activity, but there were few differences between sex or race groups. Conclusions Self-reported sitting time was associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors consistently across sex and race groups in a representative U.S. sample, independent of other risk factors. Excessive sitting warrants public health concern. PMID:23981954

Staiano, A. E.; Harrington, D. M.; Barreira, T. V.; Katzmarzyk, P. T.

2014-01-01

343

Evaluating the ecological association of casino industry economic development on community health status: a natural experiment in the Mississippi delta region.  

PubMed

Objectives of this study were to examine for associations of casino industry economic development on improving community health status and funding for public health services in two counties in the Mississippi Delta Region of the United States. An ecological approach was used to evaluate whether two counties with casino gaming had improved health status and public health funding in comparison with two noncasino counties in the same region with similar social, racial, and ethic backgrounds. Variables readily available from state health department records were used to develop a logic model for guiding analytical work. A linear regression model was built using a stepwise approach and hierarchical regression principles with many dependent variables and a set of fixed and nonfixed independent variables. County-level data for 23 variables over an 11-year period were used. Overall, this study found a lack of association between the presence of a casino and desirable health outcomes or funding for public health services. Changes in the environment were made to promote health by utilizing gaming revenues to build state-of-the-art community health and wellness centers and sports facilities. However, significant increases in funding for local public health services were not found in either of the counties with casinos. These findings are relevant for policy makers when debating economic development strategies. Analysis similar to this should be combined with other routine public health assessments after implementation of development strategies to increase knowledge of health outcome trends and shifts in socioeconomic position that may be expected to accrue from economic development projects. PMID:17299329

Honoré, Peggy A; Simoes, Eduardo J; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Wang, Xueyuan; Brown, Lovetta

2007-01-01

344

Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

Figart, Deborah M.

345

Risk factors for low birth weight in a socio-economically disadvantaged population: Parity, marital status, ethnicity and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The principal aim of this study was to assess risk factors for LBW in a large multi-ethnic and socio-economically disadvantaged population. Data from 3242 mothers, who attended the Well Baby Clinic (Southwestern Sydney, Australia) for the first time, were analysed

H. Phung; A. Bauman; T. V. Nguyen; L. Young; M. Tran; K. Hillman

2003-01-01

346

Socio-Economic Status, Cultural Diversity and the Aspirations of Secondary Students in the Western Suburbs of Melbourne, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a recent survey of Australian secondary students, we find that those from higher socio-economic backgrounds are more likely to aspire to attend university. The same can be said for students who do not speak English at home. We find that students with an ethnic minority background are more likely to perceive higher levels of support…

Bowden, Mark P.; Doughney, James

2010-01-01

347

Rapid Industrial Development, Competition, and Relative Economic Status: A Study in Human Ecology. Working Paper RID 73.10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document has 3 goals (1) to examine the distribution of economic benefits of industrial development as reflected by the concept of competition in human ecology; (2) to provide an empirical test of the ecological model, and (3) to relate the findings to public policy. Two Illinois study areas were identified. First, as an experimental region,…

Summers, Gene F.; Clemente, Frank

348

The Possible Effects of Nutritional Status and Growth of Children on the Economic Potential of West Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meeting nutritional needs of children in West Virginia is vital to the state's economic development. A malnourished, uneducable population will be unemployable in a high tech society and the state cannot afford custodial and welfare costs resulting from childhood malnutrition. Evidence of nutritional need in West Virginia includes low rate of…

Garland, Barbara K.

349

Quite Good News--For Now: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2001-02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual report shows that economically it would seem that faculty members have much about which to be happy. The academic year 2001-2002 was the fifth consecutive year in which the value of the average faculty salary rose, and the one in which academics saw the largest single-year jump in their real (inflation-adjusted) salaries since the…

Hamermesh, Daniel S.

350

Examining contextual settings to explain gender differences in cigarette and alcohol use among Asian immigrants : work, hospitality venues, and household settings  

E-print Network

and drinking status of participant by nationality and gender,and drinking status of participant by nationality and gender,Drinking level Never Light Moderate Heavy Values in cells represent percentages within gender and

Irvin, Veronica Lea

2011-01-01

351

Marital status and colon cancer outcomes in US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries: Does marriage affect cancer survival by gender  

E-print Network

Marital status and colon cancer outcomes in US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results often perform. It is of interest to explore the relationship between marital status and colon cancer, since colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the US for both men and women, and marriage

Martinez, Tony R.

352

Doing Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to advance a new understanding of gender as a routine accomplishment embedded in everyday interaction. To do so entails a critical assessment of existing perspectives on sex and gender and the introduction of important distinctions among sex, sex category, and gender. We argue that recognition of the analytical independence of these concepts is essential

CANDACE WEST; DON H. ZIMMERMAN

1987-01-01

353

Legislative History for revised regulations on non-discrimination (adding "gender identity/ expression")  

E-print Network

Legislative History for revised regulations on non-discrimination (adding "gender identity amendment of six University Policies, as listed below, adding the phrase "gender identity/ expression orientation, gender identity/ expression, age, or status as a handicapped individual, disabled veteran

Provancher, William

354

Socio-economic determinants of helmet-wearing behaviour in Pune city, India.  

PubMed

This study was an attempt to investigate the socio-economic determinants of helmet wearing in an urban setting of India. A household survey using multistage cluster random sampling was conducted among 9014 individuals in Pune city from March 2008 to February 2009. Among 2259 individuals who reported driving two-wheeled vehicles, 1509 (66.8%) reported possession of a helmet, and among those who had reported possession of a helmet, only 700 (46.0%) reported regular use of helmets. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that residence, type of family, gender and socio-economic status were significantly associated with possession of helmet, and gender, residence and family type were significantly associated with regular helmet use while possessing one. In conclusion, this study showed that helmet-wearing behaviour is mostly influenced by the neighbourhood environment and norms and family and peer influence on behaviour rather than education and economic status. PMID:24107090

Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kar, Anita

2014-12-01

355

Gender hierarchies in the health labor force.  

PubMed

Rapid growth and increasing diversity characterize trends of the U.S. health labor force in recent decades. While these trends have promoted change on many different fronts of the health system, hierarchical organization of the health work force remains intact. Workers continue to be stratified by class and race. Superimposed on both strata is a structure that segregates jobs by gender, between and within health occupations. While female health workers outnumber males by three to one, they remain clustered in jobs and occupations lower in pay, less prestigious, and less autonomous than those of their male counterparts. What has prevented women from improving their economic and leadership status as health workers? Is work performed by men of higher prestige because men perform it? Would curative and technical fields have less status if dominated by women? Would health promotion be funded more generously if most health educators were men? In this article, two analytical constructs are presented to take a closer look at occupational categories, selected structural characteristics, differential rewards, and their relationship to gender segregation. Taken together, they demonstrate how women always cluster at the bottom and men at the top, no matter which dimension is chosen. PMID:3557769

Butter, I H; Carpenter, E S; Kay, B J; Simmons, R S

1987-01-01

356

Unequal Access, Unequal Participation: Some Spatial and Socio-Economic Dimensions of the Gender Gap in Education in Africa with Special Reference to Ghana, Zimbabwe and Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of unequal access to education among males and females appears to be universal in the developing world. However, females in Africa seem to suffer more discrimination in terms of access to education. This study revisits the question of gender disparities in educational access in Africa by analyzing data from recent comparative national…

Shabaya, Judith; Konadu-Agyemang, Kwadwo

2004-01-01

357

A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children’s OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents’ age, and parents’ oral health literacy) on children’s OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project’s Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children’s Perception Questionnaire11-14 were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers’ age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children’s OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed. PMID:24650192

2014-01-01

358

A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The influence of early adult social roles and socio-economic status.  

PubMed

This study examined black-white differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban US subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether black-white differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that shift, if any, was associated with racial differences in the rate and mental health consequences of early adult social roles (e.g., living arrangements, work/college status, and single-parenthood) and socio-economic status (SES). As expected, growth in depressive affect pivoted around the onset of early adulthood, with the trajectory pivoting upward for Black Americans and downward for White Americans. Due to deficits in SES, the relation between challenging early adult social roles - under/unemployment in particular - and growth in depressive affect was more positive for Black Americans. This differential "vulnerability" appears to underlie racial differences in early adult growth (and by connection contribute to racial differences in growth pivot). The extent to which Black Americans were at a greater risk (relative to White Americans) for an upward pivot increased as the number of challenging roles increased. Black Americans facing only optimal early adult social roles were not at a greater risk, while those facing only challenging social roles were at the greatest risk. PMID:22282639

Jager, Justin

2011-09-01

359

[Health-related quality of life of overweight and obese adolescents: what differences can be seen by socio-economic status and education?].  

