Sample records for economic status gender

  1. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  2. Youth proxy efficacy for fruit and vegetable availability varies by gender and socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Karly S; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2010-01-01

    Objective The current study examined proxy efficacy, which was defined as youth’s confidence to influence their parents to provide fruits and vegetables. The overall objective was to examine change in middle-school youth’s proxy efficacy over time, and to determine if changes were moderated by gender and socio-economic status. Design Longitudinal cohort nested within schools. Setting Eight middle schools located in urban, suburban and rural areas of a mid-western US state. Subjects Seven hundred and twelve youth followed across their 6th, 7th and 8th grade years. The sample was 51·8% female, 30·5% low socio-economic status and 89·5% Caucasian, non-Hispanic. Results Males and lower socio-economic status youth were significantly lower in proxy efficacy at each assessment year compared with females and high socio-economic youth, respectively. Conclusions Proxy efficacy to influence parents to provide fruits and vegetables may be an important construct to target in future interventions. PMID:20074398

  3. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  4. The Effects of Social Economic Status, Social Support, Gender, Ethnicity and Grade Point Average on Depression among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndoh, Sunday; Scales, Josie

    Previous research has indicated that depression, the most common psychological disorder experienced by over 19 million Americans, can be related to such factors as ethnicity, social support, social economic status, academic achievement and gender. One hundred and sixty students from Johnson C. Smith University and Tennessee State University were…

  5. The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…

  6. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  7. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  8. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  9. Associations between Students' Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality, Academic Achievement, and Classroom Behavior: Are They Moderated by Ethnicity, Gender, or Socio Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Khushwinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the correlations between students' perceptions of their relationships with teachers, students' academic achievement and students' classroom behavior. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate if students' ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status moderate the…

  10. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  11. The Contribution of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and Socio-Cultural Influence to Turkish Students' Task Value Beliefs in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…

  12. Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: a cross-national study of less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J B; Boehmer, U

    1997-07-01

    A number of studies have attempted to account for cross-national differences in life expectancy, but relatively few have focused on female life expectancy, and even fewer on the relevance of predictors linked to gender stratification theory. The present study seeks to assess the utility of gender stratification theory in accounting for cross-national differences in female life expectancy in less developed countries. An incremental model building strategy is used to develop a final model that combines predictors linked to both industrialism theory and gender stratification theory. The analysis is based on multiple regression and cross-sectional samples that vary in size from 40 to 97 countries. Evidence is presented that several aspects of women's status have a positive effect on female life expectancy. Indicators of women's educational status, women's economic status, and women's reproductive autonomy all prove to be important predictors of female life expectancy. Analysis of interaction effects suggests that the strength of the effects of some aspects of women's economic status and the effect of some aspects of health status on female life expectancy vary with the level of economic development. A comprehensive assessment of the relative strength of alternative measures of women's education is carried out, and evidence is presented that it does make a difference how the level of women's education is measured. PMID:9225417

  13. Gender, marital status and sleep problems in Britain.

    PubMed

    Arber, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, with women consistently reporting greater sleep problems than men, yet scant sociological research has examined gender differences in sleep quality. This paper analyses (i) gender differences in sleep problems, and (ii) how marital status differences in sleep problems differ among women and men. In both cases, the relative contributions of socio-economic status (SES), smoking, worries, health and depression in explaining these gender and marital status differences are analysed. Logistic regression is used to analyse the British Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2000, which interviewed 8578 men and women aged 16 to 74. Women reported significantly more sleep problems than men, as did the divorced and widowed compared with married respondents. Gender differences in sleep problems were halved following adjustment for socio-economic characteristics, suggesting that SES inequalities play a major part in accounting for gender differences. This study casts doubt on the primacy of physiological explanations underlying gender differences in sleep. Marital status differences in sleep are greater among men than women, with previously partnered men reporting particularly poor quality sleep. However, this is largely explained by the more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances of the previously partnered, especially for men. The paper concludes that gender and marital status differences are partly due to the lower socio-economic status of women and of the previously partnered. PMID:22768414

  14. The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

  15. Noblesse Oblige? Social Status and Economic Inequality Maintenance among Politicians

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats – measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender – was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526

  16. Gender, family status and physician labour supply.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Sweetman, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    With the increasing participation of women in the physician workforce, it is important to understand the sources of differences between male and female physicians' market labour supply for developing effective human resource policies in the health care sector. Gendered associations between family status and physician labour supply are explored in the Canadian labour market, where physicians are paid according to a common fee schedule and have substantial discretion in setting their hours of work. Canadian 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006 twenty percent census files with 22,407 physician observations are used for the analysis. Although both male and female physicians have statistically indistinguishable hours of market work when never married and without children, married male physicians have higher market hours, and their hours are unchanged or increased with parenthood. In contrast, female physicians have lower market hours when married, and much lower hours when a parent. Little change over time in these patterns is observed for males, but for females two offsetting trends are observed: the magnitude of the marriage-hours effect declined, whereas that for motherhood increased. Preferences and/or social norms induce substantially different labour market outcomes. In terms of work at home, the presence of children is associated with higher hours for male physicians, but for females the hours increase is at least twice as large. A male physician's spouse is much less likely to be employed, and if employed, has lower market hours in the presence of children. In contrast, a female physician's spouse is more likely to be employed if there are three or more children. Both male and female physicians have lower hours of work when married to another physician. Overall, there is no gender difference in physician market labour supply after controlling for family status and demographics. PMID:23931941

  17. Attributions of responsibility in father-daughter incest in relation to gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity, and experiential differences in participants.

    PubMed

    Staley, J M; Lapidus, L B

    1997-06-01

    One hundred and fifty-seven state college undergraduates (84 females and 73 males) answered the Jackson Incest Blame Scale [JIBS] modified to include mother-blaming after reading one of four vignettes about father-daughter incest in high or low SES White or Black families. Responses about incest prevalence (created for this study) in families with different ethnic and SES backgrounds varied with gender and SES of participants. Gender differences include blame of offender, situation, victim, and mother on the modified JIBS. Parents blamed the offender more than non-parents. Participants who knew an incest survivor disagreed significantly more with victim-blaming statements than those who did not know a survivor of incest. PMID:9169387

  18. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M A Beydoun; Y Wang

    2008-01-01

    Background:Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown.Objectives:We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP) and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of

  19. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  20. Effects of Student Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwarter, Amy E.; Aruguete, Mara S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined experimentally whether student gender and socioeconomic status (SES) affect teachers' expectations of students. Participants were 106 teachers who read a scenario about a hypothetical student with academic and behavioral challenges. The authors systematically varied the gender and SES of the student to create 4 conditions.…

  1. Gender differences in nutritional status and feeding patterns among infants in the Gaza Strip.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbaum, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Abed, Y

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined gender variation in nutritional treatment and anthropometric status of infants in the Gaza Strip. Numerous studies have documented gender differences in health status in developing areas, generally finding boys to be at an advantage over girls. Social and economic characteristics in Gaza suggest that one might expect preferential treatment of boys there. METHODS. The study used data on two samples of infants 0 to 18 months of age collected from five health centers in Gaza. A variety of different analytic methods were used to look for gender differences in feeding patterns, prevalence of malnutrition, and anthropometric status. RESULTS. Although some differences in nutritional treatment and anthropometric outcome for infants of different socioeconomic status and between the earlier and later samples were found, no consistent gender differences were revealed. CONCLUSIONS. The findings are consistent with several different explanations. First, expectations of finding gender differences may have been unfounded. Alternatively, such differences may have existed previously but have been eliminated through successful public health intervention, rising levels of education, and economic development. PMID:7604921

  2. Gender hierarchy in the space: the role of gender status in shaping the spatial agency bias.

    PubMed

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Piccoli, Valentina; Brambilla, Marco; Bianchi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    According to the Spatial Agency Bias (SAB), more agentic groups (men) are envisioned to the left of less agentic groups (women). This research investigated the role of social status in shaping the spatial representation of gender couples. Participants were presented pairs consisting of one male and one female target who confirmed gender stereotypes. The status of the targets in each pair was systematically varied (high-status vs. low-status job). Participants chose the target order (female/male vs. male/female) they preferred. In line with gender-status expectations (male: high-status, female: low-status), a male in a high-status job led to a spatial arrangement that favored the male/female order, regardless of the status of the female target. The female/male order was favored only when the female had a high-status job and the male a low-status job. No SAB occurred for pairs in which both targets displayed low-status jobs. The implications of status for the SAB are discussed. PMID:24765816

  3. Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ying Chu

    2004-01-01

    Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…

  4. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  5. Gender, status and 'powerless' speech: interactions of students and lecturers.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, R G

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated whether the use of 'powerless' speech was affected by role status, speaker's gender and gender of another participant. Fifty-two university lecturers and 156 students participated. Students were paired with a lecturer or student of the same or opposite sex. The findings placed a question mark over the link between powerless speech and individuals of low role status. Moreover, against hypothesis, speaker's gender and gender of partner did not affect the use of qualifiers or fillers, although they affected the use of tag questions and some types of hesitation. A qualitative analysis was also conducted which suggested that the powerless features were, in fact, multi-functional with respect to power. In addition, the importance of a variety of interactional techniques, such as credibility techniques, in the creation or negotiation of relational power was documented. As a whole, these findings highlight problems with the concept of 'powerless' speech, at least with respect to relational power. PMID:8856951

  6. Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

  7. Software economics: status and prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry W. Boehm; Kevin J. Sullivan

    1999-01-01

    1. Overview Software is valuable when it produces information in a manner that enables people and systems to meet their objec- tives more effectively. Software engineering techniques have value when they enable software developers to build more valuable software. Software economics is the sub-field of software engineering that seeks improvements which enable software engineers to reason more effectively about important

  8. Gender differences in categorizing adolescents' weight status.

    PubMed

    White, D R; Schliecker, E; Dayan, J

    1991-06-01

    Categorization of normal or overweight status, using percent overweight and visual inspection, showed good agreement for 51 adolescent girls, but not 70 boys. Only 49% of boys with high relative weights were seen as overweight compared to 90% of girls. PMID:1891551

  9. Socioeconomic Status, Economic Problems, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Robert; Matthews, Shelley Keith; Bucher, Jacob; Welcher, Adria N.; Keyes, Corey

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and delinquency is not as strong as suggested by the leading crime theories. This article argues that such theories do not predict that SES in and of itself causes delinquency but rather that the economic problems associated with SES cause delinquency. Such problems…

  10. Socio-Economic Status "Defining" SES parameters

    E-print Network

    Gabrieli, John

    Socio-Economic Status Data "Defining" SES parameters · Objective SES: · Individual and/or household income · Occupational Prestige · Level of Education · Subjective SES: · In United States (Mac not collected in SES Surveys Too complicated for our purposes Rejected The Hollingshead Index Accounts for

  11. Sex Selection and Gender Balance Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Sex Selection and Gender Balance V Bhaskar Department of Economics University College London Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK v.bhaskar@ucl.ac.uk January 11, 2010 Abstract We model parental sex selection and the equilibrium sex ratio. With intrinsic son preference, sex selection results in a male

  12. Gender, status and the use of power strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shira Keshet; Ronit Kark; Limor Pomerantz-Zorin; Meni Koslowsky; Joseph Schwarzwald

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of gender and status on the use of power strategies. The experiment consisted of a computer-based problem-solving task performed in pairs, where partici- pants interacted with simulated long-distance partners. Participants were 36 female and 38 male undergraduate students, who were assigned to be influencing agents and were required to convince their partners to accept

  13. Emotions under Discussion: Gender, Status and Communication in Online Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Iosub, Daniela; Laniado, David; Castillo, Carlos; Fuster Morell, Mayo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the undisputed role of emotions in teamwork, not much is known about the make-up of emotions in online collaboration. Publicly available repositories of collaboration data, such as Wikipedia editor discussions, now enable the large-scale study of affect and dialogue in peer production. Methods We investigate the established Wikipedia community and focus on how emotion and dialogue differ depending on the status, gender, and the communication network of the editors who have written at least 100 comments on the English Wikipedia's article talk pages. Emotions are quantified using a word-based approach comparing the results of two predefined lexicon-based methods: LIWC and SentiStrength. Principal Findings We find that administrators maintain a rather neutral, impersonal tone, while regular editors are more emotional and relationship-oriented, that is, they use language to form and maintain connections to other editors. A persistent gender difference is that female contributors communicate in a manner that promotes social affiliation and emotional connection more than male editors, irrespective of their status in the community. Female regular editors are the most relationship-oriented, whereas male administrators are the least relationship-focused. Finally, emotional and linguistic homophily is prevalent: editors tend to interact with other editors having similar emotional styles (e.g., editors expressing more anger connect more with one another). Conclusions/Significance Emotional expression and linguistic style in online collaboration differ substantially depending on the contributors' gender and status, and on the communication network. This should be taken into account when analyzing collaborative success, and may prove insightful to communities facing gender gap and stagnation in contributor acquisition and participation levels. PMID:25140870

  14. Gender and Job Status as Contextual Cues for the Interpretation of Facial Expression of Emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara B. Algoe; Brenda N. Buswell; John D. DeLamater

    2000-01-01

    Participants' interpretations of facial expressions of emotion and judgments made about the poser as a function of gender, job status, and facial expression were examined. Two hypotheses regarding interpretation of expression stress either facial expression alone or a combination of facial expression and social context. Gender and status of target were expected to influence ratings of emotion and personality characteristics.

  15. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquirie

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    , national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status

  16. Just Saying "No" to a Professor: The Effects of Respondent Gender, Relationship Closeness, and Faculty Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.; And Others

    To explore how respondent gender, influencer status, relationship closeness, and directness of a request affect compliance and resistance strategies, undergraduates (N=116) role-played responses to a professor's request. The status of the requester was higher than that of the resister, but the relative status of the requester was varied…

  17. Nonverbal Behavior, Status, and Gender: How Do We Understand Their Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    The causes of gender differences in nonverbal behavior are not well understood. The present article discusses status as a possible explanation and analyzes some of the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with testing that hypothesis. The study by Helweg-Larsen, Cunningham, Carrico, and Pergram (2004), which investigated gender in…

  18. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  19. Nutritional and health status among nursing home residents in Lebanon: comparison across gender in a national cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. Results The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported “good” health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. Conclusions This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents. PMID:24950594

  20. Labor Market Effects on Dropping out of High School: Variation by Gender, Race, and Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping…

  1. The Link Between Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Adolescents: Similarities Across Gender, Age, Weight Status, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. van den Berg; Jonathan Mond; Marla Eisenberg; Diann Ackard; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

    2010-01-01

    PurposeThe present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race\\/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also examined the association longitudinally.

  2. Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrego, Leisy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…

  3. Marital Status and Gender Similarity in Marital Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James L.; Johnson, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of therapist marital status and therapist and participant sex on participants' perceptions of therapist and expectations for therapy. Each partner of 20 couples presenting for marital therapy completed protocols differing only on therapist's marital status and sex. Neither therapist marital status nor therapist sex had effect on…

  4. Relations of Gender, Gender-Related Personality Characteristics, and Dating Status to Adolescents’ Cross-Sex Friendship Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sum Kwing Cheung; Catherine McBride-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how gender, instrumentality, expressivity and dating status were associated with adolescents’ perceived\\u000a cross-sex friendship quality. Two hundred sixty-two Hong Kong Chinese heterosexual teenagers (117 males, 145 females) aged\\u000a 14 to 18 rated the levels of companionship, closeness, help, security and conflict in their best cross-sex friendships. Results\\u000a showed that girls perceived more help but also more conflicts.

  5. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquirie

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    , national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information

  6. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

  7. Can an angry woman get ahead? Status conferral, gender, and expression of emotion in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Brescoll, Victoria L; Uhlmann, Eric Luis

    2008-03-01

    Three studies examined the relationships among anger, gender, and status conferral. As in prior research, men who expressed anger in a professional context were conferred higher status than men who expressed sadness. However, both male and female evaluators conferred lower status on angry female professionals than on angry male professionals. This was the case regardless of the actual occupational rank of the target, such that both a female trainee and a female CEO were given lower status if they expressed anger than if they did not. Whereas women's emotional reactions were attributed to internal characteristics (e.g., "she is an angry person,"she is out of control"), men's emotional reactions were attributed to external circumstances. Providing an external attribution for the target person's anger eliminated the gender bias. Theoretical implications and practical applications are discussed. PMID:18315800

  8. Gender Differences in Aggression: The Role of Status and Personality in Competitive Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather K. Terrell; Eric D. Hill; Craig T. Nagoshi

    2008-01-01

    Southwest US undergraduates (78 female, 72 male) were tested in a laboratory aggressive behavior paradigm involving noise\\u000a blasts participants could use against another (bogus) same-sex competitor in a point-earning task. Status of the competitor\\u000a (low vs. high) and expectation to meet the competitor (meet vs. no meet) were experimentally manipulated. A significant gender\\u000a × aggression proneness × status interaction indicated

  9. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals. PMID:22928352

  10. KNOWAnyone--regardless of gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, citizenship status, race, class or educational level--may experience sexual harassment

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    BE IN THE KNOWAnyone--regardless of gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, citizenship status, race, class or educational level--may experience sexual harassment and sexual issues related to sexual harassment and assault. Queens College is committed to being a safe campus where

  11. HIV Status and Gender: A Brief Report from Heterosexual Couples in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Li; Li-Jung Liang; Sung-Jae Lee; Shu C. Farmer

    2012-01-01

    Although the impact of HIV falls on both partners of a married couple, the burden of stress may not be necessarily shared evenly. This study examined the relations among HIV status, gender and depressive symptoms among 152 married or cohabitating couples living with HIV in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Thailand. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a 15-item depressive

  12. Teachers' Perceptions Based on Tenure Status and Gender about Principals' Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret G.; Finch, Kim; Young, Suzanne; Hvidston, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study assessed teachers' attitudes about their formative supervision and the observational ability of principals through the constructs of teacher tenure status and gender. In sum, 255 teachers responded to an online survey indicating teachers' desired feedback focused on classroom climate, student engagement, and…

  13. Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking among Taiwanese College Students: Role of Gender and Student Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsiaowen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between psychological distress and attitudes toward seeking professional help and whether the relationship was moderated by gender and student status (traditional vs. non-traditional) among Chinese college students in Taiwan. 961 first-year university students completed standardised measures of depression,…

  14. The Interactive Effects of Counselor Gender, Physical Attractiveness and Status on Client Self-Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunin, Carla C.; Rodin, Miriam J.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated client self-disclosure and client perception of counselors. Subjects rated counselors on intelligence and empathy, and while role-playing clients in therapy. Clients disclosed more to male counselors when counselors were high in status or attractiveness. Suggests the effect of counselor gender depends on an interaction with other…

  15. "High Class Cookery": Gender, Status and Domestic Subjects, 1890-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Traces the history of two British schools of cooking and domestic science and a university program in domestic science, relating the history of these institutions to the development of technical education by considering the intersection of status and gender. Contemporary parallels with separate space for women in higher education are outlined.…

  16. A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Tammy J.

    2010-01-01

    Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.…

  17. Gender Differences in Young Latino Adults' Status Attainment: Understanding Bilingualism in the Familial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Sampson Lee; Cobas, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism among Latinos in the United States may not necessarily result in negative status attainment consequences. Such studies have typically overlooked gender differences in the consequences of bilingualism. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (N=866 females; 737 males), we…

  18. Adults Engaged in Lifelong Learning in Taiwan: Analysis by Gender and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Lin, Sung-Po

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the nature of adult engagement in lifelong learning in Taiwan. Previous studies have shown that gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are key variables related to equal access to education. Are these variables related to adults' engagement in lifelong learning in a specific country? This study analysed data from a survey of…

  19. Social Status as a Predictor of Race and Gender Stereotypes in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Mistry, Rashmita; Feagans, Laura

    2007-01-01

    We examined race and gender stereotypes in fourth-, sixth- and eighth-grade White and Black children. The participants reported their perceptions of the competence of Black, White, female and male children in academic domains, sports and music. In general, low-status groups (girls and Black children) did not endorse stereotypes that reflected…

  20. Improving models of democracy: the example of lagged effects of economic development, education, and gender equality.

    PubMed

    Balaev, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy. PMID:24767598

  1. Gender Differences in the Learning Status of Diabetic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated learning status of 95 diabetic children and 97 matched controls. Results indicated that diabetic boys had significantly lower Freedom from Distractibility scores compared with scores of diabetic girls and controls, and lower Perceptual Organization scores compared with scores of control boys. Diabetic children experienced more learning…

  2. Sin, Sickness or Status? Homosexual Gender Identity and Psychoneuroendocrinology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1987-01-01

    Sex hormones in the prenatal brain of humans influence the subsequent sexual status or orientation of the individual as bisexual, heterosexual, or homosexual. Postnatal socialization is another contributing factor. Sexual orientation is not under the direct governance of chromosomes and genes. (Author/VM)

  3. SocioEconomic Status and Obesity in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona Johnson; Michelle Pratt; Jane Wardle

    \\u000a Historically, obesity was a disease of affluence; while the wealthy were able to afford ample, energy-dense food, the poor\\u000a often went hungry. This pattern can still be seen in many developing countries, where lower socio-economic status (SES) is\\u000a associated with food insecurity, inadequate energy intake, and malnutrition among both adults and children (UN FAO 2009).\\u000a In such situations, obesity continues

  4. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  5. Vitamin A intake and status in populations facing economic stress.

    PubMed

    West, Keith P; Mehra, Sucheta

    2010-01-01

    Dietary quality and diversity reflect adequacy of vitamin A. Both can deteriorate in response to economic crises. Although the nutritional consequences of the 2008 world food price crisis remain unclear, past studies of diet, status, and socioeconomic standing under usual (deprived) and unusually disruptive times suggest dietary quality and vitamin A status decline in mothers and young children. This is presumably the result of shifting diets to include less preformed vitamin A-rich animal source foods and, to a lesser extent, vegetables and fruits. Cross-sectional assessments of diet, deficiency, and socioeconomic status in a number of countries and surveillance data collected during the Indonesian economic crisis of 1997-8 indicate that the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, night blindness, and other related disorders (e.g., anemia) may have increased during the 2008 crisis, and that it might not have necessarily recovered once food prices waned later in 2008. Lost employment may be a factor in slow nutritional recovery, despite some easing of food prices. Vitamin A deficiency should still be preventable amid economic instabilities through breast feeding promotion, vitamin A supplementation, fortification of foods targeted to the poor, and homestead food production that can bolster income and diversify the diet. PMID:19939993

  6. Undergraduate engineering student experiences: Comparing sex, gender and switcher status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergen, Brenda Sue

    This dissertation explores undergraduate engineering experiences, comparing men with women and switchers with non-switchers. Factors related to a chilly academic climate and gender-role socialization are hypothesized to contribute to variations in men's and women's academic experiences and persistence rates. Both quantitative and qualitative data are utilized in an effort to triangulate the findings. Secondary survey data, acquired as result of a 1992 Academic Environment Survey, were utilized to test the hypothesis that sex is the most important predictor (i.e., demographic variable) of perceptions of academic climate. Regression analyses show that sex by itself is not always a significant determinant. However, when sex and college (engineering vs. other) are combined into dummy variables, they are statistically significant in models where sex was not significant alone. This finding indicates that looking at sex differences alone may be too simplistic. Thirty personal interviews were conducted with a random stratified sample of undergraduate students from the 1993 engineering cohort. The interview data indicate that differences in childhood socialization are important. With regard to persistence, differences in socialization are greater for switchers vs. non-switchers than men vs. women. Thus, gender-role socialization does not appear to play as prominent a role in women's persistence as past literature would indicate. This may be due to the self-selection process that occurs among women who choose to pursue engineering. Other aspects of childhood socialization such as parents' level of educational and occupation, students' high school academic preparation and knowledge of what to expect of college classes appear to be more important. In addition, there is evidence that, for women, male siblings play an important role in socialization. There is also evidence that women engineering students at Midwestern University face a chilly academic climate. The factors which appear to contribute the most to an inhospitable atmosphere include subtle behaviors on the part of faculty and administrators and blatant sexist, derogatory and hostile comments and jokes on the part of male undergraduate students. Personal interview data indicate continued resistance among some male administrators, faculty and students to women pursuing majors in engineering.

  7. Gender and command over property: A critical gap in economic analysis and policy in South Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bina Agarwal

    1994-01-01

    Summary. - This paper focuses on a much neglected issue: the links between gender inequities and command over property. It outlines why in rural South Asia, where arable land is the most important form of property, any significant improvement in women's economic and social situation is crucially tied to their having independent land rights. Better employment opportunities can complement but

  8. Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

  9. Gender, Work-Family Linkages, and Economic Success among Small Business Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loscocco, Karyn A.; Leicht, Kevin T.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated work-family connections and economic success among women and men small business owners. Analyses of data from 3-year panel survey of 99 women and 312 men showed considerable gender similarity in processes through which business and individual characteristics affect personal earnings, although women were disadvantaged in some…

  10. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status. PMID:22483443

  11. Economic status and temperature-related mortality in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Bell, Michelle L.; Kan, Haidong; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, low latitude and high temperature are positively associated with the population's ability to adapt to heat. However, few studies have examined the effect of economic status on the relationship between long-term exposure to high temperature and health. We compared heterogeneous temperature-related mortality effects relative to the average summer temperature in high-socioeconomic-status (SES) cities to temperature-related effects in low-SES cities. In the first stage of the research, we conducted a linear regression analysis to quantify the mortality effects of high temperature (at or above the 95th percentile) in 32 cities in Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea. In the second stage, we used a meta-regression to examine the association between mortality risk with average summer temperature and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In cities with a low GDP per capita (less than 20,000 USD), the effects of temperature were detrimental to the population if the long-term average summer temperature was high. In contrast, in cities with a high GDP per capita, temperature-related mortality risk was not significantly related to average summer temperature. The relationship between long-term average summer temperature and the short-term effects of high temperatures differed based on the city-level economic status.

  12. Gender and offender status predicting treatment success in refugees and asylum seekers with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Håkon; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Elbert, Thomas; Holen, Are

    2014-01-01

    Background Current knowledge is limited regarding patient characteristics related to treatment outcome of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers. Objective Gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression were investigated for possible effects on the treatment outcome. Method Patient characteristics were explored in 54 refugees and asylum seekers who had completed a treatment program for PTSD. Non-responders (10), those who had the same or higher levels of symptom severity after treatment, were compared with responders, those who had lower symptom severity after treatment (44). Symptom severity was measured by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The non-responders and responders constituted the dichotomous, dependent variable. The independent variables were gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression. T-tests and Exact Unconditional Homogeneity/Independence Tests for 2×2 Tables were used to study the relationship to treatment outcome. Results Being male and reporting to have been a violent offender were significantly more frequent characteristics among the non-responders compared to the responders. The levels of pretreatment anger, depression and torture status did not affect the treatment outcome. Conclusions The study adds support to findings that females benefit more from treatment of PTSD than males and that violent offenders are difficult to treat within the standard treatment programs. PMID:24494062

  13. Quality of life in terminal care—with special reference to age, gender and marital status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lundh Hagelin; Åke Seiger; C. J. Fürst

    2006-01-01

    Objectives  This study was conducted to explore symptoms, other quality of life (QoL) aspects and impact of age, gender, marital status, cancer diagnosis and time of survival in patients with advanced cancer admitted to palliative care.Patients and methods  A cross-sectional study of 278 cancer patients completing the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 at referral to palliative care.Main

  14. The effect of men’s breadwinner status on their changing gender beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiping Zuo

    1997-01-01

    I use longitudinal data from a national sample of married men with a panel design to examine men's changing beliefs about gender over a twelve-year period and the impact of men's breadwinner status on men's change in beliefs. The majority of the sample are white (including Hispanic origin), with 3. 7% African Americans and 1.2% other racial~ethnic groups. The data

  15. That's a boy's toy: gender-typed knowledge in toddlers as a function of mother's marital status.

    PubMed

    Hupp, Julie M; Smith, Jessi L; Coleman, Jill M; Brunell, Amy B

    2010-01-01

    A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more "traditional" family structures (married mothers) would have more gender-typed knowledge compared to children from less traditional families (unmarried mothers). Moreover, we explored if this relationship would be related to, at least in part, the greater frequency of androgynous behaviors (i.e., both masculine and feminine household activities) an unmarried mother performs. Twenty-eight children (age 2 to 3) were tested at local childcare centers. The mother of each child reported her marital status as well as how often she engaged in stereotypically masculine and feminine behaviors. As expected, mothers' marital status was associated with children's level of gender-typed knowledge, such that children with unmarried mothers had less gender-typed knowledge, in part due to the unmarried mother's greater frequency of androgynous behaviors. Implications for children's acquisition of gender-related stereotypes and the possible benefit of having mothers model both masculine and feminine behaviors are discussed. PMID:21171550

  16. Gender Diversity in the Geosciences: Current Status and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Frey, C.; Ongley, L. K.

