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  1. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  2. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

  3. Problems Accompanied Individuals with Learning Disability and Its Relationship to Gender and Family Economic Status Variables in a Jordanian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Oweidi, Alia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between problems that accompany individuals with learning disability and the variables of gender and family economic status for a selected sample of Jordanians. The sample of the study, which consisted of (239) male and female students, was chosen randomly. To achieve this aim, the…

  4. The Influence of Gender, School Location and Socio-Economic Status on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alordiah, Caroline Ochuko; Akpadaka, Grace; Oviogbodu, Christy Oritseweyimi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of gender, school location, and socio-economic status (SES) on students' academic achievement in mathematics. The study was an ex-post factor design in which the variables were not manipulated nor controlled. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The stratified random…

  5. The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…

  6. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  7. The Effects of Social Economic Status, Social Support, Gender, Ethnicity and Grade Point Average on Depression among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndoh, Sunday; Scales, Josie

    Previous research has indicated that depression, the most common psychological disorder experienced by over 19 million Americans, can be related to such factors as ethnicity, social support, social economic status, academic achievement and gender. One hundred and sixty students from Johnson C. Smith University and Tennessee State University were…

  8. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  9. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  10. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    PubMed

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  11. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Dixson, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414

  12. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  13. Life Satisfaction Depending on Socio-Economic Status and Gender among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eroglu, Susran Erkan; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Calisir, Vahit

    2009-01-01

    This research was carried out using the survey method in an attempt to find out the relationship between the life satisfaction and socio-economic status (SES) of adolescents. The research was conducted among 275 young Turkish people chosen by the random sampling method. The research findings determined that there was a significant difference…

  14. The Contribution of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and Socio-Cultural Influence to Turkish Students' Task Value Beliefs in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…

  15. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Self-Concept and Gender Differences on Students' Academic Performance in Borno State Colleges of Education: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goni, Umar; Bello, S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey study, designed to determine gender differences and socio-economic status, self-concept on students' academic performance in Colleges of Education, Borno State: Implications for counselling. The study set two research objectives, answered two research questions and tested two research hypotheses. The target population of this…

  16. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  17. Female life expectancy, gender stratification, health status, and level of economic development: a cross-national study of less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J B; Boehmer, U

    1997-07-01

    A number of studies have attempted to account for cross-national differences in life expectancy, but relatively few have focused on female life expectancy, and even fewer on the relevance of predictors linked to gender stratification theory. The present study seeks to assess the utility of gender stratification theory in accounting for cross-national differences in female life expectancy in less developed countries. An incremental model building strategy is used to develop a final model that combines predictors linked to both industrialism theory and gender stratification theory. The analysis is based on multiple regression and cross-sectional samples that vary in size from 40 to 97 countries. Evidence is presented that several aspects of women's status have a positive effect on female life expectancy. Indicators of women's educational status, women's economic status, and women's reproductive autonomy all prove to be important predictors of female life expectancy. Analysis of interaction effects suggests that the strength of the effects of some aspects of women's economic status and the effect of some aspects of health status on female life expectancy vary with the level of economic development. A comprehensive assessment of the relative strength of alternative measures of women's education is carried out, and evidence is presented that it does make a difference how the level of women's education is measured. PMID:9225417

  18. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. first results from the multicare cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the

  19. Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. Method 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine pathways to rape perpetration. Results 76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped) were indicators of socio-economic status (SES), childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance). Discussion Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping

  20. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  1. The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

  2. Gender, socio-economic status, migration origin and neighbourhood of residence are barriers to HIV testing in the Paris metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socio-economic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of the characteristics of the residential neighbourhood was also analysed using multilevel models. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with no history of HIV testing in women were an age >44 years, the absence of any pregnancy during the previous 15 years, a low education level, unemployment, to have had no or only one steady relationship in one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to live in a poor neighbourhood. In men, factors were age <30 or >44 years, to have had no or only one steady relationship during one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to perceive oneself as being at low risk of HIV infection. An association according to the "migration origin" was observed among men: foreigners and French men born to (at least) one foreign parent were more likely not to have been tested than French men born to two French parents. We conclude that gender, social and territorial differences exist in HIV testing among people living in the Paris area. More systematic proposals of HIV test in primary care would be an effective policy to overcome these persistent social stratifications. PMID:21711180

  3. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  4. Partial Edentulism and its Correlation to Age, Gender, Socio-economic Status and Incidence of Various Kennedy’s Classes– A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chitra Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Partial edentulism, one or more teeth missing is an indication of healthy behaviour of dental practices in the society and attitude towards dental and oral care. The pattern of partial edentulism has been evaluated in many selected populations in different countries by different methods. Most of the studies have evaluated partial edentulism by surveying of Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs), patients visiting clinics, clinical records and population in particular locality. The objective of the study is to review the prevalence of partial edentulousness and its correlation to age,gender, arch predominance, socio economic factors and incidence of various Kennedy’s Classes. Key observations drawn from the review are as below. There is no gender correlation for partial edentulism.Prevalence of partial edentulism is more common in mandibular arch than maxillary arch.Younger adults have more Class III and IV RPDs. Elders have more distal extension RPDs Class I and II. PMID:26266237

  5. Economic Status of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Robert; Young, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the factors affecting the current economic status of academic librarians, as well as the history of changes in that economic picture. Issues discussed include the ranking of beginning academic librarian salaries in comparison to others in the profession, historical differences between academic librarian salaries and…

  6. Noblesse Oblige? Social Status and Economic Inequality Maintenance among Politicians

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats – measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender – was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526

  7. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  8. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  9. Splitting hair for cortisol? Associations of socio-economic status, ethnicity, hair color, gender and other child characteristics with hair cortisol and cortisone.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Ralph C A; Noppe, Gerard; Windhorst, Dafna A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van den Akker, Erica L T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of SES and ethnicity with hair cortisol and cortisone and to identify potential child and family characteristics that can assist in choosing covariates and potential confounders for analyses involving hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Hair samples were collected in 2484 6-year-old children from the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Measurements for cortisol and cortisone were used as the outcome in regression analyses. Predictors were SES, ethnicity, hair color and child characteristics such as birthweight, gestational age at birth, BMI, disease, allergy, and medication use. Lower family income, more children to be supported by this income, higher BMI and darker hair color were associated with higher hair cortisol and cortisone levels. Boys also showed higher levels. Ethnicity (Dutch and North European descent) was related to lower levels. High amounts of sun in the month of hair collection was related to higher levels of cortisone only. More recent hair washing was related to lower levels of cortisol and cortisone. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, age, medication use, hair washing frequency, educational level of the mother, marital status of the mother, disease and allergy were not associated with cortisol or cortisone levels. Our results serve as a starting point for choosing covariates and confounders in studies of substantive predictors or outcomes. Gender, BMI, income, the number of persons in a household, ethnicity, hair color and recency of hair washing are strongly suggested to take into account. PMID:26773401

  10. Gender Equity and Secondary School Home Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayibor, Bernice; Peterat, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Three home economics textbooks on human relations were analyzed in terms of intentions, photographs, language, and content about gender relations. In terms of five approaches (visual balance, neutral/inclusive language, gender balance in information, gender sensitivity, and critical thinking), many parts were inadequate and contributed to myths…

  11. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  12. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  13. Metaphor Production in Online Conversation: Gender and Friendship Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.

    2006-01-01

    This article details a study of metaphor production by 64 same-gender dyads engaged in 2 persuasive conversations over chat software. Dyads were comprised of friends or strangers. Overall, men produced more metaphor than women, especially slang. Metaphor production differed by gender as a function of friendship status: Men produced the same amount…

  14. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  15. Beyond Gender: Equity Issues for Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    1986-01-01

    The field of home economics has generally been neglected within the literature focused on women, feminism, and education. Data concerning gender equity often measure women's achievements by their inroads into fields formerly dominated by men. (MT)

  16. Gender hierarchy in the space: the role of gender status in shaping the spatial agency bias.

    PubMed

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Piccoli, Valentina; Brambilla, Marco; Bianchi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    According to the Spatial Agency Bias (SAB), more agentic groups (men) are envisioned to the left of less agentic groups (women). This research investigated the role of social status in shaping the spatial representation of gender couples. Participants were presented pairs consisting of one male and one female target who confirmed gender stereotypes. The status of the targets in each pair was systematically varied (high-status vs. low-status job). Participants chose the target order (female/male vs. male/female) they preferred. In line with gender-status expectations (male: high-status, female: low-status), a male in a high-status job led to a spatial arrangement that favored the male/female order, regardless of the status of the female target. The female/male order was favored only when the female had a high-status job and the male a low-status job. No SAB occurred for pairs in which both targets displayed low-status jobs. The implications of status for the SAB are discussed. PMID:24765816

  17. Online social activity reflects economic status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  18. Predicting Freshman Persistence in Economics: A Gender Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Barbara Q.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 323 first-year college students enrolled in an introductory economics course investigated relationships between course grades, Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, gender, and continued economics study beyond the first course. Results suggest females, already underrepresented in the introductory course, persist in smaller proportions than…

  19. Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Slade, Martin D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish cultural gendered factors influencing employment decisions (e.g., expected work roles, family responsibilities) from sex-linked biological differences shaping physiological response to workplace physical hazards. Methods We examined effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14,618 white- and blue-collar aluminum manufacturing employees in eight U.S. states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job placement, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Results Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR = 2.02 (95% CI = 1.37–2.97)), partnered men with children less likely (OR = 0.68 (0.56–0.83)). Education, age at hire, and race influenced job placement for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR = 1.78 (1.34 – 2.35)). Conclusions Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (e.g., single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, workplace stressors, and health risks associated with hourly work, is warranted. PMID:20864467

  20. Motivational Responses to Fitness Testing by Award Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domangue, Elizabeth; Solmon, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Fitness testing is a prominent element in many physical education programs, but there has been limited investigation concerning motivation constructs associated with the testing. This study investigated the relationships among physical education students' award status and gender to achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and intentions. After…

  1. Gameplay, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in Two American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    In a study of 195 high school students, differences by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were found in their gaming habits and game literacy practices. Low-SES students generally preferred console video games, particularly those in the sports genre. They expressed frustration with the controls involved in long-form computer games such as those…

  2. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  3. Charisma, status, and gender in groups with and without gurus.