PubMed

In the present study the relation between overweight/obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescence is analysed. Of special interest is the question, to what extent this relation varies by socio-economic status (SES) and education. Data base is a subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, n = 6,813, 11-17 years). For the assessment of overweight and obesity, body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on standardised body height and weight measurements. The HRQoL was collected using the KINDL-R-questionnaire, which allows statements concerning a total rating as well as 6 dimensions: physical well-being, emotional well-being, self-worth, family well-being, well-being in relation to friends/peers and school well-being. SES and education are analysed as moderating factors. The results show that obese boys as well as overweight and obese girls have a diminished HRQoL compared to normal weight peers. The analyses according to SES and education suggest that in girls this finding applies for all considered subgroups. Thus, in girls neither SES nor education has a moderating impact on the relation between overweight/obesity and HRQoL. In boys, only SES has a moderating impact on the relation between overweight and HRQoL in favour of the low status group. In terms of the relation between obesity and HRQoL, in boys also only SES has a moderating impact on the analysed relation, but here in favour of the high status group. Altogether, the results show that overweight and especially obese adolescents are affected in their HRQoL, this being almost independent of SES and education. Interventions to improve the HRQoL of overweight and obese adolescents should be independent of SES and education. PMID:24658674

Krause, L; Ellert, U; Kroll, L E; Lampert, T

2014-04-01

360

GENDER EQUALITY Incorporated  

E-print Network

, gender roles, gender construction Gender mythsGENDER EQUALITY Incorporated 5 DAY GENDER TRAINING WITH CERTIFICATION April 26-30, 2010 - Toronto. #12;simplifying IT 5 DAY GENDER TRAINING WITH CERTIFICATION GOAL This 5 day course is designed

Barthelat, Francois

361

Inequalities in health care among patients with type 2 diabetes by individual socio-economic status (SES) and regional deprivation: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Quality of care could be influenced by individual socio-economic status (SES) and by residential area deprivation. The objective is to synthesize the current evidence regarding inequalities in health care for patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Methods The systematic review focuses on inequalities concerning process (e.g. measurement of HbA1c, i.e. glycolised haemoglobin) and intermediate outcome indicators (e.g. HbA1c level) of Type 2 diabetes care. In total, of n?=?886 publications screened, n?=?21 met the inclusion criteria. Results A wide variety of definitions for ‘good quality diabetes care’, regional deprivation and individual SES was observed. Despite differences in research approaches, there is a trend towards worse health care for patients with low SES, concerning both process of care and intermediate outcome indicators. Patients living in deprived areas less often achieve glycaemic control targets, tend to have higher blood pressure (BP) and worse lipid profile control. Conclusion The available evidence clearly points to the fact that socio-economic inequalities in diabetes care do exist. Low individual SES and residential area deprivation are often associated with worse process indicators and worse intermediate outcomes, resulting in higher risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications. These inequalities exist across different health care systems. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24889694

2014-01-01

362

Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position. PMID:23145945

2012-01-01

363

Demographic and socio-economic factors affecting the physical development, haemoglobin and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren in Sanliurfa province, Turkey.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional population-based survey was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status and parasitic infections of schoolchildren and demographic, socio-economic factors in Sanliurfa province, southern Turkey. Nine hundred and eight schoolchildren took part in the survey: 57.2% boys and 42.7% girls. The children's mean z scores were as follows: height for age-0.8 (+/-1.0) and weight for age-1.0 (+/-0.9). The mean haemoglobin concentration was 123 g/l (+/-2.1) and the prevalence of parasitic infections was 55.1%. In total, 50.2% of children were hungry when they arrived at school and 13.4% worked after school. Over 70% (70.4%) of mothers and 18.1% of fathers were illiterate, 16.1% of fathers were unemployed and 46.3% of fathers were engaged in low-income labour. The mean number of children in each family was 5.4 (+/-2.5), and the mean number of children from each family who attended school was 2.1 (+/-1.1). The school-attendance ratio was 0.4 (+/-1.0). Data indicated that older children had significantly lower mean z scores of height (P < 0.0001) and weight for age (P < 0.0001) than younger children, and boys had significantly lower mean z scores of height for age than girls (P < 0.0001). Children living in shantytown areas had significantly lower mean z scores of height for age (P < 0.0001) and weight for age (P < 0.0001), lower mean haemoglobin concentrations (P : 0.003)and a worse parasitic infection status (P < 0.0001) than those living in apartment areas. Children who were hungry when they arrived at school had significantly lower mean haemoglobin concentrations than those who had eaten (P : 0.04). Multiple regression analyses indicated that mean z scores of height for age were significantly related to maternal (multiple R = 0.183; P < 0.0001) and paternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.216; P : 0.004). Mean z scores of weight for age were significantly related to maternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.154; P < 0.0001), as was parasitic infection status (multiple R = 0.261; P < 0.0001 ) and the number of children in the family (multiple R = 0.267; P : 0.005). Hunger status was significantly related to maternal (multiple R = 0.095; P : 0.016) and paternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.104; P : 0.005), as was belonging to a large family (multiple R = 0.104; p: 0.009). These findings indicate that school health programmes may improve the nutritional and health status of schoolchildren. The participation of the local community, which such a programme would entail, may help to increase maternal awareness regarding the feeding of their children before sending them to school. School health programmes may also motivate parents to send their daughters to school, thus increasing maternal literacy in the future. In turn, better levels of maternal literacy will positively affect the socio-economic development of society. PMID:15037047

Ulukanligil, M; Seyrek, A

2004-03-01

364

Changing gender roles and health impacts among female workers in export-processing industries in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles. PMID:15047086

Attanapola, Chamila T

2004-06-01

365

Fosphenytoin for the treatment of status epilepticus: an evidence-based assessment of its clinical and economic outcomes  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening condition requiring prompt treatment in the emergency department to control seizures and limit potential neurologic damage. Fosphenytoin is a water-soluble prodrug of phenytoin (an established treatment option for SE) that has been developed to overcome the often severe venous adverse events that can occur following the intravenous administration of phenytoin. Aims: The objective of this article is to review the evidence for the use of fosphenytoin in the treatment of SE. Evidence review: Fosphenytoin can be infused more rapidly than phenytoin and there is evidence that therapeutic drug levels are achieved at least at a similar rate. Although few studies have been conducted in SE patients, there is evidence that fosphenytoin is at least as effective as phenytoin in terms of response and control of SE. There is also moderate evidence that there are fewer vascular adverse events following intravenous fosphenytoin compared with phenytoin administration when both drugs are infused at the recommended dosage and rate. Evidence from pharmacoeconomic studies indicates that a reduction in the incidence of adverse events and their subsequent management are critical factors for cost-effectiveness with fosphenytoin. Clinical value: In conclusion, fosphenytoin is a valuable treatment option for the rapid treatment of SE; the risk of venous adverse events is lower than with phenytoin when administered at the recommended rate. PMID:22496677

Thomson, Andrew

2005-01-01

366

Individual difference and social status predictors of anti-Semitism and racism US and Czech findings with the prejudice\\/tolerance and right wing authoritarianism scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of individual difference and social status variables to outgroup bias was studied in the Czech Republic and the US Gough's prejudice\\/tolerance (Pr\\/To) and Altemeyer's right wing authoritarianism (RWA) scales were employed with social status variables of gender, age, economic level, and ethnicity in predicting anti-Semitism and racial bias. One hundred and eighty-eight Czech and 281 US participants were

Edward Dunbar; Lucie Simonova

2003-01-01

367

School-enrollment rates and trends, gender, and fertility: a cross-national analysis.  

PubMed

The analysis of the association between educational status and fertility decline is performed 1) by examining the rates of enrollment in primary and secondary schools by gender and 2) by assessing the effects of the change/spread in rates of enrollment between 1965 and 1986. 59 countries were involved in the cross-sectional analysis. Variables included the logged crude birth rate, total enrollment rates, enrollment rates by gender, male-female ratios, the growth rate for each educational measure by world system status (core, peripheral, and semiperipheral countries), control variables (economic growth, family planning, multinational corporate penetration, women's labor force participation, child mortality rate, social insurance programs), and enrollment changes. The evidence reflects a strong association between levels of enrollment of girls in primary and secondary school and gender inequality and fertility declines. Caldwell's theory of the flows of wealth and the spread of education effect was found to have little support. High levels of female enrollment and low levels of gender inequality in access to schooling are associated with fertility declines. Caldwell's theory is that this indicates a decline in patriarchy, change in women's familial roles and a shift to a more egalitarian family structure. Increases in female education mean higher status and more power for women. PMID:12286116

London, B

1992-10-01

368

Gender Advertisements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

Goffman, Erving

369

Gender Fictions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…

Lee, Lesley

1992-01-01

370

Gender Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

2008-01-01

371

Gender Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As children grow up they form a general sense of self and the ability to relate to others and play a part in society. In this process they also develop beliefs about the roles and expectations that are associated with each sex group (gender roles) and a self-identity as a member of one sex group or the other (gender identity).