    2002-12-01

    Since 1995, the proportion of women in the American Geological Institute's Directory of Geoscience Departments has risen from 12% of the entries to 14.2% (exclusive of administrative assistants). Separated into type of institution, there is a greater proportion of women at Museums (17.5%), Bachelor's-granting institutions (17.2%), and non degree-granting academic institutions (16.5%), but these percentages drop when marginal positions, such as "Lecturer", "Instructor", "Adjunct" and "Cooperating Faculty" are excluded to 14.0% (Museums), 15.9% (B.S.-granting institution). The institutions with the lowest proportion of females are the State Geologic Surveys (12.6% female), followed by Ph.D.-granting institutions (12.8% female). Fifteen Ph.D.-granting institutions in the United States still have no females on their faculty. These numbers contrast poorly with the proportion of women receiving B.S. or M.S. degrees in the geosciences over the last 10 years (34 B.S.%/30% M.S. in 1996) and with the proportion receiving the PhD. (24% over the last 10 years; 30% in 2000). There is a significant loss of women between the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and between the Ph.D. degree and a tenure-track position. Women reach or exceed their overall average in four subdisciplines of the geosciences: paleontology, geochemistry, general geology, and oceanography. Women are most under-represented in engineering geology, followed by economic geology, planetology, soil science, geophysics, and hydrology. Within these subdisciplines, women exceed their overall average in geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, ground water and surface water studies, soil biochemistry, and meteorite study. Most women in tenure-track positions at degree-granting institutions are currently Assistant Professors while most men are Full Professors. The proportion of women hired into Assistant Professor positions has increased over the last five years, from 22% hired 5 to 10 years ago to 25% hired 1 to 5 years ago. These data indicate that women are beginning to approach being hired at the same proportion in which they receive PhD degrees in the geosciences. Despite common myth, women are not getting "all" of the new Assistant Professor positions; they remain under-represented at every academic rank, at every type of institution. At the current rate of increase, we expect women will not achieve parity in the geosciences for another 40 years.

  17. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-06-01

    Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  18. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  19. Occupational identity status development, gender comparisons, and internal-external control in first-year air force cadets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Dellas; Louise P. Jernigan

    1987-01-01

    This study of cadets at the United States Air Force Academy during their first six months assessed the pattern of developmental changes in occupational identity status for males and females, examined the relationship of internal-external control to identity statuses, and discussed the data in terms of Erikson's proposals and factors involved in gender differences in identity development. More than half

  20. The Impact of Traditional Gender Role Beliefs and Relationship Status on Depression in Mexican American Women: A Study in Self- Discrepancies 

    E-print Network

    Perez, Flor

    2012-02-14

    and have traditional gender role beliefs will experience a greater amount of depression, due to the presence of a discrepancy. Contrarily, results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no interaction between partner status and gender role beliefs...

  1. Gender Obesity Inequities Are Huge but Differ Greatly According to Environment and Socio-Economics in a North African Setting: A National Cross-Sectional Study in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Delpeuch, Francis; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Béji, Chiraz; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Bougatef, Souha; Kolsteren, Patrick; Maire, Bernard; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35–70 years Tunisians (women: n?=?2964, men: n?=?2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI?=?weight(kg)/height(m)2 and obesity was BMI?30, WHtR?=?waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR?0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). Results BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), P<0.0001) as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR?=?3.8[3.1–7.4], P<0.0001) and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3–4.8], P<0.0001). Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.7]) than rural (OR?=?2.0[0.7–5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR?=?6.9[2.0–23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR?=?1.4[0.5–4.3]) or even employees/workers OR?=?2.3[1.0–5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. Conclusion The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings. PMID:23118943

  2. Association between harmful alcohol use and periodontal status according to gender and smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background the aim of this study is to assess the association of harmful alcohol use based on the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score with periodontal status according to gender and smoking in a representative sample of Korean adults. Methods This study analyzed 5,291 participants older than 19 years whose data of harmful alcohol use and periodontal status were available. Harmful alcohol use was defined by the WHO guidelines for the administration of AUDIT. The periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, oral and general health behavior, oral health status and systemic conditions. All analyses considered a complex sampling design, and multivariate analysis was also performed in the subgroups. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a marginal association between harmful alcohol use and higher CPI in the total sample. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of harmful alcohol use was 1.16 (0.97 to 1.38) for higher CPI. Higher CPI was significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60) and non-smokers (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57). Conclusion Periodontal status is significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men and non-smokers in a representative sample of Korean adults. PMID:24950716

  3. Status of Economic Criteria and Indicators for the Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable

    E-print Network

    Wyoming, University of

    Status of Economic Criteria and Indicators for the Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable JOHN A. TANAKA AND L. ALLEN TORELL Authors are Associate Professor, Agricultural and Resource Economics, Eastern Oregon Economics and Agribusiness, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM. Abstract The economic set

  4. Married With Children: The Influence of Parental Status and Gender on Ambulatory Blood Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julianne Holt-Lunstad; Wendy Birmingham; Adam M. Howard; Dustin Thoman

    2009-01-01

    Background  Although there is substantial evidence that social relationships and marriage may influence both psychological and physical\\u000a health, little is known about the influence of children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study examined the competing predictions regarding the directional influence of parental status and its interaction with\\u000a gender—given that mothers are typically disproportionately more responsible for everyday care of children—on cardiovascular\\u000a functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  We examined ambulatory

  5. The Socio-Economic Status of Vocational Education and Training Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socio-economic status and participation in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Research indicates that students from low socio-economic status areas are over-represented in the VET sector; it also shows that VET students from these areas complete qualifications at a better-than-average…

  6. Gender, ethnicity, marital status, and body weight in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sobal, Jeffery; Hanson, Karla L; Frongillo, Edward A

    2009-12-01

    Married individuals tend to be heavier than those who are unmarried, particularly men, and individuals in different ethnic categories vary in their involvement in marriage and in their body weights. We examined gender and ethnic differences in relationships between marital status and body weight using cross-sectional data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 3,947 women and 4,019 men. The findings revealed that compared to married men in the same ethnic category, white divorced men, black never-married men, and all Hispanic men except for widows had lower odds of being overweight. Compared to married women in the same ethnic category, white women's weights did not significantly differ by marital status, black separated women had greater odds of being overweight, and Hispanic never-married women had lower odds of being overweight. Associations of marriage with body weight appear to be at least partly contingent upon gender and ethnicity, which may reflect larger societal patterns of involvement in marriage, commitment to family, and body-weight norms and expectations. PMID:19300431

  7. Gender \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Lecarme

    2002-01-01

    The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,

  8. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  9. Blinded to Science: Gender Differences in the Effects of Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status on Academic and Science Attitudes among Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Brea L.; Link, Tanja; Boelter, Christina; Leukefeld, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational…

  10. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work.

  11. Gender Differences in Sleep Deprivation Effects on Risk and Inequality Aversion: Evidence from an Economic Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Excessive working hours—even at night—are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects’ risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females’ reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making. PMID:25793869

  12. Gender differences between predictors of HIV status among PWID in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, K.F.; Dvoryak, S.; Garver-Apgar, C.; Davis, J.M.; Brewster, J.T.; Lisovska, O.; Booth, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Ukraine is among the largest in Europe. While traditionally the epidemic has spread through injection risk behavior, sexual transmission is becoming more common. Previous research has found that women in Ukraine have higher rates of HIV and engage in more HIV risk behavior than men. This study extended that work by identifying risk factors that differentially predict men and women’s HIV status among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. Methods From July 2010 through July 2013, 2480 sexually active PWID with unknown HIV status were recruited from three cities in Ukraine through street outreach. The average age was 31 years old. Results Women, who made up twenty-eight percent of the sample, had higher safe sex self-efficacy (p<0.01) and HIV knowledge (p<0.001) than men, but scored higher on both the risky injection (p<0.001) and risky sex (p<0.001) composite scores than men. Risky sex behaviors were associated with women’s HIV status more than men’s. We also report results identifying predictors of risky injection and sex behaviors. Conclusions Gender-specific interventions could address problem of HIV risk among women who inject drugs in a country with a growing HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest specific ways in which intervention efforts might focus on groups and individuals who are at the highest risk of contracting HIV (or who are already HIV positive) to halt the spread of HIV in Ukraine. PMID:24613219

  13. Influence of age, gender, hormonal status and smoking habits on colonic transit time.

    PubMed

    Meier, R; Beglinger, C; Dederding, J P; Meyer-Wyss, B; Fumagalli, M; Rowedder, A; Turberg, Y; Brignoli, R

    1995-12-01

    The factors that influence colonic transit time in healthy humans are not yet clearly defined. The aim of this study was therefore to determine (a) if there are differences in colonic transit time between men and women and (b) if age, female hormonal status or smoking habits are associated with alterations in these parameters. Colonic transit time was measured in 164 asymptomatic subjects (80 males, 84 females) by a radio-opaque marker technique with one single plain abdominal X-ray. Colonic transit time was significantly shorter in men than in women (30 +/- 2 vs. 42 +/- 3 h, P < 0.05). Colonic transit time in non-smoking males was significantly shorter compared with smoking males (26 +/- 2 vs. 40 +/- 5 h, P < 0.05). In females only height and menstrual cycle influenced colonic transit times. We conclude that gender and smoking habits should be considered when studying colonic transit time in health and disease. PMID:8574912

  14. The Pipeline Still Leaks and More Than You Think: A Status Report on Gender Diversity in Biomedical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    The Pipeline Still Leaks and More Than You Think: A Status Report on Gender Diversity in Biomedical is evidence of a still leaky pipeline in our discipline. In addition, the percentage of women faculty members in the pipeline--are reviewed. Keywords--Women, Engineering, Barriers, Bias. INTRODUCTION The lack of diversity

  15. Classroom-Level Predictors of the Social Status of Aggression: Friendship Centralization, Friendship Density, Teacher-Student Attunement, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…

  16. Predictiveness of Identity Status, Main Internet Use Purposes and Gender on University Students' the Problematic Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at revealing the relationships between the problematic Internet use of university students and their identity status, main Internet use purposes, and gender. A total of 464 university students participated in the study, and the research data were collected through the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Extended Objective Measure…

  17. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from…

  18. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

  19. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  20. The Effects of Race, Gender, and Marital Status on Suicides among Young Adults, Middle-Aged Adults, and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, John A.; Palmer, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed the effects of marital status, race, and gender on the timing of suicide across three adult life stages. Logistic modeling showed distinct structural effects on the occurrence of suicide in midlife compared to the life stages immediately preceding and following it. Greater attention to the crises of women in midlife appears warranted.…

  1. A Report on the Undergraduate Women of Greater Guam and Micronesia: Their Status Aspirations and Gender Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    This document reports on a study to determine Guamanian women's identification of their social status and gender awareness. Participants of the study were 350 randomly selected undergraduate women who responded to questionnaires. A statistical profile of the Guamanian undergraduate women was derived as follows: (1) is a traditional aged student;…

  2. A Reconstruction of the Gender Agenda: The Contradictory Gender Dimensions in New Labour's Educational and Economic Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Miles, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory…

  3. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25287414

  4. Regulation of NR4A by nutritional status, gender, postnatal development and hormonal deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sieira, S; López, M; Nogueiras, R; Tovar, S

    2014-01-01

    The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. However, its potential role in white adipose tissue (WAT), one of the most important tissues involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is not well-studied. The aim of this work was to elucidate the regulation of NR4A in WAT under different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance such as fasting, postnatal development, gender, hormonal deficiency and pregnancy. We compared NR4A mRNA expression of Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor 1 and found a clear regulation by nutritional status, since the expression of the 3 isoforms is increased after fasting in a leptin-independent manner and sex steroid hormones also modulate NR4A expression in males and females. Our findings indicate that NR4A are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in glucose metabolism and energy status. PMID:24584059

  5. Regulation of NR4A by nutritional status, gender, postnatal development and hormonal deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sieira, S.; López, M.; Nogueiras, R.; Tovar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. However, its potential role in white adipose tissue (WAT), one of the most important tissues involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is not well-studied. The aim of this work was to elucidate the regulation of NR4A in WAT under different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance such as fasting, postnatal development, gender, hormonal deficiency and pregnancy. We compared NR4A mRNA expression of Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor 1 and found a clear regulation by nutritional status, since the expression of the 3 isoforms is increased after fasting in a leptin-independent manner and sex steroid hormones also modulate NR4A expression in males and females. Our findings indicate that NR4A are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in glucose metabolism and energy status. PMID:24584059

  6. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

  7. Prognosis in proliferative lupus nephritis: the role of socio-economic status and race\\/ethnicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Graham Barr; Stephen Seliger; Gerald B. Appel; Ricardo Zuniga; Vivette D'Agati; Jane Salmon; Jai Radhakrishnan

    2003-01-01

    Background. Studies of proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN) suggest that African-Americans have a poorer prognosis than Whites. However, no study has simul- taneously examined socio-economic status. We studied rates of progression of PLN among a tri-ethnic popula- tion with respect to socio-economic status and race\\/ ethnicity. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was carried out using individual and census-based neighbourhood data. Consecutive

  8. Exploring the Latino Paradox: How Economic and Citizenship Status Impact Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…

  9. [The impact of health economics: a status report].

    PubMed

    Tunder, R

    2011-12-01

    "Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given. PMID:22108908

  10. Early retirees under Social Security: health status and economic resources.

    PubMed

    Leonesio, M V; Vaughan, D R; Wixon, B

    2000-01-01

    Some proposals to change the Social Security program to ensure long-run solvency would reduce or eliminate benefits for early retirees. This article documents the health and financial resources of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) beneficiaries aged 62-64. It identifies a substantial minority of early retirees who might be economically vulnerable if either the early eligibility age or normal retirement age was raised. Attention is directed at the extent to which poor health limits work in this age group and the extent to which curtailment of early OASI benefits might lead to increases in the Disability Insurance (DI) program rolls. Using a set of comprehensive health measures, we estimate that over 20 percent of OASI beneficiaries aged 62-64 have health problems that substantially impair their ability to work. This finding implies that in this age range, as many severely disabled persons receive OASI benefits as disability benefits. In fact, 12 percent of early beneficiaries would meet a more stringent criterion for being classified "disabled"--SSA's medical standard for disability benefits. The evidence therefore indicates that OASI functions as a substantial, albeit unofficial, disability program for early retirees. Compared with those who have no health problems or are less severely impaired, early OASI beneficiaries who meet the medical criteria for disability benefits are more likely to be living alone and more likely to be poor or "near poor." The great majority of the group--almost 80 percent--are women. Analysis of their earnings histories suggests that most of these beneficiaries do not satisfy the insured-status requirements for Disability Insurance benefits. The article considers the different roles of the OASI program and the DI program for health-impaired individuals aged 62-64. Disability modelers sometimes overlook an important aspect of program administration. Under customary screening procedures implemented in Social Security field offices, applicants for early OASI benefits who appear to be severely impaired simultaneously apply for DI benefits if they are disability insured. If they are found eligible for DI benefits, those applicants become DI beneficiaries. The implication is that raising the earliest entitlement age would have little impact on the DI rolls. Unless there are changes in eligibility criteria, the DI program would not serve as a safety net for many of the most severely disabled early retirees. PMID:11641984

  11. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, Issam A. [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies (IEWS), Birzeit University, Ramallah (Palestinian Territory, Occupied); Arafat, Hassan A. [Chemical Engineering Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)], E-mail: harafat@najah.edu; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel [College of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

    2009-01-15

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

  12. Personality Type and Student Performance in Upper-Level Economics Courses: The Importance of Race and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…

  13. Constipation Misperception Is Associated With Gender, Marital Status, Treatment Utilization and Constipation Symptoms Experienced

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Suck Chei; Park, Moo In; Park, Kyung Sik; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Kee Wook; Koo, Hoon Sup; Kim, Wan Jung; Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Ji Sung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims It is essential that clinicians have an understanding of patients’ perceptions of constipation as well as constipation mis-perception (CM), which can be defined as failure to recognize the six constipation symptoms (infrequency, straining, hard stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction or manual maneuver). The aims of our study were to identify the prevalence of CM and its association with demographics and clinical features. Methods This nationwide survey included 625 self-reported constipated subjects (431 females; mean age, 41.2 years) among random participants in the National Health Screening Program. The prevalence of CM for each constipation symptom was estimated, and the participants were classified into nil (0), low (1–2), mid (3–4) and high (5–6) level CM subgroups according to the number of misperceived symptoms. Results The highest rate of CM was observed for manual maneuver (48.3%), followed by anorectal obstruction (38.4%), stool infrequency (34.6%), incomplete evacuation (32.2%), hard stool (27.2%) and straining (25.4%). Among the nil (n = 153), low (n = 242), mid (n = 144) and high level (n = 86) subgroups, there were significant differences in the proportions of males (18.3%, 34.3%, 39.6% and 30.2%; P = 0.001, respectively), never-married status (25.7%, 38.2%, 36.8% and 45.9%; P = 0.030, respectively) and those who did not receive treatment for constipation (41.8%, 47.5%, 58.3% and 66.3%; P < 0.001, respectively). There was a significant linear trend of increasing degree of CM with decreasing symptoms experienced (P < 0.001). Conclusions CM is significantly associated with gender, marital status, treatment utilization and the range of constipation symptoms experienced. PMID:24935009

  14. Gender & Work at Midlife & Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Laurie Russell

    1990-01-01

    Although the economic status of older persons has improved, women are at risk for poverty in old age as a result of their lifelong work experiences. Gender differences in work history, type of occupation, industrial sector, and retirement circumstances are contributing factors. (SK)

  15. Gender and the relationship between marital status and first onset of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M; Wells, J Elisabeth; Angermeyer, Matthias; Brugha, Traolach S; Bromet, Evelyn; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Jin, Robert; Karam, Aimée Nasser; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José; Sampson, Nancy; Takeshima, Tadashi; Zhang, Mingyuan; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior research on whether marriage is equally beneficial to the mental health of men and women is inconsistent due to methodological variation. This study addresses some prior methodological limitations and investigates gender differences in the association of first marriage, and being previously married, with subsequent first onset of a range of mental disorders. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys in 15 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative (n=34,493), with structured diagnostic assessment of mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Discrete-time survival analyses assessed the interaction of gender and marital status in the association with first onset of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Results Marriage (versus never married) was associated with reduced risk of first onset of most mental disorders in both genders; but for substance use disorders this reduced risk was stronger among women, and for depression and panic disorder it was confined to men. Being previously married (versus stably married) was associated with increased risk of all disorders in both genders; but for substance use disorders this increased risk was stronger among women and for depression it was stronger among men. Conclusion Marriage was associated with reduced risk of the first onset of most mental disorders in both men and women but there were gender differences in the associations between marital status and onset of depressive and substance use disorders. These differences may be related to gender differences in the experience of multiple role demands within marriage, especially those concerning parenting. PMID:19939327

  16. The Effect of Age, Gender, Refractive Status and Axial Length on the Measurements of Hertel Exophthalmometry

    PubMed Central

    Karti, Omer; Selver, Ozlem B; Karahan, Eyyup; Zengin, Mehmet O; Uyar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the normal distribution of exophthalmometric values in Turkish adult population and the effect of age, gender, refractive status and axial length on globe position. Methods : One hundred and twenty-two males and 114 healthy females with age ranging from 18 to 87 years were included in the study. The study population was recruited from patients presenting to our institution for routine refractive examination. Hertel exophthalmometer was used to measure the degree of ocular protrusion. Effect of age, refractive error, interpupillary distance, and axial length on globe position was detected with linear regression analyses. Results : The mean Hertel exophthalmometric size was 15.7+2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm). The mean value for males was 16.1±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm), and for females 15.5±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 20 mm). The mean distance between the lateral rims of the orbit was 102 + 5.1 mm (range; 88 to 111mm). The mean exophthalmometric values were not statistically different in males and females. Age and mean spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Axial length was positively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Conclusion : The exophthalmometric measurement of the eye is affected by the age, spherical equivalent and the axial length. Standard normative values of the Hertel exophthalmometric measurements should be reevaluated with larger samples.

  17. Exploring the effects of gender, age, income and employment status on consumer response to mobile advertising campaigns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Leppäniemi; Heikki Karjaluoto

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects gender, age, income and employment status on consumer response to short message service (SMS)-oriented direct-response requests or a call-to-action tactic in a television advertisement or program, consumer's participation in SMS sweepstakes or other competitions, and consumer uptake of mobile services such as ringtones, logos, screensavers and wallpapers ordered

  18. A Critical Examination of Texas Mathematics Achievement in Grades Three through Eight by Mathematical Objective across Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status 

    E-print Network

    Fox, Brandon

    2012-02-14

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify performance differences on the TAKS mathematics assessments in grades three through eight across race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status in the years 2004, 2007, and 2010. The guiding...

  19. A Critical Examination of Texas Mathematics Achievement in Grades Three through Eight by Mathematical Objective across Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status

    E-print Network

    Fox, Brandon

    2012-02-14

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify performance differences on the TAKS mathematics assessments in grades three through eight across race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status in the years 2004, 2007, and 2010. The guiding...

  20. Resisting Gendered Smoking Pressures: Critical Consciousness as a Correlate of Women's Smoking Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyssa N. Zucker; Abigail J. Stewart; Cynthia S. Pomerleau; Carol J. Boyd

    2005-01-01

    Gender is one of the social structures, along with social class and ethnicity, that shapes women's smoking behaviors. We examined how different responses to gender pressures (internalization and resistance) relate to smoking. We analyzed data from a national random digit dial survey of 945 women and found that never smokers scored high on resistance to gender pressure (indicated by high

  1. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  2. Technical and economic status of wood energy feedstock production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Perlack; Lynn L. Wright

    1995-01-01

    We update the technical status of wood feedstock production and highlight areas where the technology used to produce energy crops has changed since publication of an earlier paper. Most of the research findings presented earlier still hold, but the target dates for achieving them are in the distant future. We estimate current delivered costs in the range of about $2.30\\/GJ

  3. Economic Status of Families Living with Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Marci; Weinert, Clarann

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 604 families living with multiple sclerosis found average duration of the disease was 10 years; family income was above the national median; in 28 percent of the families, health insurance was inadequate to cover illness costs; and, overall, factors other than income and amount of health insurance determined the economic

  4. Explaining the Socio-Economic Status School Completion Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Hanel, Barbara; Buddelmeyer, Hielke

    2013-01-01

    Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion rates…

  5. Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies. PMID:22839762

  6. Health status and preventative behaviors of immigrants by gender and origin: a Portuguese cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O

    2013-09-01

    Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P?Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time. PMID:23347097

  7. Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents' friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. PMID:21688275

  8. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-06-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  9. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  10. Status and economics of SRC-I coal liquefaction development

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, J.C.; Jones, J.P. III

    1982-11-01

    The results of commercial plant economic analysis indicate that the SRC-I technology is economically viable in the long-term. To achieve commercialization by the mid-1990s, it is necessary to proceed with the design, construction, and operation of the demonstration plant to prove the technical feasibility, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the SRC-I technology. Today, synthetic fuels development no longer holds the urgency that elevated it to a position of national prominence a few years ago. However, most analysts agree that the underlying circumstances that will determine the U.S. energy future are unchanged. World oil supplies are dwindling, and the largest source of U.S. petroleum supplies remains one of the most politically volatile regions. In fact, the oil glut proclaimed only a few months ago shows signs of evaporating. Already, spot shortages of crucial energy products have been reported-most notably transportation fuels. The U.S. still has within its borders the largest coal reserves in the free world.

  11. Relationships between Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Math Attitudes, and Math Achievement: An International Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Sunny R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement have traditionally been studied within individual countries, despite the existence of large international data sets available for analysis. This dissertation investigated the relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement based on information from 50…

  12. Wind turbines for electric utilities: Development status and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a fuel saver is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  13. Wind turbines for electric utilities - Development status and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a 'fuel saver' is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  14. It's Not Over Yet: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the annual report of the American Association of University Professors on the economic status of the profession for 2010-2011. This analysis of the economic status of the faculty begins with results from this year's annual survey of full-time faculty compensation. Survey report table 1 presents the most basic results, while…

  15. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

  16. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  17. On the Relation between SocioEconomic Status and Physical Mobility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Frias-Martinez; Jesus Virseda-Jerez; Enrique Frias-Martinez

    2012-01-01

    In emerging economies, the socio-economic status is a key element to evaluate social improvement as it provides an understanding of the population's access to housing, education, health or basic services, such as water and electricity. The relationship between such indicators and human physical mobility has been researched mostly in areas like access to medical infrastructures and public transportation. However, such

  18. The effect of patient race and socio-economic status on physicians' perceptions of patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle van Ryn; Jane Burke

    2000-01-01

    Despite its potential influence on quality of care, there has been little research on the way physicians perceptions of and beliefs about patients are affected by patient race or socio-economic status. The lack of research in this area creates a critical gap in our understanding of how patients' demographic characteristics influence encounter characteristics, diagnoses, treatment recommendations, and outcomes. This study

  19. ECONOMIC STATUS, SMOKING, OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO RUBBER, AND LUNG CANCER: A CASE-COHORT STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke Li; Shunzhang Yu

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies tend consistently to confirm the presence of a moderate excess risk of lung cancer in the rubber industry. However, the agent responsible for the excess of lung cancer is still obscure. Also, analyses without regard to the modifying effects of sex, economic status, and smoking habit are less than satisfactory. To explore these questions, we have conducted a

  20. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  1. University of Technology, Sydney response to Measuring the Socio-economic Status of Higher Education Students

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    1 University of Technology, Sydney response to Measuring the Socio-economic Status of Higher should be made to establish acceptable measures based on individual circumstances, recognition should continue to be attributed to social environment, which exerts a powerful influence over school performance

  2. Employment and Health among Older Black Women: Implications for Their Economic Status. Working Paper No. 177.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Diane Robinson

    Recognizing that the economic well-being of older black females is associated with current employment as well as previous work history, this study attempts to determine the extent to which health status influences workforce participation or non-participation by older females, and to ascertain if there are significant differences by race. The study…

  3. Career Development Needs of Low Socio-Economic Status University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Erin

    2011-01-01

    With increased funding from the Australian federal government to improve the enrolments of students with low socio-economic status into university, identifying the career needs of this student cohort is of utmost importance, if indeed they are different from other university students. This will ensure career services offer comprehensive and…

  4. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  5. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  6. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  7. [Economic aspects of allergies: status and prospects for Austria].

    PubMed

    Stein, Viktoria; Dorner, Thomas; Lawrence, Kitty; Kunze, Michael; Rieder, Anita

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies there has been an increase of allergic diseases and corresponding costs. Health economics analyses intend to offer decision guidance towards a more efficient and effective resource distribution, in the conflicting relationship of medicine and economics. In analogy with the "Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)-study", one arrives at costs of Euro 227.7-455.4 million for the Austrian health system in 2004 for asthma. Direct costs of allergies in general are in part available from health insurance carriers. Between 1998 and 2005 the number of nasal preparations and antiobstructive therapies prescribed rose by 15% and 50% respectively, whilst the costs of these drugs dramatically increased by 96% and 70% respectively. Expenditure on anti-histamines rose by 31% between 2002 and 2004, whereas costs of topical and systemic anti-allergic drugs remained constant. Costs of allergies also include additional costs carried by the individuals affected, which must be added to those covered by the national health insurance carriers. Furthermore, patients with allergies more frequently turn to alternative and complimentary medicine to treat their condition (above all homeopathic remedies, massages and ointments) than people not suffering from allergies. Indirect costs due to allergies are, for instance, those caused by sick leave and loss of productivity. A continual systematic evaluation of available data on allergies in Austria could contribute to more effective implementation of medicines. PMID:17915437

  8. Fuel Cells: Status and Technical/Economic Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Rambach, G.

    1996-02-01

    The need for fuel cell and alternative fuels has become increasingly important in that the U.S. spends 1 billion dollars per week to import oil, and is expected to import 80-100 billion per year in oil by the year 2010. These imports account for half of our oil supply. If 20% of the U.S. vehicle fleet were powered by fuel cells there would be: an offset 1.1 million barrels of oil per day; and a reduction of 2 million tons per year of regulated air pollutants. Fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from reformed natural gas results in more than 90% reduction in regulated emissions, and a 70% reduction in CO2, a greenhouse gas. And fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from renewables (wind, solar geothermal, hydro) results in total elimination of all emissions. When fuel cells become commercialized: they will improve America`s economic competitiveness; and the regions where they are produced will benefit economically.