    PubMed

    Martin, John Levi; Van Gunten, Tod; Zablocki, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have noted that small religious groups with charismatic leaders seem to have different gender dynamics than do groups without. We argue that the presence of such a leader changes what charisma “means” in such a group. Without such a leader, strong personalities may appear charismatic and lead to positions of high status—and such dynamics historically have tended to be associated with a positional advantage to males. With such a leader, however, charisma is more likely to be compatible with receptivity and decoupled from gender characteristics that tend to disadvantage women, leading charismatic women to have greater status than they would otherwise have. PMID:22616087

  4. Emotions under Discussion: Gender, Status and Communication in Online Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Iosub, Daniela; Laniado, David; Castillo, Carlos; Fuster Morell, Mayo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the undisputed role of emotions in teamwork, not much is known about the make-up of emotions in online collaboration. Publicly available repositories of collaboration data, such as Wikipedia editor discussions, now enable the large-scale study of affect and dialogue in peer production. Methods We investigate the established Wikipedia community and focus on how emotion and dialogue differ depending on the status, gender, and the communication network of the editors who have written at least 100 comments on the English Wikipedia's article talk pages. Emotions are quantified using a word-based approach comparing the results of two predefined lexicon-based methods: LIWC and SentiStrength. Principal Findings We find that administrators maintain a rather neutral, impersonal tone, while regular editors are more emotional and relationship-oriented, that is, they use language to form and maintain connections to other editors. A persistent gender difference is that female contributors communicate in a manner that promotes social affiliation and emotional connection more than male editors, irrespective of their status in the community. Female regular editors are the most relationship-oriented, whereas male administrators are the least relationship-focused. Finally, emotional and linguistic homophily is prevalent: editors tend to interact with other editors having similar emotional styles (e.g., editors expressing more anger connect more with one another). Conclusions/Significance Emotional expression and linguistic style in online collaboration differ substantially depending on the contributors' gender and status, and on the communication network. This should be taken into account when analyzing collaborative success, and may prove insightful to communities facing gender gap and stagnation in contributor acquisition and participation levels. PMID:25140870

  5. Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Weires, Marianne; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life. PMID:18826562

  6. Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…

  7. The Role of Grade Sensitivity in Explaining the Gender Imbalance in Undergraduate Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rask, Kevin; Tiefenthaler, Jill

    2008-01-01

    There is a gender imbalance in undergraduate economics departments with most departments educating a strong majority of young men. This imbalance has led many economists to ponder the question of why relatively few women choose to take courses and major in economics. Our hypothesis is that the gender imbalance in undergraduate economics,…

  8. Health status of the Italian people: gender inequalities. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Sabetta, Tiziana; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Differences between male and female affect diseases onset, evolution and prognosis. In terms of survival, women have a higher life expectancy at birth than men, with strong differences at regional level (the highest values in Trento AP and the lowest in Campania). Smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity and physical activities indicators are analyzed among men and woman. A reduction in smokers and number of smoked cigarettes is observed, especially among men. Men also show a higher number of ex-smokers than woman. Also for alcohol consumption, the prevalence of consumers at risk is higher among men than women. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among men than women, the same as physical activity played continuously and occasionally. Gender differences are also shown in hospitalization rate and mortality rate for ischemic heart disease, affecting men twice more than women. The analysis shows a good health status condition of Italian people, but it is important to be aware that gender is one of essential characteristics in health care field, independently of people age. PMID:27364387

  9. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001). Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  10. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001). Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  11. Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…

  12. Individual versus Household Migration Decision Rules: Gender and Marital Status Differences in Intentions to Migrate in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gubhaju, Bina; De Jong, Gordon F.

    2009-01-01

    This research tests the thesis that the neoclassical micro-economic and the new household economic theoretical assumptions on migration decision-making rules are segmented by gender, marital status, and time frame of intention to migrate. Comparative tests of both theories within the same study design are relatively rare. Utilizing data from the Causes of Migration in South Africa national migration survey, we analyze how individually held “own-future” versus alternative “household well-being” migration decision rules effect the intentions to migrate of male and female adults in South Africa. Results from the gender and marital status specific logistic regressions models show consistent support for the different gender-marital status decision rule thesis. Specifically, the “maximizing one’s own future” neoclassical microeconomic theory proposition is more applicable for never married men and women, the “maximizing household income” proposition for married men with short-term migration intentions, and the “reduce household risk” proposition for longer time horizon migration intentions of married men and women. Results provide new evidence on the way household strategies and individual goals jointly affect intentions to move or stay. PMID:20161187

  13. Adolescents' Selective Visual Attention for High-Status Peers: The Role of Perceiver Status and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed…

  14. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation

  15. Nonverbal Behavior, Status, and Gender: How Do We Understand Their Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    The causes of gender differences in nonverbal behavior are not well understood. The present article discusses status as a possible explanation and analyzes some of the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with testing that hypothesis. The study by Helweg-Larsen, Cunningham, Carrico, and Pergram (2004), which investigated gender in…

  16. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

  17. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  18. Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrego, Leisy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…

  19. Economic Independence, Economic Status, and Empty Nest in Midlife Marital Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiedemann, Bridget; Suhomlinova, Olga; O'Rand, Angela M.

    1998-01-01

    The risk of separation or divorce late in the marital career is examined from a family development perspective. A hazards framework is used to estimate the effects of women's economic independence, couples' economic status, and family life course factors on the risk of middle-age separation or divorce. (Author/EMK)

  20. An economic analysis of life expectancy by gender with application to the United States.

    PubMed

    Leung, Michael C M; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Junsen

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an economic model to explain the behavior of life expectancy of both sexes. It explicitly examines the relationship between the gender gap in life expectancy and the gender gap in pay. It shows that as the latter narrows over the course of economic development, the former may initially expand but will eventually shrink. Simulation results from our model accord with the behavior of life expectancy for both sexes since the 1940s in the United States. PMID:15587696

  1. Economic and Employment Status of Asian-Pacific Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Pauline L.; Cabezas, Amado Y.

    This report deals with the employment and economic status of Asian and Pacific women in the United States. Data collected for a set of socioeconomic variables were analyzed and interpreted. Variables were analyzed by specific Asian ethnicity and by age. Data aggregated at the standard metropolitan statistical area level were used whenever…

  2. Linking Employment Problems to Economic Status: 1984 Survey. Bulletin 2270.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin contains information, culled from the March 1985 Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), on the employment problems faced by American workers in 1984 and the impact of these problems on the economic status of their families and households. The following employment problems are…

  3. Gender and Status Effects in Student E-Mails to Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, R.; Colley, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to examine gender and status effects in the kind of e-mails used to manage course administrative issues in an educational setting. Students were asked to respond to an e-mail presented as being from a member of staff, informing them of failure to submit coursework and asking for an explanation to be provided. The sex and status of…

  4. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  5. Marital Status and Gender Similarity in Marital Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James L.; Johnson, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of therapist marital status and therapist and participant sex on participants' perceptions of therapist and expectations for therapy. Each partner of 20 couples presenting for marital therapy completed protocols differing only on therapist's marital status and sex. Neither therapist marital status nor therapist sex had effect on…

  6. Gender & Economic Status Matter in Mental Health of Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Namita; Dua, Radha

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself satisfactorily to the various strains of life. Mental health and Education are closely related to each other. Sound mental is prerequisite for the learner. In this era of severe competition to excel or to be on the top is pressurizing today's adolescents to the utmost. Besides a number of factors like…

  7. Persisting in the Introductory Economics Course: An Exploration of Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Jane; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study examining gender differences in measures of academic aptitude and achievement that predict persistence in introductory economics courses. Concludes that females need more validation than male students to persist in the study of economics. Suggests that the need for female students to overcome classroom climate may…

  8. The Effects of Gender, Family Satisfaction, and Economic Strain on Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Robert John; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined gender as conditional variable in effects of family satisfaction and economic strain on psychological well-being among married people (n=197). Analysis supported hypothesis that positive effect of family satisfaction was greater among women than among men. Contrary to predictions, inverse effect of economic strain was same for women,…

  9. Explaining the Gender Disparity in Latino Youth's Education: Acculturation and Economic Value of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Yari; Sanchez, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the roles of acculturation, economic value of education, and gender in the academic achievement of Latino adolescents. Participants (N = 143) were 12th-grade students at an urban public high school. Analyses revealed that a higher economic value of education was related to higher academic…

  10. "Doing Gender," Ensuring Survival: Mexican Migration and Economic Crisis in the Rural Mountain West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…

  11. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account. PMID:16567334

  12. Influences of gender and socioeconomic status on the motor proficiency of children in the UK.

    PubMed

    Morley, David; Till, Kevin; Ogilvie, Paul; Turner, Graham

    2015-12-01

    As the development of movement skills are so crucial to a child's involvement in lifelong physical activity and sport, the purpose of this study was to assess the motor proficiency of children aged 4-7 years (range=4.3-7.2 years), whilst considering gender and socioeconomic status. 369 children (176 females, 193 males, aged=5.96 ± 0.57 years) were assessed for fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral co-ordination, balance, speed and agility, upper-limb co-ordination and strength. The average standard score for all participants was 44.4 ± 8.9, classifying the participants towards the lower end of the average score. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified significant effects for gender (p<0.001) and socioeconomic status (p<0.001). Females outperformed males for fine motor skills and boys outperformed girls for catch and dribble gross motor skills. High socioeconomic status significantly outperformed middle and/or low socioeconomic status for total, fine and gross motor proficiency. Current motor proficiency of primary children aged 4-7 years in the UK is just below average with differences evident between gender and socioeconomic status. Teachers and sport coaches working with primary aged children should concentrate on the development of movement skills, whilst considering differences between genders and socioeconomic status. PMID:26342797

  13. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

  14. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  15. Vitamin A intake and status in populations facing economic stress.

    PubMed

    West, Keith P; Mehra, Sucheta

    2010-01-01

    Dietary quality and diversity reflect adequacy of vitamin A. Both can deteriorate in response to economic crises. Although the nutritional consequences of the 2008 world food price crisis remain unclear, past studies of diet, status, and socioeconomic standing under usual (deprived) and unusually disruptive times suggest dietary quality and vitamin A status decline in mothers and young children. This is presumably the result of shifting diets to include less preformed vitamin A-rich animal source foods and, to a lesser extent, vegetables and fruits. Cross-sectional assessments of diet, deficiency, and socioeconomic status in a number of countries and surveillance data collected during the Indonesian economic crisis of 1997-8 indicate that the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, night blindness, and other related disorders (e.g., anemia) may have increased during the 2008 crisis, and that it might not have necessarily recovered once food prices waned later in 2008. Lost employment may be a factor in slow nutritional recovery, despite some easing of food prices. Vitamin A deficiency should still be preventable amid economic instabilities through breast feeding promotion, vitamin A supplementation, fortification of foods targeted to the poor, and homestead food production that can bolster income and diversify the diet. PMID:19939993

  16. Gender Perspective of Risk Factors Associated with Disclosure of HIV Status, a Cross-Sectional Study in Soweto, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Longinetti, Elisa; Santacatterina, Michele; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. Aim To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients in South Africa. Setting A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. Patients A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73%) with median age of 39 years. Results Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR) 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1–1.0; p = 0.05)). Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90–11.7; p = 0.07) than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02–1.99; p = 0.17) than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (p<0.01), and to partner and family (p<0.01), women were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (p<0.01), to child, family and others (p = 0.01). Conclusion Being employed imposed a risk factor for HIV status disclosure, additionally we found an interaction effect of gender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended. PMID:24743189

  17. Development of a Scale to Measure Economic Status of Students in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Griffin, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Family economic status is generally considered to be an important factor associated with students' educational outcomes. However, to evaluate the strength of this contention, it is important to first have appropriate measures of family economic status. Measuring the economic status of Vietnamese people has been particularly difficult as the…

  18. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  19. Economic status and temperature-related mortality in Asia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Bell, Michelle L; Kan, Haidong; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2015-10-01

    In developed countries, low latitude and high temperature are positively associated with the population's ability to adapt to heat. However, few studies have examined the effect of economic status on the relationship between long-term exposure to high temperature and health. We compared heterogeneous temperature-related mortality effects relative to the average summer temperature in high-socioeconomic-status (SES) cities to temperature-related effects in low-SES cities. In the first stage of the research, we conducted a linear regression analysis to quantify the mortality effects of high temperature (at or above the 95th percentile) in 32 cities in Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea. In the second stage, we used a meta-regression to examine the association between mortality risk with average summer temperature and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In cities with a low GDP per capita (less than 20,000 USD), the effects of temperature were detrimental to the population if the long-term average summer temperature was high. In contrast, in cities with a high GDP per capita, temperature-related mortality risk was not significantly related to average summer temperature. The relationship between long-term average summer temperature and the short-term effects of high temperatures differed based on the city-level economic status. PMID:25597032

  20. Economic status and temperature-related mortality in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Bell, Michelle L.; Kan, Haidong; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2015-10-01

    In developed countries, low latitude and high temperature are positively associated with the population's ability to adapt to heat. However, few studies have examined the effect of economic status on the relationship between long-term exposure to high temperature and health. We compared heterogeneous temperature-related mortality effects relative to the average summer temperature in high-socioeconomic-status (SES) cities to temperature-related effects in low-SES cities. In the first stage of the research, we conducted a linear regression analysis to quantify the mortality effects of high temperature (at or above the 95th percentile) in 32 cities in Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea. In the second stage, we used a meta-regression to examine the association between mortality risk with average summer temperature and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In cities with a low GDP per capita (less than 20,000 USD), the effects of temperature were detrimental to the population if the long-term average summer temperature was high. In contrast, in cities with a high GDP per capita, temperature-related mortality risk was not significantly related to average summer temperature. The relationship between long-term average summer temperature and the short-term effects of high temperatures differed based on the city-level economic status.