Jean Stockard

372

When love hurts: assessing the intersectionality of ethnicity, socio-economic status, parental connectedness, child abuse, and gender attitudes in juvenile violent delinquency.  

PubMed

Researchers have not yet reached agreement about the validity of several competing explanations that seek to explain ethnic differences in juvenile violent offending. Ethnicity cannot solely explain why boys with an ethnic minority background commit more (violent) crimes. By assessing the intersectionality of structural, cultural and individual considerations, both the independent effects as well as the interplay between different factors can be examined. This study shows that aforementioned factors cumulatively play a role in severe violent offending, with parental connectedness and child abuse having the strongest associations. However, since most variables interact and ethnicity is associated with those specific factors, a conclusion to be drawn is that ethnicity may be relevant as an additional variable predicting severe violent offending although indirectly. PMID:23932431

Lahlah, Esmah; Lens, Kim M E; Bogaerts, Stefan; van der Knaap, Leontien M

2013-11-01

373

Operationalizing. Gender.  

PubMed

Funded by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the Institute for Social Studies and Action (ISSA) joined forces in 1994 with the Malaysian-based International Council on Management of Population Programs (ICOMP) to develop and implement a pilot project designed to heighten the extent to which frontline health workers and basic health services are sensitive about gender. A government rural health unit and a nongovernmental organization (NGO) clinic providing family planning program services integrated into primary health care were chosen to pilot gender-sensitive services. Although the target health workers strongly resisted any outside interference in their operations, and some were uncomfortable discussing gender issues, the NGO-government (NGO-GO) effort successfully increased gender sensitivity, with a higher level of gender sensitivity still being maintained even 1 year after the project's official end. This partnership was chosen by the Southern Luzon Commission of Population in 1996 as a successful example of NGO-GO collaboration. PMID:12294069

Alvarez, R O

1998-01-01

374

Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Methods Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. Results The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900). The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8?%, 29/56) paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9?%, 5/56). The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200) per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8?% (43/56) victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9?% (29/56) patients. Moreover, only 21.4?% (12/56) patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4?% (26/56) and 28.6?% (16/56) felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2?=?16.916, P?=?0.028). Conclusions The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a close relationship with the injury severity. Formal legislation was urgently needed to compel the employer to purchase injury or medical insurance and provide more compulsory protection to the population working in high risk occupations. In addition, psychological counseling and instruction shouldn’t be neglected in the aid and treatment of victims. PMID:22672729

2012-01-01

375

Childbearing dynamics of couples in a universalistic welfare state: the role of labor-market status, country of origin, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide a study of childbearing dynamics by the labor-market status of co-residing one- and two-child parents in Sweden. We apply event-history techniques to longitudinal register data on life histories of foreign-born mothers from ten different countries and the partners to these women as well as a sample of Swedish-born mothers and their partners. Our context is

Gunnar Andersson; Kirk Scott

2007-01-01

376

Media Internalization and Social Comparison as Predictors of Eating Pathology Among Latino Adolescents: The Moderating Effect of Gender and Generational Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sociocultural framework, this cross-sectional study examined eating pathology among 235 Latino adolescents from the\\u000a Southwestern U.S. who differed in generational status. Participants completed self-report measures of media pressures, internalization,\\u000a social comparison, and eating pathology. Overall, results revealed stronger relationships between these sociocultural variables\\u000a and eating pathology for girls. Girls reported greater social comparison, thin-ideal pressure and internalization, and

Cortney S. Warren; Andrea Schoen; Kerri J. Schafer

2010-01-01

377

Promoting Gender Equity in Academic STEMM1  

E-print Network

in academic settings ­ Drive change ­ Maintain status quo #12;· Motivation ­ person has to want to change Motivation to respond without prejudice1 Adult learning3,4 #12;Gaps in research landscape in academic genderPromoting Gender Equity in Academic STEMM1: An Institutional Change Approach Molly Carnes, MD, MS

Sheridan, Jennifer

378

Gender pairing and bargaining—Beware the same sex!  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the influence of gender and gender pairing on economic decision making in an experimental two-person bargaining game\\u000a where the other party’s gender is known to both actors. We find that (1) gender per se has no significant effect on behavior, whereas (2) gender pairing systematically affects behavior. In particular, we observe much more competition and retaliation and, thus,

Matthias Sutter; Ronald Bosman; Martin G. Kocher; Frans van Winden

2009-01-01

379

Social Support and the Quality of Parenting Under Economic Pressure and Workload in Finland: The Role of Family Structure and Parental Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on how factors outside the home affect the quality of mothering and fathering. Economic pressure and workload were evaluated along with the compensating role of social support on parenting. Information was gathered from 842 mothers and 573 fathers including 139 single-mother and 21 single-father families. The results showed that the nature of the strains, together with parental

Jenni A. Leinonen; Tytti S. Solantaus; Raija-Leena Punamäki

2003-01-01

380

Carework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. Methods A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha) who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. Results Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. Conclusions Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity. PMID:21549020

2011-01-01

381

Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder are associated with lower socio-economic status: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort  

PubMed Central

Aim Only a few studies have examined the relationship between Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder and socio-economic status (SES). Existing studies are primarily cross-sectional, arise from specialty clinics, and use single measures of SES. In this study we examine this relationship in a longitudinal, population-based sample. Method Data are from 7152 children born during 1991 and 1992 in the county of Avon, UK, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, who were followed up to age 13. After exclusions for intellectual disability* and autism, 6768 participants (3351 males [49.5%]) and 3417 females [50.5%]) remained. Parental SES was assessed using multiple measures during pregnancy and at 33?months of age. Presence of Tourette syndrome or chronic tics was determined from repeated maternal questionnaires up to when the child was 13?years of age. Results Multiple SES measures were associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of Tourette syndrome and chronic tics. A postnatal composite factor score (lowest vs highest tertile odds ratio 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.38–3.47) provided the best fit to the data. Interpretations As is seen in several childhood conditions, such as cerebral palsy and autism, lower SES is a risk factor for Tourette syndrome/chronic tics. Potential explanations include differential exposure to environmental risk factors or parental psychopathology as a measure of an increased genetic risk leading to decreased parental SES. PMID:24138188

Miller, Laura L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2014-01-01

382

Gender Bias in the Courts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term gender bias was coined by the National Judicial Education Program to Promote Equality for Women and Men in the Courts and is defined as the predisposition or tendency to think about and behave toward people primarily on the basis of their sex rather than their status, professional accomplishments, or aspirations. An effective method for…

Gill, Wanda E.

383

Gender Differences in Retirement Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a sample of retired men and women from the Social Security Administration's Master Beneficiary Record to test theoretical explanations for gender differences in retirement income. We found that although human capital\\/status attainment, dual economy, and labor-market segmentation theories helped to explain differences in retirement income between men and women, these factors did not totally eliminate the influence

Stanley DeViney; Jennifer Crew Solomon

1996-01-01

384

Impact of gender and professional education on attitudes towards financial incentives for organ donation: results of a survey among 755 students of medicine and economics in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Methods Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n?=?755). Results The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p?=?0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p?economics (p?=?0.034). Conclusion Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward. PMID:24996438

2014-01-01

385

Gender Identity  

MedlinePLUS

... identity is more about "who you are" (boy, girl, or even possibly both types of feelings) and sexual orientation is about "who you have a crush on". What does "transgender" mean? Transgender people are people whose gender identity (feeling ...

386

Perceived Gender Based Stereotypes in Educational Technology Advertisements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…

Bolliger, Doris U.