  9. Integration of gender-specific aspects into medical curricula - status quo und future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pfleiderer, Bettina; Burghaus, Désirée; Bayer, Gudrun; Kindler-Röhrborn, Andrea; Heue, Matthias; Becker, Jan Carl

    2012-01-01

    The consideration of gender aspects in clinical routine is of high importance towards an individualized patient care and a starting point of diversity medicine. Gender-specific awareness is an indispensable basis for an optimized medical treatment. A current study at the medical faculties of Muenster and Duisburg-Essen University (Germany) revealed an insufficient knowledge among students and lecturers in this area. An interdisciplinary, international workshop took place in Muenster (Germany) in May 2012 on the topic how to integrate gender aspects into medical curricula in the future aiming at a better health care for both sexes in long term. This position paper summarizes the conclusions. It was suggested to teach gender-specific contents from the first semester comprehensively – using standardized definitions and a gender-neutral language, since it is crucial not to increase the students’ workload any further. The key to success is to implement gender aspects by using meaningful examples on a regular basis – ideally in a longitudinal manner. The content of teaching should be selected by the lecturers and full professors and be considered within students´ exams. To reach these goals, an absolute support of the respective medical faculties as well as the integration of these gender-specific learning objectives into the national competence-based learning catalogue for medical education (NKLM) is obligatory. PMID:23255960

  10. Relations of vitamin D status, gender and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Stadlmayr, Andreas; Aigner, Elmar; Huber-Schönauer, Ursula; Niederseer, David; Zwerina, Jochen; Husar-Memmer, Emma; Hohla, Florian; Schett, Georg; Patsch, Wolfgang; Datz, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency may be linked to the development of obesity-associated complications such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We therefore evaluated the relationship of Vit D serum concentrations with metabolic parameters and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Caucasian men and women. One thousand six hundred and thirty-one Caucasians (832 males, 58.8 ± 9.7 years; 799 females, 59.7 ± 10.7 years) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Vit D status was assessed by measuring the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. Type 2 diabetes prevalence was ascertained by medical history, fasting plasma glucose concentrations, oral glucose tolerance testing and/or glycosylated hemoglobin. Men displayed higher crude or seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D3 serum concentrations than women (24.64 ± 10.98 vs. 22.88 ± 11.6 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Strong associations between body mass index (BMI) and 25(OH)D3 were observed in both genders (P < 0.001). Seasonally adjusted levels of 25(OH)D3 revealed stronger associations with type 2 diabetes in women than men (P < 0.001). However, adjustment for BMI and other confounding variables revealed an independent inverse association of 25(OH)D3 with diabetes only in women (P < 0.001), whereas the association was abrogated in men. Using a 15 ng/ml 25(OH)D3 cutoff for binary comparison, adjusted odds ratios for having newly diagnosed or known type 2 diabetes more than doubled (2.95 [95 % CI 1.37-4.89] and 3.26 [1.59-6.68], respectively), in women below the cutoff. We conclude that in women, but not in men, low 25(OH)D3 serum levels are independently associated with type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest sex-specific effects of Vit D in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24849007

  11. [Gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity in the context of health and migration].

    PubMed

    Binder-Fritz, C; Rieder, A

    2014-09-01

    This article deals with the significance of gender as a social determinant of health and questions the influence of gender roles in health-care services. In the context of worldwide migration, women and men of different ethnicity or social class meet with health-care providers in cross-cultural medical settings. This setting is a challenge for the European Region and in order to allow for diversity and gender sensitivity in health-care practice, interventions should address a range of factors. The concept of intersectionality goes beyond gender sensitivity and includes the consideration of other dimensions of difference, such as age, social class, education, and ethnicity. The interaction between these social dimensions of health shapes the health needs of patients and also influences doctor-patient communiation and social interaction. PMID:25085241

  12. “RESPECTING YOUR HOME”: ECONOMIC CHANGE AND GENDER IDEOLOGY IN A NATIVE COMMUNITY IN SOUTHERN VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verónica Vázquez García

    1996-01-01

    Research on gender and household dynamics in the Third World has shown us that women make an important contribution to the domestic economy. However, few studies have explored the relationship between women's income-generating activities, gender identities and decision-making power within the household. This paper explores these issues in Pajapan, a native community of southern Veracruz, Mexico. The analysis is based

  13. The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Directions in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.

    The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…

  14. Immigrant Status and Cognitive Functioning in Late Life: An Examination of Gender Variations in the Healthy Immigrant Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Terrence D.; Angel, Jacqueline L.; Balistreri, Kelly S.; Herrera, Angelica P.

    2014-01-01

    Although some research suggests that the healthy immigrant effect extends to cognitive functioning, it is unclear whether this general pattern varies according to gender. We use six waves of data collected from the original cohort of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate a series of linear growth curve models to assess variations in cognitive functioning trajectories by nativity status and age at migration to the U.S.A. among women and men. Our results show, among women and men, no differences in baseline cognitive status (intercepts) between early- (before age 20) and late-life (50 and older) immigrants and U.S.-born individuals of Mexican-origin. We also find, among women and men, that middle-life (between the ages of 20 and 49) immigrants tend to exhibit higher levels of baseline cognitive functioning than the U.S.-born. Our growth curve analyses suggest that the cognitive functioning trajectories (slopes) of women do not vary according to nativity status and age at migration. The cognitive functioning trajectories of early- and late-life immigrant men are also similar to those of U.S.-born men; however, those men who migrated in middle-life tend to exhibit slower rates of cognitive decline. A statistically significant interaction term suggests that the pattern for middle-life migration is more pronounced for men (or attenuated for women). In other words, although women and men who migrated in middle-life exhibit higher levels of baseline cognitive functioning, immigrant men tend to maintain this advantage for a longer period of time. Taken together, these patterns confirm that gender is an important conditioning factor in the association between immigrant status and cognitive functioning. PMID:22609085

  15. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400

  16. Weight status, gender, and race/ethnicity: are there differences in meeting recommended health behavior guidelines for adolescents?

    PubMed

    Minges, Karl E; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-04-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400

  17. Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES) as the contextual determinant of nutritional status of children. Methods Using National Family Health Survey-3 data, an attempt is made to estimate socio-economic inequality in childhood stunting at the state level through Concentration Index (CI). Multi-level models; random-coefficient and random-slope are employed to study the impact of SES on long-term nutritional status among children, keeping in view the hierarchical nature of data. Main findings Across the states, a disproportionate burden of stunting is observed among the children from poor SES, more so in urban areas. The state having lower prevalence of chronic childhood malnutrition shows much higher burden among the poor. Though a negative correlation (r = -0.603, p < .001) is established between Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) and CI values for stunting; the development indicator is not always linearly correlated with intra-state inequality in malnutrition prevalence. Results from multi-level models however show children from highest SES quintile posses 50 percent better nutritional status than those from the poorest quintile. Conclusion In spite of the declining trend of chronic childhood malnutrition in India, the concerns remain for its disproportionate burden on the poor. The socio-economic gradient of long-term nutritional status among children needs special focus, more so in the states where chronic malnutrition among children apparently demonstrates a lower prevalence. The paper calls for state specific policies which are designed and implemented on a priority basis, keeping in view the nature of inequality in childhood malnutrition in the country and its differential characteristics across the states. PMID:20701758

  18. Quality of life in Lithuanian population: the impact of country residence and socio-economic status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina R?klaitien?; Migl? Bacevi?ien?; K. Andrijauskas

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) and individual perception of health has become a subject of great interest in Lithuania. The relationships\\u000a between country residence, socio-economic status (SES), and QoL have not been well characterized among the Lithuanian urban\\u000a and rural populations. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of country residence and SES on QoL in Lithuanian\\u000a urban

  19. Aged widows and OASDI: age at and economic status before and after receipt of benefits.

    PubMed

    Rogers, G T

    1981-03-01

    This article, which is based on panel data from the Retirement History Study, analyzes the economic status of widows in late middle age. Its objectives are threefold: (1) To describe the income, labor-force, and demographic characteristics of widows 2 to 3 years before they become eligible for old-age benefits under the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (OASDI) program; (2) to examine the age at which they elect benefits and the characteristics associated with that decision; and (3) to compare their economic status before and after they begin collecting benefits. The findings show that employment during the pre-OASDI period greatly influenced a widow's benefit-timing decision. Among workers, the decision was related to earnings, occupation, job tenure, extent of employment, income from assets, pension coverage, monthly benefit amount, and work limitations. Earnings and monthly benefit amount were important pivotal variables. Although the majority of widows experienced a reduction in their standard of living after moving into beneficiary status, a sizable minority--made up mainly of the most economically disadvantaged--experienced and improvement. PMID:7221836

  20. Marital status and colon cancer outcomes in US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries: Does marriage affect cancer survival by gender

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Tony R.

    and prostate cancer [7­16], and all but a few studies [9,16] find statistically significant survival benefitsMarital status and colon cancer outcomes in US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries: Does marriage affect cancer survival by gender and stage? Li Wang a, *, Sven E. Wilson b , David

  1. Effect of gender on the association between weight status and health-related quality of life in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Methods Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l’ALIMentation et de l’Activité Physique (PRALIMAP) trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. Results The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%), and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042). All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=<0.0001). Weight status was not associated with physical and social scores neither in boys nor in girls. Conversely, it was associated with mental score, but differently in girls than boys. As compared with normal-weight girls, thin girls had better mental HRQoL (?=+6.17, p=0.0010), and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (?=?3.89 and ?=?5.90, respectively, p<0.001). Mental HRQoL was lower for thin, overweight and obese boys than for normal-weight boys (?= ?4.97, ?= ?1.68 and ?= ?3.17, respectively, p<0.0001). Conclusions Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during adolescence. PMID:23157722

  2. The Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Students: Focus on Auditory Status and Gender.

    PubMed

    McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L

    2014-10-01

    Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:25287415

  3. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485

  4. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed. PMID:20401788

  5. That's a Boy's Toy: Gender-Typed Knowledge in Toddlers as a Function of Mother's Marital Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Hupp; Jessi L. Smith; Jill M. Coleman; Amy B. Brunell

    2010-01-01

    A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more

  6. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  7. Gender and Economic Change in the United States and Mexico, 1900-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fernandez-Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between changing gender definitions and eco- nomic development in the United States and Mexico over the course of a century. On the basis of historical research and fieldwork, the author highlights the role played by the national state in both countries in defining the proper ambit and behavior of men and women. She maintains that

  8. The Johns Hopkins University admits students of any race, color, gender, religion, age, national or ethnic origin, disability, marital status or veteran status to all of the rights, privileges, programs, ben-

    E-print Network

    Scharfstein, Daniel

    at the University. It does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, gender, marital status, pregnancy of Student/Employee Images · Policy Against Discrimination (Including Sexual and Non-Sexual Harassment Act (FERPA) · Smoke-free Policy · Student Conduct Code · Student Grievance Procedure · Policy

  9. An Evaluation of African American Adolescent Health Status With Gender Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy L. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The goals of Healthy People 2010 are to increase the quality of life and life expectancy, and eliminate health disparities. There is no clear picture, however, if these goals are being addressed by African American adolescents. This study was conducted to evaluate health status of African American adolescents aged 13-19 in Florida's Big Bend Region. Healthy People 2010 objectives were

  10. Exploring the Literature on Relationships between Gender Roles, Intimate Partner Violence, Occupational Status, and Organizational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…

  11. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

  12. Investigation of Vocational Interest and Preference in Terms of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Kaan Zülfikar; Türe, Ersin; Uysal, Asli; Akar, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Individuals tend to prefer a vocation in order to reach their targets such as leading a life, nutrition, housing, being safe, having a good position in society etc. It is a task of the adolescence period to choose a vocation which is for some the most important step of the life, while for some others it is a rather important…

  13. Gender and Schooling in Appalachia: Historical Lessons for an Era of Economic Restructuring. Research Paper 9411.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggard, Sally Ward

    This paper addresses issues involving the designing of new job training and education programs in central Appalachia in response to national policies for economic improvement. In March 1994, the Reemployment Act of 1994 was announced as the Clinton administration's response to problems caused by radical and worldwide economic restructuring. The…

  14. Work participation, gender and economic development: A quantitative anatomy of the Indian scenario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Mathur

    1994-01-01

    This article analyses forces which influence the degree of participation of population in economic activity in a developing economy. In the first stage the relationship between economic development and work participation is examined. The core of the analysis is based on a cross?sectional study of 306 districts of India, using a composite index of development. The entire analysis is conducted

  15. Pathways to Economic Security: Gender and Nonstandard Employment in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Compiling data from several government surveys, this article identifies key social indicators of economic security associated with nonstandard employment in Japan. Empirical trends of nonstandard employment are contextualized in the development of Japanese coordinated capitalism from the economic boom during the 1960s through the recession of the…

  16. Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child. Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. Methods A descriptive analysis of trends in place of delivery using data from two national representative sample surveys in 1992 and 1998 is followed by a two-level (child/mother and community) random-effects logistical regression model using the second survey to investigate the determinants. Results In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Conclusion Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect. In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India. PMID:20525393

  17. The Relationship between Economic Status, Knowledge on Dengue, Risk Perceptions and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marta; Sánchez, Lizet; Pérez, Dennis; Sebrango, Carlos; Shkedy, Ziv; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The reemergence of dengue as an important public health problem reflects the difficulties in sustaining vertically organized, effective, control programs and the need for community-based strategies for Aedes aegypti control that result in behavioral change. We aimed to disentangle the relationships between underlying determinants of dengue related practices. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 780 households in La Lisa, Havana, Cuba. A questionnaire and an observation guide were administrated to collect information on variables related to economic status, knowledge on dengue, risk perception and practices associated with Aedes aegypti breading sites. To test a conceptual model that hypothesized direct relationships among all these constructs, we first used Exploratory Factor Analysis with Principal Component Analysis to establish the relationship between observed variables and the underlying latent variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the observed data supported the conceptual model through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated that the items measured could be reduced into five factors with an eigenvalue >1.0: Knowledge on dengue, Intradomiciliar risk practices, Peridomiciliar risk practices, Risk perception and Economic status. The proportion of the total variance in the data explained by these five factors was 74.3%. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis model differed from our hypothesized conceptual model. Only Knowledge on dengue had a significant, direct, positive, effect on Practices. There was also a direct association of Economic status with Knowledge on dengue, but not with Risk perception and Practices. Clarifying the relationship between direct and indirect determinants of dengue related practices contributes to a better understanding of the potential effect of Information Education and Communication on practices and on the reduction of Aedes aegypti breeding sites and provides inputs for designing a community based strategy for dengue control. PMID:24349145

  18. [The present status and attempts toward the achievement of gender equality in the JAA].

    PubMed

    Senba, Emiko

    2013-09-01

    The proportion of female members in The Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) is 18% with the proportion of female members higher among the young generation (20-30 Y.O.; 34.8%, 30-40 Y.O.; 26.8%). However, the number of female members in the Board of Directors has been zero or one (0 or 6%) for many years. More than two female members are necessary on the Board to promote the diversity in the management of the JAA. The numbers of female members in other committees has shown gradual increase in recent years. A substantial increase in female faculty members including professors in each university and school will support the future development of the anatomical research field and the association. We have made the first great step by setting up the committee on promotion of gender equality in JAA in March, 2011. In the next year, JAA became a member of Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). Our committee's activity includes holding workshops and seminars at the annual meetings to promote gender equality in the research field and to encourage mutual support and friendship, not only among women members but also among all members. PMID:24066390

  19. Ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index in the United States: The role of parental socioeconomic status and economic contextual factors

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Krauss, Ramona C.; Wang, Youfa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black–white (63%), male Hispanic–white (78%) and female Hispanic–white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one-half of the female black–white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black–white and Hispanic–white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black–white and Hispanic–white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic–white BMI gap than the black–white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black–white and Hispanic–white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents. PMID:22607746

  20. Nutritive value of meals, dietary habits and nutritive status in Croatian university students according to gender.

    PubMed

    Coli? Bari?, Irena; Satali?, Zvonimir; Lukesi?, Zeljka

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the nutritive value was calculated using food composition tables. Daily menus on average provide an adequate amount of energy, protein and most micronutrients: 88.2% of daily menus provide a balanced intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates, 22.5% of daily menus provide more than 300 mg of cholesterol, and 58.8% have more than 25 g dietary fibre. On average, students had 2.4 meals and 1.3 snacks per day. Breakfast was the most often skipped meal. Red meat, cereals and fast food were consumed more often by males (P<0.05). Low-fat dairy products, whole grain products and breakfast cereals were consumed more often by females (P<0.05). The most common choice for snacks was fruit. Males exercised more than females (4.4 h/week versus 1.6 h/week; P<0.05). A higher percentage of females (29.8%) than males (17.2%) smoked cigarettes. For alcohol consumption it was vice versa: 88.9 and 84.8% of males and females, respectively. A total of 80.4% of students were well nourished. This study showed that meals offered at students' restaurants are adequate. Dietary and other health-related behaviour differed according to gender. Clustering of some behaviours was observed. PMID:14522693

  1. Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jason C.; Roberts, Sarah C.M.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B.

    2010-01-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. PMID:20623016

  2. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia

    2007-01-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25?BMI<30) and obesity (30?BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women. PMID:17368895

  3. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

  4. Self-reported functional and general health status among older respondents in China: the impact of age, gender, and place of residence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Yue, Yuwen; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-03-01

    This study made comparisons of self-reported functional and general health status between Chinese women and men in different age-groups in rural and urban settings and examined multiple factors relating to these health statuses in older adults. This study included a sample of 4017 respondents, aged 55 years and older, from the Hubei subsample of the Chinese National Health Service Survey III in 2003. The results illustrate that the differences in self-rated functional and general health status between genders and between urban and rural areas diminished with age. Access to health care was strongly associated with health status. The quality of the local environment, measured by access to tap water, was a significant factor for rural residents. Our study suggests that improving access to health care services and reducing environmental health risks are critical for improving physical functioning, psychological functioning, and self-rated general health for older adults in China. PMID:22199153

  5. Household Financial Status and Gender Perspectives in Determining the Financial Impact of Foot and Mouth Disease in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Abila, R; Dy, C; Windsor, P A

    2014-09-30

    The socioeconomic impacts of foot and mouth disease (FMD) during 2011-12 outbreaks on large ruminant smallholders in Laos were investigated, including examination of data on gender, household financial status and farmer husbandry practices. A mix of participatory tools and survey questionnaires at the village and household level, respectively, were conducted, involving individual farmer interviews (n = 124) and group meetings with village elders to establish criteria for classification of household financial status as being 'poor, medium or well off' according to rice sufficiency, assets and household incomes. FMD-attributable financial losses were determined by inclusion of losses due to: mortality, morbidity and costs of treatments. The estimated mean financial losses due to FMD were USD 436 (±92) in the 'poor' and USD 949 (±76) in the 'well off' household categories (P < 0.001), being 128% and 49% of income from the sale of large ruminants, respectively. Variation in financial losses reflected differences in morbidity, farmer husbandry practices including frequency of observation of animals and thus recognition of FMD and choice of treatments. Of concern were adverse financial impacts of treatment especially where antibiotics were used; delays in reporting of FMD cases after observation of signs (mean of 2 days); admission that 10% of farmers had sold FMD-affected livestock; and that 22% of respondents claimed their large ruminants were cared for by females. The findings confirm that FMD has the most severe financial impact on poorer households and that females have a significant role in large ruminant production. It is recommended that livestock extension activities promote the benefits of prevention rather than treatment for FMD and encourage participation of women in biosecurity and disease risk management interventions including rapid reporting and regulatory compliance, particularly with animal movement controls and other biosecurity practices that reduce the negative impacts of FMD on regional food security and poverty reduction in rural communities. PMID:25269105

  6. Socio-economic status and socio-emotional health of orphans in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Motsaathebe

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and emotional well-being of orphans in Mangaung, South Africa. Five hundred orphans aged 7-11 years participated in the cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2012. Data was collected by trained fieldworkers, who conducted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires with the orphans, their teachers and caregivers, and the heads of the households where the orphans resided. The caregivers, children and teachers all completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to measure the orphans' mental health, while heads of household provided information about socio-economic indicators. STATA version 12 was used to perform multivariate data analyses to identify socio-economic factors associated with the mental health of orphans. Food security, access to medical services and a male caregiver were factors associated with better emotional well-being of orphans, whereas other variables such as household asset index and monthly household expenditure were not linked with the orphans' mental health. Two of the three variables (food security and access to medical services) associated with better emotional well-being of orphans are also government interventions to assist orphans. Further research is needed to determine whether other government programs also impact the emotional well-being of orphans. PMID:24968757

  7. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln does not discriminate based on gender, age, disability, race, color, marital status, veteran's status, national or ethnic origin, or sexual orientation.

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    , color, marital status, veteran's status, national or ethnic origin, or sexual orientation. STUDENT. Participate as an active staff member in all Student Involvement training, orientation, and staff development

  8. Identity economics meets financialisation: gender, race and occupational stratification in the US labour market

    E-print Network

    Arestis, Philip; Charles, Aurelie; Fontana, Giuseppe

    2014-07-23

    skill- 5 biased technology changes have caused income inequalities, which in turn have led to political responses that altered the state of finance (e.g. the lending activities of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) in a way that helped to generate... , which at the end led to the financial crisis. In the continental EU, the shift to profits tended to raise private savings thereby depressing aggregate demand and then economic activity. Budget deficits could have been increased in order to maintain a...

  9. A psychometric study of restraint: the impact of race, gender, weight and marital status.

    PubMed

    Klem, M L; Klesges, R C; Bene, C R; Mellon, M W

    1990-01-01

    This investigation examined the psychometric characteristics of the Revised Restraint Scale and its two subscales (Weight Fluctuation, Concern for Dieting) in a university with a diverse student population. Subjects were 497 individuals (151 men, 346 women) ranging in age from 17 to 57 years (mean age = 21 years). Of the total sample, 70% were White (n = 348) and 22% were Black (n = 109). Results indicated significant between-groups differences on the total Restraint scores, with Whites scoring higher than Blacks, females scoring higher than males, and overweight individuals scoring higher than normal weight individuals. Similar results were found with both of the subscales. Despite the large number of between-groups differences observed, internal reliabilities of the total scale and the two subscales were similar and generally high within each of the categories surveyed. In general, however, lower reliabilities were observed for overweight subjects compared to normal weight subjects. The results of this study suggest that restraint status may vary as a function of individuals' demographic characteristics. PMID:2343788

  10. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  11. Traffic, air pollution, minority and socio-economic status: addressing inequities in exposure and risk.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Vadali, Monika L; Kvale, Dorian L; Ellickson, Kristie M

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  12. A Very Slow Recovery: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2011-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna; Curtis, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the annual report on the economic status of the profession. Although the results of this year's survey of full-time faculty compensation are marginally better than they have been the last two years, 2011-12 represents the continuation of a historic low period for faculty salaries. The overall average salary for full-time…

  13. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…

  14. Does Socio-Economic Status Moderate the Associations between Psychosocial Predictors and Fruit Intake in Schoolchildren? The Pro Children Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandvik, C.; Gjestad, R.; Samdal, O.; Brug, J.; Klepp, K. -I.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether socio-economic status (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…

  15. The Relationship between Mississippi Accreditation Ranking and Socio-Economic Status of Student Populations in Accredited Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Ed; Box, Jennifer A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) of students has long been viewed as having a strong impact on student achievement. While the nature and strength of the relationship between SES and student achievement may be open to some debate, the almost universal acceptance of SES as an important variable in student achievement outcomes has implications for funding…

  16. Inequality in prime-age adult deaths in a high AIDS mortality setting: does the measure of economic status matter?

    PubMed

    Opuni, Marjorie; Peterman, Amber; Bishai, David

    2011-11-01

    We analyze deaths among prime-aged men and women during a 13-year period in a high AIDS mortality setting and examine the distribution of deaths by the economic status of these individuals at baseline using the 1991-2004 Kagera Health and Development Survey (KHDS). We investigate whether the distribution of subsequent prime-age adult deaths as measured by concentration indices depends on the measure of living standards used. We compare the performance of three measures: (1) per capita expenditure; (2) a modern wealth asset index replicating the asset index included in the 2004 Tanzanian AIDS Indicator Survey data file; and (3) a traditional wealth asset index, which includes only measures of traditional wealth. We find no evidence that economic status is linked to prime-age adult deaths, for both men and women, regardless of the measure of economic status used. This finding suggests both that more generally the measure of economic status used does not appear to be crucial, and specifically that relationships using traditional measures of wealth do not seem to differ from those using conventional measures. PMID:20878903

  17. Examination of Science Learning Equity through Argumentation and Traditional Instruction Noting Differences in Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, O.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared student scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge in argumentation-based and traditional instruction, taught in school regions with low and high socio-economic status (SES) respectively. Furthermore, concrete and formal reasoning students' scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge were compared during both instructions…

  18. Prevalence of self-reported eczema in relation to living environment, socio-economic status and respiratory symptoms assessed in a questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Montnemery, Peter; Nihlén, Ulf; Göran Löfdahl, Claes; Nyberg, Per; Svensson, Åke

    2003-01-01

    Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE) were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional) was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits) and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6%) stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p < 0.05). The prevalence of self-reported eczema among the economically active population varied from 17.1% to 8.2% with the highest rates among assistant non-manual employees. However, when controlling for age, gender and risk occupation there was no association between low social position and eczema. Living close to heavy traffic (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.25–1.67) and living seaside (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01–1.35) but not urban/suburban living was associated with eczema. Heredity of eczema (OR = 5.77, 95% CI 5.02–6.64), self reported allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 2.00–2.68), self reported asthma (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.56–2.51) and self reported CBE (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.87) were all associated with eczema. Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis. PMID:12859793

  19. Attitudes towards Masculine Japanese Speech in Multilingual Professional Contexts of Hong Kong: Gender, Identity, and Native-Speaker Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Hiroko

    2008-01-01

    The gendered speech in a foreign language has been found to pose barriers for learners due to different gender norms associated with their mother tongue and the foreign language. The problem is especially serious with the masculine and feminine forms of speech in the Japanese language, as these are strongly linked with social inequality between…

  20. Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery-Oriented Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students’ socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students’ learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students’ achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University’s educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University. PMID:23951219

  1. Regulation of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor by nutritional status, metformin, gender and pituitary factors in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Caminos, J E; Vázquez, M J; Garcés, M F; Cepeda, L A; Angel, A; González, A C; García-Rendueles, M E; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; López, M; Bravo, S B; Nogueiras, R; Diéguez, C

    2009-07-15

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a recently discovered adipocytokine mainly secreted from visceral adipose tissue, which plays a main role in insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of vaspin gene expression in rat white adipose tissue (WAT) in different physiological (nutritional status, pregnancy, age and gender) and pathophysiological (gonadectomy, thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency) settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis and alterations in insulin sensitivity. We have determined vaspin gene expression by real-time PCR. Vaspin was decreased after fasting and its levels were partially recovered after leptin treatment. Chronic treatment with metformin increased vaspin gene expression. Vaspin mRNA expression reached the highest peak at 45 days in both sexes after birth and its expression was higher in females than males, but its levels did not change throughout pregnancy. Finally, decreased levels of growth hormone and thyroid hormones suppressed vaspin expression. These findings suggest that WAT vaspin mRNA expression is regulated by nutritional status, and leptin seems to be the nutrient signal responsible for those changes. Vaspin is influenced by age and gender, and its expression is increased after treatment with insulin sensitizers. Finally, alterations in pituitary functions modify vaspin levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating vaspin will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19470778

  2. Regulation of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor by nutritional status, metformin, gender and pituitary factors in rat white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    González, C R; Caminos, J E; Vázquez, M J; Garcés, M F; Cepeda, L A; Ángel, A; González, A C; García-Rendueles, M E; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; López, M; Bravo, S B; Nogueiras, R; Diéguez, C

    2009-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a recently discovered adipocytokine mainly secreted from visceral adipose tissue, which plays a main role in insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of vaspin gene expression in rat white adipose tissue (WAT) in different physiological (nutritional status, pregnancy, age and gender) and pathophysiological (gonadectomy, thyroid status and growth hormone deficiency) settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis and alterations in insulin sensitivity. We have determined vaspin gene expression by real-time PCR. Vaspin was decreased after fasting and its levels were partially recovered after leptin treatment. Chronic treatment with metformin increased vaspin gene expression. Vaspin mRNA expression reached the highest peak at 45 days in both sexes after birth and its expression was higher in females than males, but its levels did not change throughout pregnancy. Finally, decreased levels of growth hormone and thyroid hormones suppressed vaspin expression. These findings suggest that WAT vaspin mRNA expression is regulated by nutritional status, and leptin seems to be the nutrient signal responsible for those changes. Vaspin is influenced by age and gender, and its expression is increased after treatment with insulin sensitizers. Finally, alterations in pituitary functions modify vaspin levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating vaspin will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19470778

  3. Gender-specific influence of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache: the results from the Korean headache survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status plays an important role in pain coping strategy. Its influence on migraine and tension-type headache may differ by gender. This study aimed to evaluate how socioeconomic status affects the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache by gender. Methods We used data from the Korean Headache Survey, a population-based sample of Koreans aged 19–69 years. Education level, district size, and household income were evaluated as socioeconomic variables. Results Among 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 8.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-4.6%] and 29.1% (95% CI 25.7-32.5%) in women and 3.2% (95% CI 1.9-4.6%) and 32.5% (95% CI 29.1-35.9%) in men, respectively. In women, multiple regression analysis found that living in rural areas was related to higher prevalence of migraine [odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% CI 1.85-11.02] and lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.58) and college-level education was related to lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18–0.74). In men, multiple regression analysis failed to reveal significant influences of any socioeconomic variable on the prevalence of migraine or tension-type headache. Conclusions The influence of socioeconomic status on migraine and tension-type headache differs by gender, with women being more susceptible to socioeconomic influence. PMID:24093215

  4. Effect of Socio-Economic Status on the Prevalence of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jeong; Jeon, Ja Young; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Kwan Woo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose As Korean society has become industrialized and westernized, the prevalence of diabetes has increased rapidly. Environmental factors, especially socio-economic status (SES), may account for the increased prevalence of diabetes. We evaluated the associations between the prevalence of diabetes and SES as reflected by household income and education level. Materials and Methods This study was based on data obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2010-2012. Diabetes referred to a fasting plasma glucose ?126 mg/dL in the absence of known diabetes, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by a physician, and/or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Results Household income and education level were inversely associated with the prevalence of diabetes among individuals aged 30 years or older. These associations were more prominent in females aged 30-64 years. According to household income, the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for the lowest quartile group versus the highest quartile group was 4.96 (2.87-8.58). According to education level, the OR (95% CI) for the lowest quartile group versus the highest quartile group was 8.02 (4.47-14.4). Conclusion Public policies for the prevention and management of diabetes should be targeted toward people of lower SES, especially middle-aged females. PMID:25837168

  5. The economic status of trauma centers on the eve of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Eastman, A B; Bishop, G S; Walsh, J C; Richardson, J D; Rice, C L

    1994-06-01

    An in-depth understanding of the economic problems confronting trauma centers is essential for their continued development and to address impending changes of health care reform. A comprehensive financial and demographic survey was sent to 839 hospitals identified as potential trauma centers. A total of 313 surveys from 48 states were returned. Extensive information was collected in several areas including financial status (58% reported serious financial problems and 36% reported minor financial problems; 68% reported a financial loss), cost containment and management strategies, marketing, "halo" effect (53% reported positive effect), operational impacts, physician support (47% reported problems), malpractice (92% reported no special problem), role of auto insurance reimbursement, and access to rehabilitation. Detailed financial data of actual costs and reimbursements (95 respondents) were analyzed with the costing method used by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). These data will allow us to develop better strategies to deal with the problems of uncompensated and underfunded trauma care and improve trauma center viability. PMID:8015006

  6. Social and Economic Characteristics of Street Youth by Gender and Level of Street Involvement in Eldoret, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sorber, Rebecca; Winston, Susanna; Koech, Julius; Ayuku, David; Hu, Liangyuan; Hogan, Joseph; Braitstein, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY) in Eldoret, Kenya. Methods Participants were eligible if they were aged 12–21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time), or nights and days on the street (full-time) and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other). Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3. Results Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01–5.35), name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03–6.45), have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67–18.34), and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01–12.82). Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14–6.18), and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47–7.02). Conclusions These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics. PMID:24827584

  7. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio-economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the additive effects of socio-economic factors, number of psychiatric disorders, and religiosity on suicidal ideation among Blacks, based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001–2003, which included 3570 African-American and 1621 Caribbean Black adults. Socio-demographics, perceived religiosity, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime suicidal ideation were measured. Logistic regressions were fitted specific to groups based on the intersection of gender and ethnicity, while socioeconomics, number of life time psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity were independent variables, and lifetime serious suicidal ideation was the dependent variable. Results: Irrespective of ethnicity and gender, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] ranging from 2.4 for Caribbean Black women to 6.0 for Caribbean Black men). Only among African-American men (OR = 0.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–0.9), perceived religiosity had a residual protective effect against suicidal ideation above and beyond number of lifetime psychiatric disorders. The direction of the effect of education on suicidal ideating also varied based on the group. Conclusions: Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation.