  1. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals. PMID:22928352

  2. "I Don't Need Your Help!" Peer Status, Race, and Gender during Peer Writing Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianakis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article relies on year-long ethnographic data to examine how the intersection of peer status, gender, and race influenced the role stances children took in one urban fifth grade classroom while participating in three different pedagogies: peer tutoring, cooperative peer editing, and collaborative writing. Informed by the sociocultural…

  3. Affective Factors in the Assessment of Oral Interaction: Gender and Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Don

    A discussion of oral language testing looks at the role of student attitudes, student and interviewer gender, and interviewer social status in the reliability of student assessments. Three small-scale studies investigating these factors are described. The first two involved only Arab students. In the first, it was found that students (all male)…

  4. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

  5. An Examination of the Relationship of Gender, Marital Status, and Prior Educational Attainment and Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, M. G.; Rovai, A. P.; Ponton, M.; Confessore, G. J.; Carr, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a conceptual model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conative factors of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in autonomous learning considered the related variables of gender, education level, age, and marital status. The relevance of these demographic variables is based on prior…

  6. A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Tammy J.

    2010-01-01

    Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.…

  7. Students' Help-Seeking Behaviours by Gender, Racial Background, and Student Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ness T.; Robinson, M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, university counseling centers have been challenged to provide services that are accessible to an increasingly diverse student population. With this focus, this study examined students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors in relation to their gender, racial background, and their student status (graduate or undergraduate). Based on…

  8. Teachers' Perceptions Based on Tenure Status and Gender about Principals' Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret G.; Finch, Kim; Young, Suzanne; Hvidston, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study assessed teachers' attitudes about their formative supervision and the observational ability of principals through the constructs of teacher tenure status and gender. In sum, 255 teachers responded to an online survey indicating teachers' desired feedback focused on classroom climate, student engagement, and…

  9. Relationships between Health Status, Self Esteem and Social Support among Adolescents: Gender and Race Group Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    To locate possible causes for the gender and race differences observed in adolescent health status, an analysis was made of the relationship between the scores of a national sample of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents on selected items of the National Center for Health Statistics' Health Examination Survey. Thirty survey items indicating social…

  10. Counterstories of College Persistence by Undocumented Mexicana Students: Navigating Race, Class, Gender, and Legal Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Susana Maria; Maldonado, Marta Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from four sets of four in-depth interviews and one subsequent focus group to examine how undocumented Mexicana students navigate identities and the meanings of race, gender, class, and legal status. We mobilize a critical race theory framework to center and explore the content of students' counterstories. While majoritarian…

  11. Implicit Nonverbal Rules in the Classroom: A Study of Gender and Status Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, John; LeBlanc, H. Paul, III

    A study examined the gender and status (defined as traditional versus nontraditional student) differences on the Classroom Interaction Rules Survey (CIRS). The research questions asked if significant differences exist between males and females and traditional and nontraditional students in terms of compliance with and importance of implicit…

  12. Gender Differences in Young Latino Adults' Status Attainment: Understanding Bilingualism in the Familial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Sampson Lee; Cobas, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism among Latinos in the United States may not necessarily result in negative status attainment consequences. Such studies have typically overlooked gender differences in the consequences of bilingualism. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (N=866 females; 737 males), we…

  13. Effects of Age, Gender, College Status, and Computer Experience on Attitudes toward Library Computer Systems (LCS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex A.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of age, gender, college status, and computer experience on students' attitudes toward an online catalog measured student attitudes on three subscales--computer anxiety, computer confidence, and computer liking. Results of analysis of variance showed that computer experience was significantly related to computer…

  14. Language Arts Achievement of Fourth Grade Students with Regard to Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Paula Coldwell

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to see if a difference exists in the language arts proficiency levels of 2,080 fourth grade students with regard to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status from 2010 through 2012 on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. Specifically, this study considered the possibility that a difference existed in language…

  15. Gender Differences in the Learning Status of Diabetic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated learning status of 95 diabetic children and 97 matched controls. Results indicated that diabetic boys had significantly lower Freedom from Distractibility scores compared with scores of diabetic girls and controls, and lower Perceptual Organization scores compared with scores of control boys. Diabetic children experienced more learning…

  16. Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared Food Expenditure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…

  17. Sin, Sickness or Status? Homosexual Gender Identity and Psychoneuroendocrinology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1987-01-01

    Sex hormones in the prenatal brain of humans influence the subsequent sexual status or orientation of the individual as bisexual, heterosexual, or homosexual. Postnatal socialization is another contributing factor. Sexual orientation is not under the direct governance of chromosomes and genes. (Author/VM)

  18. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  19. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  20. Paradox of Student Gender: A Case Study of Economic Education from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jian; Qiao, Fangbin; Li, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    In many Chinese universities and colleges, female students outperform male students in social science subjects. This paper presents a case study, which examines gender difference in economic education in a Chinese university. We look at a sample of students from the Chinese university and find that holding constant observed student…

  1. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

  2. Gender Aspects of the Economic Payback of a Tuition-Charging Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskakova, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    For many decades now the sphere of education in Russia has been considered to be among the most well off among other spheres of activity, from the standpoint of gender equality. One component of radical economic reforms in Russia in the 1990s was the transformation of education financing. During the reform years the number of students in higher…

  3. Undergraduate engineering student experiences: Comparing sex, gender and switcher status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergen, Brenda Sue

    This dissertation explores undergraduate engineering experiences, comparing men with women and switchers with non-switchers. Factors related to a chilly academic climate and gender-role socialization are hypothesized to contribute to variations in men's and women's academic experiences and persistence rates. Both quantitative and qualitative data are utilized in an effort to triangulate the findings. Secondary survey data, acquired as result of a 1992 Academic Environment Survey, were utilized to test the hypothesis that sex is the most important predictor (i.e., demographic variable) of perceptions of academic climate. Regression analyses show that sex by itself is not always a significant determinant. However, when sex and college (engineering vs. other) are combined into dummy variables, they are statistically significant in models where sex was not significant alone. This finding indicates that looking at sex differences alone may be too simplistic. Thirty personal interviews were conducted with a random stratified sample of undergraduate students from the 1993 engineering cohort. The interview data indicate that differences in childhood socialization are important. With regard to persistence, differences in socialization are greater for switchers vs. non-switchers than men vs. women. Thus, gender-role socialization does not appear to play as prominent a role in women's persistence as past literature would indicate. This may be due to the self-selection process that occurs among women who choose to pursue engineering. Other aspects of childhood socialization such as parents' level of educational and occupation, students' high school academic preparation and knowledge of what to expect of college classes appear to be more important. In addition, there is evidence that, for women, male siblings play an important role in socialization. There is also evidence that women engineering students at Midwestern University face a chilly academic climate. The factors which

  4. Is general practitioner decision making associated with patient socio-economic status?

    PubMed

    Scott, A; Shiell, A; King, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary exploration into the relationship between decisions made by general practitioners (GPs) and the socio-economic status (SES) of patients. There is a large literature on the association between SES, health state and the use of health services, but relatively little has been published on the association between SES and decisions by clinicians once a patient is in the health system. The associations between GP decision making and the patient's SES, health status, gender and insurance status are examined using logit analysis. Three sets of binary choices are analysed: the decision to follow up; to prescribe; and to perform or to order a diagnostic test. Secondary data on consultations for a check up/examination were used to explore these relationships. The results suggest that SES is associated independently with the decision to test and the decision to prescribe but not with the decision to follow up. Patients of high SES are, ceteris paribus, more likely to be tested and less likely to receive a prescription compared with patients of low SES. Women are more likely to be tested and to receive a prescription than men. These findings have implications for the pursuit of equity as a goal of health services policy. PMID:8745106

  5. [Health status and care giving needs in the elderly: gender related differences].

    PubMed

    Doser Joz-Roland, N; Monod-Zorzi, S

    2010-07-28

    The health status and need for care differ depending on the gender. The most notable differences are life expectancy, life expectancy in good health and the prevalence of geriatric syndromes or chronic illnesses. Some social health determinants (social isolation or financial precariousness) seem to act as risk factors for vulnerability, mostly amongst old or very old women. Through some examples of differences between men and women in terms of health and caregiving needs, this article tries to heighten the awareness of health professionals to a gender based approach of the elderly patient in order to promote the best possible equity in healthcare. PMID:20806564

  6. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41–60-year-old age group than in the 18–40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  7. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-06-01

    Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  8. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) than the European (20–30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10–20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity–SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

  9. Gender, Race, and Health Insurance Status in Patients Undergoing Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nileshkumar; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Thakkar, Badal; Coffey, James O; Agnihotri, Kanishk; Patel, Achint; Ainani, Nitesh; Nalluri, Nikhil; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nish; Patel, Neil; Badheka, Apurva O; Kowalski, Marcin; Hendel, Robert; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan; Noseworthy, Peter A; Asirvatham, Samuel; Lo, Kaming; Myerburg, Robert J; Mitrani, Raul D

    2016-04-01

    Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has emerged as a popular procedure. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there exist differences or disparities in ablation utilization across gender, socioeconomic class, insurance, or race. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2000 to 2012), we identified adults hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of AF by ICD 9 code 427.31 who had catheter ablation (ICD 9 code-37.34). We stratified patients by race, insurance status, age, gender, and hospital characteristics. A hierarchical multivariate mixed-effect model was created to identify the independent predictors of AF ablation. Among an estimated total of 3,508,122 patients (extrapolated from 20% Nationwide Inpatient Sample) hospitalized with a diagnosis of AF in the United States from the year 2000 to 2012, 102,469 patients (2.9%) underwent catheter ablations. The number of ablations was increased by 940%, from 1,439 in 2000 to 15,090 in 2012. There were significant differences according to gender, race, and health insurance status, which persisted even after adjustment for other risk factors. Female gender (0.83 [95% CI 0.79 to 0.87; p <0.001]), black (0.49 [95% CI 0.44 to 0.55; p <0.001]), and Hispanic race (0.64 [95% CI 0.56 to 0.72; p <0.001]) were associated with lower likelihoods of undergoing an AF ablation. Medicare (0.93, 0.88 to 0.98, <0.001) or Medicaid (0.67, 0.59 to 0.76, <0.001) coverage and uninsured patients (0.55, 0.49 to 0.62, <0.001) also had lower rates of AF ablation compared to patients with private insurance. In conclusion we found differences in utilization of catheter ablation for AF based on gender, race, and insurance status that persisted over time. PMID:26899494

  10. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status. PMID:22483443

  11. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  12. The Economic Contribution of Canada's Colleges and Institutes. An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 2: Detailed Results by Gender and Entry Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to present the results of the economic impact analysis in detail by gender and entry level of education. On the data entry side, gender and entry level of education are important variables that help characterize the student body profile. This profile data links to national statistical databases which are already…

  13. Sociology, economics, and gender: can knowledge of the past contribute to a better future?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the profoundly gendered nature of the split between the disciplines of economics and sociology that took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emphasizing implications for current efforts to bring the fields more closely together. Drawing on historical documents and feminist studies of science, it investigates the gendered processes underlying the divergence of the disciplines in definition, method, and degree of engagement with social problems. The recently developed field of economic sociology and other efforts to bridge the disciplinary gap have the potential to heal this disciplinary split, if they are broadened, deepened, and made wiser and more self-reflective through the use of feminist analysis. PMID:20939131

  14. No early gender effects on energetic status and life history in a salmonid.

    PubMed

    Régnier, Thomas; Labonne, Jacques; Chat, Joëlle; Yano, Ayaka; Guiguen, Yann; Bolliet, Valérie

    2015-12-01

    Throughout an organism's early development, variations in physiology and behaviours may have long lasting consequences on individual life histories. While a large part of variation in critical life-history transitions remains unexplained, a significant proportion may be caused by early gender effects as part of gender-specific life histories shaped by sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the presence of early gender effects on the timing of emergence from gravel and the energetic status of brown trout (Salmo trutta) early stages. To investigate this question, individual measures of emergence timing, metabolic rate and energetic content were coupled for the first time with the use of a recent genetic marker for sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), a master sex-determining gene. Our results show that gender does not influence the energetic content of emerging juveniles or their emergence timing. These findings suggest that gender differences may appear later throughout salmonid life history and that selective pressures associated with the critical period of emergence from gravel may shape early life-history traits similarly in both males and females. PMID:27019729

  15. No early gender effects on energetic status and life history in a salmonid

    PubMed Central

    Régnier, Thomas; Labonne, Jacques; Chat, Joëlle; Yano, Ayaka; Guiguen, Yann; Bolliet, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Throughout an organism's early development, variations in physiology and behaviours may have long lasting consequences on individual life histories. While a large part of variation in critical life-history transitions remains unexplained, a significant proportion may be caused by early gender effects as part of gender-specific life histories shaped by sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the presence of early gender effects on the timing of emergence from gravel and the energetic status of brown trout (Salmo trutta) early stages. To investigate this question, individual measures of emergence timing, metabolic rate and energetic content were coupled for the first time with the use of a recent genetic marker for sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), a master sex-determining gene. Our results show that gender does not influence the energetic content of emerging juveniles or their emergence timing. These findings suggest that gender differences may appear later throughout salmonid life history and that selective pressures associated with the critical period of emergence from gravel may shape early life-history traits similarly in both males and females. PMID:27019729

  16. The Effects of International Economic Trends on Gender Equity in Schooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilon, Lynn

    1998-07-01

    Educational conditions and opportunities for female pupils, in comparison with male pupils, vary considerably between countries. In the past researchers have tended to explain these conditions in terms of national and local factors. Recently, however, some researchers have begun to focus on the influence of global economic trends in this area. This article describes a survey of 120 countries, examining the influence of economic globalization on gender equity in secondary schools. The article concludes that this influence is significant and should be taken into account by policy- makers.

  17. Organizational Commitment of Teachers: A Meta-Analysis Study for the Effect of Gender and Marital Status in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çogaltay, Nazim

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes the influence of Turkish teacher's gender and marital status on their perception of organizational commitment. In total, 30 independent research studies conducted across the country are investigated to analyze the relations between gender and organizational commitment, i.e., a sample group of 11,724 participants. In…

  18. Dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing: the relevance of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Khallad, Yacoub

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked

  19. First-Year Study Success in Economics and Econometrics: The Role of Gender, Motivation, and Math Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Rowaan, Wietske

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the relationships among gender, math skills, motivation, and study success in economics and econometrics. They find that female students have stronger intrinsic motivation, yet lower study confidence than their male counterparts. They also find weak evidence for a gender gap over the entire first-year…

  20. Idle Hands and Empty Pockets?: Youth Involvement in Extracurricular Activities, Social Capital, and Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Amanda M.; Gager, Constance T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Adults and Youth, the authors examine the effect of economic status on youths' involvement in both school- and nonschool-related extracurricular activities. Specifically, they assess the association between four alternative measures of economic status--recipiency of food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent…

  1. A Study on Relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss

    2015-01-01

    Personality covers the whole nature of the individual. Socio Economic Status refers to the position that an individual and family occupies with reference to prevailing average standards, cultural possession and participation in group activity of community. This paper reports on relationship between Personality and Socio Economic Status of student…

  2. The Social and Economic Statuses of Black Women in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.

    1981-01-01

    Cites aggregate statistics summarizing the social and economic statuses of Black women and interprets their implications for the quality of life experienced by Black females. Focuses on educational attainment, marital and fertility patterns, health status, labor force participation rates, and economic roles. (GC)

  3. ITER Cryoplant Status and Economics of the LHe plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monneret, E.; Chalifour, M.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Voigt, T.; Badgujar, S.; Chang, H.-S.; Vincent, G.

    The ITER cryoplant is composed of helium and nitrogen refrigerators and generator combined with 80 K helium loop plants and external purification systems. Storage and recovery of the helium inventory is provided in warm and cold (80 K and 4.5 K) helium tanks.The conceptual design of the ITER cryoplant has been completed, the technical requirements defined for industrial procurement and contracts signed with industry. Each contract covers the design, manufacturing, installation and commissioning. Design is under finalization and manufacturing has started. First deliveries are scheduled by end of 2015.The various cryoplant systems are designed based on recognized codes and international standards to meet the availability, the reliability and the time between maintenance imposed by the long-term uninterrupted operation of the ITER Tokamak. In addition, ITER has to consider the constraint of a nuclear installation.ITER Organization (IO) is responsible for the liquid helium (LHe) Plants contract signed end of 2012 with industry. It is composed of three LHe Plants, working in parallel and able to provide a total average cooling capacity of 75 kW at 4.5 K. Based on concept designed developed with industries and the procurement phase, ITER has accumulated data to broaden the scaling laws for costing such systems.After describing the status of ITER cryoplant part of the cryogenic system, we shall present the economics of the ITER LHe Plants based on key design requirements, choice and challenges of this ITER Organization procurement.

  4. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

  5. Effects of Prior Economic Education, Native Language, and Gender on Economic Knowledge of First-Year Students in Higher Education. A Comparative Study between Germany and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings…

  6. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  7. Trajectories of dating violence: Differences by sexual minority status and gender.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sexual minority status (as assessed using both identity and behavior) was associated with trajectories of dating violence. University students from a large Southwestern university completed questions on their sexual minority identity, the gender of their sexual partners, and about experiences of dating violence for six consecutive semesters (N = 1942). Latent growth curve modeling indicated that generally, trajectories of dating violence were stable across study participation. Sexual minority identity was associated with higher initial levels of dating violence at baseline, but also with greater decreases in dating violence across time. These differences were mediated by number of sexual partners. Having same and other-sex sexual partners was associated with higher levels of dating violence at baseline, and persisted in being associated with higher levels over time. No significant gender difference was observed regarding trajectories of dating violence. PMID:26994347

  8. Young adolescents' wellbeing and health-risk behaviours: gender and socio-economic differences.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M M; Scott, J

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we use the 1994-1997 Youth Surveys of the British Household Panel Study to examine the wellbeing of young adolescents. We conceptualize wellbeing as a multi-dimensional construct and we develop and test models of gender and age differences. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we find clear gender differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, unhappiness and worries. We confirm that wellbeing and some health-risk behaviours (fighting and smoking) are linked. We test models that examine how family structure, father's occupation, tenure, and household income, affect adolescent wellbeing. While socio-economic factors affect health-risk behaviours and also adolescents' reported worries, they have little impact on other aspects of youth wellbeing. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11437479

  9. Gender differences as factors in successful ageing: a focus on socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Mi; Jang, Soong-Nang; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, the population of Korea has aged rapidly as a result of decreasing fertility and mortality. Furthermore, the percentage of the population aged 65 and older is expected to double from 7% to 14% within 18 years, a much shorter doubling period than in most other developed countries. As Korean society ages, interest in healthy and successful ageing has increased. However, although previous studies have examined various determinants of successful ageing, such as socioeconomic status, gender differences have been neglected. This study investigated gender differences as factors in successful ageing among elderly men and women. Successful ageing has been defined as having high levels of physical and social functioning. Physical functioning includes having no difficulties with activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social functioning is defined as participation in at least one of the following social activities: paid work, religious gatherings or volunteer service. Data for this study were obtained from a representative sample of 761 community-living individuals aged 65-84 years (340 males, 421 females); the respondents were interviewed face-to-face as part of the third wave of the Hallym Ageing Study (2007). Socioeconomic status appears to have a greater gender-specific effect on physical functioning than on social functioning. Especially for elderly men, a higher monthly individual income was significantly related to a higher level of physical functioning. Among elderly women, a higher level of education was associated with a higher level of physical functioning. In a major metropolis, elderly men had low social functioning and elderly women had low physical functioning. As Korea's population ages, successful ageing has received much attention. This study shows that policies promoting successful ageing must consider gender differences and associated socioeconomic factors. PMID:19703332

  10. Socio-economic factors, gender and smoking as determinants of COPD in a low-income country of sub-Saharan Africa: FRESH AIR Uganda.

    PubMed

    van Gemert, Frederik; Chavannes, Niels; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; Williams, Sian; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Vonk, Judith; Kocks, Janwillem; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, biomass smoke seems to be the largest risk factor for the development of COPD, but socio-economic factors and gender may have a role. Therefore, more in-depth research is needed to understand the risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic factors and gender differences on the COPD prevalence in Uganda. The population comprised 588 randomly selected participants (>30 years) who previously completed the FRESH AIR Uganda study. In this post hoc analysis, the impact of several socio-economic characteristics, gender and smoking on the prevalence of COPD was assessed using a logistic regression model. The main risk factors associated with COPD were non-Bantu ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.82, P=0.030), biomass fuel use for heating (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-3.00, P=0.038), former smoker (OR 1.87, 95% CI 0.97-3.60, P=0.063) and being unmarried (OR 0.087, 95% CI 0.93-2.95, P=0.087). A substantial difference in the prevalence of COPD was seen between the two ethnic groups: non-Bantu 20% and Bantu 12.9%. Additional analysis between these two groups showed significant differences in socio-economic circumstances: non-Bantu people smoked more (57.7% vs 10.7%), lived in tobacco-growing areas (72% vs 14.8%) and were less educated (28.5% vs 12.9% had no education). With regard to gender, men with COPD were unmarried (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.25-7.61, P=0.015) and used more biomass fuel for heating (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.02-4.54, P=0.045), and women with COPD were former smokers (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.22-9.22, P=0.019). Only a few socio-economic factors (i.e., smoking, biomass fuel use for heating, marital status and non-Bantu ethnicity) have been found to be associated with COPD. This applied for gender differences as well (i.e., for men, marital status and biomass fuel for heating, and for women being a former smoker). More research is needed to clarify the complexity of the different risk factors. PMID

  11. Socio-economic factors, gender and smoking as determinants of COPD in a low-income country of sub-Saharan Africa: FRESH AIR Uganda

    PubMed Central

    van Gemert, Frederik; Chavannes, Niels; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; Williams, Sian; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Vonk, Judith; Kocks, Janwillem; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, biomass smoke seems to be the largest risk factor for the development of COPD, but socio-economic factors and gender may have a role. Therefore, more in-depth research is needed to understand the risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic factors and gender differences on the COPD prevalence in Uganda. The population comprised 588 randomly selected participants (>30 years) who previously completed the FRESH AIR Uganda study. In this post hoc analysis, the impact of several socio-economic characteristics, gender and smoking on the prevalence of COPD was assessed using a logistic regression model. The main risk factors associated with COPD were non-Bantu ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–2.82, P=0.030), biomass fuel use for heating (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03–3.00, P=0.038), former smoker (OR 1.87, 95% CI 0.97–3.60, P=0.063) and being unmarried (OR 0.087, 95% CI 0.93–2.95, P=0.087). A substantial difference in the prevalence of COPD was seen between the two ethnic groups: non-Bantu 20% and Bantu 12.9%. Additional analysis between these two groups showed significant differences in socio-economic circumstances: non-Bantu people smoked more (57.7% vs 10.7%), lived in tobacco-growing areas (72% vs 14.8%) and were less educated (28.5% vs 12.9% had no education). With regard to gender, men with COPD were unmarried (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.25–7.61, P=0.015) and used more biomass fuel for heating (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.02–4.54, P=0.045), and women with COPD were former smokers (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.22–9.22, P=0.019). Only a few socio-economic factors (i.e., smoking, biomass fuel use for heating, marital status and non-Bantu ethnicity) have been found to be associated with COPD. This applied for gender differences as well (i.e., for men, marital status and biomass fuel for heating, and for women being a former smoker). More research is needed to clarify the complexity of the different risk factors

  12. Non-melanoma skin cancer: importance of gender, immunosuppressive status and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2008-03-18

    Ultraviolet light B (UVB) is responsible for the majority of cutaneous damage and is believed to be the single most important etiologic agent in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). These skin tumors are by far the most common form of cancer in humans, with over 1 million new cases identified in the United States each year. Several risk factors exist, which increase the chance of a patient developing NMSC including gender, immunosuppressive status and more controversially vitamin D levels. The present review provides an overview of each of these areas. PMID:18267352

  13. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  14. Gender Differences in Sleep Deprivation Effects on Risk and Inequality Aversion: Evidence from an Economic Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Excessive working hours—even at night—are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects’ risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females’ reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making. PMID:25793869

  15. Gender differences in sleep deprivation effects on risk and inequality aversion: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Michele; Bottasso, Anna; Tempesta, Daniela; Carrieri, Marika; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ponti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Excessive working hours--even at night--are becoming increasingly common in our modern 24/7 society. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss and, consequently, the specific behaviors subserved by the functional integrity of the PFC, such as risk-taking and pro-social behavior, may be affected significantly. This paper seeks to assess the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on subjects' risk and social preferences, which are probably the most explored behavioral domains in the tradition of Experimental Economics. This novel cross-over study employs thirty-two university students (gender-balanced) participating to 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions in which they perform standard risk and social preference elicitation protocols. One session was after one night of undisturbed sleep at home, and the other was after one night of sleep deprivation in the laboratory. Sleep deprivation causes increased sleepiness and decreased alertness in all subjects. After sleep loss males make riskier decisions compared to the rested condition, while females do the opposite. Females likewise show decreased inequity aversion after sleep deprivation. As for the relationship between cognitive ability and economic decisions, sleep deprived individuals with higher cognitive reflection show lower risk aversion and more altruistic behavior. These results show that one night of sleep deprivation alters economic behavior in a gender-sensitive way. Females' reaction to sleep deprivation, characterized by reduced risky choices and increased egoism compared to males, may be related to intrinsic psychological gender differences, such as in the way men and women weigh up probabilities in their decision-making, and/or to the different neurofunctional substrate of their decision-making. PMID:25793869

  16. The relation of dialogic, control, and racial socialization practices to early academic and social competence: effects of gender, ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Oscar; Jean-Baptiste, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This research tests the relations of parental practices to child competence and assertions that practices differ by gender of the child. Home-based interviews and structured observations of parent-child interactions were conducted with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of families (N = 501) whose 4-year-old children were served in public prekindergarten. Study data confirmed the importance of parental practices for children's academic and social competence but did not support claims that use of any of the practices was related to the child's gender. Significant differences were found for economic status on dialogic practices and for ethnicity on control and ethnic socialization. Poor parents employed dialogic practices less than nonpoor parents' and African American parents employed dialogic practices less often and control and ethnic socialization more often than European Americans. Dialogic practices were related to competence, but parental control and ethnic socialization were not. PMID:23889013

  17. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  18. Is therapeutic judgement influenced by the patient's socio-economic status? A factorial vignette survey.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Esben Elholm; Morville, Anne-Le; Larsen, Anette Enemark; Hansen, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Background In Denmark patients are entitled to rehabilitation regardless of socio-economic status (SES). During this process therapists have to balance cost effectiveness with providing equal treatment. Aim To investigate whether occupational therapists and physiotherapists were influenced by the patient's SES. Material and method An experimental factorial vignette survey was used. Four different vignettes describing fictitious patient cases with different SES variables were randomly allocated to therapists working in somatic hospitals. Thereafter, the therapists judged specific clinical situations and general attitudes in relation to the patient's SES. Chi-square was used to test the statistical association between the variables. Results No statistically significant associations were found between the specific clinical situations and the patient's SES. A statistical significant association was found between general attitudes and the patient's SES. Subgroup analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the therapist's gender, age, and the therapeutic judgement in relation to SES. Conclusion In the specific clinical situations, Danish therapists seem to maintain their professional ethical principles, although they might face ethical dilemmas during their clinical decision-making. In order to prevent and resolve these dilemmas, they have to be made explicit. However, further research on how SES influences the health care professional's judgement is warranted. PMID:26982521

  19. Individual differences in food perceptions and calorie estimation: an examination of dieting status, weight, and gender.

    PubMed

    Carels, Robert A; Konrad, Krista; Harper, Jessica

    2007-09-01

    People frequently place foods into "health" or "diet" categories. This study examined whether (1) evaluations of "healthiness/unhealthiness" influence "caloric" estimation accuracy, (2) people evaluate foods for "healthiness/unhealthiness" or "weight gain/loss" differently, and (3) food evaluations differ by gender, diet status, and weight. Also, undergraduate dieters attempting to lose weight on their own were compared to obese weight loss program participants. Undergraduate students (N=101) rated eight "healthy" and "unhealthy" foods on perceived "healthiness/unhealthiness," "weight loss/gain capacity" and "caloric" content. Open-ended questions inquiring why a food was "healthy/unhealthy" or would "contribute to weight gain/loss" were coded into independent food categories (e.g., high fat). Results indicate that calories were systematically underestimated in healthy/weight loss foods, while they were systematically overestimated in unhealthy/weight gain foods. Dieters were more accurate at estimating "calories" of healthy foods and more attentive to the foods' fat, "calorie", and sugar content than non-dieters. Overweight participants commented more on fat and sugar content than normal weight participants. Undergraduate dieters used fewer categories for evaluating foods than weight loss program participants. Individual difference characteristics, such as diet-status, weight, and gender, influence people's perceptions of foods' healthiness or capacity to influence weight, and in some instances systematically bias their estimates of the caloric content of foods. PMID:17428574

  20. [The impact of health economics: a status report].

    PubMed

    Tunder, R

    2011-12-01

    "Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given. PMID:22108908

  1. Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Merten, Sonja; Martin Hilber, Adriane; Biaggi, Christina; Secula, Florence; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Namgyal, Pem; Hombach, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease. PMID:26317975

  2. Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Biaggi, Christina; Secula, Florence; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Namgyal, Pem; Hombach, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease. PMID:26317975

  3. Smoking cessation intervention practices in Chinese physicians: do gender and smoking status matter?

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Chan, Ya-Fen; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare settings provide a major arena for administering smoking cessation interventions. However, few studies have reported differences in the frequency of practice in healthcare professionals by gender and smoking status. This might also be influenced by a difference in smoking prevalence by gender, especially in China and other developing countries. This study examined factors associated with the frequency of cessation intervention practices by smoking status among Chinese physicians in men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006 in physicians with direct patient contact from nine hospitals in Guangzhou with a response rate of 60.8%. Significantly more female physicians who were non-smokers (79.7%) reported "initiation and/or advice" smoking cessation interventions than male physicians who were smokers (71.2%) and non-smokers (71.6%). Factors significantly associated with "initiation and/or advice" were prior smoking cessation training (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.8-9.6) and lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) among male physicians who smoked; and organisational support (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) and successful past experience (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) among male physicians who did not smoke. Among female physicians who did not smoke, significant factors were agreeing that quitting smoking is the most cost-effective way to prevent chronic disease and cancer (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.1), helping patients stop smoking is part of expected role and responsibility (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) and organisational support (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) for non-smoking female physicians. This study is the first to show that male physicians were less likely to provide smoking cessation counselling regardless of their smoking status while non-smoking female physicians were more active in advising patients on quitting. The findings highlight the need for developing

  4. School Socio-Economic Status and Student Socio-Academic Achievement Goals in Upper Secondary Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Nathan; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In recent years motivational researchers have spent considerable time examining race/ethnicity and gender differences in academic and social achievement goals, but little time examining the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). This lack of attention is surprising given that both student motivation and SES have been shown to predict academic…

  5. Socio-Economic Status and Occupational Status Projections of Southern Youth, By Race and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Michael F.; Kuvlesky, William P.

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected occupational status projections and the relationship between these projections and socioeconomic status (SES). Occupational status projections referred to predictive statements about the future lifetime job of the respondents. The occupational status projections included in the analysis were: (1)…

  6. Chronic Disease Disparities by County Economic Status and Metropolitan Classification, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Theis, Kristina A.; Self-Brown, Shannon; Roblin, Douglas W.; Barker, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Racial/ethnic disparities have been studied extensively. However, the combined influence of geographic location and economic status on specific health outcomes is less well studied. This study’s objective was to examine 1) the disparity in chronic disease prevalence in the United States by county economic status and metropolitan classification and 2) the social gradient by economic status. The association of hypertension, arthritis, and poor health with county economic status was also explored. Methods We used 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. County economic status was categorized by using data on unemployment, poverty, and per capita market income. While controlling for sociodemographics and other covariates, we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between economic status and hypertension, arthritis, and self-rated health. Results Prevalence of hypertension, arthritis, and poor health in the poorest counties was 9%, 13%, and 15% higher, respectively, than in the most affluent counties. After we controlled for covariates, poor counties still had a higher prevalence of the studied conditions. Conclusion We found that residents of poor counties had a higher prevalence of poor health outcomes than affluent counties, even after we controlled for known risk factors. Further, the prevalence of poor health outcomes decreased as county economics improved. Findings suggest that poor counties would benefit from targeted public health interventions, better access to health care services, and improved food and built environments. PMID:27584875

  7. A Reconstruction of the Gender Agenda: The Contradictory Gender Dimensions in New Labour's Educational and Economic Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Miles, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory…

  8. The Status of Econometrics in the Economics Major: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bruce K.; Perry, John J.; Petkus, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online…

  9. Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Likeability: Associations with Popularity and Status Enhancement--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of popularity, substance use, athletic abilities, physical attractiveness, and physical and relational aggression with likeability by same-gender and cross-gender peers among early adolescents (N = 3,312; M age = 13.60, with 92.7% of the participants in the 12-14 age range). Data collection consisted of peer…

  10. Gender differences between predictors of HIV status among PWID in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, K.F.; Dvoryak, S.; Garver-Apgar, C.; Davis, J.M.; Brewster, J.T.; Lisovska, O.; Booth, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Ukraine is among the largest in Europe. While traditionally the epidemic has spread through injection risk behavior, sexual transmission is becoming more common. Previous research has found that women in Ukraine have higher rates of HIV and engage in more HIV risk behavior than men. This study extended that work by identifying risk factors that differentially predict men and women’s HIV status among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine. Methods From July 2010 through July 2013, 2480 sexually active PWID with unknown HIV status were recruited from three cities in Ukraine through street outreach. The average age was 31 years old. Results Women, who made up twenty-eight percent of the sample, had higher safe sex self-efficacy (p<0.01) and HIV knowledge (p<0.001) than men, but scored higher on both the risky injection (p<0.001) and risky sex (p<0.001) composite scores than men. Risky sex behaviors were associated with women’s HIV status more than men’s. We also report results identifying predictors of risky injection and sex behaviors. Conclusions Gender-specific interventions could address problem of HIV risk among women who inject drugs in a country with a growing HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest specific ways in which intervention efforts might focus on groups and individuals who are at the highest risk of contracting HIV (or who are already HIV positive) to halt the spread of HIV in Ukraine. PMID:24613219

  11. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…

  12. Exploring the Latino Paradox: How Economic and Citizenship Status Impact Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…

  13. Blinded to Science: Gender Differences in the Effects of Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status on Academic and Science Attitudes among Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Brea L.; Link, Tanja; Boelter, Christina; Leukefeld, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational…

  14. Ethnic Drinking Cultures, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in Asian American and Latino Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterogeneity in drinking across national groups is well-documented, but what explains such heterogeneity is less clear. To improve understanding of the underlying cultural conditions that may lead to diverse drinking outcomes, we investigate whether three dimensions of ethnic drinking culture (EDC)—alcohol consumption level, drinking prevalence, and detrimental drinking pattern (DDP) in the country of origin (COO)—are significantly associated with alcohol consumption in Asian Americans and Latina/os, and whether the associations vary by gender and socioeconomic status as assessed by educational level. Methods A nationally-representative sample of 1,012 Asian American and 4,831 Latino adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data was used. A series of multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted separately for Asian Americans and for Latina/os. Analyses were also stratified by gender and educational level. Results Overall, the associations between EDC variables and drinking outcomes were more pronounced for all Asian Americans than for all Latina/os, for males than for females among Asian Americans, and for Latinas than for Latinos. In analyses simultaneously stratifying on gender and education level, however, there was a clear pattern of COO DDP associated with heavier drinking and alcohol consumption volume only for Latinos without a college degree. Conclusions Ethnic drinking cultures may influence drinking in Asian American and Latino subgroups, albeit to a varying degree. Low-SES Latinos may be at disproportionate risk of harmful drinking patterns pervasive in their country of origin. Future research might investigate the complex interplay between socioeconomic disadvantage and cultural conditions to inform targeted interventions for subgroups at high risk of alcohol-related harms. PMID:25581659

  15. Chemical signals in the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, indicate caste, gender, age, and reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Túlio M; Turatti, Izabel C C; Lopes, Norberto P; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2009-10-01

    Chemical compounds on the cuticle are a rich source of information used during interactions among social insects. Despite the multitude of studies on these substances and their function in ants, wasps, and honeybees, little is known about this subject in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini). We studied the chemical composition of the cuticle of the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to investigate potential chemical variation among castes, gender, age, and reproductive status. We found differences in the cuticular hydrocarbon composition among workers, males, and queens, recording both qualitative and quantitative differences among individuals of different ages and gender. The cuticle of physogastric queens presented a chemical profile that was distinct from all other groups in the analysis, with high relative abundances of alkenes and alkadienes with 27, 29, and 31 carbon atoms. We discuss the possibility that these compounds signal a queen's presence to the colony, thereby initiating all vital worker-queen interactions. PMID:19813058

  16. Spouse abuse recidivism in the U.S. Army by gender and military status.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, J E; Thayer, L E; Liu, X; Newby, J H; Norwood, A E; Fullerton, C S; Ursano, R J

    2000-06-01

    Recidivism by spouse abusers was investigated using records of offenders in the U.S. Army Central Registry. Recidivism by gender and military status (active-duty or civilian spouse) was compared over a 70-month period. Between fiscal years 1989-1997, 48,330 offenders were identified in initial and recidivist incidents. Recidivism was analyzed by means of a Cox proportional hazard rate model, controlling for age, race, number of dependents, education, and substance abuse. Two different sets of survival curves were obtained: (a) Men were much more likely than women to have a recurrence and (b) within gender, civilians were more likely to have a recurrence than were active-duty military personnel. At 70 months, 30% of the male civilian offenders and 27% of the male active-duty offenders had committed a subsequent spouse abuse incident compared with 20% of the female civilian offenders and 18% of the female active-duty offenders, controlling for other variables. PMID:10883570

  17. Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children's Performance on the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in…

  18. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  19. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

  20. Classes within a Class: The Discourses of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in a Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Camilo, III

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of 12 months, I conducted an ethnographic study in an urban preschool classroom in the northeastern Unites States. Employing a sociocultural perspective of early childhood development, I investigated the various social and academic discourses related to race and ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) presented in a…

  1. Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status.…

  2. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  3. Predictiveness of Identity Status, Main Internet Use Purposes and Gender on University Students' the Problematic Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at revealing the relationships between the problematic Internet use of university students and their identity status, main Internet use purposes, and gender. A total of 464 university students participated in the study, and the research data were collected through the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Extended Objective Measure…

  4. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from…

  5. A Report on the Undergraduate Women of Greater Guam and Micronesia: Their Status Aspirations and Gender Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    This document reports on a study to determine Guamanian women's identification of their social status and gender awareness. Participants of the study were 350 randomly selected undergraduate women who responded to questionnaires. A statistical profile of the Guamanian undergraduate women was derived as follows: (1) is a traditional aged student;…

  6. Interaction of Ethnicity, Mathematics Achievement Level, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender among High School Students' Mathematics Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signer, Barbara; Beasley, T. Mark; Bauer, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Examines the influence of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, and gender on mathematical ability and confidence in urban high school students. Interviews with 100 students reveal African American youth do have academic self-confidence, males sought more mathematics education than females, and that minority youth are not easily discouraged by…

  7. Classroom-Level Predictors of the Social Status of Aggression: Friendship Centralization, Friendship Density, Teacher-Student Attunement, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…

  8. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  9. ON IMPROVING THE ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE NEGRO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TOBIN, JAMES

    EFFORTS TO ELIMINATE NEGRO POVERTY MUST BE UNDERTAKEN WITHIN A FAVORABLE OVERALL ECONOMIC CLIMATE, AND THE CURRENT CLIMATE IS NOT FAVORABLE BECAUSE MANPOWER AND PLANT CAPACITY ARE NOT FULLY UTILIZED. SUCH FACTORS AS LIMITED JOBS, EXAGGERATED JOB REQUIREMENTS, LOWER EARNING CAPACITY, DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT, FLUCTUATIONS OF THE BUSINESS CYCLE, AND…

  10. Explaining the Socio-Economic Status School Completion Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Hanel, Barbara; Buddelmeyer, Hielke

    2013-01-01

    Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion rates…

  11. Neoliberalism and the World Bank: Economic Discourse and the (Re)Production of Gendered Identity(ies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Penny

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…

  12. Predicting acceptance and popularity in early adolescence as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of hearing status by gender; popularity varied as a function of hearing status and educational setting. Deaf boys in mainstream education were less accepted and popular than their hearing classmates and than deaf peers in special education. Deaf girls in mainstream education were also less popular but not less accepted. Communicative skills varied as a function of hearing status, whereas social behavior varied as a function of educational setting. Deaf mainstreamed children showed less developed pragmatic and strategic communicative skills (monitoring, improvisation, initiating/maintaining) than their hearing classmates, but more social adjustment than deaf peers in special education (more prosocial behavior, less antisocial or withdrawn behavior, and more agreeableness). For acceptance, deaf girls in mainstream education compensated the lack of improvisation with higher levels of prosocial behavior, agreeableness, monitoring, and pragmatic skills, and lower levels of antisocial behavior than deaf boys. Monitoring and pragmatic skills negatively affected a deaf mainstream boy's acceptance. In special education, gender differences in prosocial behavior explained deaf boys' lower acceptance. Popularity was explained by pragmatic skills and improvisation as a function of hearing status. Voter population difference and different social behavior norms are considered as an explanation for popularity differences as a function of educational setting. PMID:21840686

  13. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    PubMed

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important. PMID:26816163

  14. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25287414

  15. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  16. Fuel Cells: Status and Technical/Economic Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambach, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    The need for fuel cell and alternative fuels has become increasingly important in that the U.S. spends 1 billion dollars per week to import oil, and is expected to import 80-100 billion per year in oil by the year 2010. These imports account for half of our oil supply. If 20% of the U.S. vehicle fleet were powered by fuel cells there would be: an offset 1.1 million barrels of oil per day; and a reduction of 2 million tons per year of regulated air pollutants. Fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from reformed natural gas results in more than 90% reduction in regulated emissions, and a 70% reduction in CO2, a greenhouse gas. And fueling fuel cells with hydrogen from renewables (wind, solar geothermal, hydro) results in total elimination of all emissions. When fuel cells become commercialized: they will improve America's economic competitiveness; and the regions where they are produced will benefit economically.

  17. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  18. The Relation of Economic Status to Subjective Well-Being in Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Ryan T.; Howell, Colleen J.

    2008-01-01

    The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least…

  19. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails. PMID:26102185

  20. Wind turbines for electric utilities - Development status and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a 'fuel saver' is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  1. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone." PMID:12292875

  2. Wind turbines for electric utilities: Development status and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramler, J. R.; Donovan, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The technology and economics of the large, horizontal-axis wind turbines currently in the Federal Wind Energy Program are presented. Wind turbine technology advancements made in the last several years are discussed. It is shown that, based on current projections of the costs of these machines when produced in quantity, they should be attractive for utility application. The cost of electricity (COE) produced at the busbar is shown to be a strong function of the mean wind speed at the installation site. The breakeven COE as a fuel saver is discussed and the COE range that would be generally attractive to utilities is indicated.

  3. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male

  4. Endurance Cyclist Fluid Intake, Hydration Status, Thirst, and Thermal Sensations: Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Williamson, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    This field investigation assessed differences (e.g., drinking behavior, hydration status, perceptual ratings) between female and male endurance cyclists who completed a 164-km event in a hot environment (35 °C mean dry bulb) to inform rehydration recommendations for athletes. Three years of data were pooled to create 2 groups of cyclists: women (n = 15) and men (n = 88). Women were significantly smaller (p < .001) than men in height (166 ± 5 vs. 179 ± 7 cm), body mass (64.6 ± 7.3 vs. 86.4 ± 12.3 kg), and body mass index (BMI; 23.3 ± 1.8 vs. 26.9 ± 3.4) and had lower preevent urinary indices of hydration status, but were similar to men in age (43 ± 7 years vs. 44 ± 9 years) and exercise time (7.77 ± 1.24 hr vs. 7.23 ± 1.75 hr). During the 164-km ride, women lost less body mass (-0.7 ± 1.0 vs. -1.7 ± 1.5 kg; -1.1 ± 1.6% vs. -1.9 ± 1.8% of body weight; p < .005) and consumed less fluid than men (4.80 ± 1.28 L vs. 5.59 ± 2.13 L; p < .005). Women consumed a similar volume of fluid as men, relative to body mass (milliliters/kilogram). To control for performance and anthropomorphic characteristics, 15 women were pair-matched with 15 men on the basis of exercise time on the course and BMI; urine-specific gravity, urine color, and body mass change (kilograms and percentage) were different (p < .05) in 4 of 6 comparisons. No gender differences were observed for ratings of thirst, thermal sensation, or perceived exertion. In conclusion, differences in relative fluid volume consumed and hydration indices suggest that professional sports medicine organizations should consider gender and individualized drinking plans when formulating pronouncements regarding rehydration during exercise. PMID:26479401

  5. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation. PMID:19819601

  6. Constipation Misperception Is Associated With Gender, Marital Status, Treatment Utilization and Constipation Symptoms Experienced

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Suck Chei; Park, Moo In; Park, Kyung Sik; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Kee Wook; Koo, Hoon Sup; Kim, Wan Jung; Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Ji Sung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims It is essential that clinicians have an understanding of patients’ perceptions of constipation as well as constipation mis-perception (CM), which can be defined as failure to recognize the six constipation symptoms (infrequency, straining, hard stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction or manual maneuver). The aims of our study were to identify the prevalence of CM and its association with demographics and clinical features. Methods This nationwide survey included 625 self-reported constipated subjects (431 females; mean age, 41.2 years) among random participants in the National Health Screening Program. The prevalence of CM for each constipation symptom was estimated, and the participants were classified into nil (0), low (1–2), mid (3–4) and high (5–6) level CM subgroups according to the number of misperceived symptoms. Results The highest rate of CM was observed for manual maneuver (48.3%), followed by anorectal obstruction (38.4%), stool infrequency (34.6%), incomplete evacuation (32.2%), hard stool (27.2%) and straining (25.4%). Among the nil (n = 153), low (n = 242), mid (n = 144) and high level (n = 86) subgroups, there were significant differences in the proportions of males (18.3%, 34.3%, 39.6% and 30.2%; P = 0.001, respectively), never-married status (25.7%, 38.2%, 36.8% and 45.9%; P = 0.030, respectively) and those who did not receive treatment for constipation (41.8%, 47.5%, 58.3% and 66.3%; P < 0.001, respectively). There was a significant linear trend of increasing degree of CM with decreasing symptoms experienced (P < 0.001). Conclusions CM is significantly associated with gender, marital status, treatment utilization and the range of constipation symptoms experienced. PMID:24935009

  7. ECONOMIC STRESSORS AND ALCOHOL-RELATED OUTCOMES: EXPLORING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE MEDIATING ROLE OF SOMATIC COMPLAINTS

    PubMed Central

    BROWN, ROBYN LEWIS; RICHMAN, JUDITH A.; ROSPENDA, KATHLEEN M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined processes linking economic stressors, somatic complaints, and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Structural equation models of data from a national survey revealed that somatic complaints partly explain the association between economic stressors and problematic drinking. The associations of both economic stressors and somatic complaints with problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than women. However, the association between economic stressors and somatic complaints was greater for women. These findings clarify the circumstances in which gender matters most for the associations among economy-related stressors, somatic complaints, and drinking. They highlight the significance of difficult economic circumstances for physical health and, in turn, problematic drinking – particularly among men. PMID:25310370

  8. The Effect of Age, Gender, Refractive Status and Axial Length on the Measurements of Hertel Exophthalmometry

    PubMed Central

    Karti, Omer; Selver, Ozlem B; Karahan, Eyyup; Zengin, Mehmet O; Uyar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the normal distribution of exophthalmometric values in Turkish adult population and the effect of age, gender, refractive status and axial length on globe position. Methods : One hundred and twenty-two males and 114 healthy females with age ranging from 18 to 87 years were included in the study. The study population was recruited from patients presenting to our institution for routine refractive examination. Hertel exophthalmometer was used to measure the degree of ocular protrusion. Effect of age, refractive error, interpupillary distance, and axial length on globe position was detected with linear regression analyses. Results : The mean Hertel exophthalmometric size was 15.7+2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm). The mean value for males was 16.1±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm), and for females 15.5±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 20 mm). The mean distance between the lateral rims of the orbit was 102 + 5.1 mm (range; 88 to 111mm). The mean exophthalmometric values were not statistically different in males and females. Age and mean spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Axial length was positively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Conclusion : The exophthalmometric measurement of the eye is affected by the age, spherical equivalent and the axial length. Standard normative values of the Hertel exophthalmometric measurements should be reevaluated with larger samples. PMID:26089994

  9. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  10. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Arafat, Hassan A. Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-15

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

  11. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Arafat, Hassan A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-01

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe. PMID:18397822

  12. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) analysis on depressed mood in Korea: the impact of gender differences and other socio-economic factors

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Lara; Noh, Yong-Hwan; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression), might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods: Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females), aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP) regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status) and socio-economic factors

  13. Associations between economic loss, financial strain and the psychological status of Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. PMID:25754768

  14. Different Patterns of Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: An Analysis by Student Gender, Race, SES, and First-Generation Status. A Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) Project Research Paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the conditional effects of student-faculty interaction in a large research university system, based on various student characteristics including gender, race, and socio-economic and first-generation status. The study utilized data from the 2006 University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES), a longitudinal…

  15. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Zachary S.

    2016-01-01

    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  16. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  17. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  18. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  19. Socio-Economic Status and Academic Achievement Trajectories from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    Although a positive relationship between socio-economic status and academic achievement is well-established, how it varies with age is not. This article uses four data points from Canada's National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine how the academic achievement gap attributed to SES changes from childhood to adolescence…

  20. Socio-Economic Status and Enrollment in Higher Education: Do Costs Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of socio-economic status on enrollment and study decisions in higher education. We use a discrete choice approach to distinguish between three channels. First, students from disadvantaged backgrounds may be more sensitive to the costs of education. Second, they may have lower preferences for education. Third, they may have…

  1. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  2. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  3. Notes on the Changing Economic Status of Children in the United States: 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Frank; Michel, Richard

    This document comprises a preliminary study of the causes of children's declining economic status within the income distribution between 1970 and 1985. Samples of 25-35 year old men and women for 1970 and 1985 drawn from the March "Demographic File" editions of the Current Population Survey (CPS) were analyzed. The following factors were examined:…

  4. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  5. The Status of Women in the States. Politics, Economics, Health, Demographics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This report presents information from a variety of sources (primarily government agencies) regarding the status of women in the United States. The report presents data for each state on 20 component indicators as well as on 4 composite indices: political participation; employment and earnings; economic autonomy; and reproductive rights. Discussed…

  6. Here's the News: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2012-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.; Thornton, Saranna

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the annual report on the economic status of the profession. This year's report covers three main issues--all perennial problems, but with new analysis based on the latest data--in addition to summarizing the current results from the annual American Association of University Professors (AAUP) survey of full-time faculty…

  7. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  8. At the Brink; Preliminary Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report on the economic status of college and university professors discusses the experience of the year 1969-70 in terms of rate of increase in compensation which, taking real purchasing power into account, was only 2 percent; this part also presents statistical data and an analysis of salary increases by type of institution and…

  9. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 1989-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohm, Paul, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents data on the economic status of university professors, including, among other statistics: weighted average salary, average compensations, and percentage increases in salary for continuing faculty, by category, affiliation, and academic rank; average fringe benefits in dollars and as a percentage of average salary; percentage of…

  10. Teacher Perceptions of Race, Socio-Economic Status and Language Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilberts, Richard A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to find whether race, socio-economic status (SES) and language cues of speakers modify the ratings of white experienced teachers. Subjects were 250 white male and female experienced teachers whose responses were recorded on a semantic differential designed to assess teacher expectancies on two concepts: speaker and speaker's…

  11. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  12. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Methods The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. Results The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. Conclusions We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:23565918

  13. The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Directions in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.

    The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…

  14. Gendered Inequity in Society and the Academy: Policy Initiatives, Economic Realities and Legal Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron-Moore, Pamela; Jacobs, Leslie R.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the social constructs impacting the contemporary world, gender is perhaps the most pervasive and the most insidious. Its inequities creep into our everyday lives with impunity. Across the globe, gender construction has evoked challenge, undergone reform and, in some instances, transformed thinking in societies. Yet, for all the gains made…

  15. Influence of Gender and SNPs in GPX1 Gene on Biomarkers of Selenium Status in Healthy Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Donadio, Janaina L. S.; Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M.; Rogero, Marcelo M.; Cozzolino, Silvia M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) status varies worldwide as a result of natural variation of Se content in soils, dietary pattern, and the presence of SNPs. Further, Se status in Brazilians and its relationship between genetic variation and Se biomarkers is unknown. This work investigated the association between SNPs in glutathione peroxidase genes and biomarkers of Se status in healthy Brazilians. The study was conducted in 116 healthy adults in São Paulo, Brazil. Plasma and erythrocyte Se were measured by HGFAAS. Erythrocyte GPx (eGPx) activity was measured spectrometrically in a biochemical analyzer. Genotypes were determined by real-time PCR using Taqman® Assays. eGPx activity was higher in females compared with males. Lower erythrocyte Se concentrations were found in heterozygous GC carriers for GPX1 rs8179169. eGPx activity was higher in females with the common genotypes, except for rs8179169. GC carriers for rs8179169 had lower erythrocyte Se in both genders, and only male carriers of the variant alleles of both rs1050450 and rs1800668 had higher eGPx activity. In conclusion, the genotype for SNPs in GPX1 and gender affected biomarkers of Se status in this pilot study with healthy Brazilians. PMID:27164132

  16. Influence of Gender and SNPs in GPX1 Gene on Biomarkers of Selenium Status in Healthy Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Janaina L S; Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M; Rogero, Marcelo M; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) status varies worldwide as a result of natural variation of Se content in soils, dietary pattern, and the presence of SNPs. Further, Se status in Brazilians and its relationship between genetic variation and Se biomarkers is unknown. This work investigated the association between SNPs in glutathione peroxidase genes and biomarkers of Se status in healthy Brazilians. The study was conducted in 116 healthy adults in São Paulo, Brazil. Plasma and erythrocyte Se were measured by HGFAAS. Erythrocyte GPx (eGPx) activity was measured spectrometrically in a biochemical analyzer. Genotypes were determined by real-time PCR using Taqman(®) Assays. eGPx activity was higher in females compared with males. Lower erythrocyte Se concentrations were found in heterozygous GC carriers for GPX1 rs8179169. eGPx activity was higher in females with the common genotypes, except for rs8179169. GC carriers for rs8179169 had lower erythrocyte Se in both genders, and only male carriers of the variant alleles of both rs1050450 and rs1800668 had higher eGPx activity. In conclusion, the genotype for SNPs in GPX1 and gender affected biomarkers of Se status in this pilot study with healthy Brazilians. PMID:27164132

  17. Socio-economic factors, lifestyle and gender differences in body mass index in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Mary; Chorghade, Ginny; Crozier, Sarah; Leary, Sam; Fall, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    A survey of the nutritional status of women in six villages in the Pune district of Maharashtra, India found young women to have significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than their male peers. The purpose of this study was to identify social and economic factors associated with this difference in thinness, and to explore the behaviour in men and women that might underlie these associations. We compared men and women in 90 families in this part of Maharashtra, recording social and economic details, fasting practices and oil consumption, and took measurements of the height and weight of a married couple of child-bearing age in each family. In this agricultural community, women were thinner in joint, land-owning families where the main occupation was farming, than they did in non-farming families. This was not true of men in this type of family. Men in ‘cash-rich’ families had higher BMIs than men in families without this characteristic. There was no corresponding difference in women’s body mass index. We then examined the lifestyles of men and women in a sub-set of 45 of these families. Women were more likely to work full-time in farming than men, to carry the burden of all household chores, to have less sleep and to eat less food away from home than men. Women fasted more frequently and more strictly than men. Despite identifying significant differences in behaviour between men and women in the same household, we could find no direct link between behaviour and body mass index. We conclude that being married into a farming family is an important factor in determining the thinness of a woman in rural Maharashtra. PMID:17116720

  18. Gender & Work at Midlife & Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Laurie Russell

    1990-01-01

    Although the economic status of older persons has improved, women are at risk for poverty in old age as a result of their lifelong work experiences. Gender differences in work history, type of occupation, industrial sector, and retirement circumstances are contributing factors. (SK)

  19. Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.

    PubMed

    Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy. PMID:24765817

  20. Relationships between Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Math Attitudes, and Math Achievement: An International Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Sunny R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement have traditionally been studied within individual countries, despite the existence of large international data sets available for analysis. This dissertation investigated the relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement based on information from 50…

  1. Diet of Finnish children in relation to the family's socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, S; Räsänen, L; Viikari, J; Akerblom, H K

    1995-06-01

    The differences between higher and lower socio-economic groups in food consumption, energy intake and nutrient density of the diet of Finnish 9- to 15-year-old children were examined in a study performed within the project entitled Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. Data on food consumption were collected using the 48-hour recall method. Family's socio-economic status was defined according to the father's educational level, his occupation, and family income. Children of families with higher socio-economic status used more fruit, low-fat milk, soft vegetable margarine and less high-fat milk, butter, rye products and coffee than did the children of families with lower socioeconomic status. Consequently, the main differences appeared in the fat, vitamin D, vitamin C and fatty acid content of the diet. Differences in energy intake and in mineral density of the diet were minor. If these childhood dietary differences remain in adulthood, it is possible that the present disparity between socio-economic groups in mortality from coronary heart disease will not disappear. PMID:7676224

  2. Transactional sex and economic exchange with partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence

    PubMed Central

    Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702

  3. Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents' friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. PMID:21688275

  4. Integration of gender-specific aspects into medical curricula - status quo und future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pfleiderer, Bettina; Burghaus, Désirée; Bayer, Gudrun; Kindler-Röhrborn, Andrea; Heue, Matthias; Becker, Jan Carl

    2012-01-01

    The consideration of gender aspects in clinical routine is of high importance towards an individualized patient care and a starting point of diversity medicine. Gender-specific awareness is an indispensable basis for an optimized medical treatment. A current study at the medical faculties of Muenster and Duisburg-Essen University (Germany) revealed an insufficient knowledge among students and lecturers in this area. An interdisciplinary, international workshop took place in Muenster (Germany) in May 2012 on the topic how to integrate gender aspects into medical curricula in the future aiming at a better health care for both sexes in long term. This position paper summarizes the conclusions. It was suggested to teach gender-specific contents from the first semester comprehensively – using standardized definitions and a gender-neutral language, since it is crucial not to increase the students’ workload any further. The key to success is to implement gender aspects by using meaningful examples on a regular basis – ideally in a longitudinal manner. The content of teaching should be selected by the lecturers and full professors and be considered within students´ exams. To reach these goals, an absolute support of the respective medical faculties as well as the integration of these gender-specific learning objectives into the national competence-based learning catalogue for medical education (NKLM) is obligatory. PMID:23255960

  5. Gender Differences in Periodontal Status and Oral Hygiene of Non-Diabetic and Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Antina; Busse, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated gender dependent differences by the comparison of periodontal status and oral hygiene between diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. Methods: 517 mostly obese subjects (171 non-diabetic, 205 type 2 diabetic with oral and 141 with insulin therapy; mean: 59 years) completed an oral hygiene questionnaire and had a clinical examination, including periodontal screening and recording (PSR), percentage of bleeding teeth (PBT), probing pocket depth (PD), gingivitis index (GI), and number of teeth (Tn). Main parameters were “periodontitis” and “oral hygiene behaviour”, each defined by 5 sub-parameters. For a comparison of all results, each sub-parameter was set 0.2. The “low performance index“ (LoP) was the sum of significantly worse sub-parameters in the compared groups (maximum of low performing = 1.0). Results: Gender comparison: In non-diabetic and diabetic patients with oral medication, males performed worse (LoP: periodontitis 0.6 - 0.8; oral hygiene 0.4 - 0.6). The male insulin group performed worse oral hygiene (LoP: 0.4) than females with insulin therapy, whereas the periodontal status showed no difference. Diabetic and non-diabetic groups: Females: Diabetic groups performed worse than non-diabetics (LoP: periodontitis 0.2 - 1.0; oral hygiene 0.4). Insulin patients had worse periodontal status and showed no difference in oral hygiene when compared to diabetic patients with oral medication (LoP: 0.2). Males: Diabetic group with oral medication had worse periodontal status than non-diabetics (LoP: 0.6). Conclusions: The periodontal status was mainly due to oral hygiene behaviour, which was worse in men. Apparently behaviour and not diabetes is the major determinant of periodontitis. Men apparently need much more advise than women. PMID:27347232

  6. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2–7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child’s current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student’s t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort’s median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6–3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child’s current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  7. Economic Status of Women. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This document is a transcript of a Congressional hearing on the economic status of women held by the Joint Economic Committee on February 3, 1982. Witnesses who testified at the hearing included Representatives Reuss, Richmond, Heckler, Wylie and Schroeder, Senators Jepsen and Kassenbaum, and a number of women active in women's equality programs.…

  8. Long working hours and health in Europe: Gender and welfare state differences in a context of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Benavides, Fernando G; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Bartoll, Xavier; Vargas, Hernán; Borrell, Carme

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the relationship between moderately long working hours and health status in Europe. A cross-sectional study based on data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey (13,518 men and 9381 women) was performed. Working moderately long hours was consistently associated with poor health status and poor psychological wellbeing in countries with traditional family models, in both sexes in Liberal countries and primarily among women in Continental and Southern European countries. A combination of economic vulnerability, increasing labour market deregulation and work overload related to the combination of job and domestic work could explain these findings. PMID:27341274

  9. Childhood peer status and the clustering of social, economic, and health-related circumstances in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Ylva B; Brännström, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Within the school-class context, children attain a social position in the peer hierarchy to which varying amounts of status are attached. Studies have shown that peer status - i.e. the degree of acceptance and likeability among classmates - is associated with adult health. However, these studies have generally paid little attention to the fact that health problems are likely to coincide with other adverse circumstances within the individual. The overarching aim of the current study was therefore to examine the impact of childhood peer status on the clustering of social, economic, and health-related circumstances in adulthood. Using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 14,294), four outcome profiles in adulthood were identified by means of latent class analysis: 'Average', 'Low education', 'Unemployment', and 'Social assistance recipiency and mental health problems'. Multinomial regression analysis demonstrated that those with lower peer status had exceedingly higher risks of later ending up in the more adverse clusters. This association remained after adjusting for a variety of family-related and individual factors. We conclude that peer status constitutes a central aspect of children's upbringing with important consequences for life chances. PMID:24508719

  10. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  11. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Background Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. Method A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18–60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. Results No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure. PMID:26301591

  12. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  13. College students' definitions of an eating "binge" differ as a function of gender and binge eating disorder status.

    PubMed

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K

    2011-08-01

    Males and females engage in comparable rates of binge eating, but gender differences in what constitutes a "binge" may contribute to the disproportionate likelihood of females meeting diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder (BED). Using data from one university enrolled in the 2010 Healthy Minds Study, we investigated the differences in "eating binge" definitions as a function of gender, BED status, and their interaction. This sample of 969 undergraduate college students was 64.0% female, and 9.3% (10.7% of women; 6.9% of males) met the screening criteria for BED. Open-ended responses defining a "binge" were coded into psychological/behavioral and food themes. Females with BED were most likely to mention loss of control when defining an eating binge, and relative to males with BED, they were significantly more likely to mention sweet foods; males with BED were significantly more likely to mention pizza. Findings suggest that among those without BED, females mentioned mood, type of food, and engaging in compensatory behaviors significantly more often than males. Results suggests that the diagnostic emphasis on binge eating as involving "loss of control" may lead to a heightened diagnosis of BED among females, yet both genders may experience a comparable weight-related sequelae from binge eating. PMID:21741023

  14. Collective religiosity and the gender gap in attitudes towards economic redistribution in 86 countries, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Castillo, Antonio M; Fernández, Juan J; Valiente, Celia; Mayrl, Damon

    2016-05-01

    What is the relationship between gender and the demand for redistribution? Because, on average, women face more economic deprivation than men, in many countries women favor redistribution more than men. However, this is not the case in a number of other countries, where women do not support redistribution more than men. To explain this cross-national paradox, we stress the role of collective religiosity. In many religions, theological principles both militate against public policies designed to redistribute income, and also promote traditionally gendered patterns of work and family involvement. Hence, we hypothesize that, in those countries where religion remains influential either through closer church-state ties or an intensely religious population, men and women should differ less in their attitudes towards redistribution. Drawing upon the World Values Survey, we estimate three-level regression models that test our religiosity-based approach and two alternative explanations in 86 countries and 175 country-years. The results are consistent with our hypothesis. Moreover, in further support of our theoretical approach, societal religiosity undermines pro-redistribution preferences more among women than men. Our findings suggest that collective religiosity matters more to the gender gap in redistributive attitudes than traditional political and labor force factors. PMID:26973029

  15. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  16. Is access to specialist assessment of chest pain equitable by age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status? An enhanced ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neha; Hemingway, Harry; Walsh, Niamh; Eldridge, Sandra; Junghans, Cornelia; Feder, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether access to rapid access chest pain clinics of people with recent onset symptoms is equitable by age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender, according to need. Design Retrospective cohort study with ecological analysis. Setting Patients referred from primary care to five rapid access chest pain clinics in secondary care, across England. Participants Of 8647 patients aged ≥35 years referred to chest pain clinics with new-onset stable chest pain but no known cardiac history, 7570 with documented census ward codes, age, gender and ethnicity comprised the study group. Patients excluded were those with missing date of birth, gender or ethnicity (n=782) and those with missing census ward codes (n=295). Outcome measures Effects of age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on clinic attendance were calculated as attendance rate ratios, with number of attendances as the outcome and resident population-years as the exposure in each stratum, using Poisson regression. Attendance rate ratios were then compared with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality ratios to determine whether attendance was equitable according to need. Results Adjusted attendance rate ratios for patients aged >65 years were similar to younger patients (1.1, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.16), despite population CHD mortality rate ratios nearly 15 times higher in the older age group. Women had lower attendance rate ratios (0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.84) and also lower population CHD mortality rate ratios compared with men. South Asians had higher attendance rates (1.67, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.77) compared with whites and had a higher standardised CHD mortality ratio of 1.46 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.51). Although univariable analysis showed that the most deprived patients (quintile 5) had an attendance rate twice that of less deprived quintiles, the adjusted analysis showed their attendance to be 13% lower (0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.94) despite a higher population CHD mortality rate. Conclusion

  17. Weight Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity: Are There Differences in Meeting Recommended Health Behavior Guidelines for Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400

  18. Health at the Intersections of Precarious Documentation Status and Gender-Based Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Parson, Nia; Escobar, Rebecca; Merced, Mariam; Trautwein, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on qualitative research investigating Spanish-speaking immigrant women's experiences of gender-based intimate partner violence (GBPV) and help seeking in New Jersey (2006-2008). Methods included interviews with these women, health care and social service providers, and community members. This article reveals that as many immigrant women live at the intersections of structural, normalized, and gender-based partner violence, integrated social service responses emerge as key health care responses to GBPV. The health impacts of undocumented and precariously documented migration and GBPV demand policy interventions and dedication of resources to address the multi-faceted needs of this population. PMID:25148835

  19. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  20. Trajectories of Adolescent Alcohol Use by Gender and Early Initiation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolland, Kathleen A.; Bolland, John M.; Tomek, Sara; Devereaux, Randolph S.; Mrug, Sylvie; Wimberly, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Within the adolescent risk behavior literature, questions remain about relationships among behaviors in early adolescence, gender, context, and negative social and health outcomes. Additionally, little attention has focused on trajectories of adolescent risk behavior among impoverished African American youth. Using data from the Mobile Youth…

  1. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…

  2. Using Gender To Preserve Tracking's Status Hierarchy: The Defensive Strategy of Entrenched Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda

    1997-01-01

    Examines the politics of representation among teachers at a racially mixed high school undertaking detracking. Interviews with 45 of the 81 teachers, several administrators and counselors, 15 students, and seven parents show how the reform effort, led by female teachers, was derailed as male teachers used a gender discourse to support the status…

  3. Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in University Students' Perception of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinajero, Carolina; Martínez-López, Zeltia; Rodríguez, Mª Soledad; Guisande, Mª Adelina; Páramo, Mª Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Perceived social support has been shown to be one of the most important protective factors for emerging adult students during their transition to university. However, the relationships between perceived social support and dimensions of gender and family background, which have been shown to affect adjustment to college life, remain unexplored. The…

  4. The COSWL (Committee on the Status of Women in Linguistics) Collection of Language and Gender Syllabi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Elizabeth, Ed.; McElhinny, Bonnie S., Ed.

    A collection of 27 syllabi for undergraduate and graduate courses on language and gender is presented. The syllabi come from a variety of departments, including linguistics, anthropology, English, French, German, and folklore. Special features of the collection include: syllabi for undergraduate and graduate courses; ideas for paper topics;…

  5. The Impact of Faculty Status and Gender on Employee Well-Being in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Quinn; Fry, Leanna; Garrison, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This study measures job satisfaction, personal fulfillment, work/life balance, and stress levels of male and female librarians. Researchers surveyed 719 librarians at ARL institutions that either offer faculty status and tenure or offer neither. Females at libraries offering faculty status indicated poor work/life balance and high levels of stress…

  6. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    PubMed

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions. PMID:25595020

  7. Investigation of Vocational Interest and Preference in Terms of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Kaan Zülfikar; Türe, Ersin; Uysal, Asli; Akar, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Individuals tend to prefer a vocation in order to reach their targets such as leading a life, nutrition, housing, being safe, having a good position in society etc. It is a task of the adolescence period to choose a vocation which is for some the most important step of the life, while for some others it is a rather important…

  8. A Life Course Perspective on the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Health: Testing the Divergence Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prus, Steven G.

    2004-01-01

    While adults from all socio-economic status (SES) levels generally encounter a decline in health as they grow older, research shows that health status is tied to SES at all stages of life. The dynamics of the relationship between SES and health over the life course of adult Canadians, however, remain largely unexplored. This paper tests the…

  9. Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

    2005-08-01

    There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions. PMID:16261994

  10. Understanding differences in sexting behaviors across gender, relationship status, and sexual identity, and the role of expectancies in sexting.

    PubMed

    Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A

    2013-08-01

    Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (η(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks. PMID:23675996