2008-01-01

387

Gender Ideologies as Complex Social Forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To say that gendered social relations are complex would be to profoundly understate the dynamism of the human experience.\\u000a The ways in which individuals understand their roles as gendered beings and their relationships to other gendered beings is\\u000a constantly pushed and pulled by forces both internal and external to the individual and the family\\/social\\/economic unit to\\u000a which they belong at

Deborah Rotman

388

Gender Modifies the Effects of Education and Income on Sleep Quality of the Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: This study aimed to investigate the interaction between gender and other socio-economic characteristics on sleep quality of the patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 717 patients with CAD. The socio- economic status (education level, income, marital status, and place of residence) was considered as the independent variable. Besides, the study outcome was the quality of sleep which was measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Gender was considered as a possible effect modifier. Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the interaction between gender and socio-economic factors on sleep quality. As defined by Baron and Kenny, moderator was defined as a variable that affected the direction or magnitude of the association of interest. Results: Female gender, low education level, and low income were predictive of poor sleep quality. Among female (10.0 ± 4.3 vs. 7.6 ± 5.0, P < 0.05), but not male patients (6.7 ± 4.2 vs. 7.0 ± 4.2, P > 0.05), low education was associated with poor sleep quality. Also, among female (10.0 ± 4.3 vs. 5.7 ± 2.5, P < 0.05), but not male patients (7.0 ± 4.2 vs. 6.0 ± 3.8, P > 0.05), low income was predictive of poor sleep quality. Gender did not modify the effect of other socio-economic factors on sleep quality. Conclusions: Among female but not male patients with CAD, low education and income were associated with poor sleep quality. This information helps us better understand the mechanisms behind the poor sleep quality of the female patients with CAD. This is important because poor sleep is a prognostic factor among the CAD patients. PMID:24757639

Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Kazemi Saleh, Davoud; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

2013-01-01

389

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender

Hawa S Mbawalla; Joyce R Masalu; Anne N Åstrøm

2010-01-01

390

Gender-related violence: its scope and relevance.  

PubMed

Policy issues for gender-related violence are reviewed with attention directed to personal violence, violence within the household, public violence, development policies and programs that abuses women, barriers to sustainable development from violence against women, violence against women as women's rights issue, and women in war and other crises. Gender violence touches all social classes and types of people in almost every country of the world. Violence against women causes human suffering, impediments to personal development, and a reduction in the contributions women can make to the lives of others. The issues is complex and reaches the highest international level in the debates about sustainable development, good government, and quality of life. Strategies must be directed to equalizing the well being and status of men and women in all sectors, and to reducing women's political and economic vulnerability. Women must have their social status raised, and their ability to gain control over their own lives must be strengthened. Recommendations for bilateral development cooperation policy included promoting the Draft Declaration on Violence Against Women, making certain that gender violence is on all human rights agendas, and promoting the adoption of gender-related violence and persecution as grounds for asylum in refugee conventions. Governments need assistance as part of bilateral aid in coping with issues of rape and domestic violence by training professionals in police and social services, and by providing safe havens. Governments must be influenced to formulate population policies and to provide family planning respectful of women's reproductive rights. Development projects should be continually monitored for gender violence violations, and research must be directed to assessing the gender impact of relief and rehabilitation projects. Women's centers and groups need support and resources for building self-help, training, networking, and building databases and circulating information. Gender violence includes any of the following acts: rape, marital rape, domestic violence, child abuse, female infanticide, denial of health care or nutrition to girls, sexual and emotional harassment, genital mutilation, prostitution, pornography, population control, war and state violence, exploitation of refugees, political violence, and reduction in state services which increases the stress and workload for women. PMID:12345210

El-bushra, J; Piza Lopez, E

1993-06-01

391

Gender Issues in Family Medicine Research  

PubMed Central

Gender is a significant determinant of health, yet the choice of topic for research, as well as the methodology, analysis, and interpretation, are often insensitive to the biologic, psychologic, social, economic, and cultural differences between men and women. Family medicine researchers could study a broad range of gender-related topics; such research could lead to improved family medicine. PMID:21229035

Cohen, May

1991-01-01

392

Underemployment in a gender segregated labour market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses factors behind underemployment in Norway and has a focus on gender. The analysis, based on Labour Force Survey data, shows that economic fluctuations during the latest one and a half decade bring about changing underemployment levels of both women and men. The Norwegian labour market is strongly gender segregated and the processes and characteristics of underemployment differ

2010-01-01

393

Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

Jackson, Linda A.

1989-01-01

394

GENDER EQUALITY FROM A GENDER BUDGETING PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion

Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

2012-01-01

395

gender institute gender in global perspective  

E-print Network

and femininities, intersections across differences, gender as a symbolic or narrative structure, as wellgender institute gender in global perspective #12;gender in global perspective 1 But what is GENDER? Gender can mean men and women, and the relationship between them. But it is also about masculinity

Stevenson, Paul

396

Childhood socio-economic status and the onset, persistence, and severity of DSM-IV mental disorders in a US national sample  

PubMed Central

Although significant associations between childhood socio-economic status (SES) and adult mental disorders have been widely documented, SES has been defined using several different indicators often considered alone. Little research has examined the relative importance of these different indicators in accounting for the overall associations of childhood SES with adult outcomes. Nor has previous research distinguished associations of childhood SES with first onsets of mental disorders in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood from those with persistence of these disorders into adulthood in accounting for the overall associations between childhood SES and adult mental disorders. Disaggregated data of this sort are presented here for the associations of childhood SES with a wide range of adult DSM-IV mental disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative sample of 5,692 adults. Childhood SES was assessed retrospectively with information about parental education and occupation and childhood family financial adversity. Associations of these indicators with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disorders that included anxiety, mood, behavioral, and substance disorders at different life course stages (childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and mid-later adulthood) and the persistence/severity of these disorders were examined using discrete-time survival analysis. Lifetime disorders and their ages-of-onset were assessed retrospectively with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Different aspects of childhood SES predicted onset, persistence, and severity of mental disorders. Childhood financial hardship predicted onset of all classes of disorders at every life-course stage with odds-ratios (ORs) of 1.7–2.3. Childhood financial hardship was unrelated, in comparison, to disorder persistence or severity. Low parental education, although unrelated to disorder onset, significantly predicted disorder persistence and severity, whereas parental occupation was unrelated to onset, persistence, or severity. Some, but not all, of these associations were explained by other co-occurring childhood adversities. These specifications have important implications for mental health interventions targeting low-SES children. PMID:21820781

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Breslau, Joshua; Green, Jennifer Greif; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2011-01-01

397

Socio-economic status and oesophageal cancer: results from a population-based case-control study in a high-risk area  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer registries in the 1970s showed that parts of Golestan Province in Iran had the highest rate of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the world. More recent studies have shown that while rates are still high, they are approximately half of what they were before, which might be attributable to improved socio-economic status (SES) and living conditions in this area. We examined a wide range of SES indicators to investigate the association between different SES components and risk of OSCC in the region. Methods Data were obtained from a population-based case–control study conducted between 2003 and 2007 with 300 histologically proven OSCC cases and 571 matched neighbourhood controls. We used conditional logistic regression to compare cases and controls for individual SES indicators, for a composite wealth score constructed using multiple correspondence analysis, and for factors obtained from factors analysis. Results We found that various dimensions of SES, such as education, wealth and being married were all inversely related to OSCC. The strongest inverse association was found with education. Compared with no education, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for primary education and high school or beyond were 0.52 (0.27–0.98) and 0.20 (0.06–0.65), respectively. Conclusions The strong association of SES with OSCC after adjustment for known risk factors implies the presence of yet unidentified risk factors that are correlated with our SES measures; identification of these factors could be the target of future studies. Our results also emphasize the importance of using multiple SES measures in epidemiological studies. PMID:19416955

Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Semnani, Shahryar; Sepehr, Alireza; Wakefield, Jon; M?ller, Henrik; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

2009-01-01

398

Childhood socio-economic status and the onset, persistence, and severity of DSM-IV mental disorders in a US national sample.  

PubMed

Although significant associations between childhood socio-economic status (SES) and adult mental disorders have been widely documented, SES has been defined using several different indicators often considered alone. Little research has examined the relative importance of these different indicators in accounting for the overall associations of childhood SES with adult outcomes. Nor has previous research distinguished associations of childhood SES with first onsets of mental disorders in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood from those with persistence of these disorders into adulthood in accounting for the overall associations between childhood SES and adult mental disorders. Disaggregated data of this sort are presented here for the associations of childhood SES with a wide range of adult DSM-IV mental disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally-representative sample of 5692 adults. Childhood SES was assessed retrospectively with information about parental education and occupation and childhood family financial adversity. Associations of these indicators with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disorders that included anxiety, mood, behavioral, and substance disorders at different life-course stages (childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and mid-later adulthood) and the persistence/severity of these disorders were examined using discrete-time survival analysis. Lifetime disorders and their ages-of-onset were assessed retrospectively with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Different aspects of childhood SES predicted onset, persistence, and severity of mental disorders. Childhood financial hardship predicted onset of all classes of disorders at every life-course stage with odds-ratios (ORs) of 1.7-2.3. Childhood financial hardship was unrelated, in comparison, to disorder persistence or severity. Low parental education, although unrelated to disorder onset, significantly predicted disorder persistence and severity, whereas parental occupation was unrelated to onset, persistence, or severity. Some, but not all, of these associations were explained by other co-occurring childhood adversities. These specifications have important implications for mental health interventions targeting low-SES children. PMID:21820781

McLaughlin, Katie A; Breslau, Joshua; Green, Jennifer Greif; Lakoma, Matthew D; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

2011-10-01

399

Gender Differences in Spelling Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, gender differences in spelling achievement were investigated for young adults (ages 17 to 21). Performances of males and females on standardized and written spelling tests were compared. All of the 40 students (20 males and 20 females) are from a low-economic, inner city, vocational program. The students were also given a…

Rios, Daisy M.