  8. Influence of heavy traffic, city dwelling and socio-economic status on nasal symptoms assessed in a postal population survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Montnémery; M Popovic; M Andersson; L Greiff; P Nyberg; C.-G Löfdahl; C Svensson; C. G. A Persson

    2003-01-01

    Background: The association between social position, living environment and nasal symptoms is inconsistent. We wanted to test how living environment, occupation and social position were associated with nasal symptoms. Methods: In a postal survey study of a random sample of 12,079 adults, aged 20–59 years living in the southern part of Sweden the relationship between nasal symptoms, socio-economic status and

  9. The joint effects of risk status, gender, early literacy and cognitive skills on the presence of dyslexia among a group of high-risk Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Simpson W L; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W F; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by paediatricians. The age-5 performances on various literacy and cognitive tasks, gender and group status (familial risk or language delayed) were used to predict developmental dyslexia 2 years later using logistic regression analysis. Results showed that greater risk of dyslexia was related to slower rapid automatized naming, lower scores on morphological awareness, Chinese character recognition and English letter naming, and gender (boys had more risk). Three logistic equations were generated for estimating individual risk of dyslexia. The strongest models were those that included all print-related variables (including speeded number naming, character recognition and letter identification) and gender, with about 70% accuracy or above. Early identification of those Chinese children at risk for dyslexia can facilitate better dyslexia risk management. PMID:22271420

  10. Medical student socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes toward patient centered care: Do race, socioeconomic status and gender matter? A report from the Medical Student CHANGES study

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Rachel R.; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean; Yeazel, Mark; Nelson, David; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether attitudes toward patient-centered care differed by socio-demographic characteristics (race, gender, socioeconomic status) among a cohort of 3191 first year Black and White medical students attending a stratified random sample of US medical schools. Methods This study used baseline data from Medical Student CHANGES, a large national longitudinal cohort study of medical students. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of race, gender and SES with attitudes toward patient-centered care. Results Female gender and low SES were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward patient-centered care. Age was also a significant predictor of positive attitudes toward patient-centered care such that students older than the average age of US medical students had more positive attitudes. Black versus white race was not associated with attitudes toward patient-centered care. Conclusions New medical students' attitudes toward patient-centered care may shape their response to curricula and the quality and style of care that they provide as physicians. Some students may be predisposed to attitudes that lead to both greater receptivity to curricula and the provision of higher-quality, more patient-centered care. Practice implications Medical school curricula with targeted messages about the benefits and value of patient-centered care, framed in ways that are consistent with the beliefs and world-view of medical students and the recruitment of a socioeconomically diverse sample of students into medical schools are vital for improved care. PMID:25499003

  11. [Health status of people with a migrant background and impact of socio-economic factors : First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Saß, A C; Born, S; Ellert, U

    2015-06-01

    People with a migrant background (PMB) have specific health-related risk factors and resources compared to the non-migrant population (NMP). The analysis focuses on the relationship between migrant background and health and health-related behavior. Moreover, the study analyses whether socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the explanation of differences between PMB and the NMP. The research is based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2012, n?=?8151). The population for cross-sectional analyses contains 1107 PMB (weighted 19.8?%). The research question is addressed on the basis of nine exemplary health outcomes. All analyses are gender specific and make a distinction between first and second generation PMB. Logistic regression is calculated adjusting for age and SES. The results reveal clear gender-specific patterns: For women, differences are statistically significant mainly for first generation PMB. Compared to the NMP their self-assessed health status is lower, they are less physically active, consume less alcohol, feel less informed about cancer screening programs and make less use of preventive health services. However, daily smoking is more prevalent in second generation women. For men, differences are statistically significant for first and second generation PMB. Men with a migrant background show more symptoms of depression, consume less alcohol and feel less informed about cancer screening programs. After adjusting for SES the impact of migrant background on health status and health-related behavior largely remains stable. The study shows that the DEGS1 data offers valuable results and new insights into the health status of people with a migrant background. The use of this data for further research requires a differentiated approach to the concept of migrant background and a careful interpretation of results. PMID:25824135

  12. Discrimination versus specialization: a survey of economic studies on sexual orientation, gender and earnings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Elizabeth Dunne

    2008-01-01

    Several studies examine the link between sexual orientation and earnings using large data sets that distinguish sexual orientation through questions about sexual behavior and/or by allowing respondents to self-identify as part of a same-sex cohabitating couple. After controlling for other earnings-related characteristics these studies generally show an earnings penalty for gay/bisexual men relative to heterosexual men and an earnings premium for lesbian/bisexual women relative to heterosexual women. Explanations for this gender disparity include gender differences in sexual orientation discrimination, greater labor force attachment for lesbian/bisexual women, and the effects of the overall gender earnings gap. PMID:19042290

  13. Associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in US black and white adults.

    PubMed

    Kell, K P; Judd, S E; Pearson, K E; Shikany, J M; Fernández, J R

    2015-06-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with measures of diet quality; however, such measures have not directly captured overall eating practices in individuals. Based on the factor analysis of fifty-six food groups from FFQ, associations between patterns of food consumption and SES were examined in a nationwide sample of 17 062 black (34·6 %) and white participants (age >45 years) from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, racial group and geographic region were used to examine adherence to five emergent dietary patterns (convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, southern and alcohol/salads) according to four levels each of individual education, household income and community-level SES. Further models assessed adherence to these dietary patterns by racial group, and an overall model including both racial groups examined whether the relationships between SES and adherence to these dietary patterns differed among black and white participants. For all the three measures of SES, higher SES had been associated with greater adherence to plant-based and alcohol/salads patterns, but lower adherence to sweets/fats and southern patterns. Statistically significant differences between black and white participants were observed in the associations between household income and adherence to alcohol/salads, individual education and adherence to plant-based and sweets/fats, and community SES and adherence to convenience patterns. As adherence to dietary patterns has been shown to be associated with health outcomes in this population (e.g. stroke), the present study offers valuable insight into behavioural and environmental factors that may contribute to health disparities in the diverse US population. PMID:25869232

  14. Fair play doesn't matter: MEP modulation as a neurophysiological signature of status quo bias in economic interactions.

    PubMed

    Pisoni, Alberto; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; Zarri, Luca; Vergallito, Alessandra; Romero Lauro, Leonor Josefina

    2014-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies show that watching others' movements enhances motor evoked potential (MEPs) amplitude of the muscles involved in the observed action (motor facilitation, MF). MF has been attributed to a mirror neuron system mediated mechanism, causing an excitability increment of primary motor cortex. It is still unclear whether the meaning an action assumes when performed in an interpersonal exchange context could affect MF. This study aims at exploring this issue by measuring MF induced by the observation of the same action coupled with opposite reward values (gain vs loss) in an economic game. Moreover, the interaction frame was manipulated by showing the same actions within different economic games, the Dictator Game (DG) and the Theft Game (TG). Both games involved two players: a Dictator/Thief and a receiver. Experimental participants played the game always as receivers whereas the Dictator/Thief roles were played by our confederates. In each game Dictator/Thief's choices were expressed by showing a grasping action of one of two cylinders, previously associated with fair/unfair choices. In the DG the dictator decides whether to share (gain condition) or not (no-gain condition) a sum of money with the receiver, while in TGs the thief decides whether to steal (loss condition) or not to steal (no-loss condition) it from the participants. While the experimental subjects watched the videos showing these movements, a single TMS pulse was delivered to their motor hand area and a MEP was recorded from the right FDI muscle. Results show that, in the DG, MF was enhanced by the status quo modification, i.e. MEP amplitude increased when the dictator decided to change the receivers' status quo and share his/her money, and this was true when the status quo was more salient. The same was true for the TG, where the reverse happened: MF was higher for trials in which the thief decided to steal the participants' money, thus changing the status quo, in the block in which the status quo maintenance occurred more often. Data support the hypothesis that the economic meaning of the observed actions differently modulates MEP amplitude, pointing at an influence on MF exerted by a peculiar interaction between economic outcomes and variation of the subjects' initial status quo. PMID:24983714

  15. Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

  16. Gender Stereotypes as a Product of Inferred Sex Differences in Status: The Case of the Influenceability Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    According to sex stereotypes, women are more easily influenced than men. This stereotype may derive from perceivers' inferences that women occupy lower status positions than men, and the lower an individual's status in relation to other persons, the more he or she yields to their influence. Each subject (N=408) read a scenario describing a…

  17. Changes in How Students Use and Are Called Homophobic Epithets over Time: Patterns Predicted by Gender, Bullying, and Victimization Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Mereish, Ethan H.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested for changes in how students used and were called homophobic epithets as they progressed through high school. Boys used and were called these epithets with increased frequency over time, whereas girls reported decreases on both. Distinct gender socialization processes may contribute to these different patterns for…

  18. Gender and smoking status-based analysis of views regarding waterpipe and cigarette smoking in Aleppo, Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Maziak; S. Rastam; T. Eissenberg; T. Asfar; F. Hammal; M. E. Bachir; M. F. Fouad; K. D. Ward

    2004-01-01

    Background. Narghile (waterpipe) smoking is increasing across the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR), though little is known about the social attitudes and perceptions related to this method of tobacco use, and how those attitudes and perceptions are influenced by gender.Methods. Data from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2003 in Aleppo, Syria, were used to examine these issues. Overall, 855 participants were

  19. Mathematics, Gender, and Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Fennema

    Research has provided rich documentation of and knowledge about variables that are related to gender and mathematics, and moderate change in what has happened to females within mathematics education has occurred partly because of this scholarship. We need to continue research that documents the status of gender differences as they exist. However, research, as we know it, must be supplemented

  20. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?gender inequities alongside economic programming, because this type of combined intervention has potential to reduce levels of IPV. Additional large-scale intervention research is needed to replicate these findings. Trial registration Registration Number: NCT01629472. PMID:24176132

  1. Socio-economic status and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jung, Se-Hwan; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Ryu, Jae-In; Watt, Richard G

    2010-06-01

    The principle objective of this study was to assess the association between socio-economic status (SES) and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents aged 13-18, using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). The secondary objective was to assess the influences of other factors (pocket money, school type, family structure and psychological factors) on this association. Cross-sectional data were from the national 2007 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Oral health-related behaviours included health-enhancing behaviours (frequency of toothbrushing and dental visits) and health-compromising behaviours (smoking and frequency of intake of soft drinks and confections). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. To assess the influence of other factors, additional models adjusting for sex, school grade and each of the other factors were compared to the initial model, which adjusted for sex and school grade only. We found that family affluence had a linear association with health-enhancing behaviours and a roughly U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours. After adjusting for a number of variables, the linear association with health-enhancing behaviours persisted. The U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours remained but was partly attenuated and flattened. In addition, we found a marked influence of school type and family structure and pocket money on the association between FAS and oral health-compromising behaviours. The findings indicate that the health-enhancing behaviours of adolescents were strongly associated with family affluence, but the health-compromising behaviours were more strongly linked to factors other than family affluence. However, it is difficult to determine which factors contribute most in relation to family affluence because of other confounding factors, such as the education system, peer group, youth culture, part-time work and advertising. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess factors that interact with family SES to better understand the association between the SES and the oral health-compromising behaviours of adolescents. PMID:20359807

  2. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and the Frequency of School Web Page Access to Both Mobile and Non-Mobile Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richmond Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that student performance increases when parents become more involved in their children's education, and the positive influence of parental involvement has been shown to persist across racial, gender, and socio-economic barriers (Miller, Adsit, & Miller, 2005). As a result, an increasing number of schools have sought to use…

  3. Accounting for institutional change in health economic evaluation: a program to tackle HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jan, Stephen; Pronyk, Paul; Kim, Julia

    2008-02-01

    There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations. Their social value stems from their capacity to reduce the uncertainty in human interactions thereby both reducing transaction costs and, importantly, enabling the initiation and sustainability of various activities (instrumental value). Furthermore, institutions tend to be formed around certain ethical positions and as a consequence, act in binding future decision making to these positions (intrinsic value). Incorporating such notions of social value within a conventional welfare-based measure of benefit is problematic as institutional development is not necessarily consistent with individual utility. An institutionalist approach allows for these additional domains to be factored into economic evaluation. IMAGE is an intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV through microfinance, health education and community development, and involves significant initial investment in institution-building activities, notably through training activities with program staff and community members. The key to employing an institutionalist approach to the evaluation of IMAGE is in understanding the nature of those actions that can be seen as institution-building and determining: (1) the instrumental value of follow-up activities by appropriate amortisation of transaction costs over an horizon that reflects the economies gained from the intervention; and (2) the intrinsic value of any transformation in the community through a cost-consequences approach informed by an a priori conceptual model. This case study highlights how health sector interventions can effect institutional changes and how these are captured within a theory-based economic evaluation framework. PMID:18162273

  4. Gender inequality and the spread of HIV-AIDS in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aparna Mitra; Dipanwita Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to analyze the low status of women as being a major contributor for the observed gender inequality in the spread of HIV\\/AIDS in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses data from National Aids Control Organization, National Family Health Survey, and the Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Findings – This study highlights the

  5. Association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders in women: a population-based study of 5703 married rural women in India

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries that have described the association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders (CMDs) in rural women. Methods Population-based study of currently married rural women in the age group of 15–39 years. The baseline data are from the National Family Health Survey-II conducted in 1998. A follow-up study was conducted 4 years later in 2002–03. The outcome of CMD was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Due to the hierarchical nature and complex survey design, data were analysed using mixed-effect logistic regression with random intercept model. Results A total of 5703 women (representing 83.5% of eligible women) completed follow-up. The outcome of CMD was observed in 609 women (10.7%, 95% confidence interval 9.8–11.6). The following factors were independently associated with the outcome of CMD in the final multivariable model: higher age, low education, low standard of living, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), husband’s unsatisfactory reaction to dowry, husband’s alcohol use and women’s own tobacco use. Conclusions Socio-economic and gender disadvantage factors are independently associated with CMDs in this population of women. Strategies that address structural determinants, for example to promote women’s education and reduce their exposure to IPV, may reduce the burden of CMDs in women. PMID:21037247

  6. Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries: does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?

    PubMed Central

    Houweling, Tanja AJ; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2003-01-01

    Background Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economic status in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now, there is a lack of evidence on the extent to which the use of different measures of economic status affects the observed magnitude of health inequalities. Methods This paper provides this empirical evidence for 10 developing countries, using the Demographic and Health Surveys data-set. We compared the World Bank asset index to three alternative wealth indices, all based on household assets. Under-5 mortality and measles immunisation coverage were the health outcomes studied. Poor-rich inequalities in under-5 mortality and measles immunisation coverage were measured using the Relative Index of Inequality. Results Comparing the World Bank index to the alternative indices, we found that (1) the relative position of households in the national wealth hierarchy varied to an important extent with the asset index used, (2) observed poor-rich inequalities in under-5 mortality and immunisation coverage often changed, in some cases to an important extent, and that (3) the size and direction of this change varied per country, index, and health indicator. Conclusion Researchers and policy makers should be aware that the choice of the measure of economic status influences the observed magnitude of health inequalities, and that differences in health inequalities between countries or time periods, may be an artefact of different wealth measures used. PMID:14609435

  7. The relation of student behavior, peer status, race, and gender to decisions about school discipline using CHAID decision trees and regression modeling.

    PubMed

    Horner, Stacy B; Fireman, Gary D; Wang, Eugene W

    2010-04-01

    Peer nominations and demographic information were collected from a diverse sample of 1493 elementary school participants to examine behavior (overt and relational aggression, impulsivity, and prosociality), context (peer status), and demographic characteristics (race and gender) as predictors of teacher and administrator decisions about discipline. Exploratory results using classification tree analyses indicated students nominated as average or highly overtly aggressive were more likely to be disciplined than others. Among these students, race was the most significant predictor, with African American students more likely to be disciplined than Caucasians, Hispanics, or Others. Among the students nominated as low in overt aggression, a lack of prosocial behavior was the most significant predictor. Confirmatory analysis using hierarchical logistic regression supported the exploratory results. Similarities with other biased referral patterns, proactive classroom management strategies, and culturally sensitive recommendations are discussed. PMID:20159223

  8. [Sexual activity in advanced age in the context of gender, family status and personality aspects--results of a representative survey].

    PubMed

    Brähler, E; Unger, U

    1994-01-01

    In a representative study, 450 elderly men and women over the age of 60 years were--besides other questions--asked if they had any sexual activity within the last 12 months. Not regarding the gender of these persons, but rather just the marital status, i.e. if they still have a partner, two-thirds of the old people between 61-70 years and one-third of the group older than 70 years, who still have a partner, had sexual activity. We then looked for a relationship between sexual activity and special aspects of personality, measured by the Giessen Test. We found that older people who still have sexual activity describe themselves als less depressed, with more social contacts, and with a higher social potency than elderly people with no sexual activity. PMID:8053251

  9. Continuous Versus Episodic Change: The Impact of Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Donohue III; James Heckman

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the available evidence on the causes of black economic advance in order to assess the contribution of federal policy. Over the period 1920-1990, there were only two periods of relative black economic improvement -- during the 1940s and in the decade following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the voting Rights Act of 1965,

  10. Dynamic Aspects of of Children's Health, Intellectual Development, and Family Economic Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Shakotko

    1980-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation of childhood and adolescent health and cognitive development as determined by family economic variables. The model proposed recognizes that these processes may be jointly dependent, and may in part be determined by common unobserved factors; these factors may also be correlated with the observed family economic variables. A two-factor model is estimated using panel

  11. Gender, human capabilities and culture within the household economy : Different paths to socio-economic well-being?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris Altman; Louise Lamontagne

    2004-01-01

    An important hypothesis put forth by Amartya Sen is that a given level of per capita real income in a population can generate quite different levels of socio-economic well-being depending on the economic infrastructure of that population and the distribution of income. Sen's hypothesis is refined in this paper to reflect the manner in which income is spent and labor

  12. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, Tanja; Moretti, Diego; Kvalsvig, Jane; Holding, Penny A; Tjalsma, Harold; Kortman, Guus A M; Joosten, Irma; Mwangi, Alice; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0±1.1 months (mean±SD), we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (±SD) serum hepcidin was 6.0 (±3.4) ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor) were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA) infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (±4.9) vs. 3.4 (±4.9) ng/mL; P<0.001). Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation. PMID:23460869

  13. Social Support and Socioeconomic Status Predict Secondary Students' Grades and Educational Plans Indifferently across Immigrant Group and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola

    2015-01-01

    Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…

  14. Fatigue, insomnia and nervousness: gender disparities and roles of individual characteristics and lifestyle factors among economically active people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Peretti-Watel; Stéphane Legleye; Michèle Baumann; Marie Choquet; Bruno Falissard; Nearkasen Chau

    2009-01-01

    Background  Individuals with certain personal, family and job characteristics are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the respective\\u000a role of obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse, low education, income, living and family conditions, and socio-occupational category\\u000a in fatigue\\/insomnia (FI), nervousness (N) and frequent drug use for those disorders (DFI and DN) among men and women and in\\u000a gender disparities are not

  15. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of???50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season, and patient location. Improved 25(OH)D status was observed later in life, a finding that may reflect the previously described increased use of vitamin D-containing supplements in such populations. Severe vitamin D deficiency is much more common than vitamin D toxicity. PMID:24188187

  16. The Economic Status of Migrant Wives: An Application of Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytina, Nancy F.

    1981-01-01

    Lower work rate of migrant wives after moving is a function of moving for husbands' job opportunities and being in the childrearing stage of life. Discriminant analysis reveals that socioeconomic characteristics are lower for nonworking than migrant wives. Working migrant wives have more education and higher status jobs than nonmigrants.…

  17. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  18. Economic Status, Community Danger and Psychological Problems among South African Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Richter, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of community violence and poverty in the psychological difficulties of South African children residing in black townships. Mothers' ratings of their 6-year-olds confirmed community danger as a risk factor for anxiety, depression, aggression, and low affability in children. Lower socioeconomic status was unrelated to…

  19. Equity Indicators: Measures of Socio-Economic Status at Victoria University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Genevieve; Doughney, James; Palermo, Josephine

    After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…

  20. Knowledge of Contraceptive Techniques Among A Hospital Population of Low Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, J. Joseph

    1970-01-01

    The results of this study on investigating the knowledge of contraceptive techniques among a hospital population of low socioeconomic status showed that less than half of the respondents possessed knowledge which seemed to be adequate to allow them to use the method effectively. (Author/KJ)

  1. Suicide in Italy during a time of economic recession: some recent data related to age and gender based on a nationwide register study.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Vichi, Monica; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou; De Leo, Diego; Girardi, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Previous research reported that economic crises may have important implications for increasing suicide rates. We investigated official data on completed suicide in Italy during the recent economic crisis as related to age and gender. Data were extracted from the Italian Mortality Database. The trend in suicide rates from 1980 to 2010 (the most recent year available) was analysed by joinpoint regression analysis. Rate ratios were calculated to compare suicide rates before and after the present economic crisis. Suicide rates for men 25-64 years of age (those involved in the labour force) started to increase in 2008 after a period of a statistically significant decrease from 1994 to 2007 and their suicide rate was 12% higher in 2010 compared with that in 2006. In contrast, suicide rates declined for women of all ages and for men younger than 25 and older than 65 years of age. After 2007, there was a noticeable increase in suicide rates among Italian men involved in the labour force. PMID:24313850

  2. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  3. Gender dysphoria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... concept Gender dysphoria is not the same as homosexuality. Identity conflicts need to continue over time to ... about their gender, may develop gender dysphoria. The cause of gender dysphoria is unknown. Hormones in the ...

  4. Metabolic risk in contemporary children is unrelated to socio-economic status: longitudinal study of a UK urban population (EarlyBird 42).

    PubMed

    Voss, Linda D; Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Frémeaux, Alissa E; Wilkin, Terence J

    2010-03-24

    Voss LD, Hosking J, Metcalf BS, Jeffery AN, Frémeaux AE, Wilkin TJ. Metabolic risk in contemporary children is unrelated to socio-economic status: longitudinal study of a UK urban population (EarlyBird 42). Lifestyle interventions to improve health in young children tend to target areas of relative deprivation, but the evidence for so doing is largely historical. Accordingly, we have re-examined the link between deprivation, obesity and metabolic risk in contemporary UK children. Using a postcode-based index of multiple deprivation (IMD), we assessed 269 children from the community-based EarlyBird Study, attending 53 schools representing a wide socio-economic range. Annual measures of fatness from 5 to 8 yr included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sum of five skinfolds (SSF). A metabolic risk score, based on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance, was derived from annual fasting blood samples. There were no significant associations between deprivation and any measure of adiposity in girls (all p > 0.37). In boys, there was a weak but consistently inverse relationship between deprivation and WC (r = -0.19, p = 0.03) and BMI (r = -0.14, p = 0.09) at 8 yr. Changes in adiposity over 3 yr were unrelated to deprivation in boys. In girls there was a slight but significant increase in SSF only (1 mm/yr per 20 IMD units, p = 0.001). Importantly, in both genders, metabolic risk score was unrelated to deprivation throughout (r values -0.05 to -0.13, all p > 0.12), as was change in metabolic risk (all p > 0.30). Our data do not support the assumption that obesity, metabolic disturbance and thus risk of type 2 diabetes are more prevalent among poorer children. In today's increasingly obesogenic environment, youngsters from all backgrounds appear to be vulnerable, with population-wide implications for public health spending, and the prevention of diabetes in contemporary youth. PMID:20337977

  5. Development of Phonological Awareness during the Preschool Year: The Influence of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…

  6. No Refuge: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2010-01-01

    Rough financial seas had been buffeting many colleges and universities for years before the recession that began in late 2007. Then in mid-September 2008, an economic tsunami crashed into campuses, challenging their ability to provide the accessible, high-quality education necessary to achieve long-term national goals. As the economy weakened at…

  7. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Louise H.; Nicolaou, Mary; van Dam, Rob M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Brants, Henny A. M.; Beukers, Marja H.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254), South Asian Surinamese (n=425), and African Surinamese (n=784) participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move towards more vegetables and fruits with higher SES but continued fidelity to the traditional diet. PMID:26041009

  8. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

  9. Marital Status and Cognitive Impairment among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults: The Role of Gender and Social Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lei; Ng, Xue-Ting; Yap, Philip; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Tih-Shih; Håkansson, Krister; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between marital status and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling Chinese older adults. Methods We analyzed data from 2,498 Chinese aged 55 and older from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study cohort. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination total score of 23 or below. Odds ratios of associations were reported and adjusted for potential confounders in logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 12.2% (n = 306). Being single was associated with about 2.5 times increased odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married (adjusted OR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.41-4.55). The association between marital status and cognitive impairment was much stronger in men compared to that in women, and was indeed statistically significant only for men. Among the single and widowed persons social engagement was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment. Compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of social engagement scores, the odds of having cognitive impairment was lowered by 50% for subjects in the second and the third tertile. Conclusion Being single or widowed was associated with higher odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married in a cohort of older Chinese men but not women. PMID:25473404

  10. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947

  11. Economic well-being among older-adult households: variation by veteran and disability status.

    PubMed

    Wilmoth, Janet M; London, Andrew S; Heflin, Colleen M

    2015-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine whether veteran and disability statuses are jointly associated with poverty and material hardship among households that include an older adult. Compared to households that do not include a person with a disability or veteran, disabled nonveteran households are more likely to be in poverty and to experience home hardship, medical hardship, and bill-paying hardship. Disabled veteran households are not significantly different in terms of poverty, but exhibit the highest odds of home hardship, medical hardship, bill-paying hardship, and food insufficiency. The implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25750998

  12. Economic Well-Being Among Older-Adult Households: Variation by Veteran and Disability Status

    PubMed Central

    Wilmoth, Janet M.; London, Andrew S.; Heflin, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine whether veteran and disability statuses are jointly associated with household-level poverty and material hardship among older adults. Compared to households that do not include a person with a disability or veteran, disabled non-veteran households are more likely to be in poverty and to experience home hardship, medical hardship, and bill-paying hardship. Disabled veteran households are not significantly different in terms of poverty, but exhibit the highest odds of home hardship, medical hardship, bill-paying hardship, and food insufficiency. The implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25750998