400

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

401

Gender, Tax Policies and Tax Reform in Comparative Perspective  

E-print Network

1 Gender, Tax Policies and Tax Reform in Comparative Perspective Fran Bennett Department of Social;2 Gender, Tax Policies and Tax Reform in Comparative Perspective Paper presented at The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College 17-18 May 2006 Gender Issues in Tax Reform ­ the example of the UK 1. Introduction

de Gispert, Adrià

402

Gender Role Identity and Stress in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Womanism is a feminist perspective that has recently been appropriated for social work practice with African American women (Littlefleld, in press). It emphasizes the centrality of gender role in African American women's psychosocial adaptation, and asserts that the archetypal gender role for this group incorporates both nurturing and economic providing functions. This gender role fluidity has been characterized both as

Melissa B. Littlefield

2004-01-01

403

Gender, ethnicity, health behaviour & self-rated health in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated health and the factors that influence it have never been described in Singapore before. This paper presents a descriptive study of self-rated health in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6236 persons. Methods As part of the National Health Surveillance Survey 2001, 6236 subjects aged 18 years and above were interviewed in the homes of participants by trained interviewers. The subjects were asked "In general, how would you rate your health today?", and given 5 possible responses. These were then categorized as "Good" (very good and good) and "Poor" (moderate, bad and very bad) self-rated health. The association of socio-economic and health behaviour risk factors with good self-rated health was studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Univariate analyses suggest that gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, age, self-reported doctor-diagnosed illnesses, alcohol intake, exercise and BMI are all associated with poor self-rated health. In multivariate regression analyses, gender, ethnicity, household income, age, self-reported illness and current smoking and BMI were associated with poor self-rated health. There are gender differences in the association of various factors such as household income, smoking and BMI to self-rated health. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors and health behaviours are significantly associated with self-rated health, and gender differences are striking. We discuss why these factors may impact self-rated health and why gender differences may have been observed, propose directions for further research and comment on the public policy implications of our findings. PMID:17655774

Lim, Wei-Yen; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Bhalla, Vineta; Chew, Suok Kai

2007-01-01

404

Influences of socioeconomic factors on childhood and adolescent overweight by gender in Korea: cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative sample  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood and adolescent overweight is a recognized public health concern as the prevalence is already high and continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and overweight status by gender among Korean children and adolescents. Methods The data used in this study were taken from the 2009 Korean Survey on the Obesity of Youth and Children. Underweight individuals (n?=?1,010) and children and adolescents whose age, height, or weight information was missing (n?=?591) were excluded from the data set, resulting in a total of 8,555 subjects who were included in this analysis. Subjective SES, parental education level, parental occupational status, and family structure were used to measure parental SES. Chi-squared tests were used for univariable analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted for multivariable analysis. Results After adjusting for subject’s characteristics including gender, age, parental interest in weight management of children, parental body shape, economic status variables that significantly influenced childhood overweight were identified. Low economic status increased the probability of childhood overweight (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.5). Conclusions There is an inverse association between parental SES variables and the overweight status of children and adolescents. Additionally, parental body shape is an important factor that influences childhood and adolescent overweight. PMID:24708879

2014-01-01

405

Gender intensification of peer socialization during puberty.  

PubMed

Gender differences are a provocative subject with good reason: they are implicated as contributors to important societal problems. Gender differences in math achievement contribute to limited career options for women (Center for Early Adolescence, 1984; Stipp, 1992), which may in turn affect their economic self-sufficiency. Gender differences in social norms about competition and closeness contribute to power and communication problems in female-male relationships, with consequences for family stability and domestic violence (Leaper, 1994). Understanding the origins of gender differences, therefore, has important societal implications. PMID:15707160

Pettitt, Lisa M

2004-01-01

406

Gender Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

407

Gender Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do females and males choose science for different reasons? The authors surveyed 271 college students in the gender-neutral field of biology to learn when they became interested and what factors determined their origin and maintenance of interest in biolog

Juhl, Angela L.; Wiens, Darrell J.; Depping, Dayna J.; Van Laar, Emily S.; Wallerich, Stacey R.

2003-09-01

408

Food Security Status of Older Adult Home-Delivered Meals Program Participants and Components of Its Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security status was assessed for 143 West Central Indiana community-dwelling older adults participating in a home-delivered meals program, using the national CPS-FSSM survey, based on economics, and augmented items, including such factors as ability to prepare and\\/or shop for food. Results showed that 74.8% were food secure, much lower than the national rate for households with elderly (94.0%). Gender

Lynn Duerr

2007-01-01

409

Gender differences in factors related to diabetes management in chinese american immigrants.  

PubMed

Chinese American women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are more vulnerable to poor diabetes outcomes than men because immigrant status, ethnicity, and economics intersect with gender to diminish disease management opportunities. We explored gender differences in factors associated with diabetes management at intake and after treatment with a behavioral intervention in first-generation Chinese American immigrants. A sample of 178 Chinese Americans with T2DM was enrolled in a single-cohort, repeated-measures delayed-treatment trial. Data were collected at baseline, 8, 16, 24, and 32 weeks with 6-week treatment provided after 16 weeks. Gender differences at baseline and gender by treatment interactions were noted. Women at baseline reported significantly worse depressive symptoms and general health. Significant gender by treatment interactions were observed for diabetes self-efficacy, bicultural efficacy, family instrumental support, and diabetes quality of life-satisfaction. Only women showed improvement, suggesting women benefited more from the intervention in psychosocial factors related to diabetes management. PMID:24558055

Chesla, Catherine A; Kwan, Christine M L; Chun, Kevin M; Stryker, Lisa

2014-10-01

410

An analysis of socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountain Villages in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey, with consideration of gender roles.  

PubMed

This paper aims to reveal socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountains' villages in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey: with consideration of gender roles. Goat production sector is the most important livelihood activity in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. According to various new regulations of the Ministry of Forestry, goat production in the mountainous villages of Taurus Mountains has been banned for recent year for various reasons such as; the destruction of shoots and branches in trees, forest degradation and erosion. Therefore, goat production is decreasing dramatically in that region. Data were collected in 4 districts of 8 villages in which goat production has been done intensively (two villages in each district) by face to face interview with 52 women and 58 men. Data were analyzed in Statistical Program of Social Science (SPSS). According to our findings, goat production has different affects on the lives of men and women and the sustainability of the sector is dependent on social factors, primarily education. PMID:19107568

Davran, Müge K; Ocak, Sezen; Secer, Arzu

2009-10-01

411

Assessment of vitamin D status in healthy children and adolescents living in Tehran and its relation to iPTH, gender, weight and height.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the frequency of vitamin D deficiency and its correlation with different factors. Three hundred and thirteen healthy children and adolescents (192 females and 121 males aged 8-18 years, mean +/- SD, 12.7 +/- 2.3 years) were enrolled, and measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (using EIA) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (using immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)) were conducted. The grades of vitamin D status were defined according to blood level of 25(OH)D as follows: severely deficient < 12.5; deficient, > or = 12.5 and < 25; insufficient, > or = 25 and < 50; normal > or = 50 and < 250 nmol/L. Severe deficiency was detected in 25% of subjects (males 8%; females 92%), deficiency in 27% (males 34%; females 66%) and insufficiency in 26% (males 58%; females 42%). The mean 25(OH)D level in males was significantly greater than that in females (p < 0.001), and this level was significantly higher in prepubertal compared to pubertal subjects (p < 0.001). 25(OH)D had a negative correlation with iPTH (p < 0.001). The curve of iPTH began to rise when 25(OH)D reached 75 nmol/L. The level of 25(OH)D had a negative correlation with BMI-SDS and height-SDS in females (p-value, 0.01 and 0.039, respectively). The subjects did not have any signs or symptoms of rickets. Frequency of vitamin D deficiency did not have any significant seasonal variation. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency was not found to be related to the type or location of the subjects' homes. In this study, subclinical vitamin D deficiency was significantly more prevalent in females, particularly those undergoing puberty. Children who were obese and taller than average, had lower levels of 25(OH)D, and level of 25(OH)D should be maintained > 75 nmol/L in order to prevent PTH rising. PMID:20166840

Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Shakiba, Marjan

2010-01-01

412

Low Self-Esteem During Adolescence Predicts Poor Health, Criminal Behavior, and Limited Economic Prospects During Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term consequences of self-esteem could not be explained by adolescent depression, gender, or socioeconomic status.