  13. Gender Analysis of Politics, Economics and Culture of Korean Reunification: Toward a Feminist Theological Foundation for Reunified Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Sung Cholee

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I have focused on the process for an eventual reunification of North and South Korea. In this process, Korean political, economic, cultural and religious issues are necessarily present. My study focuses on cultural and religious factors. I adopt the German reunification as a case study. The German reunification process provides Koreans with lessons about the negative changes

  14. The associations between unhealthy behaviours, mental stress, and low socio-economic status in an international comparison of representative samples from Thailand and England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status is a recognised determinant of health status, and the association may be mediated by unhealthy behaviours and psychosocial adversities, which, in developed countries, both aggregate in low socioeconomic sectors of the population. We explored the hypothesis that unhealthy behavioural choices and psychological distress do not both aggregate in low socioeconomic status groups in developing countries. Methods Our study is based on a cross-sectional comparison between national population samples of adults in England and Thailand. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) or three anxiety-oriented items from the Kessler scale (K6). Socioeconomic status was assessed on the basis of occupational status. We computed a health-behaviour score using information about smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Results The final sample comprised 40,679 participants. In both countries and in both genders separately, there was a positive association between poor health-behaviour and high psychological distress, and between high psychological distress and low socioeconomic status. In contrast, the association between low socioeconomic status and poor health-behaviour was positive in both English men and women, flat in Thai men, and was negative in Thai women (likelihood ratio test P <0.001). Conclusion The associations between socioeconomic status, behavioural choices, and psychological distress are different at the international level. Psychological distress may be consistently associated with low socioeconomic status, whereas poor health-behaviour is not. Future analyses will test whether psychological distress is a more consistent determinant of socioeconomic differences in health across countries. PMID:24555674

  15. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific. PMID:22770504

  16. Gender and attitudes toward work.

    PubMed

    Maurer, A; Oszustowicz, B; Stocki, R

    1994-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in attitudes towards work in Poland and Germany and considers the implications of these findings for counseling. The study opens with a review of the following theories dealing with the relationship between psychological attitude and economic growth: Weber on the Protestant work ethic, Schumpeter on competitiveness, McClelland on achievement motivation, and Wiener on low valuation of business (the status of different occupations as an important factor affecting economic growth). This study, part of a larger research project, involved administering questionnaires to 300 Polish students (150 male) and 306 German students. Data were collected on work ethic, achievement motivation, mastery (a concern for excellence), competitiveness, achievement via conformity, money beliefs, attitude towards saving, and occupational preferences. Results were tabulated for men in each country, for women in each country, and for gender differences in each country. National differences were found in work ethic, achievement motivation, competitiveness, and achievement via conformity with results higher for Poland than Germany (with the exception that women in Poland were less interested in saving money). German men and women preferred the occupations of doctor and social worker, German women preferred being a country landowner and farmer. Polish men preferred being a small business owner and Polish women preferred being a teacher. The men generally had higher scores than the women for most occupations. Consideration of these results in light of the economic achievements of both countries would challenge theories of attitude and economic growth. This discrepancy may be a function of the different political systems in each country at the time of the survey. Counselors, therefore, should be sensitive to national and regional environments as well as to the importance of counseling parents to create a supportive environment to foster appropriate attitudes towards work in children. PMID:12293035

  17. A Genetically Sensitive Investigation of the Effects of the School Environment and Socio-Economic Status on Academic Achievement in Seven-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Although it is well established that school characteristics (SCH) and socio-economic status (SES) are associated with academic achievement (ACH), these correlations are not necessarily causal. Because academic achievement shows substantial genetic influence, it is useful to embed such investigations in genetically sensitive designs in order to…

  18. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  19. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  20. The effects of site selected variables on human responses to traffic noise, Part II: Road type by socio-economic status by traffic noise level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Bradley; B. A. Jonah

    1979-01-01

    The results of the second part of a field study of human response to traffic noise are reported. The influence of traffic noise level, socio-economic status, and road type (freeway or conventional road) were investigated in a controlled manner determined by subject selection procedures. Human response measures were obtained from interviewer administered questionnaires, and were as spatially and temporally coincident

  1. The effects of site selected variables on human responses to traffic noise, part III: Community size by socio-economic status by traffic noise level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Bradley; B. A. Jonah

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the third part of a field study of human responses to traffic noise. The influence of traffic noise level, community size, and socio-economic status were investigated in a controlled manner determined by subject selection procedures. Human responses were obtained from interviewer administered questionnaires, and were as spatially and temporally coincident with the noise measurements

  2. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

  3. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

  4. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; ? = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  5. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523

  6. The role of husband's and wife's economic activity status in the demand for children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y

    1987-04-01

    Data from Hong Kong were used to examine how the demand for children is affected by the economic returns to different types of market activities. The specific data used was a 1% sample of the 1976 "Hong Kong By-Census of Population." Only women under 50 who were currently married and living with their husbands were included. The households were restricted to land-based and non-farm families with economically active husbands. There were a total of 4128 families in the sample; in 3768 families the wife had experienced at least 1 birth. A simple 1-period model of household production and fertility demand is outlined. Emphasis was on 2 aspects of the demand for children in households who choose to work in the informal sector: children are more readily employed in a family business; and wife's work in a family business or in a wage employment at home is more compatible with childcare activities. Both effects imply that holding constant other characteristics, a higher desired stock of children will be demanded. As expected, an increase in wife's predicted log earnings in home work had a negative effect on the demand for children. The effect was almost always significant. An increase in wife's productivity in the family business, as proxied by her predicted log earnings in the family business, increased the demand for children significantly. This usually is interpreted to be a result of entering a market activity which is compatible with childcare. Another possible explanation is that the price of children is lowered because if children work in the family business then their productive contributions subsidize their parents' consumption. Yet, without direct measures or proxies for these effects, it is not possible to distinguish between them. An increase in husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment had a significant negative effect on demand for children. This can be interpreted in 2 ways: if an interior solution exists for husband's allocation of time, then a negative effect implies either that children are inferior (or are observed to be so) or husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment increases the probability of specializing in it. Thus, the role of children in the family business vanishes, and the desired number of children is reduced. Both husband's and wife's schooling reduced significantly the demand for children. In general, estimates of coefficients from families with at least 1 child were smaller in absolute magnitude and less significant statistically. PMID:12269084

  7. Letter knowledge in parent–child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

  8. The relationship between survival and socio-economic status for head and neck cancer in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) is emerging as the primary cause for some head and neck cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between head and neck cancer (HNC) survival and socioeconomic status (SES) in Canada, and to investigate changes in the relationship between HNC survival and SES from 1992 to 2005. Methods Cases were drawn from the Canadian Cancer Registry (1992–2005), and were categorized into three subsites: oropharynx, oral cavity, and “other” (hypopharynx, larynx, and nasopharynx). Demographic and socioeconomic information were extracted from the Canadian Census of Population data for the study period, which included three census years: 1991, 1996 and 2001. We linked cases to income quintiles (InQs) according to patients’ postal codes. Results Overall survival, without controlling for smoking, for oropharyngeal cancer increased dramatically from 1992–2005 in Canada. This increase in survival for oropharynx cancer was eliminated by the introduction of controls for smoking. Survival for all head and neck cancer subsites was strongly correlated with SES, as measured by income quintile, with lower InQ’s having lower survival than higher. Lastly, the magnitude of the difference in survival between the highest and lowest income quintiles increased significantly over the time period studied for oropharynx cancer, but did not statistically significantly change for oral cavity cancer or other head and neck cancers. Conclusions These data confirm a significant impact of socioeconomic deprivation on overall survival for head and neck cancers in Canada, and may provide indirect evidence that HPV-positive head and neck cancers are more common in higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:24422754

  9. Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females) in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females). The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA) was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day) in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA) in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. Results In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p < 0.05) when controlling for leg length. Lower SES children, however, had higher body mass and BMI compared to higher SES groups (p < 0.05) and PA no longer remained significant when further controlling for BMI. In study 2 results depended on the methodology used to determine time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only one equation resulted in significant group differences (p = 0.015), and these differences remained after controlling for BMI. Significant differences between SES groups were shown for sedentary behavior in both cohorts (P < 0.05) with higher SES groups spending less time watching TV than low SES groups. Conclusions Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher BMI in these children might be another factor contributing to increased health risks among low SES children compared to children from with a higher SES. PMID:20423487

  10. An assessment of the economic status of the antifriction bearing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Donna J.; Kelley, Gerald T.; Myers, Myron G.

    1991-10-01

    Military equipment with moving parts requires antifriction bearings. Superprecision bearings, which are manufactured with closer tolerances under more stringent conditions, are often needed to meet high-performance characteristics such as silencing in submarines. A steady increase in imports of antifriction bearings coupled with reduced prices and profitability in the domestic industry led domestic manufacturers to seek legislative and regulatory relief from foreign competition. Since 1987, the Government has provided two types of relief to the industry. First, after a Department of Commerce investigation established that foreign producers were selling products in the U.S. market at prices below those they charged in their home markets, the Government imposed antidumping duties on several types of bearings from 12 countries. Second, the DoD restricted the purchase of antifriction bearing for use in defense end items to those of domestic manufacture. Although that restriction is due to expire on 30 Sep. 1991, the DoD may renew it for an additional 2 years if conditions warrant. This study assesses the current economic health of the U.S. antifriction bearing industry, analyzes the relative impact of the two forms of relief provided to the industry, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of DoD's policy options.

  11. Mortality of the oldest old Chinese: the role of early-life nutritional status, socio-economic conditions, and sibling sex-composition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Elo, Irma T

    2009-03-01

    Based on a nationally representative sample of 8,099 Chinese drawn from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), this study investigated the long-term health consequences of early-life nutritional status, sibling sex-composition, childhood socio-economic conditions, and place of birth on mortality at ages 80 and above between 1998 and 2005. Better nutritional status in childhood predicted lower mortality at ages 80 and above, net of childhood circumstances, adult socio-economic status, and health behaviours. In addition, sibling sex-composition had long-term health consequences, net of childhood and adult characteristics, such that women benefited from having grown up in families with only daughters, while men benefited from having grown up in families with both sons and daughters. Childhood socio-economic status was only marginally related to old-age mortality and this association was attenuated further by the inclusion of adult characteristics. Place of birth was not a significant predictor of old-age mortality. PMID:19184718

  12. Socio-economic status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Areas of Vellore, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Raghupathy, P; Richard, J; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined associations between socio-economic (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Methods Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2,218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education, and paternal education. CVD risk factors included body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and CVD risk factors. Results Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants’ own education, and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all three SES indicators adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score; compared with those in the lowest fifth of the possessions score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR=6.4, 95%CI 3.4, 11.6), high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95%CI 1.6, 3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95%CI 1.9, 4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2, 0.6) was lower. Except hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. Conclusion In rural and urban populations, higher SES, as reflected by household possessions, was associated (apart from tobacco use) with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile. PMID:22366083

  13. Socio-economic status and HIV/AIDS stigma in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Amuri, Mbaraka; Mitchell, Steve; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-03-01

    Tanzania has a generalised AIDS epidemic but the estimated adult HIV prevalence of 6% is much lower than in many countries in Southern Africa. HIV infection rates are reportedly higher in urban areas, among women and among those with more education. Stigma has been found to be more common in poorer, less-educated people, and those in rural areas. We examined associations between poverty and other variables and a stigmatising attitude (belief that HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning). The variables we examined in a multivariate model included: food sufficiency (as an indicator of poverty), age, sex, marital status, education, experience of intimate partner violence, condom-related choice disability, discussion about HIV/AIDS, sources of information about HIV/AIDS and urban or rural residence. Of the 1,130 men and 1,803 women interviewed, more than half (58%) did not disagree that "HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning". Taking other variables into account, people from the poorest households (without enough food in the last week) were more likely to believe HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.06-1.59). Others factors independently associated with this stigmatising attitude were: having less than primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.62); having experienced intimate partner violence in the last year (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75); being choice disabled for condom use (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71); and living in rural areas (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.06-2.90). The level of HIV and AIDS stigma in Tanzania is high with independent associations with several disadvantages: poverty, less education and living in rural areas. Other vulnerable groups, such as survivors of intimate partner violence, are also more likely to have a stigmatising attitude. HIV prevention programmes should take account of stigma, especially among the disadvantaged, and take care not to increase it. PMID:21347901

  14. Food neophobia and associations with cultural diversity and socio-economic status amongst rural and urban Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flight, Ingrid; Leppard, Phillip; Cox, David N

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to diverse cultures and higher socio-economic status (SES) may increase knowledge of a wide variety of stimuli, including food, and be negatively associated with food neophobia. We contrasted questionnaire responses from two groups of Australian high school students (aged 12-18 years) from remote rural (rural, n=243) and cosmopolitan urban (city, n=696) locations to the food neophobia scale (FNS), familiarity with certain foods and willingness to try those foods. Cultural diversity measures and two SES scales were created. City students were less food neophobic than rural students (mean FNS scores 29.35 versus 34.68, p<0.001). City students were also significantly more familiar with different foods and more willing to try unfamiliar foods, were of higher SES and had greater exposure to cultural diversity. However, the association between the FNS and familiarity with foods, willingness to try unfamiliar foods, SES, and exposure to cultural diversity, were only weak or moderate for both city and rural students. Greater exposure to cultural diversity and higher SES has some influence on adolescents' responses to unfamiliar foods, but the relationship between these factors and the FNS score is tenuous. PMID:12880621

  15. Nutrient intake and socio-economic status among children attending a health exhibition in Malaysian rural villages.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Noor Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Fatmah, M S; Zainudin, B; Fatimah, A

    1995-12-01

    A dietary survey was carried out in 216 children (109 males, 107 females) aged 1-7 years, living in rural villages in Selangor, Malaysia to assess their nutrient intake and to determine the association between nutrient consumption and socio-economic background. All the children studied had inadequate intakes of energy, iron and niacin according to Recommended Daily Intake (RDI). Children aged of 4-9 years showed inadequate intake of calcium, thiamine and riboflavin. However, the intake of protein, vitamin A and ascorbic acid were above the recommended value. The mean percentage requirements of protein, iron and niacin were significantly higher in children from small families compared with children from large families. However the employment status of mothers had a significantly effect on the mean percentage requirements of niacin. The results indicate that education level of the mothers, is strongly associated with the mean percentage nutrient requirements of children and we strongly feel that this is a strategy to be adopted for improvement in nutrition of children. PMID:8668061

  16. Impact of socio-economic status in meeting the needs of people with mental illness; human rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (? (2) = 6.821, p < .009) 'safe drinking water' (? (2) = 13.506, p < .004) and purchasing medications (? (2) = 9.958, p < .019). Conversely, participants from above poverty line were dissatisfied in emotional needs dimension i.e. 'commenting on physical appearance (? (2) = 8.337, p < .040), afraid of family members (? (2) = 17.809, p < .000). Thus, there is an urgent need to implement mental illness awareness campaigns and government should take active steps for providing employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres. PMID:23288490

  17. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  18. Obesity among Scottish 15 year olds 1987–2006: prevalence and associations with socio-economic status, well-being and worries about weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Sweeting; Patrick West; Robert Young

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increases in the prevalence of child and adolescent obesity have accelerated since the mid 1980s. Socio-economic status (SES)-adiposity relationships appear less clear in adolescence than childhood, and evidence on whether increasing obesity is itself patterned according to SES is inconsistent. Increasing prevalence may have increased the tolerance, and reduced recognition of, or concern about, obesity. The aim of this

  19. Relationship between dietary habits, age, lifestyle, and socio-economic status among adult Norwegian women. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Hjartåker; E Lund

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine how dietary intake varies with age in a nation-wide sample of adult Norwegian women, and to evaluate the impact of lifestyle and socio-economic status on important dietary aspects.Design: Cross-section study.Setting and subjects: A food frequency questionnaire was mailed to a random, nation-wide sample of 20 000 women aged 45–69 y, and 9885 questionnaires were accepted for nutritional

  20. The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population.

    PubMed

    Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-22

    Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194

  1. Nanotechnology and Innovation, Recent status and the strategic implication for the formation of high tech clusters in Greece, in between a global economic crisis

    E-print Network

    Gkanas, Evangelos I; Makridis, Sofoklis S; Stubos, Athanasios K; Bakouros, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the first major worldwide research initiative of the 21st century and probably is the solution vector in the economic environment. Also, innovation is widely recognized as a key factor in the economic development of nations, and is essential for the competitiveness of the industrial firms as well. Policy and management of innovation are necessary in order to develop innovation and it involves processes. It is essential to develop new methods for nanotechnology development for better understanding of nanotechnology based innovation. Nanotechnologies reveal commercialization processes, from start ups to large firms in collaboration with public sector research. In the current paper, a study in the present status of innovation in nanotechnology and the affection of global economic crisis in this section is made and also the potential of increase the innovation via the presence of clusters in a small country like Greece which is in the eye of tornado from the global crisis is studied.

  2. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J; Smith, James P; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces-Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor province in the West-in a sense new and old China. Our cognition measures proxy for two different dimensions of adult cognition-episodic memory and intact mental status. On both measures, Chinese women score much lower than do Chinese men, a gender difference that grows among older Chinese cohorts. We relate both these cognition scores to schooling, urban residence, family and community levels of economic resources, and height. We find that cognition is more closely related to mean community resources than to family resources, especially for women, suggesting that in traditional poor Chinese communities there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls. We also find that these gender differences in cognitive ability have been steadily decreasing across birth cohorts as the economy of China grew rapidly. Among cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any gender disparity in cognitive ability. This parallels the situation in the United States where cognition scores of adult women actually exceed those of adult men. PMID:24347682

  3. So You Want To Earn a Ph.D. in Economics? How Long Do You Think It Will Take?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.; Stock, Wendy A.

    2001-01-01

    A study of the time it took 618 students to earn Ph.D.s in economics found that those with fellowships or prior master's degrees finished faster. Those who took jobs before completion and women with children took longer. No differences appeared in relation to marital status, gender, age, and program size. (Author/SK)

  4. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES). The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal. PMID:21958069

  5. The impact of gender norms on condom use among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870

  6. Socio-Economic Status and Related Variables That Influence the Initiation of Professional Medical Care among Montana Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Jack J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine for a sample of Montana families if a positive relationship existed between the family's socioeconomic status and its medical initiation behavior, and then, controlling for socioeconomic status, to determine if a relationship existed between initiation of professional medical care and a number of…

  7. Nutritional advice from George Orwell. Exploring the social mechanisms behind the overconsumption of unhealthy foods by people with low socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Morten H

    2015-08-01

    Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already tentatively questioned by some nutritionist (Burr et al., 2007) as well as "food" sociologist (Smith & Holm, 2010). PMID:25865664

  8. State-level women’s status and psychiatric disorders among US women

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Subramanian, S. V.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Although greater gender equality at the state-level is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in women after controlling for individual-level confounders, the extent to which state-level women’s status is related to psychiatric disorders in women and gender differences in psychopathology has never been examined. We examined these associations in the current report. Methods We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653), a national probability sample of US adults. Respondents completed structured diagnostic assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between four state-level indicators of women’s status (political participation, employment/earnings, social/economic autonomy, and reproductive rights) and odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. We also tested whether women’s status predicted the magnitude of gender differences in psychiatric disorders. Results State-level political participation, employment/earnings, and social/economic autonomy were unrelated to odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. However, the prevalence of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder was lower in states where women have greater reproductive rights (OR 0.93–0.95), controlling for individual-level risk factors. None of the women’s status indicators predicted gender differences in mood and anxiety disorder prevalence. Conclusions State-level women’s status was largely unrelated to mood and anxiety disorders in women or to gender differences in these disorders. Investigation of social factors that play a role in shaping the distribution of individual-level risk factors that are associated with gender disparities in psychiatric disorders represents an important avenue for future research. PMID:20853099

  9. Low Economic Status Is Identified as an Emerging Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men Aged 30 to 59 Years in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Sang Wan; Yi, Ka Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared the association between economic status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) using large nationwide datasets covering the previous 10 years in Korea. Methods We analyzed the association between economic status and DM using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2001 to 2010 weighted to represent the Korean population between 30 and 59 years of age. The economic status of participants was classified into quartiles according to monthly family income with an equivalence scale. Results In men, the prevalence of diabetes in the lowest income quartile (Q1) was significantly higher than that in the other quartiles in 2008 (age and body mass index-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.846; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.126 to 3.027; P=0.015), 2009 (OR, 1.706; 95% CI, 1.094 to 2.661; P=0.019), and 2010 (OR, 1.560; 95% CI, 1.024 to 2.377; P=0.039) but not in 2001 or 2005. The data indicated that classification in the lowest economic status was an independent risk factor for diabetes even after adjusting for abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and education level in men of KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Although economic status was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in women (P<0.001), there was no significant association between economic status and DM in women. Conclusion Korean men between 30 and 59 years of age with the lowest economic status had a significantly higher prevalence of DM in 2008 to 2010 even after adjusting for other risk factors. PMID:25922808

  10. A gender more vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Basu, A M

    1991-12-01

    The greater risks of death faced by females in India are discussed in terms of the differences between the norther and southern regions of India, culture compounding inequality, and intervention strategies. When the assumption of a sex ratio of equality of 950/1000 is make, every region in the north is below (ranging from 874-913), and every region in the south above (ranging from 960-1040). The same north/south division remains for the male probability of dying by age 5 as a proportion of female probability (rural) in 1981. 2 explanations are given for female's greater survival changes in the south. 1) Marriage and kinship systems are different. Girls in the north typically marry earlier; many times marriage is to a stranger in a distant area so that family contact is reduced. The consequence is a reduction in female autonomy and status in both her father's and her husband's home. 2) Economic roles are different. Research has revealed that male/female survival equality occurs in states with high female labor force participation rates. At the micro level, working women's children tend to have more equal death rates. Physical devaluation is not only evidenced in death and survival, but also in the disparity in schooling. The states with the greatest gender differentials in mortality also have the greatest differences in literacy. This has been interpreted as household resources are disproportionately invested in males. Cultural inhibitions about the physical freedoms of girls also are involuntary reasons for the sex differential. The example is given of the apprehension generated for a male doctor's examination of a girl, a coeducational school environment, or a school located a distance from the home. There is the tradition of female seclusion and inhibition. In combination with the dependence on sons to limit the choices open to women, and to limit the growth and development, the product is inequality. Amniocentesis has lead to the increase in numbers of sex determination and abortion clinics. There is evidence that aborted fetuses are primarily female. Without change in these practices, there will not be a reversal in the sex ratio. Interventions suggested include increasing the number of facilities for the equal development of girls and women. There must be increases in female medical staff, more girl's schools in villages, and more nutrition programs for girls, Women's economic independence must be enhanced. PMID:12317118

  11. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

  12. Gender Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" focuses on gender issues in early childhood. The first article, "Both Halves of the Sky: Gender Socialization in the Early Years," focuses on the arguments that have led to an international call for increased participation of girls in education, an introduction to studies which map young children's…

  13. Evaluating the ecological association of casino industry economic development on community health status: a natural experiment in the Mississippi delta region.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Simoes, Eduardo J; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Wang, Xueyuan; Brown, Lovetta

    2007-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to examine for associations of casino industry economic development on improving community health status and funding for public health services in two counties in the Mississippi Delta Region of the United States. An ecological approach was used to evaluate whether two counties with casino gaming had improved health status and public health funding in comparison with two noncasino counties in the same region with similar social, racial, and ethic backgrounds. Variables readily available from state health department records were used to develop a logic model for guiding analytical work. A linear regression model was built using a stepwise approach and hierarchical regression principles with many dependent variables and a set of fixed and nonfixed independent variables. County-level data for 23 variables over an 11-year period were used. Overall, this study found a lack of association between the presence of a casino and desirable health outcomes or funding for public health services. Changes in the environment were made to promote health by utilizing gaming revenues to build state-of-the-art community health and wellness centers and sports facilities. However, significant increases in funding for local public health services were not found in either of the counties with casinos. These findings are relevant for policy makers when debating economic development strategies. Analysis similar to this should be combined with other routine public health assessments after implementation of development strategies to increase knowledge of health outcome trends and shifts in socioeconomic position that may be expected to accrue from economic development projects. PMID:17299329

  14. Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed. PMID:24921019

  15. Obesity and household roles: gender and social class in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Batnitzky, Adina

    2008-04-01

    Often referred to as the developing world's new burden of disease, obesity constitutes a major and growing health epidemic in Morocco, in particular for women (22% of women versus 8% of men). Through an analysis of qualitative data, I demonstrate how gender roles influence obesity risk in the Moroccan context. Current social and economic theories, including the nutrition transition theory, are inadequate in explaining the persistent gender differentials in health status across time and place. I suggest that Moroccan women's higher prevalence of obesity is predominantly the outcome of different risks acquired from their distinct roles. In the Moroccan context, we can gain insight into how men and women divide household labour and how the overall non-egalitarian nature of social roles may deleteriously affect women's health. I hypothesise that marital status, age and socioeconomic status determine Moroccan women's household roles and help to explain why women are more likely to be obese than men. The main findings support this hypothesis and demonstrate the interactive relationship between culture and structure in influencing obesity risk. PMID:18373507

  16. Nutritional status correlated with sociodemographic and economic factors among preparatory school-aged children in the Gaza Strip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basil J. Kanao; Osama S. Abu-Nada; Baker M. Zabut

    2009-01-01

    Aim  This study was conducted to investigate anthropometric nutritional indicators that correlated with sociodemographic and economic\\u000a factors among preparatory school-aged children (PSC) in the Gaza Strip.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  The study subjects were chosen purposively from three different sociodemographic and economic areas in the Gaza Strip: the\\u000a Jabalia refugee camp (JRC), Gaza City (GC), and Al-Garrara village (GV). They were selected randomly

  17. Household context and child mortality in rural South Africa: the effects of birth spacing, shared mortality, household composition and socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen M; Clark, Samuel J

    2013-01-01

    Background Household characteristics are important influences on the risk of child death. However, little is known about this influence in HIV-endemic areas. We describe the effects of household characteristics on children’s risk of dying in rural South Africa. Methods We use data describing the mortality of children younger than 5 years living in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system study population in rural northeast South Africa during the period 1994–2008. Using discrete time event history analysis we estimate children’s probability of dying by child characteristics and household composition (other children and adults other than parents) (N = 924 818 child-months), and household socio-economic status (N = 501 732 child-months). Results Children under 24 months of age whose subsequent sibling was born within 11 months experience increased odds of dying (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.7). Children also experience increased odds of dying in the period 6 months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.6), 3–5 months (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5–5.9), and 2 months (OR 11.8; 95% CI 7.6–18.3) before another household child dies. The odds of dying remain high at the time of another child’s death (OR 11.7; 95% CI 6.3–21.7) and for the 2 months following (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.9–8.6). Having a related but non-parent adult aged 20–59 years in the household reduces the odds (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5–0.8). There is an inverse relationship between a child’s odds of dying and household socio-economic status. Conclusions This detailed household profile from a poor rural setting where HIV infection is endemic indicates that children are at high risk of dying when another child is very ill or has recently died. Short birth intervals and additional children in the household are further risk factors. Presence of a related adult is protective, as is higher socio-economic status. Such evidence can inform primary health care practice and facilitate targeting of community health worker efforts, especially when covering defined catchment areas. PMID:23912808

  18. Perceived Gender Based Stereotypes in Educational Technology Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolliger, Doris U.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…

  19. Economic Status of Women in the Labor Market and Prospects for Pay Equity Over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.

    Social and economic forces in the post-war era have lead to an increased commitment by women of all ages to the labor force. In contrast, the labor force participation rate for men has declined. With women's continued predominance in the service sector and jobs lost in the traditionally male manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy, men and women…

  20. The Rocky Road through the 1980s: Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, W. Lee

    1981-01-01

    An annual salary report, from salary and compensation studies for individual colleges and universities, and from other studies is presented. The report is based on data collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. The economic position of the professoriate is shown to have further deteriorated. (MLW)

  1. The Possible Effects of Nutritional Status and Growth of Children on the Economic Potential of West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Barbara K.

    Meeting nutritional needs of children in West Virginia is vital to the state's economic development. A malnourished, uneducable population will be unemployable in a high tech society and the state cannot afford custodial and welfare costs resulting from childhood malnutrition. Evidence of nutritional need in West Virginia includes low rate of…

  2. Is parental socio-economic status related to the initiation of substance abuse by young people in an English city? An event history analysis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Alex

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to examine the relationship between parental socio-economic status (SES) and adolescent substance use. The central question posed in the title is approached in two stages. First, theoretical and empirical research in this area is reviewed. Second, data from an ongoing longitudinal study of young people in England (the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study--PADS+) are used to highlight the nature of this relationship in one city. Results from discrete-time event history analyses show that when examining what predicts initiation of substance use, familial and demographic factors emerge as important predictors, but SES does not appear to be relevant. The concluding discussion focuses on whether support is found for hypotheses derived from the existing literature and implications for future research. PMID:22361091

  3. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children’s oral health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children’s OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents’ age, and parents’ oral health literacy) on children’s OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project’s Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children’s Perception Questionnaire11-14 were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers’ age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children’s OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed. PMID:24650192

  4. Binge drinking among Brazilian students: a gradient of association with socioeconomic status in five geo-economics regions

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Aims 1) To describe the characteristics of binge drinking (BD) among high school students in Brazil and 2) the association of BD with students' socioeconomic status (SES) in the five different Brazilian macroregions. Design A national multistage probabilistic sample of high school students. Setting Students were drawn from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Participants 17,297 high school students, aged 14 to 18 years. Measurement Self-report data about BD practices and SES were analyzed via weighted logistic regressions and a funnel plot. Findings Almost 32% of the students engaged in BD in the past-year. Being in the highest SES stratum doubled the risk of BD among students in all five Brazilian macroregions. There was a gradient in the association between past-year BD and socioeconomic status: as SES increased; the chance of having recently engaged in BD also increased. In the Brazilian capitals as a whole, boys versus girls (aOR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.26 to 1.58]), being older (aOR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.55] per each additional year of age) and those attending private schools versus public schools (aOR = 1.39 [95% CI 1.18 to 1.62]), were at greater risk for BD. Conclusions Contrary to what is observed in developed countries, students living in Brazilian capitals may be at an increased risk of BD when they belong to the highest socioeconomic status. Adolescents growing up in other emerging economies might have the same association between high SES and BD. PMID:22771006

  5. Prosthodontic profiles relating to economic status, social network, and social support in an elderly population living independently in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Maupomé; Michael I. MacEntee

    1998-01-01

    Statement of problem. Previous evaluations of life satisfaction and health have not completely explained the impact of social network, social support, and economics on the oral health-related behavior of elderly patients, particularly in relation to missing teeth. Purpose. This study measured the strength of associations between social network\\/support\\/class and the use of complete and removable partial dentures in elderly patients

  6. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula. PMID:23819006

  7. The gender gap in depression reconsidered: the influence of marital and employment status on the female\\/male ratio of treated incidence rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gutiérrez-Lobos; G. Wölfl; M. Scherer; P. Anderer; B. Schmidl-Mohl

    2000-01-01

    Background:?The consistently observed predominance of female over male rates in depression – in treated as well as in untreated populations\\u000a – has never been satisfactorily explained. Among the many possible biological and psychosocial explanations, marital and employment\\u000a status have not been extensively studied and virtually nothing is known about the combined effect of these variables on sex\\u000a differences in depression.

  8. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  9. Race and Gender in the Labor Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Altonji; Rebecca M. Blank

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent research in economics that investigates differentials by race and gender in the labor market. We start with a statistical overview of the trends in labor market outcomes by race, gender and Hispanic origin, including some simple regressions on the determinants of wages and employment. This is followed in Section 3 by an extended review of current

  10. Gender: shaping personality, lives and health of women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women’s personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. Methods As part of a six-country study titled ‘Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts’, semi-structured group discussions (n?=?30) were conducted with women (n?=?250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant’s perceptions about Pakistani women’s: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. Results The society studied has constructed a ‘Model’ for women that consider them ‘Objects’ without rights and autonomy. Women’s subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women’s traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. Conclusion There is a strong link between women’s autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization of services. Improvement in women’s health is bound to have positive influences on their children and wider family’s health, education and livelihood; and in turn on a society’s health and economy. PMID:24690271

  11. Effects of Parents’ Level of Education and Economic Status on the Age at Cochlear Implantation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cochlear implantation can facilitate the development of communication skills in children with profound hearing loss. The objectives of our study were to determine the average ages at suspicion and diagnosis of hearing loss, amplification, intervention, and performing the cochlear implantation and to investigate the effects of the parents’ level of education and economic circumstances on the age of the child at cochlear implantation. Materials and Methods: The parents of 96 children with profound sensorineural hearing loss who had received a cochlear implant at Amir-Alam Cochlear Implant Center between 2008 and 2010 were asked to complete a survey. The survey included demographic information, and birth, medical, and hearing loss history of their child. Study data were obtained through the patient database in the Cochlear Implant Center and interviews with the parents. Results: The mean times between the age of the children at diagnosis of hearing loss and amplification, beginning the rehabilitation program, and performing the cochlear implantation were 4.05 (±0.86), 2.59 (±0.9), and 25.43 (±1.45) months, respectively; delays that were statistically significant (P?0.004). In 47.9 percent of cases, the parents were the first people to suspect the occurrence of hearing loss in their child. Statistical analysis indicated that the age at cochlear implantation decreases as the educational level of the parents increases (P?0.003). There was also a significant difference between parents’ economic circumstances and the age of cochlear implantation (P<0.0001). Conclusion: There is still a remarkable delay between the diagnosis of hearing loss and aural rehabilitation in hearing-impaired children. Parents’ levels of education and economic circumstances have a noticeable effect on the age of cochlear implantation in hearing-impaired children. PMID:24303378

  12. A Study of the Relationship of the Factors of Organizational Climates of Low Socio-Economic Status Elementary Schools to the Political Orientations of Fifth Grade Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkley, Alfred S.

    This study proposed to determine how 5th grade students' political orientations result from such social characteristics as their sex, age, socio-economic status and race, and secondly, how student political orientations are influenced by the organization of their school. Emphasis was upon examining the organizational climate in an effort to see if…

  13. The Association of Recreational Space with Youth Smoking in Low Socio-Economic Status Neighborhoods in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Andrade, Fernando H.; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the relationship of neighborhood recreational space with youth smoking in mid- to low- income areas in the capital of Chile, Santiago. Methods A unique data set of adolescents (n=779, mean age=14, 51% male) provided home addresses of study participants which were geocoded and mapped. Satellite maps of neighborhoods were used to identify open spaces for recreational use (e.g., soccer fields and plazas). Thiessen polygons were generated to associate study participants with the nearest available open space using ArcGIS. Regression models, with smoking as a dependent variable, were estimated in which age, sex, family socioeconomic status, peer substance usage, neighborhood crime, and accessibility of open space were covariates. Results The results show that residential proximity to recreational space was associated with decreases in tobacco consumption among female adolescents but this association was not statistically significant among male adolescents. Age and neighborhood crime were the common contributing factors for tobacco consumption across both male and female adolescents. Conclusions This study suggests that recreational spaces in proximity to residences may have a positive impact on reducing adolescents’ inclination to consume tobacco. The relationship of the accessibility to such spaces with smoking appears to vary by adolescents’ sex. PMID:23722521

  14. Relationship between socio-economic and cultural status, psychological factors and body fat distribution in middle-aged women living in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cota, D; Vicennati, V; Ceroni, L; Morselli-Labate, A M; Pasquali, R

    2001-12-01

    This study analyses the relationships between body fat distribution and socioeconomic and psychological factors in a cohort of 426 healthy middle-aged women living in Virgilio, Mantua (Northern Italy). The information concerning their occupational, social and psychological conditions and smoking habits were obtained by means of questionnaires. Psychological factors were investigated using the Italian version of the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire and the Symptom Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), waist/hip ratio (WHR) and clinical/hormonal menopausal status were also collected for each subject. The women reported significantly higher or lower psychological factor scores (symptoms of conversion: p=0.005; perception of disease: p=-0.018; denial: p=0.021; hostility: p=0.57; and laxity: p=0.047) as their WHR increased, thus indicating some concern about their health. In a multiple regression model, their WHR and waist circumference (W) significantly correlated with symptoms of conversion (p=0.005 and p=0.029), and W was also significantly related to the perception of disease (p=0.043). There was a significant inverse correlation between the WHR and educational level (p<0.001). The prevalence of partners who were entrepreneurs or self-employed also decreased as WHR increased (p<0.001). Furthermore, the number of women living in the centre of town significantly diminished, whereas those living in the suburbs or in the country significantly increased (p=0.005). However, using age, BMI and menopausal status as covariates, only the partner's work significantly and negatively correlated with the WHR (p=0.029). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that psychological and socio-economic handicaps are associated with a higher prevalence of abdominal fatness in middle-aged women living in Northern Italy PMID:11808816

  15. Research on gender structure of accounting profession in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SONG Sheng-ju; LIU Lan

    2007-01-01

    One of the most striking phenomena in recent years has been the increasing proportion of women in the labour force, enabling women in many fields to use their potential and to achieve economic independence. So the gender structure analysis becomes more and more important to society and economic development. Accounting research lacks the study of gender issues. This paper intends

  16. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  17. Gender Differences in Mental Health Outcomes before, during, and after the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Rada K.; Chen, Jie; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in mental health outcomes during and post-recession versus pre-recession. We utilized 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Females had lower odds of depression diagnoses during and post-recession and better mental health during the recession, but higher odds of anxiety diagnoses post-recession. Males had lower odds of depression diagnoses and better mental health during and post-recession and lower Kessler 6 scores post-recession. We conducted stratified analyses, which confirmed that the aforementioned findings were consistent across the four different regions of the U.S., by employment status, income and health care utilization. Importantly, we found that the higher odds of anxiety diagnoses among females after the recession were mainly prominent among specific subgroups of females: those who lived in the Northeast or the Midwest, the unemployed, and those with low household income. Gender differences in mental health in association with the economic recession highlight the importance of policymakers taking these differences into consideration when designing economic and social policies to address economic downturns. Future research should examine the reasons behind the decreased depression diagnoses among both genders, and whether they signify decreased mental healthcare utilization or increased social support and more time for exercise and leisure activities. PMID:25970634

  18. Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Methods Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. Results The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900). The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8?%, 29/56) paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9?%, 5/56). The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200) per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8?% (43/56) victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9?% (29/56) patients. Moreover, only 21.4?% (12/56) patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4?% (26/56) and 28.6?% (16/56) felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2?=?16.916, P?=?0.028). Conclusions The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a close relationship with the injury severity. Formal legislation was urgently needed to compel the employer to purchase injury or medical insurance and provide more compulsory protection to the population working in high risk occupations. In addition, psychological counseling and instruction shouldn’t be neglected in the aid and treatment of victims. PMID:22672729

  19. Effect of postsecondary education on the economic status of persons who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    PubMed

    Schley, Sara; Walter, Gerard G; Weathers, Robert R; Hemmeter, Jeffrey; Hennessey, John C; Burkhauser, Richard V

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the effect that postsecondary education has on earnings and the duration of time spent in the Social Security disability programs for young persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. Our hypothesis is that investments in postsecondary training increase the likelihood of employment for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing and thus reduce dependency on disability-related income support programs. A longitudinal data set based upon records from the National Technical Institute for the Deaf and Social Security administrative records is used for this analysis. We find that those who graduate, even those who graduate with vocational degrees, experience significant earnings benefits and reductions in the duration of time spent on federal disability programs when compared with those who do not graduate with a degree. This finding suggests that reductions in the duration of time spent on Social Security programs are not limited to those with the highest level of scholastic aptitude and that investments in post-secondary education can benefit a broad group of deaf and hard-of-hearing persons. In addition, the data show that individuals who attend college, but withdraw before graduation, fair no better economically than individuals who never attended college. PMID:21289030

  20. Impact of gender and professional education on attitudes towards financial incentives for organ donation: results of a survey among 755 students of medicine and economics in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Methods Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n?=?755). Results The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p?=?0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p?economics (p?=?0.034). Conclusion Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward. PMID:24996438

  1. Metabolic risk in contemporary children is unrelated to socio-economic status: longitudinal study of a UK urban population (EarlyBird 42).

    PubMed

    Voss, Linda D; Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Frémeaux, Alissa E; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle interventions to improve health in young children tend to target areas of relative deprivation, but the evidence for so doing is largely historical. Accordingly, we have re-examined the link between deprivation, obesity and metabolic risk in contemporary UK children. Using a postcode-based index of multiple deprivation (IMD), we assessed 269 children from the community-based EarlyBird Study, attending 53 schools representing a wide socio-economic range. Annual measures of fatness from 5 to 8 yr included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sum of five skinfolds (SSF). A metabolic risk score, based on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance, was derived from annual fasting blood samples. There were no significant associations between deprivation and any measure of adiposity in girls (all p > 0.37). In boys, there was a weak but consistently inverse relationship between deprivation and WC (r = -0.19, p = 0.03) and BMI (r = -0.14, p = 0.09) at 8 yr. Changes in adiposity over 3 yr were unrelated to deprivation in boys. In girls there was a slight but significant increase in SSF only (1 mm/yr per 20 IMD units, p = 0.001). Importantly, in both genders, metabolic risk score was unrelated to deprivation throughout (r values -0.05 to -0.13, all p > 0.12), as was change in metabolic risk (all p > 0.30). Our data do not support the assumption that obesity, metabolic disturbance and thus risk of type 2 diabetes are more prevalent among poorer children. In today's increasingly obesogenic environment, youngsters from all backgrounds appear to be vulnerable, with population-wide implications for public health spending, and the prevention of diabetes in contemporary youth. PMID:24827703

  2. Do consumers' preferences for improved provision of malaria treatment services differ by their socio-economic status and geographic location? A study in southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Improvement of utilization of malaria treatment services will depend on provision of treatment services that different population groups of consumers prefer and would want to use. Treatment of malaria in Nigeria is still problematic and this contributes to worsening burden of the disease in the country. Therefore this study explores the socio-economic and geographic differences in consumers' preferences for improved treatment of malaria in Southeast Nigeria and how the results can be used to improve the deployment of malaria treatment services. Methods This study was undertaken in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria in three rural and three urban areas. A total of 2,250 randomly selected householders were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Preferences were elicited using both a rating scale and ranking of different treatment provision sources by the respondents. A socio-economic status (SES) index was used to examine for SES differences, whilst urban-rural comparison was used to examine for geographic differences, in preferences. Results The most preferred source of provision of malaria treatment services was public hospitals (30.5%), training of mothers (19%) and treatment in Primary healthcare centres (18.1%). Traditional healers (4.8%) and patent medicine dealers (4.2%) were the least preferred strategies for improving malaria treatment. Some of the preferences differed by SES and by a lesser extent, the geographic location of the respondents. Conclusion Preferences for provision of improved malaria treatment services were influenced by SES and by geographic location. There should be re-invigoration of public facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, in addition to improving the financial and geographic accessibility of such facilities. Training of mothers should be encouraged but home management will not work if the quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy shops where drugs for home management are purchased are not improved. Therefore, there is the need for a holistic improvement of malaria treatment services. PMID:20051103

  3. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schayck, C P van

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under-privileged section of the society. PMID:26094178

  4. Low Self-Esteem During Adolescence Predicts Poor Health, Criminal Behavior, and Limited Economic Prospects During Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kali H. Trzesniewski; M. Brent Donnellan; Terrie E. Moffitt; Richard W. Robins; Richie Poulton; Avshalom Caspi

    2006-01-01

    Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term consequences of self-esteem could not be explained by adolescent depression, gender, or socioeconomic status.

  5. Changes in 10-12 year old's fruit and vegetable intake in Norway from 2001 to 2008 in relation to gender and socioeconomic status - a comparison of two cross-sectional groups

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Norwegian children and adolescents eat less than half of the recommended 5 portions of fruit and vegetables (FV) per day. Gender and socioeconomic disparities in FV consumption shows that boys and children of lower socioeconomic status (SES) eat less FV than girls and high SES children. We also know that accessibility and preferences has been identified as two important determinants of FV intake. The objectives of this study were to compare FV intake among Norwegian 6th and 7th graders in 2001 and 2008, to explore potential mediated effects of accessibility and preferences on changes in FV over time, to explore whether these changes in FV intake was moderated by gender and/or SES and whether a moderated effect in FV intake was mediated by accessibility and preferences of FV. Methods The baseline survey of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project was conducted in 2001 at 38 randomly chosen schools in two Norwegian counties. A second survey was conducted at the same schools in 2008. A total of 27 schools participated in both surveys (2001 n = 1488, 2008 n = 1339). FV intake was measured by four food frequency questions (times/week) in a questionnaire which the pupils completed at school. SES was based on parents' reports of their own educational level in a separate questionnaire. The main analyses were multilevel linear regression analyses. Results A significant year*parental educational level interaction was observed (p = 0.01). FV intake decreased among pupils of parents with lower educational level (13.9 vs. 12.6 times/week in 2001 and 2008, respectively), but increased among pupils of parents with higher education (14.8 vs. 15.0 times/week, respectively). This increasing SES disparity in FV intake was partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences over time, wherein children with higher educated parents had a steeper increase in accessibility and preferences over time than children with lower educated parents. The year*sex interaction was not significant (p = 0.54). Conclusions This study shows an increase in SES disparities in 6th and 7th graders FV intake from 2001 to 2008, partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences of FV. PMID:21968008

  6. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  7. Advancing women's status: a foreign policy goal.

    PubMed

    Albright, M

    1997-01-01

    US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserted in a March 1997 speech to the State Department that integrating gender issues into foreign policy forwards the interests of the US government. Albright noted that advancing the status of women is necessary to build the kind of future the US wants for the world. This cannot happen unless women have the equal access, rights, and protection necessary to contribute to society to their full potential. Advancing the status of women is crucial for realizing the goals of building peace, expanding the circle of democracy, sustaining a growing global economy, and spreading US-endorsed values. The US is incorporating concerns relating to women into the mainstream of its foreign policy by supporting foreign aid programs that expand the political and economic participation of women, increase access for women to education and health care, and augment the ability of women to protect themselves from violence and disease. This integration process means that the US will be working with other governments as well as with nongovernmental organizations and other agents of progress. This gender perspective will affect every stage from policy-making to program implementation. The US will be seeking an end to the old era of injustice and repression to make way for a new era of opportunity and full participation. PMID:12321055

  8. Political, religious and occupational identities in context: placing identity status paradigm in context.

    PubMed

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Hurry, Jane

    2008-04-01

    This study critically contrasts global identity with domain-specific identities (political, religious and occupational) and considers context and gender as integral parts of identity. In a cross-sectional survey, 1038 Greek Cypriot adolescents (449 boys and 589 girls, mean age 16.8) from the three different types of secondary schools (state, state technical and private) and from different SES completed part of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-2 (EOMEIS-2). The macro-context of Greek Cypriot society is used to understand the role of context in adolescents' identities. Results showed that Greek Cypriot young people were not in the same statuses across their global, political, religious and occupational identities. This heterogeneity in the status of global identity and of each identity domain is partially explained by differences in gender, type of school and SES (socio-economic status). The fact that identity status is found to be reactive to context suggests that developmental stage models of identity status should place greater emphasis on context. PMID:18191999

  9. Family correlates of male childhood gender disturbance.

    PubMed

    Rekers, G A; Mead, S L; Rosen, A C; Brigham, S L

    1983-03-01

    In the context of a review of adult cases of gender disturbance, a clinical study was pursued on the status of fathers, father-substitutes, and older male siblings for 46 boys with deviations in male role development. Significantly fewer male role models were found in the family backgrounds of the severely gender-disturbed boys as compared to the mild-to-moderately gender-disturbed boys. Male childhood gender disturbance was also found to be correlated with a high incidence of psychiatric problems in both the mothers and fathers and with atypical patterns of the boys' involvement with their mothers and fathers, as measured by the Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test and the Rekers Behavior Checklist for Childhood Gender Problems. PMID:6854278

  10. Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Jaime; Bun, Lam Chun; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict. PMID:22308059

  11. Gender earnings and poverty reduction: post-Communist Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Women get less of the material resources, social status, power and opportunities for self-actualization than men do who share their social location – be it a location based on class, race, occupation, ethnicity, religion, education, nationality, or any intersection of these factors. The process of feminization of poverty in Central Asia and Uzbekistan is intimately connected to the cultural and institutional limitations that put a ceiling on women’s involvement in economic activity. This article attempts to study and explore gender in the context of poverty reduction in Uzbekistan, the most populated state of Central Asia, to understand the ways and manner in which poverty and other forms of deprivation demand women’s participation in variety of contexts. The study is primarily an empirical one and is based on an extensive sociological investigation in the field. PMID:22213880

  12. Recalled test anxiety in relation to achievement, in the context of general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement and socio-economic status among Grade 6 Ethiopian students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mohan Raju; Abebech Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants were randomly selected, namely 248 boys and 249 girls. The

  13. Marriage, gender and obesity in later life.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sven E

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature argues that marriage promotes health and increases longevity. But do these benefits extend to maintaining a healthy body weight, as the economic theory of health investment suggests they should? They do not. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), I find that entry into marriage among both men and women aged 51-70 is associated with weight gain and exit from marriage with weight loss. I evaluate three additional theories with respect to the cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in the data. First, it may be that a broader set of shared risk factors (such as social obligations regarding meals) raises body mass for married couples. However, the shared risk factor model predicts that the intra-couple correlation should increase with respect to marital duration. Instead, it declines. Second, scholars have recently promoted a "crisis" model of marriage in which marital transitions, not marital status, determine differences in body mass. The crisis model is consistent with short-term effects seen for divorce, but not for the persistent weight gains associated with marriage or the persistent weight loss following widowhood. And transition models, in general, cannot explain significant cross-sectional differences across marital states in a population that is no longer experiencing many transitions, nor can it account for the prominent gender differences (in late middle-age, the heaviest group is unmarried women and the lightest are unmarried men). Third, I argue that pressures of the marriage market, in combination with gendered preferences regarding partner BMI, can account for all the longitudinal and cross-sectional patterns found in the data. PMID:22795874

  14. Autism and Gender

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Autism_Gender_051415.html Autism and Gender HealthDay News Video - May 14, 2015 ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Autism and Gender For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  15. Suffering of childless women in Bangladesh: the intersection of social identities of gender and class.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; Richters, Annemiek

    2011-12-01

    Research has documented that, around the world, women who are childless against their will suffer from an array of social, economic and emotional difficulties. The causes of this suffering are primarily related to their gender position in society and their gender identity. This paper addresses the impact of class differences on the gender-related suffering of childless women in the socially very hierarchically structured society of Bangladesh. The main method was gathering life histories of illiterate rural poor childless women and educated urban middle-class childless women. The rural childless women experience strong stigma in society, as their identity is devalued due to their inability to produce children. As a result, they suffer from feelings of guilt, role failure, loss of self-esteem, abandonment by the family, social isolation, and impoverishment. In contrast, because of their relatively high socio-economic status and good educational background, urban childless women have more opportunities to avail themselves of alternative social identities and thus avoid social isolation. Despite these differences, both groups of women lead frustrated lives, burdened with a deep sense of guilt for not being able to produce children. PMID:22060126

  16. Gender Stereotypes of Occupations: Does Women's Work Have Prestige Yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girondi, Annette M.; And Others

    While gender stereotyping of occupations has been investigated, the relationship between such stereotypes and job status has received less attention. Two studies were conducted in which assessments of occupational gender stereotyping were compared with assessments of occupational prestige made by the same subjects. In study one, subjects were 20…

  17. Grey Literature on Women and Gender in Botswana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shadrack B. Rathapo

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the activities of the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation (NIR) in Botswana regarding the collection and dissemination of grey literature on women and gender issues. Defines grey literature (GL). Presents the status of women in Botswana. Describes efforts and mechanisms by government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to address women’s issues. Describes the NIR, its Gender Research Programme

  18. The Collaborative for Gender Equity: The Economy and Employment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from the Collaborative for Gender Equity includes a number of links to articles on the economy, employment and gender equity in the STEM disciplines. Articles cover topics including the pay gap, barriers for women's success in science and engineering and the status of the United States' technical workforce. Dates of publication are included.

  19. Contemporary Approaches to Economic Development: The Special Economic Zone Programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gopinath

    2009-01-01

    Of considerable interest within policy and academic circles, is the emergence of India's status as a new economic powerhouse in Asia. This development can be linked to its recent advocacy of 'effective' local economic development policies, particularly in attempting to create 'new economic spaces' as a model for economic development. In this regard, in 2005, the Indian central government passed

  20. INEQUITIES PERSISTINEQUITIES PERSIST Economic Status

    E-print Network

    a year in which overall average faculty salaries had grown by the smallest percentage in decades. Highlights include a comparison of the salaries of university and college presidents to those of faculty in overall salary levels in 2003­04, the average salaries reported by institutions in 2004­05 look relatively

  1. Gender, education and training: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Leach, F

    1998-07-01

    This article examines the causes and consequences of sex discrimination in education in developing countries and considers whether the available educational structures improve gender equity or reinforce the status quo. After an introduction that distinguishes between "education" and "schooling" and identifies schooling as a means of patriarchal control, the article sketches the growing awareness of gender disparities in education. The next section describes how gender inequality in education leads to low participation of women in the labor market and limits women's access to information and services, to mobility, and to decision-making. The article then reviews the international agenda on promoting female education that has resulted in donor-driven initiatives arising from such events as the 1990 World Conference on Education For All. A look at the benefits of educating women then focuses on the "family welfare" perspective and the acknowledgement of women's full socioeconomic role. After pointing to the slow progress towards gender equity in education, the article discusses barriers to this goal posed by poverty, social conventions, early marriage, violence in schools, and curricular gender stereotyping. The article then considers problems encountered by efforts to provide informal education and training and the fact that educational initiatives are donor-driven and fail to address the causes of the gender gap. It is concluded that governments and donors must transform schools as part of a larger program of socioeconomic reforms designed to improve women's status. PMID:12294050

  2. Migration and rural women in China: a look at the gendered impact of large-scale migration.

    PubMed

    Davin, D

    1996-01-01

    This preliminary study explored the impact on women of economic migration from rural to urban areas in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The study focused on economic migration, which accounted for 29% of the reasons for moving. In some provinces such as Guangdong, economic reasons account for almost 60% of in-migrants. Interprovincial migration is primarily economic, followed by marriage, which varies widely by province. Migrants tend to assume occupations that are assigned by gender. Male migrants tend to outnumber female migrants, and women are left to farm. Where migration is gender balanced, the sex ratio in the sending area may be stable, but gender division within individual households is upset. Children may be tended by grandparents in rural areas, when their parents find work in cities. Migrants in urban areas do not have the same rights as permanent urban household registrants and cannot send their children to school or use free or low cost health care. Migrants keep in close contact with home villages. Urban migrants without permanent household registration status face the loss of welfare benefits in urban areas as well as the high cost of purchase of a permanent residence permit, social discrimination, stigma from mass media portrayals, and poor housing. Most rural-urban migration is circular. Female return migrants bring back cash remittances and new family roles and status. Rural migrants are exposed to new urban experiences that are retold in rural areas and that may pose difficulties in readjustment to the hardships of rural life. Urban fertility is delayed and lower than that of rural fertility. PMID:12294609

  3. Refashioning IPE: What and how gender analysis teaches international (global) political economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny Griffin

    2007-01-01

    It remains the case that, in spite of the consistently high quality and quantity of gender analysis, gender has not been able to achieve more than a marginal status in International Political Economy (IPE). Increasingly visible as a category of analysis, gender remains trivialized in the minds of both the mainstream and more critical IPE approaches, as a category pertaining

  4. The Gendered Nature of Disasters: Women Survivors in Post-Tsunami Tamil Nadu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Juran

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of disasters rarely reveal themselves equally across an affected population. Rather, the extent of impact is determined by social constructs, such as religion, caste, socioeconomic status and most notably, gender, which cuts across all of these spheres. This article focuses on the variable of gender and the role it played in post-tsunami Tamil Nadu, India. In particular, gender

  5. Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

  6. Gender and the Development of Welfare Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    This paper builds on the idea that any further development of the concept of 'welfare regime' must incorporate the relationship between unpaid as well as paid work and welfare. Consideration of the privateldomestic is crucial to a gendered understanding of welfare because historically women have typically gained entitlements by virtue of their dependent status within the family as wives and

  7. Transsexualism, Gender Identity Disorder and the DSM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Drescher

    2010-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is currently in the process of revising the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community have expressed interest and concern regarding the future status of the diagnostic categories of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) of Adolescence and Adulthood and GID of Childhood (GIDC) in

  8. Understanding the role of mediating risk factors and proxy effects in the association between socio-economic status and untreated hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bell, A Colin; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2004-07-01

    The association between socio-economic status (SES) and untreated hypertension varies according to a country's level of development and racial/ethnic group. We sought to confirm this variation in women from China and the United States (US) as well as to investigate the impact of SES on several mediating risk factors. We also investigate the extent to which SES explains racial/ethnic differences in untreated hypertension in the US. We used cross-sectional data from 1814 non-pregnant women in China (China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), 1997) and 3266 non-pregnant women in the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994) respectively. A variety of statistical modelling techniques was used to predict untreated hypertension as a function of several mediating factors and to simulate the impact of changes in SES. The age-adjusted prevalence of untreated hypertension was significantly higher (p<0.01) for low-income White and Black women compared to Mexican American or Chinese women. Untreated hypertension was not significantly associated with income or education in Mexican Americans or women in China. Obesity and light physical activity had the largest mediating effect on the association between SES and untreated hypertension for all racial/ethnic groups. However, this effect was not as strong as the proxy effect of income and education. SES did not completely explain racial/ethnic differences in hypertension in the US. While SES was more strongly associated with hypertension in Blacks than Whites, Blacks were still 1.97 (95% CI 1.47-2.64) times more likely to have untreated hypertension than Whites after adjusting for SES differences. The association between SES and untreated hypertension varied by country and racial/ethnic group. An important explanation for this variation was the differential effect of SES on mediating risk factors. SES disparities between Whites and Blacks in the US partly explain differences in the prevalence of untreated hypertension between these racial/ethnic groups. PMID:15110419

  9. Gender Resolution in Rumanian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LOUISA SADLER

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers a contribution to the treatment of agreement phenomena in LFG by providing an analysis of Rumanian nominal agreement, focussing on gender. I take up two issues concerned with gender marking and agreement in Ru- manian. The first of these is the apparent mismatch between the number of nominal controller genders (three), and the number of target genders

  10. Patterns of Gender Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Lynn Martin; Diane N. Ruble

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize

  11. Women's and Gender Studies

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    Women's and Gender Studies #12;Women's and Gender Studies at Carleton University provides you and the world around us. The Pauline Jewett Institute of Women's and Gender Studies offers a stimulating affects our local, national and global environment. Women's and Gender Studies not only opens new

  12. Ego Identity Status and Self-Monitoring Behavior in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumru, Asiye; Thompson, Ross A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between identity status and self-monitoring behavior, including age and gender differences, among adolescents in Turkey. Found significant increases in identity achievement and moratorium with age, and no gender differences in identity status. Males were significantly higher than females in self-monitoring. (Author/SD)

  13. International global climate change negotiations. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session, July 15, 1997--The economic and environmental impact of the proposed agreement -- November 11, 1997--Status of International Global Climate Change Negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In these hearings attention was focused on the following: the economic and environmental impact of the proposed agreement; and the status of international global climate change negotiations. US policy must be based on both the best scientific information available and on a clear understanding of the economic impacts of any actions that may be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Suicide Rates and Status Integration in America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Fernquist

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand how educational attainment and marital status impact the likelihood of suicide among various age-sex-race\\/ethnic groups in America, Gibbs and Martin's theory of Status Integration is tested. The distribution of suicide rates from 1991–1994 in the United States for people of different status categories of age, gender, education, marital status, and race\\/ethnicity is compared to the

  15. STATUS OF WOMEN COMMITTEE The Status of Women Committee shall address issues that concern women students, faculty, and

    E-print Network

    Sze, Lawrence

    for Student Affairs Director, Employment Equity Coordinator, SAFER Chair, Women's and Gender Studies October 2008 Changed Director of Women's Studies Program to Chair, Women's and Gender Studies DepartmentSTATUS OF WOMEN COMMITTEE Function The Status of Women Committee shall address issues that concern

  16. Career Center Recruiting Policy for Employers Postings that discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation,

    E-print Network

    , color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, age, disability, or veteran status that involve marketing alcoholic beverages and/ or other products which may harm an individual's health may

  17. Culture, political economy and gender marginalisation: a case of girl child in India.

    PubMed

    Punalekar, S P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses female children and the impact of macro- and micro- economic and cultural aspects of gender neglect and marginalization. Although gender marginalization is a widely accepted theoretical concern, the explanations for women's vulnerability vary. One view holds that changes in relations of production and in the system of property relations will automatically resolve gender issues. Another view holds that cultural factors are responsible for entrenched female inequalities. This paper argues that culture is not one-dimensional. Culture affects the material activity of people and their ideas. Feminists over the past two decades have promoted a generalized consciousness about women and their strategic role in production and reproduction, especially female children. Research inadequately addresses issues affecting the female child. In the domestic or household sphere, evidence suggests that the female child experiences greater child mortality, infanticide, and sex-selective abortion, and lower health status. Female children have greater micronutrient deficiencies, growth retardation, and micronutrient deficiencies. In times of natural disasters or crises, girls were found to suffer more from malnutrition than boys. The enrollment and retention of girls in school is lower than boys. Cultural stereotyping and restrictions on movement subject girls to the authority and control of male children and adult males. Girls are socialized differently and are not encouraged to be autonomous or to use initiative. In the public sphere, girls are used by families to serve household and production needs of the family and other relatives. Working wages for girls are very low, and working conditions are oppressive. The economic status of the household determines allocation of work, access to education, and lifestyle. PMID:12158017

  18. Inequities Persist for Women and Non-Tenure-Track Faculty. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Many faculty members were optimistic about their economic prospects for 2004-05. They saw signs of--or at least hope for--economic recovery all around and were ending a year in which overall average faculty salaries had grown by the smallest percentage in decades. Following the pattern of recent years, this annual report first examines the…

  19. Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Methods Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Results Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary “evil” for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Conclusions Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk. PMID:22713353

  20. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  1. Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces).