Kali H. Trzesniewski; M. Brent Donnellan; Terrie E. Moffitt; Richard W. Robins; Richie Poulton; Avshalom Caspi

2006-01-01

413

Fishing for status  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ignored but significant group in the local economy, female vendors of the traditional Kharvi fishing community in Goa, India have, in many ways, benefited from recent fisheries development. Their success in the markets has reinforced more egalitarian gender relations within fishing households, as well as affecting their class mobility and caste status in Goan society. Rather than being “victims”

Janet Ahner Rubinoff

1999-01-01

414

CASE FOR GENDER EQUALITY IN THE UK LABOUR MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper intends to explore a feminist economics perspective on business case arguments for gender equality in the UK labour market, where there are significant inequalities between men and women. Policy discourse on gender equality has moved from one which emphasises 'equal opportunities' and notions of fairness and equal treatment to one which focuses on increasing economic efficiency in the

EMILY THOMSON

415

Gender, Culture, and Corruption: Insights from an Experimental Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of recent research looks at differences in the behavior of men and women in diverse economic transactions. We contribute to this literature by investigating gender differences in behavior when confronted with a common bribery problem. Our study departs from the previous literature on gender and corruption by using economic experiments. Based on data collected in Australia (Melbourne),

Vivi Alatas; Lisa Cameron; Ananish Chaudhuri; Nisvan Erkal; Lata Gangadharan

2009-01-01

416

The expanding role of township women: a community investigation on the political and economic participation and educational status of the female population of Jinghai Town.  

PubMed

A sample survey of women in Jianghai Town near Tianjin in Jinghai County along China's northern coastal area was conducted in 1991. The study aim was to provide descriptive characteristics of women's marriage and reproduction, and political, economic, and educational participation. In 1990 female population was 21,600, or 43.5% of total town population. 80% of the town area was nonagricultural. Study materials included town records, interviews with government personnel and professional employees, and interviews with 150 women. 2365 female students and 2263 male students and 99 school administrators and teachers were interviewed. Results indicated that few changes in the proportion of government jobs occurred between 1982 and 1990, but women's acquisition of People's Congress positions increased dramatically. Communist Party platforms required female representation. 38.83% of the 25,786 employed population and 63.43% of total population were female in 1990. Between 1982 and 1990 female employment declined by 14%. 90% of teachers were women professionals. Other professional occupations were primarily male dominated. 32.45% of state owned enterprises (415) employed women, who were mainly in lower assistant positions. 46.7% of women of all ages and 7.7% of men were waiting for jobs; women had lower educational attainment. Although gaps existed between men and women educationally, 3.15% of women and 5.36% of men had college degrees. 6.16% of women and 1.7% of men were illiterate. School entrance rates in 1981 for those aged 13-18 years were 48% for females and 77% for males. By 1990 the high school entrance rate was 87% for females and 93.7% for males. A comparison of drop out rates showed that both sexes dropped out for family reasons. The recommendations were for improvement in women's social and family status, promotion of female education in a variety of ways in order to close the gap, improvement in the employment of women, and encouragement of women's participation in community activities. PMID:12288177

Tan, L; Wang, Y; He, Y; Shen, S; Li, H

1994-01-01

417

Inequitable walking conditions among older people: examining the interrelationship of neighbourhood socio-economic status and urban form using a comparative case study  

PubMed Central

Background Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older people who walk in their neighbourhoods; b) to examine differences among neighbourhood stakeholder key informant perspectives on socio-political processes that shape the walkability of neighbourhood environments. Methods An embedded comparative case study examined differences among four Ottawa neighbourhoods that were purposefully selected to provide contrasts on urban form (inner-urban versus suburban) and SES (higher versus lower). Qualitative data collected from 75 older walkers and 19 neighbourhood key informants, as well as quantitative indicators were compared on the two axes of urban form and SES among the four neighbourhoods. Results and discussion Examining the inter-relationship of neighbourhood SES and urban form characteristics on older people's walking experiences indicated that urban form differences were accentuated positively in higher SES neighbourhoods and negatively in lower SES neighbourhoods. Older people in lower SES neighbourhoods were more affected by traffic hazards and more reliant on public transit compared to their higher SES counterparts. In higher SES neighbourhoods the disadvantages of traffic in the inner-urban neighbourhood and lack of commercial destinations in the suburban neighbourhood were partially offset by other factors including neighbourhood aesthetics. Key informant descriptions of the socio-political process highlighted how lower SES neighbourhoods may face greater challenges in creating walkable places. These differences pertained to the size of neighbourhood associations, relationships with political representatives, accessing information and salient neighbourhood association issues. Findings provide evidence of inequitable walking environments. Conclusion Future research on walking must consider urban form-SES inter-relationships and further examine the equitable distribution of walking conditions as well as the socio-political processes driving these conditions. There is a need for municipal governments to monitor differences in walking conditions among higher and lower SES neighbourhoods, to be receptive to the needs of lower SES neighbourhood and to ensure that policy decisions are taken to address inequitable walking conditions. PMID:21054879

2010-01-01

418

Socio-economic status and problem alcohol use: the positive relationship between income and the DSM-IV alcohol abuse diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Aims Epidemiological evidence indicates a positive relationship between income and the prevalence of alcohol abuse in the general population, but an inverse relationship between income and alcohol dependence. Among those with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse, the most prevalent criterion is hazardous use, which commonly requires sufficient resources to own or access a car. The present study investigated whether the association between income and the prevalence of current alcohol abuse is accounted for by the hazardous use criterion; specifically, the drinking and driving symptoms of the hazardous use criterion. Design Face-to-face survey conducted in the 2001–02 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview 4th edition (AUDADIS-IV). Setting The United States and District of Columbia, including Alaska and Hawaii. Participants Household and group-quarters residents aged >18 years. Life-time dependence cases were excluded (n = 4781). Measurements Income was defined as past-year personal income. Outcomes were specific alcohol abuse criteria and symptom questions. Logistic regressions were performed controlling for demographics. The relationship between alcohol abuse severity indicators and income was modeled using polytomous regression. Findings Among the alcohol abuse criteria, hazardous use is the most prevalent and the only criterion to have a significant positive relationship with income (F = 20.3, df = 3, P < 0.0001). Among the hazardous use symptoms, driving after drinking (F = 13.0, df = 3, P < 0.0001) and driving while drinking (F = 9.2, df = 3, P < 0.0001) were related positively to income. Conclusions Because hazardous use is the most commonly endorsed criterion of alcohol abuse, the link with income raises questions about whether the current alcohol abuse diagnosis can capture the full range of alcohol abusers in every socio-economic class. While many psychiatric disorders exhibit an inverse relationship with socioeconomic status, a selection bias may cause the alcohol abuse diagnosis to have an artificially positive relationship with income due to the necessity for access to a vehicle to be diagnosed. PMID:18494841

Keyes, Katherine M.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2013-01-01

419

Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

2006-01-01

420

Prof. Stephan Klasen, Ph.D. Department of Economics  

E-print Network

countries. After providing an overview of the gender differences in various aspects of welfare and economic differences across the developing world: an overview -aspects of gender inequality -regional differences UN (2000): The World's Women database 2. Measuring gender differences -gender-disaggregated vs

Krivobokova, Tatyana

421

Health and the 2008 Economic Recession: Evidence from the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Introduction The economic recession which began in 2008 has resulted in a substantial increase in unemployment across many countries, including the United Kingdom. Strong association between unemployment and poor health status among individuals is widely recognised. We investigated whether the prevalence of poor health at a population level increased concurrent to the rise in unemployment during the economic recession, and whether the impact on health varied by geographical and socioeconomic circumstances. Method Health, demographic and socioeconomic measures on 1.36 million survey responses aged 16–64 were extracted from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey of the United Kingdom, collected every three months, from January 2006 to December 2010. The likelihood of self-reporting poor health status and specific types of health problems (depression, mental illness, cardiovascular and respiratory) across time were estimated separately using logistic regression. Explanatory variables included economic status (International Labour Organization definition), occupational class, age, gender, country of birth, ethnicity, educational qualifications, couple status, household tenure, number of dependents, and geographical region. Results Unemployment (age-gender adjusted) rose from 4.5% in January 2008 to 7.1% by September 2009. The reporting of poor health status increased from 25.7% in July 2009 to 29.5% by December 2010. Similar increases were found for cardiovascular and respiratory health problems; not depression or mental illness. The prevalence of poor health status among the unemployed decreased from 28.8% in July 2008, to 24.9% by March 2009; but this was followed by an increase in poor health experienced across all regions and by all socioeconomic groups, including those who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class. Interpretation Although our study found no exacerbation of pre-recession health inequalities, the rise in poor health status not only for the unemployed, but also among people who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class, justifies concern voiced among many public health commentators. PMID:23437208

Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi

2013-01-01

422

Gender Studien 1. Studieneinheit Gender Studien  

E-print Network

Gender Studien 1. Studieneinheit Gender Studien 2. Fachgebiet / Verantwortlich Medizin / Prof. Dr, M.A.) 3. Inhalte / Lehrziele �berblick über Theorie und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der Gender verpflichtend. Magisterstudiengang: Pflicht im Grundstudium ist das Basismodul Gender Studies. Bis zum Ende des

Schubart, Christoph

423

Diversity: Opportunity or Threat for Gender Equality Policy in the UK?  

E-print Network

Diversity: Opportunity or Threat for Gender Equality Policy in the UK? Dalia Ben-Galim, Mary London School of Economics #12;2 Diversity: Opportunity or Threat for Gender Equality Policy in the UK of gender have suggested that diversity may offer a new approach to gender equality, by celebrating

de Gispert, Adrià

424

Economic Empowerment of Women and Utilization of Maternal Delivery Care in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Objective: Maternal mortality is a major public health problem in low-income countries, such as Bangladesh. Women's empowerment in relation to enhanced utilization of delivery care is underexplored. This study investigates the associations between women's economic empowerment and their utilization of maternal health care services in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 4925 women (15–49 years of age) with at least one child from whole Bangladesh constituted the study sample. Home delivery without skilled birth attendant and use of institutional delivery services were the main outcome variables used for the analyses. Economic empowerment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, household economic status, and demographic factors were considered as explanatory variables. The chi square test and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were applied at the collected data. Results: In the adjusted model, respondent's and husband's education, household economic status, and residency emerged as important predictors for utilization of delivery care services. In the unadjusted model, economically empowered working and microfinanced women displayed more home delivery. Conclusion: The current study shows that use of delivery care services is associated with socioeconomic development and can be enhanced by societies that focus on general issues such as schooling, economic wellbeing, and gender-based discrimination. PMID:23024852

Dalal, Koustuv; Shabnam, Jahan; Andrews-Chavez, Johanna; Martensson, Lena B.; Timpka, Toomas

2012-01-01

425

Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies (Updated)  

E-print Network

gender identity discrimination in the workplace, a number ofWorkplace Policies Introduction This study evaluates the economic impact of corporate non-discriminationWORKPLACE POLICIES | OCTOBER 2011 Findings Statements on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Non-Discrimination

Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

2011-01-01

426

Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies  

E-print Network

gender identity discrimination in the workplace, a number ofWorkplace Policies Introduction This study evaluates the economic impact of corporate non-discriminationWORKPLACE POLICIES | OCTOBER 2011 Findings Statements on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Non-Discrimination

Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy; Hunter, Nan

2011-01-01

427

Prefrontal cortex volumes in adolescents with alcohol use disorders: Unique gender effects  

E-print Network

et al. , 2005). This gender by drinking status interactiongender may moderate the impact of adolescent alcohol use on prefrontal neurodevelopment, and the neurodevelopmental trajectories of heavy drinking

Medina, Krista Lisdahl; McQueeny, Timothy; Nagel, Bonnie J; Hanson, Karen L; Schweinsburg, Alecia D; Tapert, Susan F

2008-01-01

428

Gender earnings and poverty reduction: post-Communist Uzbekistan.  

PubMed

Women get less of the material resources, social status, power and opportunities for self-actualization than men do who share their social location – be it a location based on class, race, occupation, ethnicity, religion, education, nationality, or any intersection of these factors. The process of feminization of poverty in Central Asia and Uzbekistan is intimately connected to the cultural and institutional limitations that put a ceiling on women’s involvement in economic activity. This article attempts to study and explore gender in the context of poverty reduction in Uzbekistan, the most populated state of Central Asia, to understand the ways and manner in which poverty and other forms of deprivation demand women’s participation in variety of contexts. The study is primarily an empirical one and is based on an extensive sociological investigation in the field. PMID:22213880

Bhat, Bilal Ahmad Bhat

2011-01-01

429

(In press, 2013). In J. Holmes, M. Meyerhoff, & S. Ehrlich (Eds.), Handbook of Language and Gender, 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.  

E-print Network

that gender is invisible or irrelevant in CMC, or that CMC equalizes gender-based power and status-based interaction has been claimed to lead to greater gender equality, with women, as the socially, politically counter to the claim that gender is invisible or irrelevant in CMC, or that CMC equalizes gender

Herring, Susan

430

Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict. PMID:22308059

Marks, Jaime; Bun, Lam Chun; McHale, Susan M.

2012-01-01

431

Economic perspectives of entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Entrepreneurship plays an important role in economic processes but its study has been marginalised through the dominance of\\u000a neoclassical economics, which has all but assumed the entrepreneur out of existence. This theoretical neglect is extraordinary\\u000a given that the real world has elevated the entrepreneur to almost celebrity status and examples abound of how entrepreneurs\\u000a have acted as catalysts of economic

John M Luiz

432

Gender inequities in health: an exploratory qualitative study of Saudi women's perceptions.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore Saudi Arabian women's perceptions of how gendered social structures affect their health by understanding their perceptions of these influences on their health relative to those on men's health. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth individual interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 66 married women in Riyadh, the capital city. Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation, including consideration of socio-economic status, age, educational level, health status and the use of healthcare. The majority of women perceived their health to be worse than men's and attributed this to their childbearing, domestic and care-giving roles, restrictions on their mobility, poverty and psychological stress related to their responsibilities for children, and marital conflict. A minority of participants felt that men's health was worse than women's and related this to their gendered roles as "breadwinners," greater mobility and masculine norms and identities. Gender equity should be a health policy priority to improve women's health. PMID:24093453

Alyaemni, Asmaa; Theobald, Sally; Faragher, Brian; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

2013-01-01

433

Gender Differences in Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere,

Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

2000-01-01

434

Putting Children First: Coordinating Early Childhood Care and Education. Report of the Child Care Task Force Commission on the Economic Status of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report first outlines the status of early childhood care and education in Minnesota, including the effects of an inadequate child care system on families and society. Issues of quality, cost, and availability of care are then addressed and are the basis of the recommendations for a coordinated child care system. Recommendation 1…

Mears, Cathy

435

The Influence of Socio-Economic Status, Entry Style and Instructional Variables on the Learning of Mathematics in a Neo-Literate Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated was the influence of socioeconomic status, entry style, and instructional variables on postsecondary mathematics performance of students in New Guinea. The pattern of results indicated that the performance of students could be more meaningfully grouped based on entry style rather than on mode of instruction. (Author/CW)

Kaeley, Gurcharn S.

1990-01-01

436

How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?  

PubMed

The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942

O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

2013-10-01

437

Gender Labeling, Gender Stereotyping, and Parenting Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are gender labeling and gender stereotyping in 24-, 30-, and 36-month-old children related to each other and to mothers' sex-role attitudes and responses to sex-typed behavior in a free-play situation with their children? The gender stereotyping measure indicated that gender schemata include information that is metaphorically rather than literally associated with each sex. Children who understood labels for boys and

Beverly I. Fagot; Mary D. Leinbach; Cherie OBoyle

1992-01-01

438

Gender, Gender Role, and Body Image.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the importance of gender and gender role in understanding self-perceptions of body image. Male and female college students (N=166) who differed in gender role as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, a new measure of body image containing 140 items which fit a 3 x 3 matrix that…

Jackson, Linda A.; And Others

439

Psychological Individualism: Gender Differences or Gender Neutrality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this article was to examine research findings pertaining to whether the genders express psychological individualism comparably. Gender comparisons of scores on four constructs deemed to reflect psychological individualism (personal identity, self-actualization, internal locus of control, and principled moral reasoning) provide no basis for concluding gender differences exist. The relationships of these variables to measures of effective

Sally L. Archer; Alan S. Waterman

1988-01-01

440

The gender of space 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review of studies on space and on gender in general anthropology, sociology, architecture and other related social science fields allows us to distinguish four different types of approaches. Studies on gender, space, on gender and space (including gendered space), and the gender of space. Unlike genderized space, where biologically determined gender is a factor, gender of space is

2003-01-01

441

Predictors of Sociometric Status for Low Socioeconomic Status Elementary Mainstreamed Students with and without Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to compare the sociometric status of low socioeconomic status elementary school students with and without special needs and investigate the effects of different variables (gender, age, physical appearance, social skills, behavior problems, and academic competence) on students' sociometric status. Elementary…

Baydik, Berrin; Bakkaloglu, Hatice

2009-01-01

442

The Collaborative for Gender Equity: The Economy and Employment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Collaborative for Gender Equity includes a number of links to articles on the economy, employment and gender equity in the STEM disciplines. Articles cover topics including the pay gap, barriers for women's success in science and engineering and the status of the United States' technical workforce. Dates of publication are included.

2012-10-03

443

Grey Literature on Women and Gender in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the activities of the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation (NIR) in Botswana regarding the collection and dissemination of grey literature on women and gender issues. Defines grey literature (GL). Presents the status of women in Botswana. Describes efforts and mechanisms by government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to address women’s issues. Describes the NIR, its Gender Research Programme

Shadrack B. Rathapo

1998-01-01

444

Gender and Geography: Sex Differences in Spatial Pattern Preferences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated possible differences in seating preferences due to gender. Found, among other results, that males and females preferred different seating patterns when interacting with males in a task-oriented setting. Discusses results in terms of communication functions: defining intimacy, creating gender roles, and allocating status within…

Cline, Rebecca J.

1984-01-01

445

Relationships with waitresses: Gendered social distance in restaurant hierarchies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of gendered social distance mechanisms by higher status male coworkers and employers as they participate with waitresses in ongoing restaurant activities. Formal and informal gendered interactional techniques, such as degrading uniforms and terms of address, skewed ideas about skill differences, and sexual harassment, are used by men as they attempt to gain or sustain power

Eleanor LaPointe

1992-01-01

446

The Current Status of Women Laura McCu!ough  

E-print Network

Arbor Michigan #12;Overview Current status of women in physics Gender gaps in the physics classroom to do? How do women interact with physics classes? #12;Gender gap in the physics classroom How do women levels; 8% gap for full professors ·APS News, July 2009. Vol. 18 No. 7 ·Gender Equity: Strengthening

Wu, Mingshen

447

The Social and Economic Status of the Black Population in the United States 1974. Current Population Reports, Special Studies, Series P-23, No. 54.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This population report presents current census and other governmental and private agency statistics on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the black population in the United States for 1974. Recent trends dating from 1970 to 1974 (and in the case of income and labor force, including early 1975 figures) are examined for…

McKenney, Nampeo D.R.; And Others

448

Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism: Digging Deeper for the Contributions of Language Dominance, Linguistic Knowledge, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for executive function tasks in children of varying levels of language dominance, and examines the contributions of general cognitive knowledge, linguistic abilities, language use and socio-economic level to performance. Welsh-English bilingual and English monolingual…

Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Thomas, Enlli Mon; Jones, Leah; Guasch, Nestor Vinas; Young, Nia; Hughes, Emma K.

2010-01-01

449

Indicators of gender equality for American states and regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indicators described in this paper are measures of status equality (as compared to measures of status attainment). Status equality was operationalized by expressing the status attainment scores for women as a percentage of the scores for men. Indicators of equality in the economic, political, and legal spheres of life were computed for each of the 50 U.S. states. The

David B. Sugarman; Murray A. Straus

1988-01-01

450

Beyond gender identity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary theorising on the category of gender within educational

Mary Lou Rasmussen

2009-01-01

451

The Embryology of Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 50 years after the appearance of the term “gender” in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The term “embryology of gender” draws

Juan Carlos Jorge

2010-01-01

452

Contemporary Tribal Codes and Gender Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the legal codes of eight Coast Salish tribes. Focuses on gender issues, including the legal statuses of males and females, inheritance, access to tribal jobs and job training, political enfranchisement, child welfare and parental responsibilities, parent rights, and public safety. The codes vary substantially in how they balance…

Miller, Bruce G.

1994-01-01

453

Gender and the Development of Welfare Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the idea that any further development of the concept of 'welfare regime' must incorporate the relationship between unpaid as well as paid work and welfare. Consideration of the privateldomestic is crucial to a gendered understanding of welfare because historically women have typically gained entitlements by virtue of their dependent status within the family as wives and

Jane. Lewis

1992-01-01

454

Branding and Bricolage. Gender, Consumption and Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis presented here focuses on the relationship between femininity, transition and consumer culture. It explores the relationship between gender and consumer culture in the context of a discussion of the transition from childhood to teenage status for a group of young girls, and seeks to make a critical contribution to contemporary debates…

Russell, Rachel; Tyler, Melissa

2005-01-01

455

Blaming the Target of Sexual Harassment: Impact of Gender Role, Sexist Attitudes, and Work Role  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine factors associated with blaming the target of sexual harassment. Participants' experiences of sexual harassment, sexist attitudes, gender, gender role identity, age, worker or student status, and belief in a just world were included as independent variables. Level of blame was evaluated using a series of 12 vignettes that manipulated the gender of the target

Margaret De Judicibus; Marita P. McCabe

2001-01-01

456

Policy on Gender Neutral Housing Policy on Gender-Neutral  

E-print Network

Policy on Gender Neutral Housing 10/01/2013 Policy on Gender-Neutral Housing I. Purpose and Scope Gender-neutral housing gives students the option to reside with another student, regardless of sex, gender, gender identity or gender expression. II. Definitions Gender-neutral housing is defined

Sridhar, Srinivas

457

The Effectiveness of Single-Gender Eighth-Grade English, History, Mathematics and Science Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of eighth-grade single-gender classes with coed classes across subject area, gender, at-risk status, and socioeconomic status (SES). The sample was drawn from one school, DeSoto West Junior High School, where enrollment averages 80% African American,…

Roth, Douglas Jeffrey

2009-01-01

458

Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.  

PubMed

In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

Baumle, Amanda K

2014-01-01

459

Psychosocial characteristics of applicants evaluated for surgical gender reassignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social, sexual, economic, familial, and psychological characteristics of 764 applicants for surgical gender reassignment, 479 males and 285 females, who completed the application questionnaire and were subsequently interviewed by the Gender Dysphoria Program in Palo Alto, California, are examined. All information except diagnosis was obtained from the applicants' responses to a standardized 100-item questionnaire. Diagnosis was determined by a psychiatrist

Jean M. Dixen; Heather Maddever; Judy Van Maasdam; Patrick W. Edwards

1984-01-01

460

Underemployment in a gender-segregated labour market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses factors behind underemployment in Norway, with a focus on gender. The analysis, based on Labour Force Survey data, shows that economic fluctuations during the latest decade and a half have brought about changing underemployment levels among both women and men. The Norwegian labour market is strongly gender segregated and the processes and characteristics of underemployment differ between

Randi Kjeldstad; Erik H Nymoen

2012-01-01

461

Chapter 48 Race and gender in the labor market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter summarizes recent research in economics that investigates differentials by race and gender in the labor market. We start with a statistical overview of the trends in labor market outcomes by race, gender and Hispanic origin, including some simple regressions on the determinants of wages and employment. This is followed in Section 3 by an extended review of current

Joseph G. Altonji; Rebecca M. Blank

1999-01-01

462

Gender Relations as Causal in Militarization and War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on empirical research among women's antiwar organizations worldwide, the article derives a feminist oppositional standpoint on militarization and war. From this standpoint, patriarchal gender relations are seen to be intersectional with economic and ethno-national power relations in perpetuating a tendency to armed conflict in human societies. The feminism generated in antiwar activism tends to be holistic, and understands gender

Cynthia Cockburn

2010-01-01

463

Strategies to End Gender Based Violence: The USAID approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

F. Catherine Johnson affirms that gender-based violence undermines development efforts in such sectors as economic growth, HIV\\/AIDS, and child survival. Gender violence is an enormous cost to society. Johnson advocates for a comprehensive, multifaceted model to address the problem, including legal interventions, health approaches, public awareness and political will, illustrating this model with the interventions of USAID. Development (2001) 44,

F Catherine Johnson

2001-01-01

464

Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-com- municable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illus- trates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to

Carol Vlassoff

2007-01-01

465

Does migration function to reduce earnings differentials by race and gender?  

PubMed

"This study investigates the role of migration in the determination of earnings differentials by race and gender. Microdata from the United Status Census are used to estimate earnings functions by race, gender, and migration status. Strong evidence is provided suggesting that unexplained portions of earnings differentials, reflectng wage discrimination and other unobserved heterogeneity, are substantially reduced for both race and gender through the process of interstate migration." PMID:12283491

Krieg, R G

1990-01-01