    PubMed

    Dorius, Shawn F; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494

  2. Gender Identity Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Bussey

    \\u000a Gender features strongly in most societies and is a significant aspect of self-definition for most people. Following a brief\\u000a description of views on gender identity from the perspectives of humanistic social science, sociology, and psychology, this\\u000a chapter provides an analysis of gender identity development from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Social cognitive\\u000a theory describes how gender conceptions are developed

  3. Gender relations and applied research on aging.

    PubMed

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-12-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life. PMID:20956798

  4. Women's Status and Fertility in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DeAnna Loraine Gore

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, researchers have realized the importance that gender roles play in demographic events, particularly fertility. An increase in women’s status can be a fundamental force in the transition from high to replacement level fertility. When women have a higher status, they typically exercise greater power in their sexual and reproductive relations. In this context, they often

  5. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  6. The Embryology of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  7. Beyond Gender Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary…

  8. GENDERIZING HCI Justine Cassell

    E-print Network

    Cassell, Justine

    1 GENDERIZING HCI Justine Cassell E15-315 MIT Media Lab 20 Ames Street Cambridge, MA 02139 justine designed for a particular gender, and how this design process illustrates a particular relationship between that relationship a genderization of IT, and I'm going to come back to that sarcastic wording a little later

  9. The Morpheme Gender Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Fanny; Seigneuric, Alix; Spinelli, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments we explored the mental representation of morphologically complex words in French. Subjects were asked to perform a gender decision task on morphologically complex words that were of the same gender as their base or not. We found that gender decisions were made more slowly for morphologically complex words made from a base with…

  10. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socio-economic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males?

    PubMed Central

    Dahly, Darren L; Adair, Linda S

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that lower birth order amplifies the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult males from a lower-income, developing country context. Design The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is an ongoing community-based, observational study of a one year birth cohort (1983). Subjects 970 young adult males, mean age 21.5 y (2005). Measurements Central adiposity measured by waist circumference; birth order; perinatal maternal characteristics including height, arm fat area, age, and smoking behavior; socioeconomic status at birth and in young adulthood. Results Lower birth order was associated with higher waist circumference and increased odds of high waist circumference, even after adjustment for socioeconomic status in young adulthood, and maternal characteristics that could impact later offspring adiposity. Furthermore, the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity was amplified in individuals characterized by lower birth order. Conclusions This research has failed to reject the mismatch hypothesis, which posits that maternal constraint of fetal growth acts to program developing physiology in a manner that increases susceptibility to the obesogenic effects of modern environments. PMID:20065964

  11. Socioeconomic Status, School Quality, and National Economic Development: A Cross-National Analysis of the "Heyneman-Loxley Effect" on Mathematics and Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Goesling, Brian; Letendre, Gerald K.

    2002-01-01

    Based on 1970s data, the "Heyneman-Loxley (HL) effect" proposed that in developing nations, school variables were more important than family socioeconomic status in determining academic achievement. A reassessment of the HL effect using 1990s TIMSS data found the relationship between family background and student achievement to be similar across…

  12. Gender determination in populus

    SciTech Connect

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  13. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  14. STATUS OF POROUS PAVEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...

  15. Gender and AIDS: time to act

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Alan; Peacock, Dean; Jewkes, Rachel; Msimang, Sisonke

    2012-01-01

    Gender has long been recognized as being key to understanding and addressing HIV and AIDS. Gender roles and relations that structure and legitimate women’s subordination and simultaneously foster models of masculinity that justify and reproduce men’s dominance over women exacerbate the spread and impact of the epidemic. Notions of masculinity prevalent in many parts of the world that equate being a man with dominance over women, sexual conquest and risk-taking are associated with less condom use, more sexually transmitted infections, more partners, including more casual partners, more frequent sex, more abuse of alcohol and more transactional sex. They also contribute to men accessing treatment later than women and at greater cost to public health systems. The imperative of addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS has been clearly and repeatedly articulated. Many interventions have been shown to be effective in addressing gender-related risks and vulnerabilities including programmes designed to reach and engage men, improve women’s legal and economic position, integrate gender-based violence prevention into HIV services, and increase girls’ access to secondary and tertiary education. Despite this, the political will to act has been sorely lacking and not nearly enough has been done to hold governments and multilateral institutions to account. This paper argues that we can no longer simply pay lip service to the urgent need to act on what we know about gender and AIDS. Simply put, it is time to act. PMID:18641466

  16. The Social and Economic Status of the Black Population in the United States, 1971. Current Population Reports, Series P-23, Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Nampeo D. R.; And Others

    This is the fifth in a series of statistical reports about the social and economic conditions of the black population in the United States. Included here are the most current data available on selected areas of major interest. The majority of the statistics in this report are from the Bureau of the Census, but some are from other government and…

  17. Effects of mothers' socio-economic status on the management of febrile conditions in their under five children in a resource limited setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adenike AE Olaogun; Abayomi A Adebayo; Olufemi E Ayandiran; Olayinka A Olasode

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. OBJECTIVE:

  18. The Social and Economic Status of the Black Population in the United States 1974. Current Population Reports, Special Studies, Series P-23, No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Nampeo D.R.; And Others

    This population report presents current census and other governmental and private agency statistics on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the black population in the United States for 1974. Recent trends dating from 1970 to 1974 (and in the case of income and labor force, including early 1975 figures) are examined for…

  19. Impact of National Board Certification, Advanced Degree, and Socio-Economic Status on the Literacy Achievement Rate of 11th Grade Students in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Merlina Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The researcher explored whether there was a significant difference between the literacy achievement rates among eleventh grade students taught by National Board Certified Teachers versus students taught by non-National Board Certified Teachers with or without advanced degrees and of varied socio-economic levels. The researcher also explored the…

  20. The employment of highly qualified in an international context, in small, medium sized and large companies: status quo and its implications for the economics of human resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Moog

    1. Current situation and basic idea Constant growth in economic internationalisation prompts major corporations and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) alike to recruit adequate ranks of qualified employees. Moreover, companies have to retain these employees - in the bids to survive in the marketplace and in the face of competition. In this context, companies vie for with one another for

  1. Integrating Multiple Social Statuses in Health Disparities Research: The Case of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z

    2012-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674

  2. Stigma, status, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Lucas, Jeffrey W.; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Taylor, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by “social ordering schemas” that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between “normals” and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma’s impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of other more status-based bases of stratification such as SES, race and gender, whose health impacts have been firmly established. PMID:24507907

  3. Remarks on Racial Economic Equality: Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Responds to an earlier article by William Darity, Jr., which criticized the author's concept of equal economic opportunity. Claims that Darity misrepresented his viewpoint regarding racial differences in economic status. (GC)

  4. Child gender and father involvement in fragile families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelly. Lundberg; Sara. McLanahan; Elaina. Rose

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we use data from the first two waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the effects\\u000a of child gender on father involvement and to determine if gender effects differ by parents’ marital status. We examine several\\u000a indicators of father involvement, including whether the father acknowledges “ownership” of the child, whether the parents\\u000a live

  5. Immigration, Gender, and Earnings in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uzi Rebhun

    2010-01-01

    This study describes and accounts for gender differences in earnings among the foreign-born in Israel and how these differences\\u000a vary by origin countries. It expands on an earlier study that examined the effect of being foreign-born and female on employment\\u000a status. I address three major questions: Do earnings corroborate the “double disadvantage” of immigrant women relative to\\u000a both native-born women

  6. Serum levels of type I procollagen C-terminal propeptide, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF binding protein-3 in obese children and adolescents: Relationship to gender, pubertal development, growth, insulin, and nutritional status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriano Falorni; Vittorio Bini; Gabriele Cabiati; Francesco Papi; Sergio Arzano; Federica Celi; Massimo Sanasi

    1997-01-01

    We measured fasting serum levels of type I procollagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in obese children and adolescents (obese subjects [OS]) to evaluate their relationship to growth, gender, pubertal stage, and weight excess (WE). The influence of insulin, growth hormone (GH), and weight loss was also studied. The study population consisted of

  7. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health I: Attitudes and Health Practices

    PubMed Central

    Polen, Michael R.; Green, Carla A.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Anderson, Bradley M.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite considerable research, relationships among gender, alcohol consumption, and health remain controversial, due to potential confounding by health-related attitudes and practices associated with drinking, measurement challenges, and marked gender differences in drinking. We examined gender/alcohol consumption differences in health-related attitudes and practices, and evaluated how these factors affected relationships among gender, alcohol consumption, and health status. Methods A stratified random sample of adult health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). Using MANCOVAs and adjusting for health-related attitudes, values, and practices, we examined gender differences in relationships between alcohol consumption and health. Results More frequent heavy drinking was associated with worse health-related attitudes and values, worse feelings about visiting the doctor, and worse health-related practices. Relationships between health-related practices and alcohol use differed by gender, and daily or almost daily heavy drinking was associated with significantly lower physical and mental health for women compared to men. Drinking status (lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and level of regular alcohol consumption) was related to health status and vitality, even after adjusting for health-related attitudes, values, and practices. Relationships did not differ by gender. Former drinkers reported lower physical and mental health status than either lifelong abstainers or current drinkers. Conclusions Drinking status is independently related to physical health, mental health, and vitality, even after controlling for the health-related attitudes, values, and practices expected to confound these relationships. Among current drinkers, women who engage in very frequent heavy drinking have worse physical and mental health than their male counterparts. PMID:23946720

  8. Status as a Valued Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Bernardo A.; Loch, Christoph H.; Onculer, Ayse

    2004-01-01

    The striving for status has long been recognized in sociology and economics. Extensive theoretical arguments and empirical evidence propose that people view status as a sign of competence and pursue it as a means to achieve power and resources. A small literature, however, based on arguments from biology and evolutionary psychology, proposes that…

  9. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  10. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men. PMID:22217427

  11. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

  12. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  13. Patterns of Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains—sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development. PMID:19575615

  14. Patterns of gender development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains-sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development. PMID:19575615

  15. Perspectives on gender development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleanor E. Maccoby

    2000-01-01

    Two traditional perspectives on gender development—the socialisation and cognitive perspectives— are reviewed. It is noted that although they deal quite well with individual differences within each sex with regard to degree of sex-typing, they do not offer satisfactory explanations for some of the most robust gender dimorphisms: namely, gender segregation and the divergent patterns of interaction within all-male as compared

  16. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Susan P.; Hamberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Individual and area socio-economic status (SES) are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH) were reflectively analyzed. Results The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and mortality overall. PMID:25947541

  17. Does Student Quality Matter in the Teaching of Economic Principles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Panayides, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    Economics is usually perceived as a difficult subject among undergraduate students and the literature suggests that the student's problems with principles of economics are mainly related to the chalk and talk type of teaching, the simplicity of economic models, limited discussions on current economic issues, and on race, gender, and other types of…

  18. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  19. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships. PMID:16173891

  20. Convergent validity in objective measures of identity status: implications for identity status theory.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J

    2002-01-01

    The present study was conducted to test two primary assumptions of Marcia's identity status model: (a) that measures of the identity statuses would relate to identity exploration and commitment in ways consistent with the definitions of the statuses; and (b) that status assignments made using continuous status measures would converge with those made using exploration and commitment scores. Seven hundred fifty-eight university students (174 males, 560 females, 24 not reporting gender) completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire, which is a measure of identity exploration and commitment, and the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status II, which provides continuous measures of each identity status. Results provided mixed support for both assumptions of the identity status model. The findings are discussed in light of recent calls for expansion of identity theory and research beyond the identity status model. PMID:12458697

  1. Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana J. Lengua; Elizabeth A. Stormshak

    2000-01-01

    Path models of the effects of gender, gender roles, and personality variables (achievement and affiliation orientation, locus of control, empathy) on coping and symptoms were tested to explore the risk and protective effects of gender roles and personality on psychological symptoms, and to test whether or not gender roles or personality accounted for gender differences in coping and symptoms. In

  2. Prospective associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in European children: the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) Study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Krogh, Vittorio; Hebestreit, Antje; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Reisch, Lucia; Eiben, Gabriele; Iglesia, Iris; Veidebaum, Tomas; Kourides, Yannis A; Kovacs, Eva; Huybrechts, Inge; Pigeot, Iris; Moreno, Luis A

    2015-02-01

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2-9 years old) and follow-up (4-11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time and their association with SES. We applied the K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-two food items. The following three consistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up: processed (higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy cluster at baseline and follow-up and less likely to be allocated to the sweet cluster. Migrants were more likely to be allocated to the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Applying the cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns at the two time points allowed us to identify groups of children from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds. PMID:25563904

  3. Longitudinal changes in health behaviours and body weight among Swedish school children - associations with age, gender and parental education – the SCIP school cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to develop health promotion initiatives it is important to identify at what age gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviours emerge. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse how health-related behaviours and weight status differed by age-group, gender, family socio-economic status and over time in three cohorts of school children. Methods All children in grades 2, 4 and 7 in a Swedish semi-urban municipality were invited to participate (n?=?1,359) of which 813 (60%) consented. At baseline and after 2 years a health questionnaire was answered by all children. Height and weight was measured. Fourteen outcomes were analysed. The main and interaction effects of time, gender and parental educational level on the health-related behaviours, weight status and body mass index standard deviation score (BMIsds) were analysed by the Weighted Least Squares method for categorical repeated measures and Analysis of Variance. Results Nine of 12 health behaviours deteriorated over the two years: consumption of breakfast and lunch, vegetables and fruit, intake of sweetened drinks, TV viewing, club membership, being outdoors, and school recess activity; two behaviours were unchanged: intake of sweets, and active transport. Only sports participation increased with time. Girls consumed more vegetables, less sweetened drinks, performed less sports, were less physically active during recess, and had lower BMIsds, compared to boys. Those with more highly educated parents had more favourable or similar behaviours compared to those with less educated parents in 10 out of 12 health behaviours, the only exception being intake of sweets and being outdoors, and had lower BMIsds. Conclusions This study adds to our knowledge regarding the temporal development of health behaviours and weight status in school children. Differences with regard to gender and socioeconomic status were seen already at a young age. These results contribute to our understanding of several important determinants of obesity and chronic diseases and may inform future interventions regarding how to decrease gender and social inequalities in health. PMID:24958251

  4. on International Development Gendered Perspectives

    E-print Network

    on International Development Gendered Perspectives RESOURCE BULLETIN Winter 2011 Volume 26, the host center for the Gender, Development, and Globalization (GDG) Program, formerly the Women and International Development (WID) Program! The Gendered Perspectives on International Development Working Papers

  5. The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2012-02-01

    Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

  6. Gender Equity. IDRA Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles on issues of gender equity for Chicanas and other women. "Recognizing Chicana Contributions: Cultural History & Gender Equity on the Line" (Mikki Symonds) discusses the invisibility of Mexican Americans in general and of Chicanas in particular in U.S. history books, school curricula, and pop culture, and…

  7. SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    LEARN TO UNDERSTAND SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES CAPS #12;CONTENTS 01 Questioning your sexuality or gender identity 02 Coming out 04 Sexual health 05 Harassment and discrimination 06 Types of support and information available 08 Useful resources Sexual orientation is about who

  8. Gender, fisheries and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Bennett

    2005-01-01

    Although West African fisheries have been the subject of considerable study, little attention has paid to the role of gender in the development process and, more specifically, the work done by women in the overall management of fisheries. Lack of attention to the gender dimension of fisheries management can result in policy interventions missing their target of creating sustainable livelihoods

  9. Gender and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1990-01-01

    Contends that, to understand role of gender in psychological problems, counselors need to be aware of gender-socialized individual characteristics, which may affect what psychological problems people develop, associated symptoms, and how people respond to problems. Claims it is important to recognize how broader sociological context presents men…

  10. Gender, Toys and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  11. Gender Perception Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for participation in the gender perception experiment. Participants view photographs of faces and only the mouth and chin regions are visible. Participants are asked to identify the gender of each stimulus and to indicate their confidence in their judgment.

  12. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  13. Gender Inequality at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  14. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  15. Gender, Class, Caste and ParticipationThe Case of Community Forestry in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anupama Lama; Marlène Buchy

    2002-01-01

    Based on an extensive literature and illustrated by a field survey of two Forest User Groups in Nepal, this paper explores how participation in community forestry is affected by social status and more so by gender. Looking more specifically at gender differences, the paper presents the reasons and the ways in which women, despite the current rhetoric, remain excluded from

  16. Gender Similarities in Math Performance from Middle School through High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafidi, Tony; Bui, Khanh

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 10 states, Hyde, Lindberg, Linn, Ellis, and Williams (2008) found gender similarities in performance on standardized math tests. The present study attempted to replicate this finding with national data and to extend it by examining whether gender similarities in math performance are moderated by race, socioeconomic status, or math…

  17. Handsome Wants as Handsome Does: Physical Attractiveness and Gender Differences in Revealed Sexual Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Aura McClintock

    2011-01-01

    In this article I evaluate the effect of physical attractiveness on young adults' sexual and romantic outcomes to reveal gender differences in acted preferences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a probability sample of young adults (n?=?14,276), I investigate gender differences in desired sexual partner accumulation, relationship status, and timing of sexual intercourse. I

  18. The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell J. Skiba; Robert S. Michael; AbraCarroll Nardo; Reece L. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school disciplinary data for an urban school district, we explored three of the most commonly offered hypotheses for disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions,

  19. Women's Surnames and Working Titles, the Opposition in Polish of Physical and Grammatical Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalibow, Kenneth L.

    In the contemporary standard Warsaw Polish of educated Poles, there is evidence of a system of gender-marking whereby masculine-gender nouns are being substituted for feminine professional names, working titles and surnames. The current usage is attributed to the change of status of the modern woman, or, more precisely, to her increased…

  20. Age, Gender, and Class Differences in Physical Punishment and Physical Abuse of American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauchope, Barbara A.; Straus, Murray A.

    This study examined the relationship of the age and gender of the child, and the occupational status and gender of the parent, to the incidence and frequency of physical punishment and two levels of physical abuse of children, as measured by the minor, severe, and very severe violence indexes of the Conflict Tactics Scales. The subjects were…

  1. Career Aspirations of Youth: Untangling Race/Ethnicity, SES, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…

  2. Precollege science achievement growth: Racial-ethnic and gender differences in cognitive and psychosocial constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Patricia Ann

    The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economic status and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in effects of the remaining cognitive and psychosocial factors on science achievement growth rates. Cognitive and psychosocial variables were statistically significant only for specific subgroups, and did not generally exhibit any commonalities across gender, or by race. The findings accentuated the importance of disaggregating data and analyses by both race-ethnicity and gender.

  3. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap. PMID:18808221

  4. A Systematic Review on Health Resilience to Economic Crises

    PubMed Central

    Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S.; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. Methods We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. Results From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women’s mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men’s. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Conclusions Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies which operationalised resilience factors. Future conceptual and empirical research is needed to develop the epidemiology of resilience. PMID:25905629

  5. He said, she said: The gender wage gap according to self and proxy reports in the Current Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Wenger, Jeffrey B

    2012-03-01

    Roughly half the labor force data in the Current Population Survey (CPS) are provided by proxy respondents, and since 1979, men's reliance on proxies has dropped dramatically while women's reliance on proxies has increased. Few authors, however, have examined how combining these first-hand and second-hand reports may influence our understanding of long-term economic trends. We exploit the outgoing rotation group structure of the CPS by matching individual records one year apart, and we find that self-reported wages are higher than proxy-reported wages even after controlling for all time invariant characteristics. Furthermore, we find that changes in the use of proxy respondents by men and women since 1979 have made current estimates of the gender wage gap larger than they would have been without changes in reporting status. This suggests that the gender wage gap has closed more than previously estimated. We recommend that researchers combine self and proxy responses with great care, especially when analyzing time trends or making gender comparisons. PMID:23017760

  6. [Academic medicine and gender: women in surgical specialities].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Veláquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; Farías-Llamas, Oscar Alejandro; Olivares-Becerra, Juan José; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Scientific advances have always been used as a measure to place societies in the context of developed and developing countries. This circumstance has directly influenced the division among the sexes and among social strata. Traditionally women have been relegated to an inferior status and in some instances their role as active participants in social and economic development has been annulled. In professional spheres, women have reached positions that previously seemed unattainable due to social and cultural limitations imposed by men and sometimes by women themselves. Medical school is currently no longer an obstacle for women to gain entry to, approximately 50% of medical students are women. On the other hand, surgical residences constitute a more complex situation. In order for women to decide to apply to a surgical residence, they have to take into account a variety of factors, among them, the difficulty of joining a male dominated environment where women have to demonstrate they are able and capable of performing sometimes at the expense of having to carry an additional work load. Women admitted to surgical residences will have to face gender discrimination, pregnancy and family responsibilities as well as salary inequities and sometimes even sexual harassment. We aimed to show the circumstances and obstacles that women are confronted with during surgical training and the influence these have in their personal and professional development. PMID:16164133

  7. Advanced Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  8. Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    ;Undergraduate Economics Economics helps us answer questions, such as how should the banking system be regulated assessment period. Our programmes of study are modular, consisting of self- contained units, taught (measured through the number of credits awarded) is proportional to the number of learning hours, which

  9. AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    STATUS OF WISCONSIN AGRICULTURE, 2005 Status of the Wisconsin Farm Economy Situation and Outlook, and Specialization in the Wisconsin Dairy Industry · The Economic Importance of Value-added Agriculture in Wisconsin · The Economic Value of Wisconsin's Green Industry Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics College

  10. The Theory of Economic Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Stigler

    1971-01-01

    The potential uses of public resources and powers to improve the economic status of economic groups (such as industries and occupations) are analyzed to provide a scheme of the demand for regulation. The characteristics of the political process which allow relatively small groups to obtain such regulation is then sketched to provide elements of a theory of supply of regulation.

  11. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  12. Links between Socio-Economic Circumstances and Changes in Smoking Behavior in the Mexican Population: 2002–2010

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, HIRAM; Thomas, DUNCAN; Teruel, GRACIELA; Wheaton, FELICIA; Crimmins, EILEEN M.

    2013-01-01

    While deleterious consequences of smoking on health have been widely publicized, in many developing countries, smoking prevalence is high and increasing. Little is known about the dynamics underlying changes in smoking behavior. This paper examines socio-economic and demographic characteristics associated with smoking initiation and quitting in Mexico between 2002 and 2010. In addition to the influences of age, gender, education, household economic resources and location of residence, changes in marital status, living arrangements and health status are examined. Drawing data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, a rich population-based longitudinal study of individuals, smoking behavior of individuals in 2002 is compared with their behavior in 2010. Logistic models are used to examine socio-demographic and health factors that are associated with initiating and quitting smoking. There are three main findings. First, part of the relationship between education and smoking reflects the role of economic resources. Second, associations of smoking with education and economic resources differ for females and males. Third, there is considerable heterogeneity in the factors linked to smoking behavior in Mexico indicating that the smoking epidemic may be at different stages in different population subgroups. Mexico has recently implemented fiscal policies and public health campaigns aimed at reducing smoking prevalence and discouraging smoking initiation. These programs are likely to be more effective if they target particular socio-economic and demographic sub-groups. PMID:23888371

  13. A National Case-Control Study Identifies Human Socio-Economic Status and Activities as Risk Factors for Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Stefanoff, Pawel; Rosinska, Magdalena; Samuels, Steven; White, Dennis J.; Morse, Dale L.; Randolph, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to Europe and medically highly significant. This study, focused on Poland, investigated individual risk factors for TBE symptomatic infection. Methods and Findings In a nation-wide population-based case-control study, of the 351 TBE cases reported to local health departments in Poland in 2009, 178 were included in the analysis. For controls, of 2704 subjects (matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence) selected at random from the national population register, two were interviewed for each case and a total of 327 were suitable for the analysis. Questionnaires yielded information on potential exposure to ticks during the six weeks (maximum incubation period) preceding disease onset in each case. Independent associations between disease and socio-economic factors and occupational or recreational exposure were assessed by conditional logistic regression, stratified according to residence in known endemic and non-endemic areas. Adjusted population attributable fractions (PAF) were computed for significant variables. In endemic areas, highest TBE risk was associated with spending ?10 hours/week in mixed forests and harvesting forest foods (adjusted odds ratio 19.19 [95% CI: 1.72–214.32]; PAF 0.127 [0.064–0.193]), being unemployed (11.51 [2.84–46.59]; 0.109 [0.046–0.174]), or employed as a forester (8.96 [1.58–50.77]; 0.053 [0.011–0.100]) or non-specialized worker (5.39 [2.21–13.16]; 0.202 [0.090–0.282]). Other activities (swimming, camping and travel to non-endemic regions) reduced risk. Outside TBE endemic areas, risk was greater for those who spent ?10 hours/week on recreation in mixed forests (7.18 [1.90–27.08]; 0.191 [0.065–0.304]) and visited known TBE endemic areas (4.65 [0.59–36.50]; 0.058 [?0.007–0.144]), while travel to other non-endemic areas reduced risk. Conclusions These socio-economic factors and associated human activities identified as risk factors for symptomatic TBE in Poland are consistent with results from previous correlational studies across eastern Europe, and allow public health interventions to be targeted at particularly vulnerable sections of the population. PMID:23029063

  14. On Broadening the Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociostructural Scope of Theorizing About Gender Development and Functioning: Comment on Martin, Ruble, and Szkrybalo (2002)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura; Kay Bussey

    2004-01-01

    In their article on gender development, C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo (2002) contrasted their conception of gender development with that of social cognitive theory. The authors of this commentary correct misrepresentations of social cognitive theory and analyze the conceptual and empirical status of Martin et al.'s (2002) theory that gender stereotype matching is the main motivating

  15. Wisconsin Agriculture Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    Wisconsin Agriculture 2012 STATUS OF Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics · Status­Extension College of Agricultural & Life Sciences UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MADISON #12;#12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2012 An annual report by the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, UW

  16. Gender Perception Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page provides information about the gender perception activity. Children and adults often report that they base their judgments of gender on features such as hair length or clothing. However, hair length can be long or short on a man or a woman, and men and women do wear similar types of clothing. Despite the potential for confusion, people reliably categorize individuals in the absence of information about hair or clothing. This study page explains the role of facial features in cueing gender classification.

  17. Research Administrator Salary: Association with Education, Experience, Credentials and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shambrook, Jennifer; Roberts, Thomas J.; Triscari, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Research Administrators Stress Perception Survey (2010 RASPerS) collected data from 1,131 research administrators on salary, years experience, educational level, Certified Research Administrator (CRA) status, and gender. Using these data, comparisons were made to show how salary levels are associated with each of these variables. Using…

  18. Gender, Family Characteristics, and Publication Productivity among Scientists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Frank Fox

    2005-01-01

    This paper concentrates upon the relationship between marriage, parental status, and publication productivity for women in academic science, with comparisons to men. Findings indicate that gender, family characteristics, and productivity are complex considerations that go beyond being married or not married, and the presence or absence of children. For women particularly, the relationship between marriage and productivity varies by type

  19. Beyond Depression: Gender Differences in Normal Adolescents' Emotional Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapley, Janice C.; Haviland, Jeannette M.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the status of depression among sex-related emotional differences in adolescents and examines the organizational properties of emotion relative to other life experience. Fifth-, seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-grade students reported on experience and situational dynamics of 12 emotions. Gender differences in adolescent…

  20. Knowing your Place: Gender and Reflexivity in two Ethnographies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona Gill; Catherine Maclean

    2002-01-01

    Female ethnographers often appear to be more aware of their sexual status and its impact on fieldwork and relationships than their male colleagues (Okely 1992: 19, Coffey 1999: 79). Similarly, the behaviour of female fieldworkers is often more closely scrutinised than that of male fieldworkers (Mascarenhas- Keyes 1987: 187), and many female ethnographers' accounts detail gender-specific issues and challenges that

  1. Australian English-Language Textbooks: The Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jackie F. K.; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and extent of gender stereotyping, both linguistic and pictorial, in a set of 10 Australian English-language textbooks for intermediate learners. In order to determine how accurately the books reflect the status of women in contemporary Australian society a content and linguistic analysis was conducted, focusing on,…

  2. Addressing the Complexities of Culture and Gender in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Pamela A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a model for systematically considering cultural influences counselors need to address in their work: age, disability, religion, ethnicity, social status, sexual orientation, indigenous heritage, national origin, and gender. Model helps counselors and educators to examine their own biases regarding minority cultures and consider the…

  3. A Theoretical Look at the Gender Balance of Power in the American Couple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser; Coleman, Marion Tolbert

    1989-01-01

    Develops empirically testable model applying Blumberg's general theory of gender stratification to the contemporary American heterosexual couple. Proposes a scheme for measuring marital economic power that incorporates "discount factors" at the macro and micro level which affect the overall economic power balance, resulting in "net economic

  4. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Verdonk; Yvonne W. M. Benschop; Toine L. M. Lagro-Janssen

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in\\u000a health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First,\\u000a it is stated that medicine was ‘gender blind’ by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be\\u000a ‘male biased’

  5. Gender in family therapy supervision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorana S. Nelson

    1991-01-01

    While gender has taken its place as a fundamental construct in family therapy theory, little has been written about gender in family therapy supervision. This paper attempts to redefine gender as it pertains to families, family therapy, and family therapy supervision; call attention to aspects of gender as they apply to training in family therapy and family therapy supervision; and

  6. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  7. Moral Status

    E-print Network

    Harman, Elizabeth, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Chapters One through Three present the following view: (i) I explain moral status as follows: something has moral status just in case we have reasons not to cause harms to it simply in virtue of the badness of the harms ...

  8. Smoking and health-related quality of life in English general population: implications for economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known as to how health-related quality of life (HRQoL) when measured by generic instruments such as EQ-5D differ across smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in the general population; whether the overall pattern of this difference remain consistent in each domain of HRQoL; and what implications this variation, if any, would have for economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. Methods Using the 2006 round of Health Survey for England data (n = 13,241), this paper aims to examine the impact of smoking status on health-related quality of life in English population. Depending upon the nature of the EQ-5D data (i.e. tariff or domains), linear or logistic regression models were fitted to control for biology, clinical conditions, socio-economic background and lifestyle factors that an individual may have regardless of their smoking status. Age- and gender-specific predicted values according to smoking status are offered as the potential 'utility' values to be used in future economic evaluation models. Results The observed difference of 0.1100 in EQ-5D scores between never-smokers (0.8839) and heavy-smokers (0.7739) reduced to 0.0516 after adjusting for biological, clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic conditions. Heavy-smokers, when compared with never-smokers, were significantly more likely to report some/severe problems in all five domains - mobility (67%), self-care (70%), usual activity (42%), pain/discomfort (46%) and anxiety/depression (86%) -. 'Utility' values by age and gender for each category of smoking are provided to be used in the future economic evaluations. Conclusion Smoking is significantly and negatively associated with health-related quality of life in English general population and the magnitude of this association is determined by the number of cigarettes smoked. The varying degree of this association, captured through instruments such as EQ-5D, may need to be fed into the design of future economic evaluations where the intervention being evaluated affects (e.g. tobacco control) or is affected (e.g. treatment for lung cancer) by individual's (or patients') smoking status. PMID:22429454

  9. How do sexual harassment policies shape gender beliefs? An exploration of the moderating effects of norm adherence and gender.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Justine E

    2013-09-01

    Sexual harassment laws have led to important organizational changes in the workplace yet research continues to document resistance to their implementation and backlash against the people who mobilize such laws. Employing experimental research methods, this study proposes and tests a theory specifying the mechanisms through which sexual harassment policies affect gender beliefs. The findings show evidence that sexual harassment policies strengthen unequal gender beliefs among men and women most committed to traditional gender interaction norms. I also find that men and women's different structural locations in the status hierarchy lead to different, but related sets of concerns about the status threats posed by sexual harassment policies. By specifying the social psychological processes through which sexual harassment law affects beliefs about men and women, this study sets the stage for investigating ways to make laws designed to reduce inequality between social groups more effective. PMID:23859730

  10. Asking gender questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan; Masters, Karen; Allen, James; Contenta, Filippo; Huckvale, Leo; Wilkins, Stephen; Zocchi, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Jonathan Pritchard, Karen Masters, James Allen, Filippo Contenta, Leo Huckvale, Stephen Wilkins and Alice Zocchi report on a survey of the gender of astronomers attending and asking questions at this year's UK National Astronomy Meeting.

  11. The Economics Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

  12. Gender and Personality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayne E. Stake; Heather Eisele

    \\u000a Personality is the study of individual differences and thus holds promise for a better understanding of how our gendered society\\u000a shapes and reinforces differences in women’s and men’s attitudes, emotions, and behaviors. Two strengths of present-day personality\\u000a research are particularly relevant for the study of gender. First, personality researchers gather data from large samples\\u000a of normally functioning individuals and emphasize

  13. Gender and Unpaid Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BETH ANNE SHELTON

    Gender remains strongly associated with women’s and men’s patterns of unpaid work. The amount of time invested in unpaid work\\u000a as opposed to paid work, the distribution of unpaid work time among specific tasks, and the patterns of care and responsibility\\u000a are all determined to a large degree by one’s gender. Women continue to spend more time than men on

  14. Leadership: Why gender and culture matter.

    PubMed

    Ayman, Roya; Korabik, Karen

    2010-04-01

    For decades, understanding of leadership has been largely based on the results of studies carried out on White men in the United States. We review major theories and models of leadership as they pertain to either gender or culture. We focus on 3 approaches to leadership: trait (including leadership categorization or implicit leadership theory), behavioral (including the two-factor, transformational-transactional leadership, and leader-member exchange models), and contingency (i.e., contingency model of leadership effectiveness and normative decision making). We discuss how dynamics related to either culture or gender (e.g., stereotypes and schemas, ingroup-outgroup interaction, role expectations, power and status differentials) can have an important impact on many aspects of leadership. PMID:20350015

  15. An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2007-01-01

    We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

  16. Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Economic Commission for Africa is the arm of the United Nations devoted to making quality information on African development internationally available. ECA research focus areas include gender equality, agricultural productivity, information technology, social policy, and environmental concerns. The site features an extensive bibliography of articles on African socio-economic development entitled Africa Index as well as the comprehensive Africa Economic Report 1998. Current awareness is also facilitated by the long list of African Newspaper and Magazine links entitled News from Around Africa.

  17. The who and where of HIV in rural Malawi: Exploring the effects of person and place on individual HIV status.

    PubMed

    Feldacker, Caryl; Emch, Michael; Ennett, Susan

    2010-09-01

    Few spatial studies explore relationships between people and place in sub-Saharan Africa or in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This paper uses individual-level demographic and behavioral data linked to area-level, spatially referenced socio-economic and access data to examine how the relationships between area- and individual-level risks and individual HIV status vary in rural Malawi. The political economy of health framework guides interpretation. Geographically weighted regression models show significant, local-level variation indicating that area-level factors drive patterns of HIV above individual-level contributions. In distinct locations, women who live further from health clinics, major roads, and major cities are less likely to be infected. For men, HIV status is strongly associated with migration patterns in specific areas. Local-level, gender-specific approaches to HIV prevention are necessary in high risk areas. PMID:20598623

  18. The who and where of HIV in rural Malawi: Exploring the effects of person and place on individual HIV status

    PubMed Central

    Feldacker, Caryl; Emch, Michael; Ennett, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Few spatial studies explore relationships between people and place in sub-Saharan Africa or in the context of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This paper uses individual-level demographic and behavioral data linked to area-level, spatially-referenced socio-economic and access data to examine how the relationships between area- and individual-level risks and individual HIV status vary in rural Malawi. The Political Economy of Health framework guides interpretation. Geographically weighted regression models show significant, local-level variation indicating that area-level factors drive patterns of HIV above individual-level contributions. In distinct locations, women who live further from health clinics, major roads, and major cities are less likely to be infected. For men, HIV status is strongly associated with migration patterns in specific areas. Local-level, gender-specific approaches to HIV prevention are necessary in high risk areas. PMID:20598623

  19. Gender and Time for Sleep among U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah A; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2013-02-01

    Do women really sleep more than men? Biomedical and social scientific studies show longer sleep durations for women, a surprising finding given sociological research showing women have more unpaid work and less high-quality leisure time compared to men. We assess explanations for gender differences in time for sleep, including compositional differences in levels of engagement in paid and unpaid labor, gendered responses to work and family responsibilities, and differences in napping, bedtimes, and interrupted sleep for caregiving. We examine the overall gender gap in time for sleep as well as gaps within family life-course stages based on age, partnership, and parenthood statuses. We analyze minutes of sleep from a diary day collected from nationally representative samples of working-age adults in the American Time Use Surveys of 2003 to 2007. Overall and at most life course stages, women slept more than men. Much of the gap is explained by work and family responsibilities and gendered time tradeoffs; as such, gender differences vary across life course stages. The gender gap in sleep time favoring women is relatively small for most comparisons and should be considered in light of the gender gap in leisure time favoring men at all life course stages. PMID:25237206

  20. Gender and Time for Sleep among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burgard, Sarah A.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Do women really sleep more than men? Biomedical and social scientific studies show longer sleep durations for women, a surprising finding given sociological research showing women have more unpaid work and less high-quality leisure time compared to men. We assess explanations for gender differences in time for sleep, including compositional differences in levels of engagement in paid and unpaid labor, gendered responses to work and family responsibilities, and differences in napping, bedtimes, and interrupted sleep for caregiving. We examine the overall gender gap in time for sleep as well as gaps within family life-course stages based on age, partnership, and parenthood statuses. We analyze minutes of sleep from a diary day collected from nationally representative samples of working-age adults in the American Time Use Surveys of 2003 to 2007. Overall and at most life course stages, women slept more than men. Much of the gap is explained by work and family responsibilities and gendered time tradeoffs; as such, gender differences vary across life course stages. The gender gap in sleep time favoring women is relatively small for most comparisons and should be considered in light of the gender gap in leisure time favoring men at all life course stages. PMID:25237206

  1. Gender equality as a means to improve maternal and child health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Brodish, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this article we examine whether measures of gender equality, household decision making, and attitudes toward gender-based violence are associated with maternal and child health outcomes in Africa. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from eight African countries and used multilevel logistic regression on two maternal health outcomes (low body mass index and facility delivery) and two child health outcomes (immunization status and treatment for an acute respiratory infection). We found protective associations between the gender equality measures and the outcomes studied, indicating that gender equality is a potential strategy to improve maternal and child health in Africa. PMID:24028632

  2. Status and the evaluation of workplace deviance.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Hannah Riley; Gelfand, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Bias in the evaluation of workplace misbehavior is hotly debated in courts and corporations, but it has received little empirical attention. Classic sociological literature suggests that deviance by lower-status actors will be evaluated more harshly than deviance by higher-status actors. However, more recent psychological literature suggests that discrimination in the evaluation of misbehavior may be moderated by the relative status of the evaluator because status influences both rule observance and attitudes toward social hierarchy. In Study 1, the psychological experience of higher status decreased rule observance and increased preferences for social hierarchy, as we theorized. In three subsequent experiments, we tested the hypothesis that higher-status evaluators would be more discriminating in their evaluations of workplace misbehavior, evaluating fellow higher-status deviants more leniently than lower-status deviants. Results supported the hypothesized interactive effect of evaluator status and target status on the evaluation of workplace deviance, when both achieved status characteristics (Studies 2a and 2b) and ascribed status characteristics (i.e., race and gender in Study 3) were manipulated. PMID:20424022

  3. Paradoxes of (In)EqualitySomething is Rotten in the Gender Equal State of Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN TOWNS

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes how gender equality, paradoxically, has helped produce one unifying identity of the state of Sweden while simultaneously creating divisions within that state. In the 1990s, Sweden came to understand itself as the gender equality champion internationally, having come the `furthest' in empowering women politically and economically. However, this equality discourse has also become implicated in a new

  4. Gendered Post-Compulsory Educational Choices of Non-Heterosexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Gender and socio-economic background are widely acknowledged factors influencing the educational choices of young people. Following their compulsory education, young people in Finland choose between academically oriented general upper secondary schools and vocational upper secondary schools. Gender and class intertwine in these choices in many…

  5. Constructions of gender in Vietnam: In pursuit of the ‘Three Criteria’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney Ruth Schuler; Hoang Tu Anh; Vu Song Ha; Tran Hung Minh; Bui Thi Thanh Mai; Pham Vu Thien

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam has advanced far beyond most other developing countries and, indeed, surpasses many developed countries in adopting a legal framework based on gender equality, and in creating institutions and programmes to support women's advancement. Inegalitarian gender norms have also persisted, however. The Vietnam Women's Union promotes women's educational, political and economic advancement but simultaneously exhorts women to pay attention to

  6. Gender differences in leader and follower perceptions of social support in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lacey L; Wood, JoAnna; Lugg, Desmond J

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to methodologically explore the links among social support, gender, age, prior experience, leader/follower status, and leadership effectiveness noted in previous accounts from Antarctic stations. Data for this study were collected from volunteers involved in Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions conducted from 1996 to 2001. Multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in perceptions of social support was at the individual level (71%). Perceptions of social support had less variance at the group level (29%) and little variance at the weekly level. At the group level, the explanatory variables we examined included leadership effectiveness, gender similarity, and age similarity. At the individual level, the explanatory variables we examined included age, gender, prior experience, and leader/follower status. An interaction between gender and leader/follower status contributed to a significant model of variation in perceptions of social support. PMID:15835048

  7. Cows, Bulls, and Gender Roles : Pastoral Strategies for Survival and Continuity in Western Sudan

    E-print Network

    Michael, Barbara J.

    1987-01-01

    The dissertation examines pastoral nomadic economic strategies in terms of social organization and gender roles. It makes two assertions: (1) that sedentarization is a pastoral nomadic strategy, and (2) that segmented ...

  8. Power and Gender Influences on Responsibility Attributions: The Case of Disagreements in Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentham, Susan; Larwood, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Using a sample of college students (n=156), examines the influences of power status and gender on responsibility attributions and resolution choice during disagreements in personal relationships. Reports that both power-status hypotheses (justified benefits/rights and ability/accountability) were supported. (CMK)

  9. Peer Clique Participation and Social Status in Preadolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Coie, John D.; Terry, Robert A.; Lochman, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Assessed fourth-graders' peer clique characteristics as a function of socioeconomic status, gender, and aggressiveness. Found that rejected youth were less central group members than average-status peers; aggressive preadolescents were no less involved than nonaggressive peers; rejected preadolescents belonged to smaller cliques and cliques…

  10. STATUS OF WOMEN COMMITTEE The Status of Women Committee shall address issues that concern women students, faculty, and

    E-print Network

    Sze, Lawrence

    's Programs to Director, Women's Programs and Services October 2008 Changed Director of Women's Studies Program to Chair, Women's and Gender Studies Department October 2008 Removed University DiversitySTATUS OF WOMEN COMMITTEE Function The Status of Women Committee shall address issues that concern

  11. Weight status misperception among Mexican young adults.

    PubMed

    Drumond Andrade, Flavia Cristina; Raffaelli, Marcela; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Jerman, Jilber A; Aradillas Garcia, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who misperceive their body size are at risk for eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity-related diseases. This study assessed the prevalence and demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of agreement between perceived (self-reported) and actual (measured) body mass index categories in a sample of Mexican college applicants aged 18-20 years (N=3622; 52% female). Under two thirds (63.1%) accurately reported their weight status categories. Reporting accuracy was lower among overweight and obese participants. In multivariate analyses, overestimating was associated with female gender, younger age, lower level of parent education, and more hours of daily TV viewing; underestimating was associated with male gender and older age. In within-gender analyses, overestimating was associated with hours of TV among men and underestimating was positively associated with depressive symptoms among women. This study adds to a growing international literature on body weight status misperception among adolescents and young adults. PMID:22104126

  12. Gender equity & human development.

    PubMed

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context. PMID:18032808

  13. A meta-analysis on gender differences in negotiation outcomes and their moderators.

    PubMed

    Mazei, Jens; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Freund, Philipp Alexander; Stuhlmacher, Alice F; Bilke, Lena; Hertel, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates gender differences in economic negotiation outcomes. As suggested by role congruity theory, we assume that the behaviors that increase economic negotiation outcomes are more congruent with the male as compared with the female gender role, thereby presenting challenges for women's negotiation performance and reducing their outcomes. Importantly, this main effect is predicted to be moderated by person-based, situation-based, and task-based influences that make effective negotiation behavior more congruent with the female gender role, which should in turn reduce or even reverse gender differences in negotiation outcomes. Using a multilevel modeling approach, this meta-analysis includes 123 effect sizes (overall N = 10,888, including undergraduate and graduate students as well as businesspeople). Studies were included when they enabled the calculation of an effect size reflecting gender differences in achieved economic negotiation outcomes. As predicted, men achieved better economic outcomes than women on average, but gender differences strongly depended on the context: Moderator analysis revealed that gender differences favoring men were reduced when negotiators had negotiation experience, when they received information about the bargaining range, and when they negotiated on behalf of another individual. Moreover, gender differences were reversed under conditions of the lowest predicted role incongruity for women. In conclusion, gender differences in negotiations are contextually bound and can be subject to change. Future research is needed that investigates the underlying mechanisms of new moderators revealed in the current research (e.g., experience). Implications for theoretical explanations of gender differences in negotiation outcomes, for gender inequalities in the workplace, and for future research are discussed. PMID:25420223

  14. The Nature of Gender: work, gender and environment 

    E-print Network

    Nightingale, Andrea J

    2006-01-01

    Gender has long been recognised as important within environmental issues, but exactly how and in what contexts it is relevant has been hotly debated. As feminist theorising around women and gender has changed, so ...

  15. Perceived Gender Atypicality on High and Low Gender Role Rigidity 

    E-print Network

    Howarth, Aimee M.

    2010-07-14

    The objective of this research was to study the physiological, emotional, and cognitive response to gender role threats in individuals with high and low gender role rigidity. Participants were selected based on their responses to the Masculine...

  16. ICTs, gender and development: women in software production in Kerala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoba Arun; Thankom Arun

    2002-01-01

    The impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on development largely depends on the existing economic, social and cultural fabric into which they are introduced. This can be seen in the case of Kerala in India, which has been implementing an ICT-based strategy that particularly seeks to create growth and employment through software production. A gendered perspective on software production

  17. Methodologies to measure the gender dimensions of crime and violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Shrader

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have used homicide rates, police statistics, and crime victimization surveys to pinpoint violent areas. The author argues that these useful measures of crime, and violence underestimate certain types of violence (especially non-economic violence) and key dimensions of violence (especially age, and gender). A composite index based on monitoring, and surveillance of homicides, crime statistics, and victimization surveys can

  18. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1–S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3–S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5–S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p?gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients. PMID:23874323

  19. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups. PMID:24664126

  20. Gender and Psychological Essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097

  1. Evaluating Gender Discrimination Claims: Is There a Gender Similarity Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Teri J.; Phillips, James S.; Konopaske, Robert; Townsend, Joellyn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the possible existence of a gender similarity bias in evaluations of gender discrimination allegations, using a laboratory experiment in which the strength of evidence against a defendant company and the gender of the plaintiff were manipulated. Participants were ethnically diverse undergraduate students. Although female mock jurors…

  2. Sex, drugs and gender roles: mapping the use of sex and gender based analysis in pharmaceutical policy research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devon L Greyson; Annelies RE Becu; Steven G Morgan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex and gender sensitive inquiry is critical in pharmaceutical policy due to the sector's historical connection with women's health issues and due to the confluence of biological, social, political, and economic factors that shape the development, promotion, use, and effects of medicinal treatments. A growing number of research bodies internationally have issued laws, guidance or encouragement to support conducting

  3. Factors affecting alcohol treatment in males: an estimation of gender-role issues, self-concept, and psychiatric symptomatology 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Betty Lynn

    1993-01-01

    to the hospital, at time of discharge, and at three-months post- discharge. At each assessment phase, the veterans completed measures of psychiatric symptomatology, gender- role orientation and related stress, self-concept, emotional expressiveness..., psychosocial functioning, and patterns of alcohol use. Results revealed that the veteran's status on gender-role orientation, gender-role stress, emotional expressiveness, psychosocial functioning, and emotional expressiveness remained consistent across...

  4. Managing Economic Transition. Dimensions of Human Resource Development in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedek, Andras; Klekner, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the state of economic transition in Hungary, the status of human resource development, economic and legal reforms, and the social partnership (education, business, government) in vocational training. (SK)

  5. 78 FR 7987 - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls Globally Presidential Documents Federal...Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls Globally Memorandum for the Heads of Executive...and advancing the status of all women and girls around the world remains one of the...

  6. The Separate Spheres of Online Health: Gender, Parenting, and Online Health Information Searching in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Michael J.; Cotten, Shelia R.; Drentea, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how parental status, gender, and their interaction influence a variety of aspects of searching for online health information. Drawing on nationally representative survey data, the results show that in a number of ways parenting and gender have separate but significant influences on the following: online…

  7. Life satisfaction two-years after stroke onset: the effects of gender, sex occupational status, memory function and quality of life among stroke patients (Newsqol) and their family caregivers (Whoqol-bref) in Luxembourg

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Life satisfaction (LS) of cerebrovascular disease survivors and their family caregivers may relate to socioeconomic factors, impaired functions, health-related quality of life (QoL), but their respective influences remain unclear. This study assessed, two years post-stroke onset, the effects of these factors on patients’ LS and family caregivers’ LS in Luxembourg. Methods All stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg were identified by the ‘Inspection Général de la Sécurité Sociale’ using the only national system database for care expenditure reimbursement. Their diagnosis was confirmed by medical investigator. The sample included ninety four patients living at home having given consent (mean age 65.5 years) and sixty two main caregivers (mean age 59.3 years). Questionnaires were completed during face-to-face interviews. LS was assessed via European single question (range 1–10), survivors’ QoL via Newsqol (11 dimensions), and caregivers’ QoL via Whoqol-bref (4 domains) (range 0–100). Data were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Two years after stroke onset, 44.7% of patients suffered from impaired sensory function, 35.1% from impaired motor function, and 31.9% from impaired memory function. Mean patient’ LS was 7.1/10 (SD 1.9). It was higher in women (+12.4) and lower among unemployed socioeconomically active patients (?13.1, vs. retired people). Adjusted for sex, occupation, impaired motor and memory functions, LS positively correlated with scores of Newsqol feelings, sleep, emotion, cognition and pain dimensions (slopes 0.20 to 0.31), but did not correlate with those of caregivers’ Whoqol-bref domains. Family caregiver’ LS was 7.2 (SD 1.7). It was lower in those with patients suffering from impaired memory function (?12.8) as well as from feelings and emotion issues (slopes 0.22). It was associated with all caregivers’ Whoqol-bref domains (physical health, psychological health, environment, and social relationships) (slopes 0.53 to 0.68). Conclusions Two-year post-cerebrovascular disease patient’ LS was associated with gender, occupation, and impaired memory function. It correlated with feelings, sleep, emotion, cognition, and pain issues. Family caregivers of patients with impaired memory function had lower LS. Family caregiver’ LS correlated with dimensions of patients’ feelings (less independent, yourself, life changed, depressed, useless, less control because of stroke) and emotion (get more emotional, fear of another stroke or to become dependent on others), and with their own QoL. LS, Newsqol, and Whoqol appeared to be appropriate tools. Our findings may be useful for policy makers in relation to family and medical-social issues of stroke home-based rehabilitation. PMID:23009364

  8. Behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25247364

  9. Perceptions of Mathematics and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloosterman, Peter; Tassel, Janet; Ponniah, Ann G.; Esses, N. Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined students' perceptions about gender and the subject of mathematics, as well as gender and mathematics learning. Secondary school students and pre-service elementary teachers were surveyed using the Mathematics as a Gendered Domain and Who and Mathematics instruments developed by Leder and Forgasz (Leder, 2001). The data indicate…

  10. on International Development Gendered Perspectives

    E-print Network

    on International Development Gendered Perspectives RESOURCE BULLETIN Winter 2014 Volume 28 in Global Context (GenCen) at Michigan State University, the host center for the Gender, Development, and Globalization (GDG) Program, formerly the Women and International Development (WID) Program! The Gendered

  11. on International Development Gendered Perspectives

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    on International Development Gendered Perspectives RESOURCE BULLETIN Spring 2013 Volume 28, the host center for the Gender, Development, and Globaliza on (GDG) Program, formerly the Women and Interna onal Development (WID) Program! The Gendered Perspec ves on Interna onal Development Working Papers

  12. on International Development Gendered Perspectives

    E-print Network

    on International Development Gendered Perspectives If you are interested in reviewing a book. Browner and Carolyn F. Sargent, 2011, 304 pp. · Transforming Scholarship: Why Women's and Gender Studies and Marie-Louise Glebbeek; 2009, 408 pp. · The Gender Ques on in Globaliza on: Changing Perspec ves and Prac

  13. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  14. Gendered Performances during Peer Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the ways gender is accomplished in varied social contexts during the peer revision process in a secondary English classroom. Using a post-structural feminist theoretical framework, an analysis of classroom discourse provided a basis for understanding the performance of gender during peer revision, the effects of gender

  15. Learning and Gender Fair Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Judith H.

    This learning unit is designed to sensitize educators to gender differences in learning styles, to help identify specific needs and issues for women adult learners, to help educators to identify their own gender biases, and to help teachers to develop strategies for eliminating gender bias from their own classrooms. The unit is divided into three…

  16. Gender in PER: A Retrospective

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    gender interact with physics learning and the physics classroom? 3Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Caveats not a Resource Letter focus on AAPT resources sense of history 4Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Humble beginnings-general gender Abstract archives online from 1998 key terms: gender: 182 entries diversity: 56 entries women: 180

  17. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  18. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system. PMID:25070409

  19. Genre and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curti, Lidia

    This paper begins by discussing the difference between genre and gender, defining the former as the study of a systemic totality, and the latter as the split in the totality, reversal, upturning, and break-up of any systemic logic. Also discussed are (1) the difference between nature and culture, and the quarrel between essentialist and…

  20. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-01-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses…