This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…
Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc
The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…
Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren
Previous research has indicated that depression, the most common psychological disorder experienced by over 19 million Americans, can be related to such factors as ethnicity, social support, social economic status, academic achievement and gender. One hundred and sixty students from Johnson C. Smith University and Tennessee State University were…
Ndoh, Sunday; Scales, Josie
The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…
Okoye, N. S.
This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…
Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra
The primary purpose of this study was to explore the correlations between students' perceptions of their relationships with teachers, students' academic achievement and students' classroom behavior. A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate if students' ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status moderate the…
Gill, Khushwinder Kaur
Berk (1985) proposed that the family is a "gender factory"; that is, families are social institutions in which ideas about gender are formed, enforced, and reproduced across generations. This exercise examines the relationships between marital status and earnings among women aged 25 and over, using data from the 1990 U.S. Census. We will attempt to answer the following question: Does marital status influence earnings among women?
Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the multimorbidity pattern concerned, i.e. there seem to be at least two types of elderly multimorbid patients. First, there are patients with mainly cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, who are more often male, have an older age and a lower socio-economic status. Second, there are patients mainly with ADS and pain-related morbidity, who are more often female and equally distributed across age and socio-economic groups. Trial registration ISRCTN89818205 PMID:22471952
This activity is used in a Gender and Society class for undergraduate students. This activity includes the topics of income, poverty and gender, includes an investigation of historical patterns of the interaction between gender and income. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 1990 Census and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!
Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats – measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender – was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526
Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett
This article examines some of the factors affecting the current economic status of academic librarians, as well as the history of changes in that economic picture. Issues discussed include the ranking of beginning academic librarian salaries in comparison to others in the profession, historical differences between academic librarian salaries and…
Perret, Robert; Young, Nancy J.
This paper reviews empirical findings from economic analyses of the role of gender equality and women's empowerment in reducing poverty and stimulatinggrowth. Going beyond the large literature documenting the impact of female education on a range of development outcomes, the paper presents evidence on the impact of women's access to markets (labor, land, and credit) and women's decision-making power within
Nistha Sinha; Dhushyanth Raju; Andrew Morrison
By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…
Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo
Background:Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown.Objectives:We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP) and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of
M A Beydoun; Y Wang
The authors examined experimentally whether student gender and socioeconomic status (SES) affect teachers' expectations of students. Participants were 106 teachers who read a scenario about a hypothetical student with academic and behavioral challenges. The authors systematically varied the gender and SES of the student to create 4 conditions.…
Auwarter, Amy E.; Aruguete, Mara S.
The current study examined gender and identity status differences in late adolescents' possible selves. The intent of the study was to clarify conflicts between theory and research on gender differences in identity by investigating the content of participants' possible selves. Participants completed measures of identity and possible selves. The…
Anthis, Kristine S.; Dunkel, Curt S.; Anderson, Brian
Status differences between women and men can explain why they perceive themselves as having different personality traits.\\u000a The status explanation of gender stereotyping is discussed in relation to two views that have shaped research and theory on\\u000a gender and personality: the traditional view that men and women are characterized by stable, enduring dispositions and the\\u000a more recent view that women’s
Gwendolyn L. Gerber
Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…
Ng, Ying Chu
Social distinction or status is an important motivation of human behaviour. This paper provides a selective survey of recent advances in the economic analysis of the origins and consequences of social status. First, a selection of empirical research from a variety of scientific disciplines is discussed to underpin the further theoretical analysis. I then consider the origins and determinants of
The authors examined experimentally whether student gender and socioeconomic status (SES) affect teachers' expectations of students. Participants were 106 teachers who read a scenario about a hypothetical student with academic and behavioral challenges. The authors systematically varied the gender and SES of the student to create 4 conditions. Teachers rated high-SES boys more favorably than low-SES boys, but low-SES girls
Amy E. Auwarter; Mara S. Aruguete
This paper discusses the history of discrimination in the United States and the length of time it took to abolish the legal support of racism. The paper then discusses the problems of diversity in the United States. Acknowledging and accepting U.S. diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religious background, and national origin would…
ObjectivesStudies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish gendered job status (affected by family composition and other personal characteristics) from sex-linked biological differences influencing physiological response to workplace physical hazards.MethodsWe examined the effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims
Jane E Clougherty; Ellen A Eisen; Martin D Slade; Ichiro Kawachi; Mark R Cullen
In a study of 195 high school students, differences by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were found in their gaming habits and game literacy practices. Low-SES students generally preferred console video games, particularly those in the sports genre. They expressed frustration with the controls involved in long-form computer games such as those…
Sex Selection and Gender Balance V Bhaskar Department of Economics University College London Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK firstname.lastname@example.org January 11, 2010 Abstract We model parental sex selection and the equilibrium sex ratio. With intrinsic son preference, sex selection results in a male
1 ICTs as a tool for Gender socio-economic empowerment Big Picture Symposium, NICTA University. ACCESS Information Infrastructure: Telecoms, Voice, Data networks, Broadband infrastructure and Backbones infratructure to rural areas. Mexico PPPs in e-Government, including study on outsourcing and development
Social science findings routinely rely on proxy-reported economic data in household surveys. A typical assumption is that this information is not biased compared to self-reports, but empirical findings on the issue are mixed. Using a dataset that links workers in the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation to their W-2 tax records, we estimate the effects of reporting status (proxy vs. self) on the magnitude and direction of measurement bias in earnings data and explore whether these effects are heterogeneous across gender and marital status. A slight downward bias in proxy-reported earnings is observed; however, these effects are associated with demographic variables. For married workers, proxies do not contribute substantial bias in earnings measurement regardless of the target respondent's gender. However, for single female workers, proxy interviews are a significant source of downward bias in earnings estimates. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23347491
Tamborini, Christopher R; Kim, Changhwan
Background Despite the undisputed role of emotions in teamwork, not much is known about the make-up of emotions in online collaboration. Publicly available repositories of collaboration data, such as Wikipedia editor discussions, now enable the large-scale study of affect and dialogue in peer production. Methods We investigate the established Wikipedia community and focus on how emotion and dialogue differ depending on the status, gender, and the communication network of the editors who have written at least 100 comments on the English Wikipedia's article talk pages. Emotions are quantified using a word-based approach comparing the results of two predefined lexicon-based methods: LIWC and SentiStrength. Principal Findings We find that administrators maintain a rather neutral, impersonal tone, while regular editors are more emotional and relationship-oriented, that is, they use language to form and maintain connections to other editors. A persistent gender difference is that female contributors communicate in a manner that promotes social affiliation and emotional connection more than male editors, irrespective of their status in the community. Female regular editors are the most relationship-oriented, whereas male administrators are the least relationship-focused. Finally, emotional and linguistic homophily is prevalent: editors tend to interact with other editors having similar emotional styles (e.g., editors expressing more anger connect more with one another). Conclusions/Significance Emotional expression and linguistic style in online collaboration differ substantially depending on the contributors' gender and status, and on the communication network. This should be taken into account when analyzing collaborative success, and may prove insightful to communities facing gender gap and stagnation in contributor acquisition and participation levels. PMID:25140870
Iosub, Daniela; Laniado, David; Castillo, Carlos; Fuster Morell, Mayo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas
Despite their increasing numbers, divorced families with a noncustodial mother and a custodial father have received scant research attention. Our study attempts to provide some initial insight into the economic status of these families. Examining the child support obligation, we find that noncustodial mothers face a much smaller award than noncustodial fathers, both in terms of the absolute dollar amount
Kate Stirling; Thomas Aldrich
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…
Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.
During February 1989-June 1990 in Bangladesh, local field assistants collected data on 1366 children 2-6 years old, attending maternal and child health clinics operated by a nongovernmental organization, and living in 13 villages in Jamalpur District situated on the banks of the Jamuna River. The field assistants made home visits to record child morbidity every 2 weeks and to measure child height and weight once a month. During January-April 1989, this area suffered from extensive food shortages due to a prolonged drought and one of the worst floods recorded in Bangladesh. Gender bias was not apparent in farming and trading/employee households. In landless households (i.e., fathers' occupation was laborer), girls were significantly shorter and less heavy than boys (p 0.001), however. During a natural disaster, fathers' occupation significantly interacted with sex (p 0.05). Specifically, children who were both female and living in a landless household were more likely to have poor nutritional status than children who were female and living in a farming or trading/employee household and children who were male and living in a landless household. This interaction was not apparent as local conditions improved. Over the 16 months following the natural disaster, landless girls grew significantly more in height-for-age and weight-for-age than landless boys (p 0.001). In other words, these girls experienced more catch-up growth than the boys. At the end of the study, nutritional status varied only according to socioeconomic status but not according to gender. These findings suggest that gender bias within this population depends on changes in food availability and the rural economy. Thus, child nutrition programs should target landless girls, who are at highest risk of gender discrimination and malnutrition during economic adversity. PMID:8863018
Rousham, E K
1 Economic Reforms and Gender-based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions, female labour, gender wage inequality, labour market distortion, credit market distortion, economic-sector general equilibrium model has been developed with both male and female labour and factor market
Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. Aim To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients in South Africa. Setting A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. Patients A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73%) with median age of 39 years. Results Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR) 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1–1.0; p?=?0.05)). Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90–11.7; p?=?0.07) than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02–1.99; p?=?0.17) than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (p<0.01), and to partner and family (p<0.01), women were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (p<0.01), to child, family and others (p?=?0.01). Conclusion Being employed imposed a risk factor for HIV status disclosure, additionally we found an interaction effect of gender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended. PMID:24743189
Longinetti, Elisa; Santacatterina, Michele; El-Khatib, Ziad
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of
Annie E. Ro; Kyung-Hee Choi
The causes of gender differences in nonverbal behavior are not well understood. The present article discusses status as a possible explanation and analyzes some of the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with testing that hypothesis. The study by Helweg-Larsen, Cunningham, Carrico, and Pergram (2004), which investigated gender in…
Hall, Judith A.
Background This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. Results The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported “good” health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. Conclusions This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents. PMID:24950594
The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…
Edmonds, Eric V.
This article uses Cambodia's 2005 Demographic and Health Survey to explore differences in health status and health care access among elderly women and men, in the historical context of gendered violence during the Khmer Rouge regime. Results point to small disadvantages for women in becoming sick and seeking treatment, which are explained by their relatively lower socioeconomic status. However, no
Yana van der Meulen Rodgers
This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…
This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…
Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian
This report deals with the employment and economic status of Asian and Pacific women in the United States. Data collected for a set of socioeconomic variables were analyzed and interpreted. Variables were analyzed by specific Asian ethnicity and by age. Data aggregated at the standard metropolitan statistical area level were used whenever…
Fong, Pauline L.; Cabezas, Amado Y.
The present study utilized a social rules approach to investigate the relative influence of gender and status on managers' self-evaluations of their effectiveness in handling a dominating subordinate. In the first study 84 White middle-class participants identified the prescriptive and proscriptive rules for socially appropriate responding to a stimulus situation involving a pushy subordinate. Four rule sets were identified for
Keithia L. Wilson; Alfred J. Lizzio; Siegrid Zauner; Cynthia Gallois
Objectives The present study examines gender differences in changes in functional status after age 50 and how such differences vary across different age groups. Methods Data came from the Health and Retirement Study, involving up to six repeated observations of a national sample of Americans older than 50 years of age between 1995 and 2006. We employed hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates in depicting temporal variations in functional status between men and women. Results As a quadratic function, the worsening of functional status was more accelerated in terms of the intercept and rate of change among women and those in older age groups. In addition, gender differences in the level of functional impairment were more substantial in older persons than in younger individuals, although differences in the rate of change between men and women remained constant across age groups. Discussion A life course perspective can lead to new insights regarding gender variations in health within the context of intrapersonal and interpersonal differences. Smaller gender differences in the level of functional impairment in the younger groups may reflect improvement of women’s socioeconomic status, greater rate of increase in chronic diseases among men, and less debilitating effects of diseases. PMID:18818448
Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M.; Shaw, Benjamin A.; Quiñones, Ana R.; Ye, Wen; Xu, Xiao; Ofstedal, Mary Beth
The present research investigated the influence of gender and tenure status in academicians' experiences of balancing parenthood and an academic career. Men (n = 85) and women (n = 179) employed full-time in tenure-track academic positions with at least one child younger than the age of 16 responded via the Internet to a 36-item questionnaire…
O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Bischoff, Lisa G.
Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.…
Shaffer, Tammy J.
The present study investigated the influence of gender and menopausal status on treatment response in depressed inpatients, treated with either imipramine or fluvoxamine. The patients were divided into three groups: men, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. A multivariate analysis was performed using the difference in Hamilton score (pretreatment — post-treatment) for imipramine and fluvoxamine as dependent variable. The following independent
M. Vermeiden; WW van den Broek; Pgh Mulder; TK Birkenhäger
The development of a conceptual model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conative factors of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in autonomous learning considered the related variables of gender, education level, age, and marital status. The relevance of these demographic variables is based on prior…
Derrick, M. G.; Rovai, A. P.; Ponton, M.; Confessore, G. J.; Carr, P. B.
Gender differences were examined in health status and HIV care among HIV-infected minority drug users. More women than men reported having HIV-related symptoms and other health conditions, such as asthma and allergies. Hepatitis B or C was more often reported by men. As compared to men, women delayed HIV care and fewer attended HIV support groups. Delayed entry into HIV
Sung-Yeon Kang; Marjorie F. Goldstein; Sherry Deren
This descriptive study assessed teachers' attitudes about their formative supervision and the observational ability of principals through the constructs of teacher tenure status and gender. In sum, 255 teachers responded to an online survey indicating teachers' desired feedback focused on classroom climate, student engagement, and…
Range, Bret G.; Finch, Kim; Young, Suzanne; Hvidston, David J.
The Indian sociological literature neglects the role of women in social relationships within the family system, their status in society, and the interactions between Indian minorities and the majority community. Indian institutions and cultural norms have perpetuated the role of Indian women as subservient. Orthodox Muslims uphold the low position of women as a symbol of cultural identity. Indian Muslims have tried to prevent conversion and integration of other views, but have failed to eliminate the Hindu influence on the general pattern of living, the system of social stratification, and customs and attitudes regarding women. Muslims hold conformist ideals and beliefs from the Quran and the Hadis. Although Indian women live under the Hindu Code Bill that gives equal rights to women, most Muslim women are restricted under the Muslim Personal Law. Muslims who are ignorant of the Quran are unaware of the allowances in the Shariat for social adjustment, change, and accommodation. In fact, Indian Muslim communities follow four different Shariats: the Hanafi, the Shaafi, the Hambali, and the Maliki. Islamic scholars state that the Shariat is not unchangeable. There is also disparity between the actual practice of polygamy and the Quran's strict provision that all wives must be treated equally. Islamic practices have been manipulated to suit male interests. Indian Muslims are either Ashrafs or nonAshrafs. Ashrafs are the upper social class and are made up of the Sayyads, the Sheikhs, the Mughals, and the Pathans, in descending order of hierarchy. There are differences in the treatment of women within this stratification. For instance, many nonAshraf women do not observe purdah, but the tendency among the Ashraf is to impose purdah. PMID:12347368
Using data from a 2007 national survey of working Americans, we examine the association between economic hardship and family-to-work\\u000a conflict (FWC). We also assess contingencies of this association, focusing particularly on gender and several work conditions.\\u000a Findings indicate that economic hardship is associated with higher FWC; this pattern is stronger among men. Three work conditions\\u000a also function as effect modifiers:
Scott Schieman; Marisa Young
Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…
Evaluated learning status of 95 diabetic children and 97 matched controls. Results indicated that diabetic boys had significantly lower Freedom from Distractibility scores compared with scores of diabetic girls and controls, and lower Perceptual Organization scores compared with scores of control boys. Diabetic children experienced more learning…
Holmes, Clarissa S.; And Others
In the first half of this paper we develop a perspective on the role of ‘boldness’ in explaining gender differences in thinking and attitudes. We apply this analysis to evidence from Australia, the USA and the UK in relation to economics at school and university levels. In the second half we present the results of a study of over 1000
Peter Davies; Jean Mangan; Shqiponja Telhaj
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…
Toglia, Thomas V.
We analyse the important role of education in economic development and social wellbeing of American countries, including indicators of gender opportunities for development as part of social well-being. In this regard we select some indicators which usually have a great importance for reaching improvements in social well-being such as Government effectiveness and voice of citizens, among Governance Indicators, and the
Maria-Carmen GUISAN; Eva AGUAYO
For many decades now the sphere of education in Russia has been considered to be among the most well off among other spheres of activity, from the standpoint of gender equality. One component of radical economic reforms in Russia in the 1990s was the transformation of education financing. During the reform years the number of students in higher…
Baskakova, M. E.
Models of how people make decisions are central to economic theory. But when cast in a darwinian framework, such models provide insights into animal social behaviour. This is especially true of family-based societies in which the profitability of pursuing different behaviours is strongly influenced by gender, kinship and social position within the group. The potential of this approach is shown
Stephen T. Emlen; Peter H. Wrege
Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408
Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate
The authors used a representative national sample (N = 777) to test the evolutionary hypothesis that men would be more bothered by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity, the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) effect. Our alternative conceptualization of jealousy suggests that there are distinct emotional components of jealousy that did not evolve differently by gender. The authors looked for effects of age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of measure (continuous or dichotomous) on jealousy. The authors did not find age or SES effects. Forced-choice items provided support for our alternative view; both genders showed more anger and blame over sexual infidelity but more hurt feelings over emotional infidelity. Continuous measures indicated more emotional response to sexual than emotional infidelity among both genders. PMID:16768565
Green, Melanie C; Sabini, John
This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status. PMID:22483443
Fletcher, Jason M
Introduction Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities. Methods Using the 2007 Northern Swedish Cohort (n?=?773) we identified relative contributions of perceived gender inequities in relationships, financial strain, and education to self-reported health to determine whether controlling for sex, examining interactions between sex and other social variables, or sex-disaggregating data yielded most information about sex differences. Results and Discussion Men had lower education but also less financial strain, and experienced less gender inequity. Overall, low education and financial strain detracted from health. However, sex-disaggregated data showed this to be true for women, whereas for men only gender inequity at home affected health. In the relatively egalitarian Swedish environment where women more readily enter all work arenas and men often provide parenting, traditional primacy of the home environment (for women) and the work environment (for men) in shaping health is reversing such that perceived domestic gender inequity has a significant health impact on men, while for women only education and financial strain are contributory. These outcomes were identified only when data were sex-disaggregated. PMID:21747922
Phillips, Susan P.; Hammarström, Anne
This article explores the profoundly gendered nature of the split between the disciplines of economics and sociology that took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emphasizing implications for current efforts to bring the fields more closely together. Drawing on historical documents and feminist studies of science, it investigates the gendered processes underlying the divergence of the disciplines in definition, method, and degree of engagement with social problems. The recently developed field of economic sociology and other efforts to bridge the disciplinary gap have the potential to heal this disciplinary split, if they are broadened, deepened, and made wiser and more self-reflective through the use of feminist analysis. PMID:20939131
Nelson, Julie A
This study aimed to determine whether there might be differences in masticatory performance and eating behaviors by gender and obesity status. Forty eight (24 males; 24 females) non-obese and pre-obese young adults were matched for age, gender, and dental health. Eating behaviors were assessed using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and chewing performance while eating 152g of boiled rice was measured using electromyography (EMG). Compared with non-obese participants, pre-obese participants had significantly higher levels of disinhibition according to the TFEQ (P<0.05 for males; P<0.01 for females). Microstructures of chewing performance were significantly different by gender but not by obesity status. Males had a greater bite size (P<0.05), greater chewing power (P<0.001) and a faster eating rate (P<0.05) than females. Females habitually chewed more (P<0.05) and had a longer meal duration (P<0.01) than males. Eating rate was positively associated with disinhibition (r=0.490, P<0.05) score in males. Bite size (r=-0.449, P<0.05 for non-obese) and chewing power (r=-0.581, P<0.01 for non-obese and r=-0.446, P<0.05 for pre-obese) were negatively associated with disinhibition score. Results suggest that the effects of gender and, in part, obesity on eating responses may be explained as chewing performance. Therefore, gender-specific interventions and counseling aimed at slowing the rate of ingestion could be promising behavioral treatments for obese persons. PMID:25447481
Park, Soojin; Shin, Weon-Sun
In this study, the authors investigate the relationships among gender, math skills, motivation, and study success in economics and econometrics. They find that female students have stronger intrinsic motivation, yet lower study confidence than their male counterparts. They also find weak evidence for a gender gap over the entire first-year…
Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Rowaan, Wietske
This paper follows from the findings of the 2006 review of research on women, gender and migration published in International Migration Review. We begin by discussing three international trends in contemporary migration flows: diversification, bifurcation and feminisation; and examine their significance for New Zealand. We then review the research on gender and economic integration of migrants in developed countries in
C Meares; A Bell; R Peace
Employment preferences of personnel representatives in electronics firms regarding job applicants who had varying levels of education were investigated. The applicants had either obtained a 4-year college degree, completed 2 years of college, or completed high school. The stimulus jobs required the equivalent of a high school education but varied in terms of status and gender stereotype. The personnel representatives tended to recommend college-educated applicants for higher status jobs and male stereotypic jobs and applicants who had high school degrees for lower status and female stereotypic jobs. Contrary to the results of most previous research on overeducation, the performance of the applicants who were college graduates was expected to be higher than that of the less educated applicants. PMID:7967549
Athey, T R; Hautaluoma, J E
Introduction. Gonial angle and antegonial region are important landmarks in mandible which is influenced by gender, age, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth and to investigate their relationship to gender, age group, and dental status. Materials and Methods. A total of 1060 panoramic radiographs were evaluated: the dentulous group, 854 subjects and the edentulous group, 206 subjects. The patients were grouped into six age groups of 10-years each. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth were measured from panoramic radiographs. Results and Discussion. Corelation of age with gonial angle, antegonial angle and antegonial depth was not significant. Significant difference in mandibular angle was found between males and females. Males had significantly smaller antegonial angle and greater antegonial depth than females. Significant difference was found for gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth between right and left sides of mandible. Conclusion. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth can be implicated as a forensic tool for gender determination but not suitable for age determination. PMID:24959560
Chole, Revant H.; Patil, Ranjitkumar N.; Gondivkar, Shailesh; Gadbail, Amol R.; Yuwanati, Monal B.
Many observers believe that wealthy men play a disproportionate role in the continuing spread of HIV/AIDS infection in sub-Saharan Africa through their involvement in informal exchange relationships, where money and gifts (referred to as “transfers”) are given to a range of nonmarital sexual partners. In this case, wealthier men are riskier sexual partners because they can afford to give larger transfers, which have been found to be negatively associated with condom use. Alternatively, wealthier men might have greater incentives to practice safe sex at later stages of the epidemic or wealthier men might match with female partners who have particularly strong preferences for condom use. Accordingly, economic status would be positively associated with condom use. We use survey data from urban Kisumu, Kenya, to investigate the various mechanisms through which economic status is associated with sexual risk behavior. Our results show that wealth is positively associated with transfers; wealth is uncorrelated with condom use, however. The characteristics of wealthier men’s female partners also do not differ from the characteristics of poorer men’s partners. We conclude that wealthier men have stronger preferences for condom use, which offsets the negative effect of larger transfers that they give to their sexual partners.
The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,
In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. PMID:24855018
Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C
Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p?0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p?0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p?0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p?0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p?0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p?0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p?0.004]. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS. PMID:24735007
Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital.
Objectives This study explored the pattern of associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and atherosclerosis progression (as indicated by carotid intima media thickness, CIMT) across gender. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 5474 older persons (mean age 73 years) recruited between 1999 and 2001 in the 3C study (France). We fitted linear regression models including neighborhood SES, individual SES and cardiovascular risk factors. Results CIMT was on average 24 µm higher in men (95% CI: 17 to 31). Neighborhood SES was inversely associated with CIMT in women only (highest versus lowest tertiles: ?12.2 µm, 95%CI ?22 to ?2.4). This association persisted when individual SES and risk factors were accounted for. High individual education was associated with lower CIMT in men (?21.4 µm 95%CI ?37.5 to ?5.3) whereas high professional status was linked to lower CIMT among women (?15.7 µm 95%CI: ?29.2 to ?2.2). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors resulted in a slightly more pronounced reduction of the individual SES-CIMT association observed in men than in women. Conclusion In this sample, neighborhood and individual SES displayed different patterns of associations with subclinical atherosclerosis across gender. This suggests that the causal pathways leading to SES variations in atherosclerosis may differ among men and women. PMID:24282522
Grimaud, Olivier; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Berr, Claudine; Helmer, Catherine; Dufouil, Carole; Kihal, Wahida; Alpérovitch, Annick; Chauvin, Pierre
Metabolic profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could serve as a less invasive and more direct alternative to tissue biopsies or serum in metabolomic research. We conducted two exploratory independent studies in order to characterise PBMC’s metabolomic profile following short-term vitamin D3 supplementation and to determine gender effects. In the first study, eight healthy males and females aged 40–65 y were randomly selected for profiling of PBMCs after receiving either 15 µg of vitamin D3 or placebo for four weeks. In the second study, twenty younger healthy males and females were studied. Cell metabolites were extracted and deproteinised using methanol/chloroform/water method and analysed by GC-MS. Higher vitamin D status had no effect on the fatty acid profile of PBMCs, but inflammatory biomarkers and adipokines correlated positively with stearic acid levels. In the second study, no gender-specific metabolites were identified. Valine, leucine and aspartic acid were identified as potential BMI-sensitive amino acids. Larger studies are needed to confirm the influence of BMI on these parameters. This work clearly demonstrates the utility of metabolomics profiling of PBMCs and paves the way for future applications of metabolomics in identifying metabolic profiles of blood cells as a measure for dietary intakes or physiological status. PMID:24957025
Stepien, Magdalena; Nugent, Anne P.; Brennan, Lorraine
The purpose of the study was to examine if there was a relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and parental/community involvement in elementary schools, and if there is a significantly significant difference between low SES schools and high SES schools with regard to parental/community involvement. Socio-economic status was measured by…
Jeter-Twilley, Rhonda; Legum, Harry; Norton, Frank
This article reviews current interpretations of Labour's education policy in relation to gender. Such interpretations see the marginalisation of gender equality in mainstream educational policy as a result of the discursive shift from egalitarianism to that of performativity. Performativity in the school context is shown to have contradictory…
Arnot, Madeleine; Miles, Philip
On the Scientific Status of Economic Policy: A Tale of Alternative Paradigms Giorgio Fagiolo Andrea in the economic profession. In other words, scientific discussion on economic policy seems to be ultimately consensus not only on the contingency rules to imple- ment in alternative situations, but also on the fact
This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo
This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…
Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose
This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…
Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study aims at revealing the relationships between the problematic Internet use of university students and their identity status, main Internet use purposes, and gender. A total of 464 university students participated in the study, and the research data were collected through the Problematic Internet Use Scale, the Extended Objective Measure…
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120
Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin
This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…
The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (?(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (?(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (?(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (?(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (?(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (?(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981
Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa
Iron depletion seems to occur more frequently among athletes than in the general population and may affect performance capacity. Only little information is available about the prevalence of iron status abnormalities in young elite athletes and whether iron depletion is associated with gender, sport, age or nutrition- and exercise-related factors in this group. Hence, diet, exercise and haematological data from 193 elite athletes (96 males, 97 females; 16.2 ± 2.7 years) from 24 different sports were analyzed retrospectively. Most female athletes failed to meet the recommended daily allowance for iron, even though dietary iron density was higher than in males (5.75 ± 0.78 vs. 6.17 ± 0.98 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.001). Iron depletion (serum ferritin < 35 ?g/L) occurred in 31% of male and 57% of female athletes (P < 0.001). Low haemoglobin (males: <13 g/dL; females: <12 g/dL) and haematocrit (males: <40%; females: <36%) values were equally prevalent in both genders [haemoglobin: 7.3% (males), 6.2% (females); haematocrit: 13.5% (males); 15.5% (females)]. In females, reduced ferritin levels were associated with a lower dietary iron density (5.9 ± 0.8 vs. 6.6 ± 1.1 mg/1,000 kcal; P = 0.002). Males with iron depletion had a significantly higher estimated energy expenditure (48.7 ± 7.0 vs. 44.4 ± 7.6 kcal/kg/day; P = 0.009). PMID:21594695
Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; Achtzehn, Silvia; Hildebrand, Ursula; Predel, Hans-Georg; Mester, Joachim; Schänzer, Wilhelm
The purpose of this study was to examine selected occupational status projections and the relationship between these projections and socioeconomic status (SES). Occupational status projections referred to predictive statements about the future lifetime job of the respondents. The occupational status projections included in the analysis were: (1)…
Lever, Michael F.; Kuvlesky, William P.
The authors examined the contributions of economic status (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…
Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.
Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory.
Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe. PMID:18397822
Al-Khatib, Issam A; Arafat, Hassan A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel
Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory
Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.
Al-Khatib, Issam A. [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies (IEWS), Birzeit University, Ramallah (Palestinian Territory, Occupied); Arafat, Hassan A. [Chemical Engineering Department, An-Najah National University, Nablus (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)], E-mail: email@example.com; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel [College of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)
African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening. Few studies have explored African Americans’ own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were patients in a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital. Focus groups were delimited by gender and CRC screening status. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using an iterative coding process with consensus and triangulation to develop thematic categories. Results indicated key thematic differences in perceptions of screening by gender and CRC screening status. While both men and women who had never been screened had a general lack of knowledge about CRC and screening modalities, women had an overall sense that health screenings were needed and indicated a stronger need to have a positive relationship with their doctor. Women also reported that African American men do not get colonoscopy because of the perceived sexual connotation. Men who had never been screened, compared to those who had been screened, had less trust of their doctors and the health care system and indicated an overall fear of going to the doctor. They also reiterated the sexual connotation of having a colonoscopy and were apprehensive about being sedated during the procedure. Overall, men expressed more fear and were more reluctant to undergo CRC screening than women, but among those who had undergone CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, men expressed advantages of having the screening. All groups were also found to have a negative attitude about the use of fecal occult blood testing and felt colonoscopy was the superior screening modality. Results suggest that messages and education about CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, might place more emphasis on accuracy and might be more effective in increasing screening rates among African Americans if tailored to gender and screening status. PMID:20443096
Gordon, Thomas F.; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Ruggieri, Dominique G.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the obesity-related chronic diseases in the US adult population according to gender, race and socioeconomic status.METHODS: Data from the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994–1996 CSFII) conducted by the US Department of Agriculture\\/Agricultural Research Service (USDA\\/ARS) were used in the analysis. Relevant data included self-reported weight and height, self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart
S Paeratakul; JC Lovejoy; DH Ryan; GA Bray
Numerous studies document improvements in health status and health expectancies among older adults over time. However, most evidence is from developed nations and gender differences in health trends are often inconsistent. It remains unknown whether changes in health in developing countries resemble Western trends or whether patterns of health improvement are unique to the country’s epidemiologic transition and gender norms. Using two nationally representative samples of non-institutionalized adults in China ages 65 and older, this study investigates gender differences in the improvements in disability, chronic disease prevalence, and self-rated health from 1992 to 2002. Results from multivariate logistic regression models show that all three indicators of health improved over the 10-year period, with the largest improvement in self-rated health. With the exception of disability, the health of women improved more than men. Using Sullivan’s decomposition methods, we also show that active life expectancy, disease-free life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy increased over this decade and were patterned differently according to gender. Overall, the findings demonstrate that China experienced broad health-improvements during its early stages of the epidemiologic transition and that these changes were not uniform by gender. We discuss the public health implications of the findings in the context of China’s rapidly aging population. PMID:19394120
Dupre, Matthew E; Warner, David F; Zeng, Yi
The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least…
Howell, Ryan T.; Howell, Colleen J.
The pathogenic role of oxidative stress has already been proven both in energy homeostasis and bone metabolism. The effects of +22348C>T (RS769217) polymorphism of catalase (EC 22.214.171.124, hydrogenperoxid-hydrogenperoxid oxidoreduktase) gene were investigated on glucose disposal and bone mineral density in groups of healthy (n = 24) and glucose intolerant (n = 27) females and healthy (n = 64) and glucose intolerant (n = 26) males. Glucose intolerant groups included IFG, IGT and non-treated type 2 diabetic patients. There were no differences in allele frequencies between the genders and groups in this transdanubian Hungarian population. The effects of CAT gene polymorphisms on glucose metabolism and bone status were gender specific. Females with mutant CAT (CT+TT) gene had better HOMA-IR (CC: 2.95+/-1.8 versus CT+TT: 2.06+/-0.9, p<0.05), but bone density did not differ between the CC and CT+TT haplotypes. The homozygote TT females had significantly better whole body glucose disposal. (M-1 mg/kg/min: CC: 9,43+/-4,4 versus TT: 13,23+/-1,6mg/kg body weight/min, p<0.05). The appearance of T allel among males caused lower femur density (CC: 1,11+/-0,17 versus CT+TT: 1,03+/-0,16, p<0.05 g/cm 2 ) and better HOMA-IR (CC: 2.42+/-2.3 versus CT+TT: 1.50+/-0.2, p<0.05), with no change in whole body glucose disposal. Osteocalcin - which has been proven to be the connection between energy homeostasis and bone metabolism - had identical serum levels in both haplotypes, but the significant correlation between muscle tissue glucose utilization and osteocalcin levels (r = +0.4424, p<0.05, n = 23) disappeared in the presence of T allele. Multiple correlation showed significant connection between leptin/adiponectin and femur BMD in CC female group, and between leptin/adiponectin and lumbar BMD in CC male group. The correlations disappeared with the appearance of T allele. Our results differ from the data obtained in Korean postmenopausal women and stress the need of population/ethnic specific replication of genetic data. PMID:20494887
Vitai, Márta; Kocsordi, Krisztina; Buday, Barbara; Literáti Nagy, Botond; Kulcsár, Eniko; Bezzegh, Katalin; Péterfai, Eva; Koltay, László; Korányi, László
Background The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Methods The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. Results The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. Conclusions We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:23565918
The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health. PMID:15896870
We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economic status, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women. PMID:17560702
Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P
The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…
Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.
The relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement have traditionally been studied within individual countries, despite the existence of large international data sets available for analysis. This dissertation investigated the relationships between gender, math attitude, and math achievement based on information from 50…
Duerr, Sunny R.
Objectives Medical schools need to ensure that graduates feel well prepared for their first medical job. Our objective was to report on differences in junior doctors’ self-reported preparedness for work according to gender, ethnicity and graduate status. Design Postal and electronic questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants Medical graduates of 2008 and 2009, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was the doctors’ level of agreement with the statement that ‘My experience at medical school prepared me well for the jobs I have undertaken so far’, to which respondents were asked to reply on a scale from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. Results Women were slightly less likely than men to agree that they felt well prepared for work (50% of women agreed or strongly agreed vs. 54% of men), independently of medical school, ethnicity, graduate entry status and intercalated degree status, although they were no more likely than men to regard lack of preparedness as having been a problem for them. Adjusting for the other subgroup differences, non-white respondents were less likely to report feeling well prepared than white (44% vs. 54%), and were more likely to indicate that lack of preparedness was a problem (30% non-white vs. 24% white). There were also some gender and ethnic differences in preparedness for specific areas of work. Conclusions The identified gender and ethnic differences need to be further explored to determine whether they are due to differences in self-confidence or in actual preparedness. PMID:24108533
Svirko, Elena; Lambert, Trevor; Goldacre, Michael J
\\u000a The Millennium Declaration resolves to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women as a basic human right. The Declaration\\u000a also maintains that giving women their fair share is the only way to effectively combat poverty, hunger, and disease and to\\u000a simulate development that is truly sustainable. Progress towards this goal is assessed by measuring gender equality in three\\u000a areas:
Macleans A. Geo-JaJa; Sara J. Payne; Pamela R. Hallam; Donald R. Baum
This report presents data on the economic status of university professors, including, among other statistics: weighted average salary, average compensations, and percentage increases in salary for continuing faculty, by category, affiliation, and academic rank; average fringe benefits in dollars and as a percentage of average salary; percentage of…
Strohm, Paul, Ed.
Despite its potential influence on quality of care, there has been little research on the way physicians perceptions of and beliefs about patients are affected by patient race or socio-economic status. The lack of research in this area creates a critical gap in our understanding of how patients' demographic characteristics influence encounter characteristics, diagnoses, treatment recommendations, and outcomes. This study
Michelle van Ryn; Jane Burke
In emerging economies, the socio-economic status is a key element to evaluate social improvement as it provides an understanding of the population's access to housing, education, health or basic services, such as water and electricity. The relationship between such indicators and human physical mobility has been researched mostly in areas like access to medical infrastructures and public transportation. However, such
Vanessa Frias-Martinez; Jesus Virseda-Jerez; Enrique Frias-Martinez
Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
A study was conducted to find whether race, socio-economic status (SES) and language cues of speakers modify the ratings of white experienced teachers. Subjects were 250 white male and female experienced teachers whose responses were recorded on a semantic differential designed to assess teacher expectancies on two concepts: speaker and speaker's…
Gilberts, Richard A.; And Others
This article presents the annual report on the economic status of the profession. This year's report covers three main issues--all perennial problems, but with new analysis based on the latest data--in addition to summarizing the current results from the annual American Association of University Professors (AAUP) survey of full-time faculty…
Curtis, John W.; Thornton, Saranna
The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…
Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette
BACKGROUND: While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. METHODS: Data were from two cohorts
Clemens Drenowatz; Joey C Eisenmann; Karin A Pfeiffer; Greg Welk; Kate Heelan; Douglas Gentile; David Walsh
Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400
Minges, Karl E; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin
The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economic status and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economic status–SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = .28) and for samples that were least educated (r = .36). The relation was weakest among high-income developing economies
Ryan T. Howell; Colleen J. Howell
Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that marriage and perhaps other forms of interpersonal support can buffer the negative effects of poverty. The current study tests the hypothesis that marital status, perceived social support and neighborhood collective efficacy can moderate the effects of economic adversity on depressive symptoms among parents. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to analyze data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Participants were 1,957 mothers of minor children. Analysis of main effects revealed associations between neighborhood SES (? = ?0.69, SE (0.15), p < .001), family income (? = ?0.11, SE (0.05), p = .02) financial strain (? = 0.51, SE (0.18), p = .004), being single (? = 0.63, SE (0.24), p = .009) and perceived social support (? = ?0.22, SE (0.03), p < .001) on depressive symptoms. The hypothesis that interpersonal resources can buffer the effects of economic adversity was not supported. There were no significant interactions between marital status and economic adversity. There was a significant interaction between perceived social support and neighborhood level socioeconomic status (? = ?0.07, SE (0.03), p = .04) but the effects of social support were weakest in neighborhoods characterized by low socioeconomic status. PMID:24122088
The older-adult (ages 65 years and over) population is expected to increase from the current 12 percent to 20 percent in 2030. Their well-being is important to their families, healthcare providers, nutritionists, and policy makers. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic and nutr...
This article is based on qualitative research investigating Spanish-speaking immigrant women's experiences of gender-based intimate partner violence (GBPV) and help seeking in New Jersey (2006-2008). Methods included interviews with these women, health care and social service providers, and community members. This article reveals that as many immigrant women live at the intersections of structural, normalized, and gender-based partner violence, integrated social service responses emerge as key health care responses to GBPV. The health impacts of undocumented and precariously documented migration and GBPV demand policy interventions and dedication of resources to address the multi-faceted needs of this population. PMID:25148835
Parson, Nia; Escobar, Rebecca; Merced, Mariam; Trautwein, Anna
Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ? 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p < 0.01). Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children. PMID:22405468
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…
Browne, Irene, Ed.
Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (?=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (?(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks. PMID:23675996
Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A
AbstractMarket-oriented economic reform, which accelerated after 1992, has brought substantial changes to the Chinese economy. This dramatic economic transition was raised two important questions: ‘How are women faring in the transition from a planned economy to a market economy?’ and ‘Are some women faring relatively better than other women’? We use data from the Chinese Household Income Projects for the
John A. Bishop; Feijun Luo; Fang Wang
The digital divide affects low socio-economic status groups in particular. According to previous research and survey results of the ELOST project (e-Government for Low Socio-Economic Groups), socio-economic factors – especially age and level of education – play a role in determining whether a person is an Internet user or non-user. This article presents the findings of the survey, as well
Lina Van Aerschot; Niki Rodousakis
Sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Zyban®) is approved as a smoking cessation aid for adults. Since smoking often begins in adolescence, we determined the single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion SR in 75 adolescent subjects ranging from 13 to 18 years old. Subjects self-reported their smoking status. Urinary cotinine concentration was used to verify smoking status. Thirty-seven subjects (18 males, 19 females) were classified
John J. Stewart; Hans J. Berkel; Roy C. Parish; M. Renee Simar; Azeem Syed; Joseph A. Bocchini; John T. Wilson; Joseph E. Manno
This paper provides a meta-analysis of current trends in student achievement in science by socioeconomic status and gender within ethnic groups. Data from a variety of sources, such as the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) reports were used. In addition, trends in student…
Rodriguez, Alberto J.
The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…
Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan
A difference in aggregate public opinion and policy preferences between men and women has long been assumed but rarely fully empirically tested. In this analysis, I look at multiple economic factors impacting men and women in similar, yet different...
Scott, Holly Katherine
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the proportional representation of men and women in a group, along with the gender-orientation of the group's task, can impact member displays of helping behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on the gender role socialization approach, the structural approach to gender differences, as well as the social psychology-based perspective
Leonard Karakowsky; Sara Mann; Ken McBey
Awareness of and responses to HIV health risks stemming from relations between sexual partners have been well documented in sub-Saharan Africa, but few studies have estimated the effects of observed HIV status on marriage decisions and outcomes. We study marriage dissolution and remarriage in rural Malawi using longitudinal data with repeated HIV and marital status measurements. Results indicate that HIV-positive individuals face greater risks of union dissolution (via both widowhood and divorce) and lower remarriage rates. Modeling studies suggest that the exclusion of HIV-positive individuals from the marriage or partnership pools will reduce the spread of HIV. PMID:25469927
Anglewicz, Philip; Reniers, Georges
Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…
Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.
Asserts that, on average, women score lower on the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) Subject Test in Economics. Reports on a study of 149 student scores on the test to identify factors associated with this differential performance. Finds little support for the notion that men are simply better than women in quantitative areas. (CFR)
Hirschfeld, Mary; And Others
The authors study "women's demographic and socio-economic position in different family types...[using data] from a sample survey conducted in a rural area of Tamil Nadu [India] during May and June of 1988....Comparison of demographic characteristics of ever-married women in the reproductive age, such as marital status, age, marriage duration, age at marriage and living children, and socio-economic characteristics, such as educational status, occupational status, per capita annual income of the family and number of rooms in the house, is made between family types." PMID:12345797
Padmini, I K; Krishnamoorthy, S
The reemergence of dengue as an important public health problem reflects the difficulties in sustaining vertically organized, effective, control programs and the need for community-based strategies for Aedes aegypti control that result in behavioral change. We aimed to disentangle the relationships between underlying determinants of dengue related practices. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 780 households in La Lisa, Havana, Cuba. A questionnaire and an observation guide were administrated to collect information on variables related to economic status, knowledge on dengue, risk perception and practices associated with Aedes aegypti breading sites. To test a conceptual model that hypothesized direct relationships among all these constructs, we first used Exploratory Factor Analysis with Principal Component Analysis to establish the relationship between observed variables and the underlying latent variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the observed data supported the conceptual model through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated that the items measured could be reduced into five factors with an eigenvalue >1.0: Knowledge on dengue, Intradomiciliar risk practices, Peridomiciliar risk practices, Risk perception and Economic status. The proportion of the total variance in the data explained by these five factors was 74.3%. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis model differed from our hypothesized conceptual model. Only Knowledge on dengue had a significant, direct, positive, effect on Practices. There was also a direct association of Economic status with Knowledge on dengue, but not with Risk perception and Practices. Clarifying the relationship between direct and indirect determinants of dengue related practices contributes to a better understanding of the potential effect of Information Education and Communication on practices and on the reduction of Aedes aegypti breeding sites and provides inputs for designing a community based strategy for dengue control. PMID:24349145
Castro, Marta; Sánchez, Lizet; Pérez, Dennis; Sebrango, Carlos; Shkedy, Ziv; Van der Stuyft, Patrick
Introduction The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35–70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n?=?2741, men n?=?2004) and Tunisia (women n?=?2964, men n?=?2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI)?=?weight/height <18.5 kg/m2, obesity as BMI ?30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ?0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Results Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9–8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8–32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4–39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1–11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2–15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4–5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1–4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9–3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0–5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. Conclusion The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities. PMID:24116063
Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mézimèche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Béji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prével, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnès; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Maire, Bernard
The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. PMID:24753054
De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D
Purpose To examine 5 infant characteristics and health factors that might be risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Subjects 134 preterm infants at high risk for NEC due to either having a birthweight of <1500 grams or requiring mechanical ventilation at birth. Design Descriptive secondary analysis using data from a larger longitudinal study. Methods Weekly review of infant’s medical record until discharge. Demographic questionnaire completed by mothers at time of enrollment. Data analysis done with logistic regression, Fischer’s exact tests and correlations. Outcome Measures Total number of days infant required mechanical ventilation, birthweight in grams, number of infections prior to NEC diagnosis, maternal race (Black, White or Asian), and infant gender were used to predict the development of NEC. Results Maximum likelihood estimates indicated that mechanical ventilation had a positive relationship with developing NEC, such that as the number of days of mechanical ventilation increased so did the risk of developing NEC. There was also a very strong positive relationship between the number of nosocomial infections and NEC indicating that as the number of infections increased the likelihood of developing NEC increased. Although the relationship between race and NEC was not significant in the logistic regression, a Fisher’s exact test showed that Black preterm infants had increased incidence of NEC as compared to other races. This relationship was not due to correlations between race and mechanical ventilation or infections. No relationship between gender on NEC was noted. Birthweight was not significantly associated with NEC in the logistic regression but was correlated with NEC, probably because of its correlation with mechanical ventilation and number of infections. Conclusions In this sample, number of infections and length of mechanical ventilation were the primary predictors of NEC in preterm infants. In addition, the frequency that Black infants are diagnosed with NEC is significantly higher than that of other races. Knowledge of risk factors for NEC can allow healthcare providers to evaluate and adjust care practices for preterm infants who present with higher risk for NEC based on empirical data. PMID:18827518
Carter, Brigit M.; Holditch-Davis, Diane
As the “baby boomers” age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult. This susceptibility has been known to increase with age. Therefore it is important to understand the interplay between aging, injury and recovery at the mucosal surface. Sex hormones play an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier function as well as the mucosa associated immune function in both genders. Menopause in women is a defined time period in which major hormonal changes occur such as a decline in systemic estradiol levels. The differential levels of sex hormones contribute to the sexual dimorphism seen in response to injury at the mucosal surface, prior to and following menopause. Thus the effect of sex hormone and aging on mucosal mechanisms in response to injury is an important area of investigation. PMID:24729941
Grishina, Irina; Fenton, Anne; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi
Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers-sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)-in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers. PMID:24838781
Weinstein, A; Klein, L Dinur; Dannon, P N
The socioeconomic impacts of foot and mouth disease (FMD) during 2011-12 outbreaks on large ruminant smallholders in Laos were investigated, including examination of data on gender, household financial status and farmer husbandry practices. A mix of participatory tools and survey questionnaires at the village and household level, respectively, were conducted, involving individual farmer interviews (n = 124) and group meetings with village elders to establish criteria for classification of household financial status as being 'poor, medium or well off' according to rice sufficiency, assets and household incomes. FMD-attributable financial losses were determined by inclusion of losses due to: mortality, morbidity and costs of treatments. The estimated mean financial losses due to FMD were USD 436 (±92) in the 'poor' and USD 949 (±76) in the 'well off' household categories (P < 0.001), being 128% and 49% of income from the sale of large ruminants, respectively. Variation in financial losses reflected differences in morbidity, farmer husbandry practices including frequency of observation of animals and thus recognition of FMD and choice of treatments. Of concern were adverse financial impacts of treatment especially where antibiotics were used; delays in reporting of FMD cases after observation of signs (mean of 2 days); admission that 10% of farmers had sold FMD-affected livestock; and that 22% of respondents claimed their large ruminants were cared for by females. The findings confirm that FMD has the most severe financial impact on poorer households and that females have a significant role in large ruminant production. It is recommended that livestock extension activities promote the benefits of prevention rather than treatment for FMD and encourage participation of women in biosecurity and disease risk management interventions including rapid reporting and regulatory compliance, particularly with animal movement controls and other biosecurity practices that reduce the negative impacts of FMD on regional food security and poverty reduction in rural communities. PMID:25269105
Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Abila, R; Dy, C; Windsor, P A
Women in most settings are morelikely than men to experience as well as reportpoor health and functional disabilities. Studies in the economically advanced countries(as in the US) have also shown an associationbetween gender, marital status and health anddisability. However, there is very littleinformation about gender differentials indisability among the elderly in developingcountries, especially those in South Asia. Also, little is
Manisha Sengupta; Emily M. Agree
Coal gasification has been the subject of a great deal of study and development worldwide over the past decade. The open literature currently contains bewildering and often inconsistent information concerning the development status and economic viability of coal gasification systems. The Advanced Power Systems Division of EPRI has devoted considerable resources to the development and demonstration of coal gasification technology for ultimate use in electric-power-generation systems. The primary objective of this Guide is to provide current and consistent information concerning the status of commercial development, potential utility applications and EPRI-developed capital and operating costs for coal-gasification technologies that have already been demonstrated at commercial scale as well as for those that are close to commercial practice. Current commercial/developmental status of Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Shell, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi, KILnGAS, Westinghouse and High Temperature Winkler is discussed. Environmental aspects, thermal performance, reliabiilty and cost information are provided for medium-Btu gas production; retrofitting and repowering existing steam plants; integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems; low-water-consumption IGCC systems; methanol from coal; once-through methanol production in an IGCC system; and IGCC systems employing advanced, molten-carbonate fuel cells. Finally, for comparison purposes, performance and cost estimates on a consistent basis are provided for coal-fired steam plants; oil-fired steam plants; oil- and gas-fired combined-cycle and combustion-turbine plants. 88 figures, 86 tables.
Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.; Oliver, E.D.
Objectives: To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994–95.Design: The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed
CJ Bates; A Prentice; S Finch
This paper investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and emotional well-being of orphans in Mangaung, South Africa. Five hundred orphans aged 7-11 years participated in the cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2012. Data was collected by trained fieldworkers, who conducted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires with the orphans, their teachers and caregivers, and the heads of the households where the orphans resided. The caregivers, children and teachers all completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to measure the orphans' mental health, while heads of household provided information about socio-economic indicators. STATA version 12 was used to perform multivariate data analyses to identify socio-economic factors associated with the mental health of orphans. Food security, access to medical services and a male caregiver were factors associated with better emotional well-being of orphans, whereas other variables such as household asset index and monthly household expenditure were not linked with the orphans' mental health. Two of the three variables (food security and access to medical services) associated with better emotional well-being of orphans are also government interventions to assist orphans. Further research is needed to determine whether other government programs also impact the emotional well-being of orphans. PMID:24968757
Pappin, Michele; Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Motsaathebe
Aims & Objective: To assess the oral health awareness and periodontal health status of different socio-economic groups in out-patient department of the Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre (TMDC&RC), Moradabad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 416 subjects of 30-60 years age group with different socio-economic status classified according to modified Kuppuswamy scale (2012). Subjects were interviewed by the questionnaire and Community Periodontal Index was recorded. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test (SPSS version 17). Result: This study showed that the code 2 and code 3 is more in lower socio-economic status (p =0.115 and p=0.079 respectively). Significant association was seen in Code 0, code 1 & code 4 (p<0.01) which is indicative that upper class have more healthy periodontal status than lower. Conclusion: Significant association exists between oral health awareness and periodontal health with the socio-economic status of the individual. PMID:25177641
Bhaskar, D.J.; Agali, Chandan; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Batra, Manu; Singh, Vikas; Bumb, Swapnil S.
We investigated prospectively the risk of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic status (SES) in 22,387 middle-aged individuals who attended a screening program in the city of Malmö, Sweden between 1974 and 1992. We also examined the relationship between SES and histologic subtype in smokers. By 2003, a total of 550 lung cancer cases had been identified. Relative risks (RR) were calculated with adjustment for age, current smoking, inhalation habits and marital status at baseline in the low SES group compared to high SES group. Among smokers, the RR (95% confidence interval (CI)) for lung cancer in the low SES group of men was 1.39 (1.11-1.73), and women 1.56 (1.04-2.34). Also among smokers, low SES was associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in men; RR 1.89 (1.16-2.81) and women; RR 7.10 (1.63-30.86), and with an increased risk of mesothelioma in men RR 9.97 (1.29-76.96). We conclude that low SES groups run an increased risk of lung cancer despite accounting for smoking habits. Furthermore, low SES was positively associated with squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma. Our results suggest that the association between low SES and lung cancer could be mediated by unaccounted for smoking exposure, lifestyle or occupational hazards. PMID:16337709
Ekberg-Aronsson, Marie; Nilsson, Peter M; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Pehrsson, Kerstin; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran
Overwhelmingly, teachers of sexuality education in Australia are drawn from the physical education, home economics and science disciplines, with a declining sprinkle of teachers with a gender equity background. They have little background and training in sexuality education, are concerned about attitudes and backlash, and are often reluctant to teach the more sensitive issues, particularly issues around gender and homosexuality.
Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6%) and vitamin C (70.7%) were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%), whey protein (31.7%), echinacea (30.9%), iron (29.9%) and caffeine (23.7%). Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously shown to increase the probability of prohibited substance use, groups exhibiting high use of nutritional supplements should be monitored. Future research should incorporate a wide range of supplements and enquire about the daily amount ingested. In addition to tutoring, preventive measures should incorporate offering acceptable and healthy alternatives for assisted performance enhancement. PMID:18186936
Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P
Despite the well-known health risks, smoking is still highly prevalent worldwide. Greece has the highest level of adult smoking rate (40%) across the European Union. We investigated gender and socio-economic differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation among Greek adults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October and November 2009 in 434 adults residing in a Greek rural area. Data were collected with the use of the World Health Organization Global Adult Tobacco Survey (WHO GATS) Core Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into smokers (if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and continued to smoke) or non-smokers. Overall, 58.1% (n=252) were smokers (58.5% male, n=127 and 57.8% female, n=125); 51.2% (n=222) were younger than 18 years-old when they started smoking. Men tended to start smoking at a younger age, to smoke more cigarettes/day and to have smoked a greater average of cigarettes during the last 5 days. Overall, 82.5% of smokers attempted to stop smoking a year prior to the study, with women having a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. The main source of information on smoking was the mass media (73.5%) and books (53.7%), whereas doctors and other health professionals were the least listed source of relative information (27.7 and 8.1%, respectively). Smoking rates among Greek adults were high, but a considerable number of individuals who smoked, wished to quit and had attempted to do so. Smoking cessation clinics are not perceived as a valuable support in quitting effort. PMID:22435078
Birmpili, Evangelia; Katsiki, Niki; Malhotra, Aseem; Dimopoulou, Evelina; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Tsiligiroglou-Fachantidou, Anna
Background Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY) in Eldoret, Kenya. Methods Participants were eligible if they were aged 12–21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time), or nights and days on the street (full-time) and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other). Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3. Results Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01–5.35), name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03–6.45), have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67–18.34), and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01–12.82). Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14–6.18), and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47–7.02). Conclusions These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics. PMID:24827584
Sorber, Rebecca; Winston, Susanna; Koech, Julius; Ayuku, David; Hu, Liangyuan; Hogan, Joseph; Braitstein, Paula
This article compares the economic status of adults with visual impairments with those with non-visual impairments using data from the National Health Interview Survey. Employment rates and mean household incomes were lower and receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance higher among those blind in both eyes than those with less severe visual…
Houtenville, Andrew J.
This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on parental involvement in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental involvement, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental involvement, and whether…
Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Gumus, Sedat
The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.
Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.
Reported are the results of a correlational study designed to examine non-cognitive factors which might affect mathematical achievement in junior high school. These factors included student attitudes toward mathematics, student reports of their parents' attitudes toward mathematics, and socio-economic status of the students' families. Each of…
Tocco, Thomas S.
This article presents the annual report on the economic status of the profession. Although the results of this year's survey of full-time faculty compensation are marginally better than they have been the last two years, 2011-12 represents the continuation of a historic low period for faculty salaries. The overall average salary for full-time…
Thornton, Saranna; Curtis, John W.
In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students’ socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students’ learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students’ achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University’s educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University. PMID:23951219
Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio
affiliation, citizenship status, race, class or educational level--may experience sexual harassment and sexual issues related to sexual harassment and assault. Queens College is committed to being a safe campus where there is no sexual harassment, sexual assault, stalking, or date rape. And no exceptions. If you suspect you may have
Johnson Jr.,, Ray
Background Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived – “MD”) and low (least deprived – “LD”) deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured along with demographic and health-behaviour variables, and personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism (hostility). Regression models assessed the prediction of inflammation as a function of personality, deprivation and their interaction. Results Levels of CRP and IL-6 were an increasing function of neuroticism and extraversion only in LD subjects opposite trends were seen in MD subjects. The result was ascribed parsimoniously to an inflammatory ceiling effect or, more speculatively, to SES-related health-behaviour differences. Psychoticism was strongly associated with ICAM-1 in both MD and LD subjects. Conclusions The association between neuroticism, CRP and IL-6 may be reduced in MD subjects confirming speculation that the association differs across population sub-groups. The association between psychoticism and ICAM-1 supports evidence that hostility has adverse effects upon the endothelium, with consequences for cardiovascular health. Health interventions may be more effective by accounting for personality-related effects upon biological processes. PMID:23516457
Millar, Keith; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; McLean, Jennifer S.; Batty, G. David; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A.; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; Mõttus, Réne; Packard, Chris J.; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G.; Velupillai, Yoga N.; Tannahill, Carol
Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?.0001). Acceptance of wife beating was significantly reduced among the treatment group (??=?-0.97; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.28, p?=?0.006), while attitudes towards refusal of sex did not significantly change Per protocol analysis suggests that compared to control women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?0.0001; a OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81, p?=?01, respectively). No significant reductions were observed for physical and/or sexual IPV, or sexual IPV alone. Conclusions Results from this pilot RCT suggest the importance of addressing household gender inequities alongside economic programming, because this type of combined intervention has potential to reduce levels of IPV. Additional large-scale intervention research is needed to replicate these findings. Trial registration Registration Number: NCT01629472. PMID:24176132
The prevalence of physical domestic violence – violence against women perpetrated by husbands – is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status,
Suneeta Krishnan; Corinne H. Rocca; Alan E. Hubbard; Kalyani Subbiah; Jeffrey Edmeades; Nancy S. Padian
There continues to be debate about how best to conceptualize and measure the role of exposure to ethnicity-related and socio-economic\\u000a status-related stressors (e.g. racism, discrimination, class prejudice) in accounting for ethnic health disparities over the\\u000a lifecourse and across generations. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the evidence of health disparities among\\u000a ethnic groups, and the major evidence
Hector F. Myers
The annual releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from 68 countries/regions were investigated by correlating quantitative emissions with economic status of the nations. The national dioxin/furan inventories were developed using the PCDD/PCDF Standardized Toolkit, which presents the quantitative releases from ten major source groups to five release vectors. The correlation between intensity of PCDD/PCDF release and economic status was discussed and the influence of economic status on composition of five release vectors and ten source groups was studied. As PCDD/PCDF are mainly released from human activities to environmental matrices, release per person (RpP) and release per unit area (RpA) are defined to reflect release burden (Donor) and contamination burden (Receptor), respectively. Based on these two concepts, International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden is characterized by burden quotient (BQ) and a calculation model is established. The numbers of countries/regions with high, moderate and low International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden were 19, 31 and 18, respectively. The information in this paper can be used for politicians to develop legislations to improve International PCDD/PCDF Reduction. PMID:23280065
Cao, Zhiguo; Fiedler, Heidelore; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Tingting; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data. PMID:23595417
Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R
There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations. Their social value stems from their capacity to reduce the uncertainty in human interactions thereby both reducing transaction costs and, importantly, enabling the initiation and sustainability of various activities (instrumental value). Furthermore, institutions tend to be formed around certain ethical positions and as a consequence, act in binding future decision making to these positions (intrinsic value). Incorporating such notions of social value within a conventional welfare-based measure of benefit is problematic as institutional development is not necessarily consistent with individual utility. An institutionalist approach allows for these additional domains to be factored into economic evaluation. IMAGE is an intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV through microfinance, health education and community development, and involves significant initial investment in institution-building activities, notably through training activities with program staff and community members. The key to employing an institutionalist approach to the evaluation of IMAGE is in understanding the nature of those actions that can be seen as institution-building and determining: (1) the instrumental value of follow-up activities by appropriate amortisation of transaction costs over an horizon that reflects the economies gained from the intervention; and (2) the intrinsic value of any transformation in the community through a cost-consequences approach informed by an a priori conceptual model. This case study highlights how health sector interventions can effect institutional changes and how these are captured within a theory-based economic evaluation framework. PMID:18162273
Jan, Stephen; Pronyk, Paul; Kim, Julia
This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's status. It…
Background We sought to determine whether socio-economic status (SES) is an independent predictor of outcome following total knee (TKR) and hip (THR) replacement in Australians. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we included patients undergoing TKR and THR in a public hospital in whom baseline and 12-month follow-up data were available. SES was determined using the Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘Index of Relative Advantage and Disadvantage’. Other independent variables included patients’ demographics, comorbidities and procedure-related variables. Outcome measures were the International Knee Society Score and Harris Hip Score pain and function subscales, and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical and mental component scores. Results Among 1,016 patients undergoing TKR and 835 patients undergoing THR, in multiple regression analysis, SES score was not independently associated with pain and functional outcomes. Female sex, older age, being a non-English speaker, higher body mass index and presence of comorbidities were associated with greater post-operative pain and poorer functional outcomes following arthroplasty. Better baseline function, physical and mental health, and lower baseline level of pain were associated with better outcomes at 12 months. In univariate analysis, for TKR, the improvement in SF-12 mental health score post arthroplasty was greater in patients of lower SES (3.8?±?12.9 versus 1.5?±?12.2, p?=?0.008), with a statistically significant inverse association between SES score and post-operative SF-12 mental health score in linear regression analysis (coefficient?0.28, 95% CI: ?0.52 to ?0.04, p?=?0.02). Conclusions When adjustments are made for other covariates, SES is not an independent predictor of pain and functional outcome following large joint arthroplasty in Australian patients. However, relative to baseline, patients in lower socioeconomic groups are likely to have greater mental health benefits with TKR than more privileged patients. Large joint arthroplasty should be made accessible to patients of all SES. PMID:24885773
Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752
Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela
Gender differences in health and education are a concern for a number of developing countries. While standard theory predicts human capital should respond to market returns, social norms (e.g., disapproval of women working outside the home) may weaken or even sever this link for girls. Though many studies have examined the link between women's…
Jensen, Robert T.
Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.
Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)
This longitudinal study tested for changes in how students used and were called homophobic epithets as they progressed through high school. Boys used and were called these epithets with increased frequency over time, whereas girls reported decreases on both. Distinct gender socialization processes may contribute to these different patterns for…
Poteat, V. Paul; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Mereish, Ethan H.
Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies show that watching others' movements enhances motor evoked potential (MEPs) amplitude of the muscles involved in the observed action (motor facilitation, MF). MF has been attributed to a mirror neuron system mediated mechanism, causing an excitability increment of primary motor cortex. It is still unclear whether the meaning an action assumes when performed in an interpersonal exchange context could affect MF. This study aims at exploring this issue by measuring MF induced by the observation of the same action coupled with opposite reward values (gain vs loss) in an economic game. Moreover, the interaction frame was manipulated by showing the same actions within different economic games, the Dictator Game (DG) and the Theft Game (TG). Both games involved two players: a Dictator/Thief and a receiver. Experimental participants played the game always as receivers whereas the Dictator/Thief roles were played by our confederates. In each game Dictator/Thief's choices were expressed by showing a grasping action of one of two cylinders, previously associated with fair/unfair choices. In the DG the dictator decides whether to share (gain condition) or not (no-gain condition) a sum of money with the receiver, while in TGs the thief decides whether to steal (loss condition) or not to steal (no-loss condition) it from the participants. While the experimental subjects watched the videos showing these movements, a single TMS pulse was delivered to their motor hand area and a MEP was recorded from the right FDI muscle. Results show that, in the DG, MF was enhanced by the status quo modification, i.e. MEP amplitude increased when the dictator decided to change the receivers' status quo and share his/her money, and this was true when the status quo was more salient. The same was true for the TG, where the reverse happened: MF was higher for trials in which the thief decided to steal the participants' money, thus changing the status quo, in the block in which the status quo maintenance occurred more often. Data support the hypothesis that the economic meaning of the observed actions differently modulates MEP amplitude, pointing at an influence on MF exerted by a peculiar interaction between economic outcomes and variation of the subjects' initial status quo. PMID:24983714
Pisoni, Alberto; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Ottone, Stefania; Ponzano, Ferruccio; Zarri, Luca; Vergallito, Alessandra; Romero Lauro, Leonor Josefina
Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input\\/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged
Mark R. Weimar; Don S. Daly; Thomas W. Wood
Background Individuals with certain personal, family and job characteristics are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the respective\\u000a role of obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse, low education, income, living and family conditions, and socio-occupational category\\u000a in fatigue\\/insomnia (FI), nervousness (N) and frequent drug use for those disorders (DFI and DN) among men and women and in\\u000a gender disparities are not
Patrick Peretti-Watel; Stéphane Legleye; Michèle Baumann; Marie Choquet; Bruno Falissard; Nearkasen Chau
This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6–12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression.
Lu Yu; Sam Winter
Many unhealthy behaviors develop during adolescence, and these behaviors can have fundamental consequences for health and mortality in adulthood. Social network structure and the degree of homophily in a network affect how health behaviors and innovations are spread. However, the degree of health behavior homophily across different social ties and within subpopulations is unknown. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by using a novel regression model to document the degree of homophily across various relationship types and subpopulations for behaviors of interest that are related to health outcomes. These patterns in health behavior homophily have implications for which behaviors and ties should be the subjects of future research and for predicting how homophily may shape health programs focused on specific subpopulations (gender, race, class, health status) or a specific social context (families, peer groups, classrooms, or school activities). PMID:24673889
Daw, Jonathan; Margolis, Rachel; Verdery, Ashton M
This paper examines the available evidence on the causes of black economic advance in order to assess the contribution of federal policy. Over the period 1920-1990, there were only two periods of relative black economic improvement -- during the 1940s and in the decade following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the voting Rights Act of 1965,
John J. Donohue III; James Heckman
Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…
Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson
The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38%) are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16%) and student (12%).
Nagpur City Of Maharashtra
Gender differences in health status and illness behavior have been explained in terms of sex roles and gender-related personality traits. It may be hypothesized that in a community that is committed to gender-negating ideology, where men and women alike participate in public life, and housework and child care largely collectivized, gender health differences will disappear. The kibbutz movement is committed
Ofra Anson; Arieh Levenson; Dan Y. Bonneh
Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0±1.1 months (mean±SD), we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (±SD) serum hepcidin was 6.0 (±3.4) ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor) were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA) infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (±4.9) vs. 3.4 (±4.9) ng/mL; P<0.001). Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation. PMID:23460869
Jaeggi, Tanja; Moretti, Diego; Kvalsvig, Jane; Holding, Penny A; Tjalsma, Harold; Kortman, Guus A M; Joosten, Irma; Mwangi, Alice; Zimmermann, Michael B
Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)
James, L. D.
Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…
Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna
Gonadectomy not only affects hormonal homeostasis but also alters the turnover of different components of the extracellular matrix in urogenital tissues. Collagen is an important component of the bladder and urethral walls and thus crucial for the mechanical properties of normal lower urinary tract (LUT) functions. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of differences in the proportion of collagen and muscle tissues in the LUT of intact and gonadectomised male and female dogs. Twenty clinically healthy dogs were used including 10 sexually intact dogs (5 males, 5 anoestrus females) and 10 gonadectomised dogs (4 males and 6 females). Four regions of the LUT, i.e., body and neck of the bladder as well as proximal and distal urethra were collected. The tissue sections were stained with Masson's Trichrome. Quantitative evaluation of the blue-stained area for collagen and red-counterstained area for muscle was performed using colour image analysis. The relative proportion of collagen and muscle significantly differed with the gonadal status, the gender and the region. Overall, gonadectomised dogs had a higher (P<0.001) proportion of collagen and consequently a lower (P<0.001) proportion of muscle than intact dogs. Regardless of gonadal statuses, females had a higher (P<0.05) proportion of collagen and a lower (P<0.05) proportion of muscle tissues than males. Gender differences were found in all four regions of the LUT in intact dogs but only in proximal urethra in gonadectomised dogs where spayed females had a higher (P<0.05) proportion of collagen and less muscle (P<0.05). Regional differences were observed in females; a higher proportion of collagen and therefore less muscle were found in the urethra compared with the bladder. Proportional differences in collagen and muscle between intact and gonadectomised animals suggest a relation of different hormonal statuses to structural changes in the canine LUT. Excessive collagen deposits and less muscular volume may impair structural and functional integrity of the LUT which may associate with the development of post-neutering urinary incontinence in the dog. PMID:18703223
Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Khalid, M
A number of reports over the past decade have paid great attention to the numerous gender inequities that exist throughout both the "developed" and "developing" nations of the world. As part of its vast program of activities, the World Bank has developed this site, which describes how the Bank "seeks to reduce gender disparities and enhance women's participation in economic development through its programs and projects." Along with describing the World Bank's programs, the site provides a host of gender statistics and provides updated research reports, and helpful development resources. The development resource section is particularly useful as it contains practical how-to strategies that may be used to close the gender gap in such areas as the digital divide, participation in rural development, and transport. Visitors will also want to take a look at GenderStats, which is an electronic database of gender statistics and indicators culled from countries across the globe, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.
This study provides an assessment of the intertemporal economic well-being of a representative sample of women who began receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) in 1980–81. We compare their economic circumstances over the 1982–1991 period with those of disabled men who also began receiving SSDI in those years and with those of a matched sample of nondisabled women who had
Robert Haveman; Karen Holden; Barbara Wolfe; Paul Smith; K. Wilson
Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of???50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season, and patient location. Improved 25(OH)D status was observed later in life, a finding that may reflect the previously described increased use of vitamin D-containing supplements in such populations. Severe vitamin D deficiency is much more common than vitamin D toxicity. PMID:24188187
Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012
Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men's satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women's satisfaction, but men's satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men's satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners. PMID:25045175
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Geist, Claudia; Lucas, Amy
This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…
Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.
The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…
von Stumm, Sophie
After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…
Sinclair, Genevieve; Doughney, James; Palermo, Josephine
Presents the annual survey of faculty compensation containing data for each of the 1,548 colleges and universities reporting and national summary tables with breakdowns by academic rank, sex, geographical area, and type of institution (public, private, church related). Includes information on tenure and on status of women faculty members. (JT)
AAUP Bulletin, 1975
Rough financial seas had been buffeting many colleges and universities for years before the recession that began in late 2007. Then in mid-September 2008, an economic tsunami crashed into campuses, challenging their ability to provide the accessible, high-quality education necessary to achieve long-term national goals. As the economy weakened at…
This paper is concerned with the problem of social inequalities and economic development in rural communities. Two ethnically different communities were chosen in the most southern state of Brazil: Garibaldi, of descendants from Italian immigrants, and Candelaria, of descendants from German immigrants. The data were gathered through application of…
Sturm, Alzemiro E.; Riedl, Mario
Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early…
Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George
An extensive literature links community violence and poverty in the US to psychological difficulties in children. To test the cross-national generalizability of these relationships, 625 young, South African mothers residing in black townships with different levels of community danger and material hardship rated their 6-year-olds on emotional functioning and behavioral problems. Most mothers were African, employed and of low educational attainment. Community danger was confirmed as a risk factor for anxiety, depression, aggression, opposition and low affability in children. A composite measure of socioeconomic status as indexed by education and job status was unrelated to behavioral and emotional adjustment. However, children experiencing material hardship had fewer problems related to behavioral self-control than children in families with greater access to material resources. PMID:17664957
Barbarin, Oscar A.; Richter, Linda
Females typically show greater behavioural responses to stimulant drugs than males, including loss of appetite; as seen, for example, in those who use methylphenidate (MP) therapeutically for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is a relevant issue because of the strong link between ADHD and obesity. In a sample (n=132) of normal-weight (BMI <25) and obese (BMI >30) men and women we assessed appetite, cravings, and snack-food intake in response to MP (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo. Results indicated a significant three-way interaction for the three dependent variables--food-related responding diminishing in all groups from placebo to MP, except in obese males who showed no decreases to the MP challenge. These data show for the first time the existence of gender differences in the appetite response to MP, and are relevant for finding a dopamine pathway to new weight-loss medications, which would be utilized differently in males than in females. PMID:21733284
Davis, Caroline; Fattore, Liana; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter, Jacqueline C; Levitan, Robert D; Kennedy, James L
Knowledge of the status of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) in temperate southeastern Pacific countries (Chile and Peru)\\u000a is incipient. Nevertheless, at least in Chile, the problem has recently been addressed by taxonomists and ecologists (e.g.\\u000a Baez et al. 1998; Gajardo and Laikre 2003; Castilla et al. 2005; Camus 2005). While numerous NIS have been intentionally introduced\\u000a for aquaculture purposes (e.g.
Juan C. Castilla; Paula E. Neill
Background Stroke campaigns are educating about the need to immediately contact the emergency medical system if symptoms occur. Despite higher stroke rates among patients with diabetics and some migrant populations, there are few data about stroke knowledge in these groups. Methods We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 250 diabetes patients from Germany and Turkey in a primary care and diabetes practice center. The two-page questionnaire asked for stroke knowledge and socio-demographic data. Also, medical and communication data were obtained. Stroke knowledge was defined as good if a participant knew (1) at least two stroke symptoms (good symptom knowledge) and (2) that immediate hospital admission or an emergency call is necessary in case of stroke symptoms (good action knowledge). Results A total of 231 of 250 patients took part in the survey (participation rate 92.4%) with 134 natives (53.6%), 84 migrants from Turkey (33.6%) and 13 migrants (5.2%) from other countries. Comparing natives and migrants from Turkey good symptom knowledge was documented in 52.8% of the participants, good action knowledge in 67.9%, and good stroke knowledge in nearly forty percent (39.4%) of patients (n?=?218). A logistic regression analysis showed better stroke knowledge if patients were younger than 61 years, had good language abilities and were living in an one-generation household (p?0.05), while gender, years since migration and diabetes control did not play a role. Conclusions We documented stroke knowledge deficits among patients with diabetes, both natives and migrants. Additional information strategies for these high risk populations are needed. PMID:24330386
The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. PMID:24863992
Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Fons-Martinez, Jaime
Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific. PMID:22770504
Background Socioeconomic status is a recognised determinant of health status, and the association may be mediated by unhealthy behaviours and psychosocial adversities, which, in developed countries, both aggregate in low socioeconomic sectors of the population. We explored the hypothesis that unhealthy behavioural choices and psychological distress do not both aggregate in low socioeconomic status groups in developing countries. Methods Our study is based on a cross-sectional comparison between national population samples of adults in England and Thailand. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) or three anxiety-oriented items from the Kessler scale (K6). Socioeconomic status was assessed on the basis of occupational status. We computed a health-behaviour score using information about smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Results The final sample comprised 40,679 participants. In both countries and in both genders separately, there was a positive association between poor health-behaviour and high psychological distress, and between high psychological distress and low socioeconomic status. In contrast, the association between low socioeconomic status and poor health-behaviour was positive in both English men and women, flat in Thai men, and was negative in Thai women (likelihood ratio test P <0.001). Conclusion The associations between socioeconomic status, behavioural choices, and psychological distress are different at the international level. Psychological distress may be consistently associated with low socioeconomic status, whereas poor health-behaviour is not. Future analyses will test whether psychological distress is a more consistent determinant of socioeconomic differences in health across countries. PMID:24555674
Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523
Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly
Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; ? = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831
Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J
In the United States (USA), a correlation has been demonstrated between socio-economic status (SES) of patients on the one hand, and tumour histology, stage of the disease and treatment modality of various cancer types on the other hand. It is unknown whether such correlations are also involved in patients with oesophageal cancer in The Netherlands. Between 1994 and 2003, 888
E P M van Vliet; M J C Eijkemans; E W Steyerberg; E J Kuipers; H W Tilanus; A van der Gaast; P D Siersema
In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…
Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin
The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…
Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele
Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56)) with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60) in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65) in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16) and 1.73 (1.46-2.06). The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64) in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01) in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations with long-term sickness absence and disability pension tended to be stronger in women. PMID:23067045
Purpose – To provide a critical review of existing contributions to gender and change management and in doing so highlight how organizational change needs to be read more readily from a gendered perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper argues that gender has received little attention regarding the change management side of managerial practice and reviews recent contributions to gender and change
Stephen Linstead; Joanna Brewis; Alison Linstead
This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…
Sumi, V. S.
Background Radiotherapy is among the most efficient treatment methods of cancer. However, a radiotherapy base needs a substantial financial investment, especially before the beginning of its operation, and in some cases, in developing countries such a huge investment may cause some financial disturbances for a hospital concerned. Aim To assess the influence of investments modernizing the radiotherapy base in the period between 2000 and 2007 on the financial condition of the oncology hospital in the region with population of about 3 million. Material and methods Financial reports and medical statistics for the period between 2000 and 2007 from the studied oncology hospital and a recognized staffing model, as well as data on epidemiological situation of the region have been used to calculate the economic effects of financial investment in the radiotherapy base. Results The growth of RT therapeutic potential has been driven by two cost-effective investment programmes. The total amount invested in both programmes was PLN 127,191,000. The number of radiotherapy patients treated in the hospital increased from 2301 in 2000 to 4799 in 2007 with a the same number of five therapeutic machines, although all five of them were replaced over that period. Investments modernizing the radiotherapy base lead to a significant increase in depreciation and operating costs, which adversely affects financial results of the hospital. Conclusion Long term trends showed that investments had positive influence on hospital performance shown both in increased income and larger number of patients treated. PMID:24377017
?migielska, Mirella; Milecki, Piotr
Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989
Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.
Phytoestrogens, naturally occurring plant compounds having oestrogenic and/or anti-oestrogenic activity, are present in many human foodstuffs including hop. Moderate intakes of isoflavonoid phytoestrogens have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular diseases incidence. So, it is possible that hop (Humulus Lupulus L.) might similarly contribute to the reported health-beneficial effects of moderate beer consumption. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro effects of aqueous hop extract on thoracic vascular reactivity in Sprague Dawley male and female rats. Endothelium-intact thoracic arterial rings from male rats (MALE, n=8), sham-ovariectomized (Sham OVX) female (n=8) and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats (n=8) were used. We assessed the relaxation induced by aqueous hop extract (10(-9), 10(-2)g/l) in aortic rings precontracted with norepinephrine (10(-7)M), in the absence or in the presence of l-NAME (10(-4)M), indomethacin (10(-5)M), thapsigargin (10(-4)M), iberiotoxin (3.10(-8)M), apamin (3.10(-8)M) and TEA (3.10(-4)M). Aqueous hop extract induced relaxation of endothelium-intact thoracic arterial rings in MALE and Sham OVX rats, whereas a weak effect was observed in OVX rats. This vasorelaxation was strongly inhibited in presence of l-NAME, indomethacin and thapsigargin. These data indicated that aqueous hop extract-induced vasodilation, in male and intact female rats, is mediated by NOS activation, cyclooxygenase products and Ca(2+) pathways. Moreover, our results suggested that effect of hop in enhancing vascular reactivity was independent of gender but strongly related to hormonal status. PMID:17951040
Figard, H; Girard, C; Mougin, F; Demougeot, C; Berthelot, A
Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) is emerging as the primary cause for some head and neck cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between head and neck cancer (HNC) survival and socioeconomic status (SES) in Canada, and to investigate changes in the relationship between HNC survival and SES from 1992 to 2005. Methods Cases were drawn from the Canadian Cancer Registry (1992–2005), and were categorized into three subsites: oropharynx, oral cavity, and “other” (hypopharynx, larynx, and nasopharynx). Demographic and socioeconomic information were extracted from the Canadian Census of Population data for the study period, which included three census years: 1991, 1996 and 2001. We linked cases to income quintiles (InQs) according to patients’ postal codes. Results Overall survival, without controlling for smoking, for oropharyngeal cancer increased dramatically from 1992–2005 in Canada. This increase in survival for oropharynx cancer was eliminated by the introduction of controls for smoking. Survival for all head and neck cancer subsites was strongly correlated with SES, as measured by income quintile, with lower InQ’s having lower survival than higher. Lastly, the magnitude of the difference in survival between the highest and lowest income quintiles increased significantly over the time period studied for oropharynx cancer, but did not statistically significantly change for oral cavity cancer or other head and neck cancers. Conclusions These data confirm a significant impact of socioeconomic deprivation on overall survival for head and neck cancers in Canada, and may provide indirect evidence that HPV-positive head and neck cancers are more common in higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:24422754
Gender inequity in access to hemodialysis and kidney transplantation has created a public health crisis in the US. Women have a lower chance of receiving hemodialysis and kidney transplant than men, but they constitute the majority of living kidney donors. Research has shown that economic factors such as greater income of men may encourage females to be donors; while gender-bias
Rahul M. Jindal; John J. Ryan; Imran Sajjad; Madhukiran H. Murthy; Lyndsay S. Baines
In an earlier study we identified an increased incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in individuals with lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine if lower SES is associated with a similar increase in the incidence of HNC in Canadian patients. We obtained data on SES (income, education and immigration status), demographic characteristics, frequency of dental visits and smoking behavior for adult patients residing in the Eastern Ontario region who were referred to the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre with HNC. We compared the SES and frequency of dental visits of these HNC patients with the SES and frequency of dental visits of a control sample in the same region from the 2004-2005 Statistics Canada Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 3.1). We then performed a logistic regression analysis on the combined sample of patients and controls using incidence of HNC as the dependent variable. This allowed us to eliminate confounding variables such as tobacco intake and to isolate the effect of SES, frequency of dental visits, and immigration status on HNC incidence. There was a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of HNC among adults with a higher median family income (OR=0.5429, CI=[.3352, .8795]). Also, adults with less than grade 8 education had significantly higher rates of HNC than adults who had completed high school (OR 3.65, CI=[1.88, 7.08]). As well, immigrants had a significantly lower incidence of HNC than Canadian born adults (OR=0.3825, CI=[.2063, .7090]). Lastly, we found that individuals who typically visited a dentist less than once per year had a significantly higher incidence of HNC than individuals who typically visited a dentist at least once per year (OR=1.69, CI=[1.01, 2.83]). Even when controlling for tobacco intake, the incidence of HNC in Eastern Ontario was higher in patients with lower median family income and less than grade 8 education. It was higher in individuals who visited a dentist less than once per year, and lower in immigrants to Canada. This was similar to what has been observed in the United States. Further study into the reason for this increased incidence of HNC in patients with lower SES is warranted. PMID:20138799
Johnson, Stephanie; McDonald, James Ted; Corsten, Martin; Rourke, Ryan
The broad objective of the study was to understand better anxiety among adolescents in Kolkata city, India. Specifically, the study compared anxiety across gender, school type, socio-economic background and mothers' employment status. The study also examined adolescents' perceptions of quality time with their parents. A group of 460 adolescents…
Deb, Sibnath; Chatterjee, Pooja; Walsh, Kerryann
Background: The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of multiple indicators of Socio-economic Status (SES) on Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) related readmission. Methods: A prospective study consisting of 315 patients without the history of admission due to CHF was carried out in Tehran during 2010 and 2011. They were classified into quartiles based on their SES applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and followed up for one year. Using stratified Cox regression analysis, Hazard Ratios (HRs) were computed to assess the impact of SES on the readmission due to CHF. Results: During the 12 months follow-up, 122 (40%) were readmitted at least once. HR of lowest SES patients vs. the highest SES patients (the fourth versus first quartile) was 2.66 (95% CI= 1.51–4.66). Variables including abnormal ejection fraction (<40%), poor physical activity, poor drug adherence, and hypertension were also identified as significant independent predictors of readmission. Conclusion: The results showed low SES is a significant contributing factor to increased readmission due to CHF. It seems that the outcome of CHF depends on the SES of patients even after adjusting for some of main intermediate factors. PMID:25337599
Noori, Atefeh; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Naderi, Nasim; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar
This paper reviews the literature on gender differences in economic experiments. In the three main sections, we identify robust differences in risk preferences, social (other-regarding) preferences, and competitive preferences. We also speculate on the source of these differences, as well as on their implications. Our hope is that this article will serve as a resource for those seeking to understand
Rachel Croson; Uri Gneezy
The author explored the relationships among women's gender identity constructs as well as the relationships of those constructs to ethnic identity. Nine of the 12 hypothesized relationships between gender self-definition and female identity development statuses and between gender self-acceptance and female identity development statuses were…
Hoffman, Rose Marie
Previously, little information has been available about life expectancy and the probability of survival by socio-economic status or for Aboriginal groups. However, data from the 1991 to 2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study made it possible to construct life tables for the non-institutional population aged 25 or older by a range of census variables. Those life tables have now been updated to include deaths through to the end of 2006. This report summarizes the updated findings. Life expectancy at age 25 and the probability of survival to age 75 tended to be low for people with low income and education, for residents of shelters, rooming houses and hotels, and for Registered Indians, non-Status Indians and Métis. In general, socio-economic disparities in mortality were greater for men than for women. PMID:22352150
Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell
Limited research has been conducted to examine traditional female Mexican American gender role beliefs and its impact on depression. In order to address the research questions, this dissertation developed two manuscripts. The first manuscript is a...
Introduction Multimorbidity has been linked to elevated healthcare utilization and previous studies have found that socioeconomic status is an important factor associated with multimorbidity. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the impact of multimorbidity and socioeconomic status on healthcare costs and whether inequities in healthcare exist between socioeconomic classes within a universal healthcare system. Methods This longitudinal study employed the claims database of the National Health Insurance of Taiwan (959 990 enrolees), adopting medication-based Rx-defined morbidity groups (Rx-MG) as a measurement of multimorbidity. Mixed linear models were used to estimate the effects of multimorbidity and socioeconomic characteristics on annual healthcare costs between 2005 and 2010. Results The distribution of Rx-MGs and total costs presented statistically significant differences among gender, age groups, occupation, and income class (p?.001). Nearly 80% of the enrolees were classified as multimorbid and low income earners presented the highest prevalence of multimorbidity. After controlling for age and gender, increases in the number of Rx-MG assignments were associated with higher total healthcare costs. After controlling for the effects of Rx-MG assignment and demographic characteristics, physicians, paramedical personnel, and public servant were found to generate higher total costs than typical employees/self-employed enrolees, while low-income earners generated lower costs. High income levels were also found to be associated with lower total costs. It was also revealed that occupation and multimorbidity have a moderating effect on healthcare cost. Conclusions Increases in the prevalence of multimorbidity are associated with higher health care costs. This study determined that instances of multimorbidity varied according to socioeconomic class; likewise there were inequities in healthcare utilization among individuals of various occupations and income levels, even when demographic characteristics and multimorbidity were controlled for. This highlights the importance of socioeconomic status with regard to healthcare utilization. These results indicate that socioeconomic factors should not be discounted when discussing the utilization of healthcare by patients with multimorbidity. PMID:23962201
Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194
Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D; Lummaa, Virpi
Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194
Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi
The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410
Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile
In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. PMID:22387166
Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine
, gender roles, gender construction Gender mythsGENDER EQUALITY Incorporated 5 DAY GENDER TRAINING WITH CERTIFICATION April 26-30, 2010 - Toronto. #12;simplifying IT 5 DAY GENDER TRAINING WITH CERTIFICATION GOAL This 5 day course is designed
Nanotechnology is the first major worldwide research initiative of the 21st century and probably is the solution vector in the economic environment. Also, innovation is widely recognized as a key factor in the economic development of nations, and is essential for the competitiveness of the industrial firms as well. Policy and management of innovation are necessary in order to develop innovation and it involves processes. It is essential to develop new methods for nanotechnology development for better understanding of nanotechnology based innovation. Nanotechnologies reveal commercialization processes, from start ups to large firms in collaboration with public sector research. In the current paper, a study in the present status of innovation in nanotechnology and the affection of global economic crisis in this section is made and also the potential of increase the innovation via the presence of clusters in a small country like Greece which is in the eye of tornado from the global crisis is studied.
Gkanas, Evangelos I; Makridis, Sofoklis S; Stubos, Athanasios K; Bakouros, Ioannis
Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES) and self-rated health (SRH) varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008), in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion. PMID:23439514
Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Rodero-Cosano, Maria Luisa; Motrico, Emma; Salinas-Perez, Jose A.; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…
Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.
Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights…
Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.
The question of unequal access to education among males and females appears to be universal in the developing world. However, females in Africa seem to suffer more discrimination in terms of access to education. This study revisits the question of gender disparities in educational access in Africa by analyzing data from recent comparative national…
Shabaya, Judith; Konadu-Agyemang, Kwadwo
The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of counseling center use among Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino/Hispanic, and White college students. Findings indicated that female and 2nd-generation students report the most severe difficulties. Problem severity and gender predicted counseling center use for White and Asian/Pacific…
Sullivan, Kieran T.; Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; McIver, Stephanie D.
registries: Does marriage affect cancer survival by gender and stage? Li Wang a, *, Sven E. Wilson b , David of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, United States b Department of Political Science, College of Family that marriage has a strong, positive effect on human survival . A recent meta- analysis of published studies
Martinez, Tony R.
The relationship between educational attainment and economic outcomes is shaped by a variety of educational experiences, including field of training, length of time spent in school, and level of attainment. This report explores the relationship between educational attainment, field of training, and eventual occupation and earnings. The report also…
Introduction: The family of each hearing-impaired child has its own cultural, social, educational, and financial background, and its own special needs. The objectives of our study were to explore the information and support needs of parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment and to investigate the effects of the parents’ level of education and economic status on the score attained in the parents’-needs questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one parents of children with severe-to-profound hearing loss (53% girls, 47% boys; mean age 47.96 months) who used the Auditory-Verbal Therapy approach were asked to complete the parents’-needs questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic information and hearing-loss history and covered six domains which evaluated the information or support needs of parents. Parental needs with regard to different domains were evaluated separately in all participants. Results: Statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant decrease in the score attained in the parents’-needs questionnaire with increasing level of education of the child’s parents (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the questionnaire score decreased as the parents’ economic status increased (P<0.0001). Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that most parents of hearing-impaired children need adequate and appropriate information in all domains, and these findings support the positive effect of creating an appropriate educational environment by considering individualized needs. Furthermore, parents’ levels of education and economic status have a significant effect on their parents’ needs. PMID:24303418
Eyalati, Nazanin; Jafari, Zahra; Ashayeri, Hassan; Salehi, Masoud; Kamali, Mohammad
Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378
Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.
In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation. PMID:12321345
The objective of this study is to examine gender and ethnic differences in Veterans Affairs (VA) health services utilization among Iraq and Afghanistan military Veterans diagnosed with depression. With VA administrative data, sociodemographics, utilization of outpatient primary care, specialty mental health and mental health treatment modalities (psychotherapy and antidepressant prescriptions) were collected from electronic medical records of 1,556 depressed Veterans treated in one VA regional network from January 2008 to March 2009. Health care utilization patterns were examined 90 days following being diagnosed with depression. ?(2) and t-tests were used to evaluate unadjusted differences in VA service use by gender and ethnicity. Logistic regression was used to fit study models predicting VA service utilization. Study results indicate no ethnic or gender differences in the use of specialty mental health services or in the use of mental health treatments. However, women Veterans, especially those from ethnic minority groups, were less likely to use primary care than white and nonwhite male Veterans. Collectively, these findings signal a decrease in historically documented disparities within VA health care, especially in the use of mental health services. PMID:24806496
Davis, Teri D; Deen, Tisha L; Fortney, John C; Sullivan, Greer; Hudson, Teresa J
To assess and explain the United States' gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family's best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and between never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. After controlling for the full model, we find that a gender wealth gap remains between married men and women that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038
Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M
To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038
Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.
A sizeable economics literature explores the effect of prenatal shocks on later health or socioeconomic status. Work in other disciplines, following the seminal contribution of Trivers and Willard (1973), suggests that prenatal shocks may increase fetal loss and reduce the number of boys relative to girls at birth. This has been largely ignored in the economics literature and could affect the interpretation of estimates of the effect of prenatal shocks and that of gender in other applied economics contexts. This paper analyzes the effect of in utero exposure to a shock - civil conflict in Nepal - on (i) fetal loss, and (ii) gender and (iii) health at birth. Maternal fixed effects estimates show that exposed pregnancies are more likely to result in a miscarriage and in a female birth, but exposed newborns are neither smaller nor more subject to neonatal mortality. PMID:25461897
particularly successful in terms of poverty reduction, increased market efficiency and steady economic growth legislation in relation to recruitment, promotion, and retirement; ii) the causes of gender discrimination
de Gispert, AdriÃ
believe that women perform more total work. The facts do not arise from gender differences in the price differences in marital bargaining, as gender equality is not associated with marital status; nor do they stem from family norms, since most of the variance in the gender total work difference is due to within
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
of it and instead believe that women perform more total work. The facts do not arise from gender differences differences in marital bargaining, as gender equality is not associated with marital status; nor do they stem from family norms, since most of the variance in the gender total work difference is due to within
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
demonstrates, there was a statistically significant gender difference in faculty departures in 2006 (at .10-3%). Finding statistically significant gender differences for an event this rare is unlikely; thus the years1 Faculty Retention and Gender Adrienne Kertzer and Jenny Godley Advisory Committee on the Status
Calgary, University of
This follow-up study investigated the accuracy of screening measures used to detect potential learning problems in kindergarten and Grade 1 children by the Toronto Early Identification and Developmental Program (EIDP). The effect of students' language background and socioeconomic status on the predictive validity of the identification procedure…
Gershman, Janis; Kershaw, Joan
This paper summarizes recent research in economics that investigates differentials by race and gender in the labor market. We start with a statistical overview of the trends in labor market outcomes by race, gender and Hispanic origin, including some simple regressions on the determinants of wages and employment. This is followed in Section 3 by an extended review of current
Joseph G. Altonji; Rebecca M. Blank
The gut peptide, ghrelin, may participate in the control of energy homeostasis and pituitary hormone secretion in hu- mans, stimulating both food intake and, at pharmacological doses, ACTH and cortisol secretion. Meal consumption and weight loss regulate ghrelin levels, but less is known about the relationship of ghrelin to body composition, aging, meno- pausal status, and lipid metabolism. Therefore, 60
JONATHAN Q. PURNELL; DAVID S. WEIGLE; PATRICIA BREEN; DAVID E. CUMMINGS
Background Oral diseases are a health problem worldwide. Differences in oral health status may vary with geographical locations, but also within the same country and between groups with different social backgrounds. The specific aims were to describe secular trends in oral health status regarding number of remaining teeth and also to describe differences in socio-economic status, among 38- and 50-year-old women, over a 36-year period. Methods Cross-sectional health surveys were performed at four occasions; 1968/69 (n?=?746), 1980/81 (n?=?532), 1992/93 (n?=?165) and 2004/05 (n?=?500), including randomly selected women aged 38 and 50 years. The number of teeth was determined using panoramic radiographs and self-reported measures of marital status, social class, educational level, and income were recorded. Results The mean number of teeth among women has increased significantly. The educational level has increased while fewer women are married/cohabiting over time. There has been a shift in the social group the women belong to, where proportionally more women were categorized in a higher social group in 2004/05 than in 1968/69. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between fewer teeth and a lower social group, and among the 50-year-old women, this was irrespective of examination year. However, multivariate analyses showed that the risk to be edentulous or not, or to have fewer remaining teeth was significantly higher for women of lower social group, or living alone, in all studies over the 36 year-period. This was independent of age group, even though the risk diminished over the study period. Conclusions Cohort comparisons of women aged 38 and 50 years during 36 years showed that dental status improved, with (i) a decreasing prevalence of edentulism and, (ii) an increasing number of remaining teeth in dentate individuals over time. Differences due to social group and education were still present, with more remaining teeth in the women in the higher social group. A time trend analysis indicated that in the later examination years the individuals had fewer teeth lost, irrespective of age, marital status and, social group. PMID:24195640
The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and…
Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna
Meeting nutritional needs of children in West Virginia is vital to the state's economic development. A malnourished, uneducable population will be unemployable in a high tech society and the state cannot afford custodial and welfare costs resulting from childhood malnutrition. Evidence of nutritional need in West Virginia includes low rate of…
Garland, Barbara K.
This book contains reports on the teaching of and research in economics in nine countries: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Each report covers the historical development and growth of the discipline in the country; the development of infra-structures for teaching and…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
To illuminate questions of sex\\/gender\\/sexual conflation the researcher focused on the relationship between reported tomboyism and lesbianism. Narratives of childhood and adolescence were collected from 32 women who were grouped into four gender\\/sexual status combinations: “lesbian\\/bisexual butch,” “straight butch,” “lesbian\\/bisexual femme,” and “straight femme.” The effects of participants’ sexual and gendered statuses on their retrospective accounts of two aspects of
C. Lynn Carr
Background Household characteristics are important influences on the risk of child death. However, little is known about this influence in HIV-endemic areas. We describe the effects of household characteristics on children’s risk of dying in rural South Africa. Methods We use data describing the mortality of children younger than 5 years living in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system study population in rural northeast South Africa during the period 1994–2008. Using discrete time event history analysis we estimate children’s probability of dying by child characteristics and household composition (other children and adults other than parents) (N = 924 818 child-months), and household socio-economic status (N = 501 732 child-months). Results Children under 24 months of age whose subsequent sibling was born within 11 months experience increased odds of dying (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.7). Children also experience increased odds of dying in the period 6 months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.6), 3–5 months (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5–5.9), and 2 months (OR 11.8; 95% CI 7.6–18.3) before another household child dies. The odds of dying remain high at the time of another child’s death (OR 11.7; 95% CI 6.3–21.7) and for the 2 months following (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.9–8.6). Having a related but non-parent adult aged 20–59 years in the household reduces the odds (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5–0.8). There is an inverse relationship between a child’s odds of dying and household socio-economic status. Conclusions This detailed household profile from a poor rural setting where HIV infection is endemic indicates that children are at high risk of dying when another child is very ill or has recently died. Short birth intervals and additional children in the household are further risk factors. Presence of a related adult is protective, as is higher socio-economic status. Such evidence can inform primary health care practice and facilitate targeting of community health worker efforts, especially when covering defined catchment areas. PMID:23912808
Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen M; Clark, Samuel J
Background Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women’s personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. Methods As part of a six-country study titled ‘Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts’, semi-structured group discussions (n?=?30) were conducted with women (n?=?250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant’s perceptions about Pakistani women’s: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. Results The society studied has constructed a ‘Model’ for women that consider them ‘Objects’ without rights and autonomy. Women’s subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women’s traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. Conclusion There is a strong link between women’s autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization of services. Improvement in women’s health is bound to have positive influences on their children and wider family’s health, education and livelihood; and in turn on a society’s health and economy. PMID:24690271
This paper examines how far and through what processes can gender relations become more favorable to women of countries undergoing economic development with a globali zed perspective. It makes a brief review of the past debates on this topic in feminist litera ture ; it argues that though at the present juncture issues relating to poor working condi tions, poverty
Most challenges to state enforced conformity with gender norms are almost solely status-based equality claims. Given that a common term deployed by members of the trans community and in antidiscrimination laws is \\
This contribution examines the connections between gender and international migration around three themes: globalization, national economic development, and governance. First, it discusses the connections between globalization and the multiplicity of processes that have contributed to international migration and its feminization, arguing that gender awareness is crucial to understanding these processes. Gender analysis makes visible the increasing commodification of care work
Lourdes Benería; Carmen Diana Deere; Naila Kabeer
Using a sociocultural framework, this cross-sectional study examined eating pathology among 235 Latino adolescents from the\\u000a Southwestern U.S. who differed in generational status. Participants completed self-report measures of media pressures, internalization,\\u000a social comparison, and eating pathology. Overall, results revealed stronger relationships between these sociocultural variables\\u000a and eating pathology for girls. Girls reported greater social comparison, thin-ideal pressure and internalization, and
Cortney S. Warren; Andrea Schoen; Kerri J. Schafer
In this paper, we provide a study of childbearing dynamics by the labor-market status of co-residing one- and two-child parents in Sweden. We apply event-history techniques to longitudinal register data on life histories of foreign-born mothers from ten different countries and the partners to these women as well as a sample of Swedish-born mothers and their partners. Our context is
Gunnar Andersson; Kirk Scott
In January 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) conducted an email based survey of European Union and European Economic Area countries to describe the existing surveillance activities for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, recent findings and existence of clinical guidelines for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection. Of the 20 countries that participated in the survey, seven reported increases in M. pneumoniae infections observed during the autumn and winter of 2011. PMID:22321134
Lenglet, A; Herrador, Z; Magiorakos, A P; Leitmeyer, K; Coulombier, D
Do females and males choose science for different reasons? The authors surveyed 271 college students in the gender-neutral field of biology to learn when they became interested and what factors determined their origin and maintenance of interest in biolog
Juhl, Angela L.; Wiens, Darrell J.; Depping, Dayna J.; Van Laar, Emily S.; Wallerich, Stacey R.
Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children’s OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents’ age, and parents’ oral health literacy) on children’s OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project’s Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children’s Perception Questionnaire11-14 were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers’ age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children’s OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed. PMID:24650192
that what women really want is a home and job. However, there has been some reversal of sen- timent in the UA, Great Britain and the Netherlands. On the item that taps support for traditional gender-role ideology, it is only in the UA that there is any... . Joshi, H. (1989), ‘The changing form of women’s economic dependency’, in H. Joshi (ed.), The Changing Population of Britain, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 157–76. Martin, J. and C. Roberts (1984), Women and Employment: A Lifetime Perspective, London: OPCS...
Introduction: Cochlear implantation can facilitate the development of communication skills in children with profound hearing loss. The objectives of our study were to determine the average ages at suspicion and diagnosis of hearing loss, amplification, intervention, and performing the cochlear implantation and to investigate the effects of the parents’ level of education and economic circumstances on the age of the child at cochlear implantation. Materials and Methods: The parents of 96 children with profound sensorineural hearing loss who had received a cochlear implant at Amir-Alam Cochlear Implant Center between 2008 and 2010 were asked to complete a survey. The survey included demographic information, and birth, medical, and hearing loss history of their child. Study data were obtained through the patient database in the Cochlear Implant Center and interviews with the parents. Results: The mean times between the age of the children at diagnosis of hearing loss and amplification, beginning the rehabilitation program, and performing the cochlear implantation were 4.05 (±0.86), 2.59 (±0.9), and 25.43 (±1.45) months, respectively; delays that were statistically significant (P?0.004). In 47.9 percent of cases, the parents were the first people to suspect the occurrence of hearing loss in their child. Statistical analysis indicated that the age at cochlear implantation decreases as the educational level of the parents increases (P?0.003). There was also a significant difference between parents’ economic circumstances and the age of cochlear implantation (P<0.0001). Conclusion: There is still a remarkable delay between the diagnosis of hearing loss and aural rehabilitation in hearing-impaired children. Parents’ levels of education and economic circumstances have a noticeable effect on the age of cochlear implantation in hearing-impaired children. PMID:24303378
Jeddi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud
BACKGROUND: Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender
Hawa S Mbawalla; Joyce R Masalu; Anne N Åstrøm
Improving equity in malaria treatment: Relationship of socio-economic status with health seeking as well as with perceptions of ease of using the services of different providers for the treatment of malaria in Nigeria
BACKGROUND: Equitable improvement of treatment-seeking for malaria will depend partly on how different socio-economic groups perceive the ease of accessing and utilizing malaria treatment services from different healthcare providers. Hence, it was important to investigate the link between socioeconomic status (SES) with differences in perceptions of ease of accessing and receiving treatment as well as with actual health seeking for
Obinna Onwujekwe; Benjamin Uzochukwu; Soludo Eze; Eric Obikeze; Chijioke Okoli; Ogbonnia Ochonma
Vitamin D has important benefits in reducing the risk of many conditions and diseases. Those diseases for which the benefits are well supported and that have large economic effects include many types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, several bacterial and viral infections, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Europeans generally have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels owing to the high latitudes, largely indoor living, low natural dietary sources of vitamin D such as cold-water ocean fish, and lack of effective vitamin D fortification of food in most countries. Vitamin D dose-disease response relations were estimated from observational studies and randomized controlled trials. The reduction in direct plus indirect economic burden of disease was based on increasing the mean serum 25(OH)D level to 40 ng/mL, which could be achieved by a daily intake of 2000-3000 IU of vitamin D. For 2007, the reduction is estimated at euro187,000 million/year. The estimated cost of 2000-3000 IU of vitamin D3/day along with ancillary costs such as education and testing might be about euro10,000 million/year. Sources of vitamin D could include a combination of food fortification, supplements, and natural and artificial UVB irradiation, if properly acquired. Additional randomized controlled trials are warranted to evaluate the benefits and risks of vitamin D supplementation. However, steps to increase serum 25(OH)D levels can be implemented now based on what is already known. PMID:19268496
Grant, William B; Cross, Heide S; Garland, Cedric F; Gorham, Edward D; Moan, Johan; Peterlik, Meinrad; Porojnicu, Alina C; Reichrath, Jörg; Zittermann, Armin
This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data. The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602
Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem
This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data. The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602
Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem
on Gender Differences in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty; Committee on Women at http://www.aps.org/programs/women/workshops/ gender-equity/upload/genderequity.pdf. Â·Gender Differences Arbor Michigan #12;Overview Current status of women in physics Gender gaps in the physics classroom
Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few and very small N studies published indicated that males have a poorer pre-morbid cognitive performance than females. This study examined the gender differences in premorbid cognition, utilizing cognitive assessments performed on female and male adolescents before induction into military service. The Israeli Draft Board Registry, which contains cognitive assessments equivalent to IQ scores on 16-18 year old Israeli adolescents, was linked with the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry, which records all psychiatric hospitalizations in the country. Scores on premorbid cognitive performance in schizophrenia were examined in 90 female-male case pairs matched for school attended as a proxy for socio-economic status. The mean age of first hospitalization was 20. 1+/-1.8 years of age for males and 19.6+/-1.8 years of age for females. A repeated-measures ANCOVA with age of first hospitalization and years of formal education as covariates, and controlling for gender differences in cognitive performance in healthy adolescents, revealed a significant difference in pre-morbid cognitive performance between males and females on all four cognitive measures [F(1,87)=8.07, P=0.006] with females scoring lower (worse) than males. In this national cohort, pre-morbid cognition was poorer in female, compared with male, adolescents who will suffer from schizophrenia in the future, a result consistent with some, but not all, similar studies. These results may be valid only for patients with first hospitalization around age 20. Hence, gender differences in premorbid cognition should be taken into account when assessing gender differences in cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:11042436
Weiser, M; Reichenberg, A; Rabinowitz, J; Kaplan, Z; Mark, M; Nahon, D; Davidson, M
This study reports on the levels of all major polybromobiphenyls (PBBs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 31 home dust samples collected in Pretoria, South Africa. Low concentrations of PBB and PBDE congeners were detected in 21 and 7 samples, respectively. The ?10PBDEs concentration ranged from <0.3 to 234 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) of dust with a median of 18.3 ng g(-1) dw. No significant differences in the total concentration of PBDEs were observed among three socio-economic categories considered. The overall daily intake of PBDEs via ingestion of dust was estimated for children and adults using median concentrations of ?10PBDEs. Accordingly, for children and adults the exposure rate values are 0.96 and 0.38 ng day(-1), respectively. In addition, the estimated daily dust ingestion exposure rate doses for children and adults with respect to BDE-47 and BDE-99 were by far lower than the reference dose values. It can, therefore, be said that South Africans living in Pretoria are exposed to low concentrations of PBDEs from home environment dust. PMID:24252199
Kefeni, Kebede K; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Botha, Ben M
This paper aims to reveal socio-economic and environmental sustainability of goat production in the Taurus Mountains' villages in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey: with consideration of gender roles. Goat production sector is the most important livelihood activity in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. According to various new regulations of the Ministry of Forestry, goat production in the mountainous villages of Taurus Mountains has been banned for recent year for various reasons such as; the destruction of shoots and branches in trees, forest degradation and erosion. Therefore, goat production is decreasing dramatically in that region. Data were collected in 4 districts of 8 villages in which goat production has been done intensively (two villages in each district) by face to face interview with 52 women and 58 men. Data were analyzed in Statistical Program of Social Science (SPSS). According to our findings, goat production has different affects on the lives of men and women and the sustainability of the sector is dependent on social factors, primarily education. PMID:19107568
Davran, Müge K; Ocak, Sezen; Secer, Arzu
Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict. PMID:22308059
Marks, Jaime; Bun, Lam Chun; McHale, Susan M.
Aim Only a few studies have examined the relationship between Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder and socio-economic status (SES). Existing studies are primarily cross-sectional, arise from specialty clinics, and use single measures of SES. In this study we examine this relationship in a longitudinal, population-based sample. Method Data are from 7152 children born during 1991 and 1992 in the county of Avon, UK, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, who were followed up to age 13. After exclusions for intellectual disability* and autism, 6768 participants (3351 males [49.5%]) and 3417 females [50.5%]) remained. Parental SES was assessed using multiple measures during pregnancy and at 33?months of age. Presence of Tourette syndrome or chronic tics was determined from repeated maternal questionnaires up to when the child was 13?years of age. Results Multiple SES measures were associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of Tourette syndrome and chronic tics. A postnatal composite factor score (lowest vs highest tertile odds ratio 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.38–3.47) provided the best fit to the data. Interpretations As is seen in several childhood conditions, such as cerebral palsy and autism, lower SES is a risk factor for Tourette syndrome/chronic tics. Potential explanations include differential exposure to environmental risk factors or parental psychopathology as a measure of an increased genetic risk leading to decreased parental SES. PMID:24138188
Miller, Laura L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
The effect of socio-economic status (SES) on the cognitive outcome of preterm-born children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to systematically review the published literature and to report the strength and consistency of the effect of SES on the cognitive outcomes of preterm children, across different SES indicators. We conducted a literature search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index to identify English-language cohort or case-control studies published after 1990 that had reported the effect of at least one SES indicator on cognitive outcome in children born <37 weeks gestation. Fifteen studies (from a total 4,162 identified) were included. Thirteen SES indicators were evaluated [categorized as: "individual-level" (6 indicators), "family-structure" (3), "contextual" (2) and "composite" (2)]. Maternal educational level was the most frequently evaluated SES indicator (by 11/15 studies) and was most consistently associated with cognitive outcome. Maternal education below high school level was associated with severe cognitive deficiency [reported odds ratios (95 % CI) range: OR = 1.4 (1.0-1.9) to OR = 2.3 (1.2-4.5)]. A meta-analytic measure of the effect of SES was not calculated due to heterogeneity in studies. SES appears to confound the association between preterm birth and cognitive deficit and should be adjusted for in studies reporting cognitive outcome. PMID:23135625
Wong, Hilary S; Edwards, Phil
We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere,
Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn
Gendered barriers to women’s advancement in STEM disciplines are subtle, often the result of gender practices, gender stereotypes, and gendered occupational cultures. Professional socialization into scientific cultures encourages and rewards gender practices that help to maintain gendered barriers. This article focuses more specifically on how individual women scientists’ gender practices potentially sustain gender barriers. Findings based on interview data from
Laura A. Rhoton
Introduction The economic recession which began in 2008 has resulted in a substantial increase in unemployment across many countries, including the United Kingdom. Strong association between unemployment and poor health status among individuals is widely recognised. We investigated whether the prevalence of poor health at a population level increased concurrent to the rise in unemployment during the economic recession, and whether the impact on health varied by geographical and socioeconomic circumstances. Method Health, demographic and socioeconomic measures on 1.36 million survey responses aged 16–64 were extracted from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey of the United Kingdom, collected every three months, from January 2006 to December 2010. The likelihood of self-reporting poor health status and specific types of health problems (depression, mental illness, cardiovascular and respiratory) across time were estimated separately using logistic regression. Explanatory variables included economic status (International Labour Organization definition), occupational class, age, gender, country of birth, ethnicity, educational qualifications, couple status, household tenure, number of dependents, and geographical region. Results Unemployment (age-gender adjusted) rose from 4.5% in January 2008 to 7.1% by September 2009. The reporting of poor health status increased from 25.7% in July 2009 to 29.5% by December 2010. Similar increases were found for cardiovascular and respiratory health problems; not depression or mental illness. The prevalence of poor health status among the unemployed decreased from 28.8% in July 2008, to 24.9% by March 2009; but this was followed by an increase in poor health experienced across all regions and by all socioeconomic groups, including those who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class. Interpretation Although our study found no exacerbation of pre-recession health inequalities, the rise in poor health status not only for the unemployed, but also among people who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class, justifies concern voiced among many public health commentators. PMID:23437208
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi
Gendered norms are embedded in social structures, operating to restrict the rights, opportunities, and capabilities, of women and girls, causing significant burdens, discrimination, subordination, and exploitation. This review, developed for the Women and Gender Equity Knowledge Network of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, sought to identify the best available research evidence about programmatic interventions, at the level of household and community, that have been effective for changing gender norms to increase the status of women. The focus was on developing countries. A wide range of single and multiple databases were searched, utilizing database specific keywords such as: women and girls; men and boys; household and community; intervention; and gender norms. Key themes were identified: education of women and girls; economic empowerment of women; violence against women, including female genital mutilation/cutting; and men and boys. Types of interventions, levels of action, populations of interest, and key outcomes from evaluations are identified. Evaluations are limited, with little evidence or measurement of changes in gender equity and women's empowerment. A key finding is, that targeting women and girls is a sound investment, but outcomes are dependent on integrated approaches and the protective umbrella of policy and legislative actions. PMID:19288342
Keleher, H; Franklin, L
The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants were randomly selected, namely 248 boys and 249 girls. The
P. Mohan Raju; Abebech Asfaw
This resource guide presents information on gender equity in mathematics education reform. The project focuses on how issues of gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and language play out in the elementary reform math classroom. The guide is specifically geared toward staff developers and teachers who are implementing new mathematics curricula.…
achievement, grades, test scores, college, educational attainment, gender roles Abstract The terrain of genderGender Inequalities in Education Claudia Buchmann,1 Thomas A. DiPrete,2 and Anne McDaniel1 1 and theo- retical perspectives on gender inequalities in educational performance and attainment from early
and interpretations of the roles of women and men in society, as well as analyze the multiple ways in which genderWomen's and Gender Studies #12;Women's and Gender Studies at Carleton University provides you with a unique and exciting opportunity to examine the diverse ways in which gender shapes our lives
Dawson, Jeff W.
More than 50 years after the appearance of the term “gender” in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The term “embryology of gender” draws
Juan Carlos Jorge
Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.
Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.
Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers
Burton, Geoffrey R.
Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research
Burton, Geoffrey R.
This background paper has been commissioned as a contribution to the preparation of the World Development Report 2012 which will focus on development and gender equality. It is a companion paper to two other papers which examine gender issues in relation to common property resources and economic dimensions of gender and energy. Gender, as a concept, refers to the socially
Joy Clancy; Tanja Winther; Magi Matinga; Sheila Oparaocha
The aim of this study is to examine differences in student burnout by gender, time status with two time points before and after an educational transition, and educational track (academic vs. vocational). The definition of burnout is based on three components: exhaustion due to school demands, a disengaged and cynical attitude toward school, and…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tynkkynen, Lotta
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is currently in the process of revising the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community have expressed interest and concern regarding the future status of the diagnostic categories of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) of Adolescence and Adulthood and GID of Childhood (GIDC) in
Examines the legal codes of eight Coast Salish tribes. Focuses on gender issues, including the legal statuses of males and females, inheritance, access to tribal jobs and job training, political enfranchisement, child welfare and parental responsibilities, parent rights, and public safety. The codes vary substantially in how they balance…
Miller, Bruce G.
1 Gender, Tax Policies and Tax Reform in Comparative Perspective Fran Bennett Department of Social the author's permission Contact: Fran Bennett Senior Research Fellow Department of Social Policy and Social;2 Gender, Tax Policies and Tax Reform in Comparative Perspective Paper presented at The Levy Economics
de Gispert, AdriÃ
? Background and Objectives: A large proportion of the patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Brazil have low levels of education and family income. The present study assessed whether education level and family income are associated with baseline and longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores during the first year of PD therapy. ? Methods: We evaluated 1624 incident patients from the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Study (BRAZPD) at baseline, and 486 of them after 12 months. The SF-36 was used to determine HRQOL and the Karnofsky index (KI), physical performance. ? Results: At baseline, patients received high KI scores compared with scores on the SF-36. The means of the mental and physical components at baseline and after 12 months were 39.9 ± 10.5 compared with 38.7 ± 11.7 and 41.8 ± 9.6 compared with 40.7 ± 9.8 respectively, which were not statistically different. A multivariate regression analysis showed that age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were predictors of the mental component (respectively, ? = 0.12, p < 0.001; ? = 0.11, p < 0.001; ? = -0.08, ? = 0.007; and ? = -0.07, p = 0.007) and that age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hemoglobin, glucose, and creatinine were predictors of the physical component (respectively, ? = -0.28, p < 0.001; ? = 0.06, p = 0.009; ? = -0.09, p = 0.002; ? = -0.09, p = 0.001; ? = 0.07, p = 0.004; ? = -0.05, p = 0.040; and ? = 0.05, p = 0.040). Education level and family income were not significantly associated with HRQOL (mental and physical components) in the multivariate regression. ? Conclusions: The results indicate that, as predictors, family income and education level have no impact on HRQOL, supporting the idea that socio-economic status should not be a barrier to the selection of PD as a treatment modality in Brazil. PMID:24335126
dos Santos Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi; Fernandes, Natália; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Silva Fernandes, Neimar; Bastos, Kleyton; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Bastos, Marcus Gomes
Background Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older people who walk in their neighbourhoods; b) to examine differences among neighbourhood stakeholder key informant perspectives on socio-political processes that shape the walkability of neighbourhood environments. Methods An embedded comparative case study examined differences among four Ottawa neighbourhoods that were purposefully selected to provide contrasts on urban form (inner-urban versus suburban) and SES (higher versus lower). Qualitative data collected from 75 older walkers and 19 neighbourhood key informants, as well as quantitative indicators were compared on the two axes of urban form and SES among the four neighbourhoods. Results and discussion Examining the inter-relationship of neighbourhood SES and urban form characteristics on older people's walking experiences indicated that urban form differences were accentuated positively in higher SES neighbourhoods and negatively in lower SES neighbourhoods. Older people in lower SES neighbourhoods were more affected by traffic hazards and more reliant on public transit compared to their higher SES counterparts. In higher SES neighbourhoods the disadvantages of traffic in the inner-urban neighbourhood and lack of commercial destinations in the suburban neighbourhood were partially offset by other factors including neighbourhood aesthetics. Key informant descriptions of the socio-political process highlighted how lower SES neighbourhoods may face greater challenges in creating walkable places. These differences pertained to the size of neighbourhood associations, relationships with political representatives, accessing information and salient neighbourhood association issues. Findings provide evidence of inequitable walking environments. Conclusion Future research on walking must consider urban form-SES inter-relationships and further examine the equitable distribution of walking conditions as well as the socio-political processes driving these conditions. There is a need for municipal governments to monitor differences in walking conditions among higher and lower SES neighbourhoods, to be receptive to the needs of lower SES neighbourhood and to ensure that policy decisions are taken to address inequitable walking conditions. PMID:21054879
Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…
Robert, Sarah A.
and respecting the multiple forms of difference that an individual may experience, for example in terms of genderDiversity: Opportunity or Threat for Gender Equality Policy in the UK? Dalia Ben-Galim, Mary London School of Economics #12;2 Diversity: Opportunity or Threat for Gender Equality Policy in the UK
de Gispert, AdriÃ
Looks at how gender shapes the way humans learn from biological and sociological perspectives. Indicates that teachers interact more frequently with males and that trainers should try to overcome gender bias. Suggests that discrimination persists in adult education. (JOW)
Weiss, Ruth Palombo
Background Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Methods Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Results Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary “evil” for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Conclusions Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk. PMID:22713353
Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet
, and college grades. Educational Psychology 21(2), 133-136. Leonard, D. and Jiang, J. (1999). Gender bias University of Wisconsin-Stout #12;Overview Current status of women in physics Gender gaps in the physics women Need to be doing research on how to keep women #12;Gender gap in the physics classroom How do
\\u000a Gender features strongly in most societies and is a significant aspect of self-definition for most people. Following a brief\\u000a description of views on gender identity from the perspectives of humanistic social science, sociology, and psychology, this\\u000a chapter provides an analysis of gender identity development from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Social cognitive\\u000a theory describes how gender conceptions are developed
More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…
Jorge, Juan Carlos
This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
Objective:To determine to what extent self-reported and objective data on socio-economic status (SES) are associated with overweight\\/obesity among 15 to 16-year-old ethnic Norwegians.Design:A cross-sectional questionnaire study on health and health-related behaviors.Subjects:All school children aged 15–16 years old in 2000 and 2001 in Oslo, Norway. Response rate 88% (n=7343). This article is based on the data from the 5498 ethnic Norwegians.Measurements:Self-reported
N Lien; B N Kumar; G Holmboe-Ottesen; K-I Klepp; M Wandel
Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903
Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.
Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729
Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles
The possibility that men might masquerade as women and be unfair competitors in women's sports is accepted as outrageous by athletes and the public alike. Since the 1930s, media reports have fuelled claims that individuals who once competed as female athletes subsequently appeared to be men. In most of these cases there was probably ambiguity of the external genitalia, possibly as a result of male pseudohermaphroditism. Nonetheless, beginning at the Rome Olympic Games in 1960, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) began establishing rules of eligibility for women athletes. Initially, physical examination was used as a method for gender verification, but this plan was widely resented. Thus, sex chromatin testing (buccal smear) was introduced at the Mexico City Olympic Games in 1968. The principle was that genetic females (46,XX) show a single X-chromatic mass, whereas males (46,XY) do not. Unfortunately, sex chromatin analysis fell out of common diagnostic use by geneticists shortly after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began its implementation for gender verification. The lack of laboratories routinely performing the test aggravated the problem of errors in interpretation by inexperienced workers, yielding false-positive and false-negative results. However, an even greater problem is that there exist phenotypic females with male sex chromatin patterns (e.g. androgen insensitivity, XY gonadal dysgenesis). These individuals have no athletic advantage as a result of their congenital abnormality and reasonably should not be excluded from competition. That is, only the chromosomal (genetic) sex is analysed by sex chromatin testing, not the anatomical or psychosocial status. For all the above reasons sex chromatin testing unfairly excludes many athletes. Although the IOC offered follow-up physical examinations that could have restored eligibility for those 'failing' sex chromatin tests, most affected athletes seemed to prefer to 'retire'. All these problems remain with the current laboratory based gender verification test, polymerase chain reaction based testing of the SRY gene, the main candidate for male sex determination. Thus, this 'advance' in fact still fails to address the fundamental inequities of laboratory based gender verification tests. The IAAF considered the issue in 1991 and 1992, and concluded that gender verification testing was not needed. This was thought to be especially true because of the current use of urine testing to exclude doping: voiding is observed by an official in order to verify that a sample from a given athlete has actually come from his or her urethra. That males could masquerade as females in these circumstances seems extraordinarily unlikely. Screening for gender is no longer undertaken at IAAF competitions. PMID:8272686
Simpson, J L; Ljungqvist, A; de la Chapelle, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ehrhardt, A A; Ferris, E
Gender has long been recognized as being key to understanding and addressing HIV and AIDS. Gender roles and relations that structure and legitimate women's subordination and simultaneously foster models of masculinity that justify and reproduce men's dominance over women exacerbate the spread and impact of the epidemic. Notions of masculinity prevalent in many parts of the world that equate being a man with dominance over women, sexual conquest and risk-taking are associated with less condom use, more sexually transmitted infections, more partners, including more casual partners, more frequent sex, more abuse of alcohol and more transactional sex. They also contribute to men accessing treatment later than women and at greater cost to public health systems. The imperative of addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS has been clearly and repeatedly articulated. Many interventions have been shown to be effective in addressing gender-related risks and vulnerabilities including programmes designed to reach and engage men, improve women's legal and economic position, integrate gender-based violence prevention into HIV services, and increase girls' access to secondary and tertiary education. Despite this, the political will to act has been sorely lacking and not nearly enough has been done to hold governments and multilateral institutions to account. This paper argues that we can no longer simply pay lip service to the urgent need to act on what we know about gender and AIDS. Simply put, it is time to act. PMID:18641466
Greig, Alan; Peacock, Dean; Jewkes, Rachel; Msimang, Sisonke
Gender has long been recognized as being key to understanding and addressing HIV and AIDS. Gender roles and relations that structure and legitimate women’s subordination and simultaneously foster models of masculinity that justify and reproduce men’s dominance over women exacerbate the spread and impact of the epidemic. Notions of masculinity prevalent in many parts of the world that equate being a man with dominance over women, sexual conquest and risk-taking are associated with less condom use, more sexually transmitted infections, more partners, including more casual partners, more frequent sex, more abuse of alcohol and more transactional sex. They also contribute to men accessing treatment later than women and at greater cost to public health systems. The imperative of addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS has been clearly and repeatedly articulated. Many interventions have been shown to be effective in addressing gender-related risks and vulnerabilities including programmes designed to reach and engage men, improve women’s legal and economic position, integrate gender-based violence prevention into HIV services, and increase girls’ access to secondary and tertiary education. Despite this, the political will to act has been sorely lacking and not nearly enough has been done to hold governments and multilateral institutions to account. This paper argues that we can no longer simply pay lip service to the urgent need to act on what we know about gender and AIDS. Simply put, it is time to act. PMID:18641466
Greig, Alan; Peacock, Dean; Jewkes, Rachel; Msimang, Sisonke
The relationship between gender role and body image was examined in this research. Females and males who differed in their gender roles (i.e., masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated) completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (B. A. Winstead & T. F. Cash, “Reliability and Validity of the Body-Self Questionnaire: A New Measure of Body Image,” paper presented at the meeting of the
Linda A. Jackson; Linda A. Sullivan; Ronald Rostker
The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. PMID:24628877
Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith
Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…
Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.
This new Website from USAID "describes the agency's gender strategy and its many critical gender projects." The site reflects the organization's ongoing effort to "mainstream" gender issues into US development assistance in the last two decades. Included here are a number of publications outlining this effort, such as the 1982 "Women in Development Policy Paper" and the more fulsome Gender Plan of Action published in 1995 to coincide with the United Nations's Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing (See the September 8, 1995 Scout Report). Also posted on the Website are newsletters, updates, reports, and factsheets from the Office of Women in Development. Other features include an activity map which describes policy efforts on a variety of international women's issues, a photo gallery, a gender quiz, and an online form to request gender-related publications. Publications are offered in .pdf format.
Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917
Hyde, Janet Shibley
A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains-sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development. PMID:19575615
Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N
A variety of factors are associated with students' achievement in secondary school physics, including cohort size--the total number of students studying Physics in the school--and socioeconomic status. Earlier studies also showed boys achieving better in Physics, while more recent research has shown better results for girls. Statistical…
Geelan, David; Louden, William; Wildy, Helen
This study uses data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and compares the social characteristics such as education, marital status and housing and food and nutrient intakes of adults from low-, medium-, and high- income households. There were 2,675 adults, ages 60 yea...
The process of gender identity, described as the self-attribution of culturally bound concepts of masculinity and femininity, is traced throughout the period of development and linked to social competence. Three stages in the development of conscious gender identity are described — gender awareness, gender orientation, and gender identity — and the characteristics of each stage are outlined. Finally, the implications
John C. Condry
Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men. PMID:22217427
A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women's appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups.
Amon, Mary Jean
A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women's appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups. PMID:25628589
Amon, Mary Jean
The researcher explored whether there was a significant difference between the literacy achievement rates among eleventh grade students taught by National Board Certified Teachers versus students taught by non-National Board Certified Teachers with or without advanced degrees and of varied socio-economic levels. The researcher also explored the…
McCullough, Merlina Tamara
This paper presents the findings from a randomized control trial study of reading/literacy-integrated science inquiry intervention after 1 year of implementation and the treatment effect on 5th-grade low-socio-economic African-American and Hispanic students' achievement in science and English reading. A total of 94 treatment students and 194…
Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Guerrero, Cindy; Fan, Yinan; Huerta, Margarita
The development of an analysis of gender which avoids conflations with sex, but which also acknowledges the powerful role of embodiment in gender production, has tantalised gender theorists for some time. Many writers have critiqued the slippage back to sexed bodies underlying various apparently social constructionist analyses of gendered behaviour. Conversely, some poststructuralist and ‘Third Wave’ accounts of gender have
Path models of the effects of gender, gender roles, and personality variables (achievement and affiliation orientation, locus of control, empathy) on coping and symptoms were tested to explore the risk and protective effects of gender roles and personality on psychological symptoms, and to test whether or not gender roles or personality accounted for gender differences in coping and symptoms. In
Liliana J. Lengua; Elizabeth A. Stormshak
Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = -.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d =?.22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = -.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede's cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated. PMID:22808072
Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d?=??.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d?=?.22 and across OECD nations, d?=?.13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d?=?.14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d?=??.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede’s cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated. PMID:22808072
This is the entry page for participation in the gender perception experiment. Participants view photographs of faces and only the mouth and chin regions are visible. Participants are asked to identify the gender of each stimulus and to indicate their confidence in their judgment.
Proof Study: Gender Differences 11/29/01 Kyle Green Dan Beaver Marquis Bennett Eric Germo Rick survey focusing on the gender differences in the answers. First, both of the male and the female grade's easy," then you most likely have had some mathematical background. But how much of a background in math
Nguyen, Hieu D.
These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…
Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.
The role of gender in shaping achievement motivation has a long history in psychological and educational research. In this review, gender differences in motivation are examined using four contemporary theories of achievement motivation, including attribution, expectancy-value, self-efficacy, and achievement goal perspectives. Across all theories,…
Meece, Judith L.; Glienke, Beverly Bower; Burg, Samantha
Comments on the article by J. S. Hyde (see record 2005-11115-001), in which Hyde reviewed meta-analytic evidence on gender differences and concluded that most psychological gender differences are in the close-to-zero or small range. The current author notes some omissions from Hyde's review, including the findings through other research large…
Lippa, Richard A.
Women are thought to have a multiplicity of roles as agents, victims and saviours in relation to environmental change. This paper takes an innovative approach to the study of gender and the environment by utilizing women's time use as a surrogate measure of changes in gender roles under conditions of environmental stress. Case studies are drawn from dryland areas of
Mariama Awumbila; Janet Henshall Momsen
In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753
Baumle, Amanda K
In a single generation, there has been a revolution in the role women play in the work-force. Unfortunately, many inequities exist between a man's experience in the workforce and a woman's most notably, the wage disparity in female-dominated professions; salary inequities between men and women within professions; and inadequate compensation packages, poor retirement benefits, and a lack of job-guaranteed family leave for women in the workforce. Movement toward rectifying these inequities is encumbered by the many polarized reactions to the various difficulties women experience and the fact that these difficulties are influenced by many factors-social/cultural, economic, and political. ASHA may begin stalking out its position by increasing awareness and understanding of the issues addressed above and identifying which issues the Association can influence through education and which may be better addressed by the government. Through educating our membership and supporting productive government solutions, ASHA may hope to improve the working woman's financial status and, therefore, her choices and opportunities. PMID:8037777
Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…
Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia
This article reports grammatical gender attribution scores in French Williams participants (N = 28, mean chronological age = 15.1) in an experiment similar to the classic one from Karmiloff-Smith (1979) where grammatical gender was pitted against natural gender. WS participants massively opted for the masculine gender as the default one, just as…
Ibernon, Laure; Boloh, Yves
aspect of this is whether there has been a gender bias. This paper is the first to show gender bias for men. Decomposing the fall in the gender pay gap shows further evidence for gender biased technological unexplained suggesting gender biased demand shifts have significantly contributed to the closing of the gender
Doran, Simon J.
The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economic status and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in effects of the remaining cognitive and psychosocial factors on science achievement growth rates. Cognitive and psychosocial variables were statistically significant only for specific subgroups, and did not generally exhibit any commonalities across gender, or by race. The findings accentuated the importance of disaggregating data and analyses by both race-ethnicity and gender.
Muller, Patricia Ann
This page provides information about the gender perception activity. Children and adults often report that they base their judgments of gender on features such as hair length or clothing. However, hair length can be long or short on a man or a woman, and men and women do wear similar types of clothing. Despite the potential for confusion, people reliably categorize individuals in the absence of information about hair or clothing. This study page explains the role of facial features in cueing gender classification.
Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by “social ordering schemas” that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between “normals” and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma’s impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of other more status-based bases of stratification such as SES, race and gender, whose health impacts have been firmly established. PMID:24507907
Phelan, Jo C.; Lucas, Jeffrey W.; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Taylor, Catherine J.
This study examined the influence of gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity on the career aspirations of over 22,000 8th and 10th grade youth. The top five occupations identified by youth as aspirations included artist, lawyer, musician, FBI agent, and actor/actress. Top occupations were also reported for each gender x socioeconomic…
Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Katz, Andrew D.; Chew, Aaronson Y.; Ray, G. Christopher; Laine, Lia; Caulum, David
The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school disciplinary data for an urban school district, we explored three of the most commonly offered hypotheses for disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions,
Russell J. Skiba; Robert S. Michael; AbraCarroll Nardo; Reece L. Peterson
To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Develop- ment Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the math- ematics achievement of rural male and female students in Cross River State, Nigeria; and whether parental socio-eco- nomic status and school proprietorship,
Sam William Bassey; M. T. Joshua; Alice E. Asim
This article discusses the gender and women in North Korea. Not much is known about North Korea, let alone its gender relations. Based on published literature as well as on partial ethnographic data, the article looks into the status of women in the country, which is similar in many senses to that of women in the former Soviet-influenced socialist states,
For a variety of reasons, the demand and supply of healthcare services is changing daily and expenditure on healthcare services is increasing with rates well above those of the gross domestic product in most countries, regardless of geography, economic development, and population health status. As resources are scarce, it is necessary to ensure that they are allocated in uses that maximize overall health societal benefit. Economic evaluation of healthcare technologies and interventions is a tool designed to assist decision makers in allocating budgets in ways that will maximize value for money spent. This paper explains the economic approach from the perspective of cardiology. PMID:21518746
Maniadakis, Nikos; Vardas, Panos; Mantovani, Lorenzo G; Fattore, Giovanni; Boriani, Giuseppe
Prospective associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in European children: the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) Study.
Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2-9 years old) and follow-up (4-11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time and their association with SES. We applied the K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-two food items. The following three consistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up: processed (higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy cluster at baseline and follow-up and less likely to be allocated to the sweet cluster. Migrants were more likely to be allocated to the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Applying the cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns at the two time points allowed us to identify groups of children from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds. PMID:25563904
Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Krogh, Vittorio; Hebestreit, Antje; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Reisch, Lucia; Eiben, Gabriele; Iglesia, Iris; Veidebaum, Tomas; Kourides, Yannis A; Kovacs, Eva; Huybrechts, Inge; Pigeot, Iris; Moreno, Luis A
Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use diverse data sources including the City's property database, time-series demographic and socio-economic data from the US Census, and land cover data from the University of Vermont's Spatial Analysis Lab (SAL). These data are analyzed using a multi-model inferential, spatial econometrics approach. We also examine the distribution of vegetation within distinct market categories using Claritas' Potential Rating Index for Zipcode Markets (PRIZM™) database. These categories can be disaggregated, corresponding to the four social theories. We compare the econometric and categorical results for validation. Models associated with ecology of prestige theory are more effective for predicting the distribution of vegetation. This suggests that private, residential patterns of vegetation, reflecting the consumption of environmentally relevant goods and services, are associated with different lifestyles and lifestages. Further, our spatial and temporal analyses suggest that there are significant spatial and temporal dependencies that have theoretical and methodological implications for understanding urban ecological systems. These findings may have policy implications. Decision makers may need to consider how to most effectively reach different social groups in terms of messages and messengers in order to advance land management practices and achieve urban sustainability.
Grove, J. Morgan; Locke, Dexter H.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.
The age at menarche, body height and weight of the daughters of farmers, farmer-workers and landless villagers in a rural region of Poland were studied. In the period 1967-1977, a time of economic development, a decrease in age at menarche (by 0.74 years) and a secular trend in body height (by 2.4 cm/decade) was observed. In 1977-1987, a period of acute economic crisis, age at menarche increased by 0.16 years and the secular trend in body height was only 1.1 cm/decade. In 1987-2001, age at menarche decreased and body height increased by 0.28 years and 2.9 cm respectively. The percentage of families owning a car, freezer and video increased during this period. These last results are indicative of an improvement in living conditions, but the villagers regard themselves as losers as a result of the political transformation (1989) in Poland. PMID:16490153
?aska-Mierzejewska, Teresa; Olszewska, Elzbieta
There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…
Rimashevskaia, N. M.
diffs in batteries & bulbs gender diffs in HS experiences affecting undergrads gender bias in testing 12Gender in PER: A Retrospective Laura McCullough University of Wisconsin-Stout Physics Department 1Saturday, January 15, 2011 #12;Outline Gender in PER AAPT meetings TPT articles AJP articles PRST
on gender vs individual enables mind to fill in the gaps with stereotypes and promotes gender bias (CarnesGender Equity in Academic Medicine Molly Carnes, MD, MS Professor of Medicine, Psychiatry, and Industrial & Systems Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;Today's Presentation Â· What is gender
Background: In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient. Aim: Thus, the objective of this small-scale cross-sectional study is to report and compare the prevalence of malnutrition (both obesity and undernutrition) among undergraduate male and female college students of Kolkata, based on body mass index (BMI) and some direct and derived anthropometric measures describing the body composition of the subjects. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted in October-December 2011. The present investigation was carried out in randomly selected male (mean age 20.9 [2.25]) and female college students (mean age 20.3 [2.34]) of Kolkata. A total of 100 students of different colleges has participated, having the age of 18-22 years. Measures included a total of 24 variables which included thirteen direct anthropometric measures and 11 derived variables. Results: Analysis of collected data showed significantly higher BMI, fat mass, body adiposity index, but, lower waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index in female students. Anthropometric data also showed lower waist circumference and abdominal extension in female college students. Conversely, male students showed a higher fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and thigh circumferences (TCs). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, it can be reported that higher body fat distribution and increased propensity of being overweight/obese was observed in female students, though they have shown lower abdominal fat distribution, which is a cue of female physical attractiveness. However, male students are found to have a higher FFM, MUAC and TCs, which is the indicator of strength and energy. PMID:25221700
Tolba, A. S., Invariant Gender Identification, Digital Signal Processing11 (2001) 222–240In this paper, we address the problem of gender identification using different neural network classifiers: a learning vector quantization (LVQ) network and a radial basis function (RBF) network. Our results indicate that it is more favorable to use either the LVQ network or the RBF network than any feature-based methods.
Ahmad S. Tolba
The purpose of this study is to contribute to a gender?integrated theory of delinquent behavior by testing the assumptions of gender specialized delinquent behavior and of sex typed bonds as inhibitors of deviance. Data from self?administered questionnaires completed by a sample of teenagers in the 10th grade and one year later were used in the study. We found no clear
William H. Barton
Aim Our aim was to assess which specific factors are contributing to an increased risk of migraine in a group of 131 Portuguese families. Methods We studied 319 first-degree relatives, using a multilevel approach to account for the dependency among members from the same family. We included in the model relative’s gender, the proband’s gender and age-at-onset, to evaluate if any of these variables were associated with relative’s affection status. We also included in the model proband’s migraine subtype. We further assessed female and male transmissions within the proband nuclear family. Results Relatives’ gender was found to be a risk factor for migraine (Odds Ratio?=?2.86; 95% CI?=?1.75–4.67), with females at a higher risk. When splitting probands according to their migraine subtype, we found that none of the variables studied contributed to relatives of MA-probands affection-status. Our results also show a significant difference between proband’s transmission and the gender of the parents and offspring. Conclusions With this study, we showed that gender is truly a risk factor for migraine and that a gender-biased transmission is also observed. This reinforce the importance of identifying genes associated with migraine that are modulated by genes located in the sex chromosomes and the study of mitochondrial DNA or X-chromosome and hormonal-related effects associated with migraine susceptibility. PMID:23185642
Lemos, Carolina; Alonso, Isabel; Barros, José; Sequeiros, Jorge; Pereira-Monteiro, José; Mendonça, Denisa; Sousa, Alda
This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…
Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.
The potential uses of public resources and powers to improve the economic status of economic groups (such as industries and occupations) are analyzed to provide a scheme of the demand for regulation. The characteristics of the political process which allow relatively small groups to obtain such regulation is then sketched to provide elements of a theory of supply of regulation.
George J. Stigler
The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes
The analysis presented here focuses on the relationship between femininity, transition and consumer culture. It explores the relationship between gender and consumer culture in the context of a discussion of the transition from childhood to teenage status for a group of young girls, and seeks to make a critical contribution to contemporary debates on childhood and consumer culture by reflecting
Rachel Russell; Melissa Tyler
The mammalian vomeronasal organ detects complex chemical signals that convey information about gender, strain, and the social and reproductive status of an individual. How these signals are encoded is poorly understood. We developed transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator G-CaMP2 and analyzed population responses of vomeronasal neurons to urine from individual animals. A substantial portion of cells was activated by
Jie He; Limei Ma; SangSeong Kim; Junichi Nakai; C. Ron Yu
Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…
Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen
The 2010 Research Administrators Stress Perception Survey (2010 RASPerS) collected data from 1,131 research administrators on salary, years experience, educational level, Certified Research Administrator (CRA) status, and gender. Using these data, comparisons were made to show how salary levels are associated with each of these variables. Using…
Shambrook, Jennifer; Roberts, Thomas J.; Triscari, Robert
/rank/longevity status independent of gender. The statistic D is then computed by taking the difference within each unit was to redress in part the observed differences in salary based upon gender noted in the earlier reports. #12 based upon Gender using Data from Fall 2007 Louis J. Gross, Faculty Senate Past-President and Professor
Gross, Louis J.
In their article on gender development, C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo (2002) contrasted their conception of gender development with that of social cognitive theory. The authors of this commentary correct misrepresentations of social cognitive theory and analyze the conceptual and empirical status of Martin et al.'s (2002) theory that gender stereotype matching is the main motivating
Albert Bandura; Kay Bussey
Background: The oral disease burden in India is showing a steady increase in the recent years. Utilization of dental care being the major factor affecting the oral health status of the population is used as an important tool in oral health policy decision-making and is measured in terms of the number of dental visits per annum. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional house to house questionnaire survey was conducted in three rural clusters which were randomly selected from a total of eight clusters served by a primary health center. Simple random sampling was used to select 100 houses from each cluster. Screening was done to examine the existing oral diseases. A total of 385 completed questionnaires were collected from 300 houses. Results: Of 385 study subjects, 183 have experienced previous dental problems. Major dental problem experienced by the study subjects was toothache (68.85%) and the treatment underwent was extraction (50.27%). Most preferred treatment centers by the study subjects were private dental hospital (68.25%) and reason identified was accessibility which constituted (45.24%) of all the reasons given. Negative attitude toward dental care is one of the important barriers; 50.8% of the non-utilizers felt dental treatment is not much important. Conclusion: Person’s attitude, lack of awareness, and affordability remain the barriers for utilization of dental services. Effective methods have to be exercised to breach such barriers.
Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Pachava, Srinivas; Ravoori, Srinivas; Sanikommu, Suresh; Talluri, Devaki; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao
and Gender Studies 1000 - Knowing Bodies: An Introduction to Women and Gender Studies _____ Women and Gender: ____________________________________ Major in Women and Gender Studies: www.uleth.ca/artsci/women-gender-studies Department: Women and Gender Studies #12;2 Bachelor of Arts - Women and Gender Studies Calendar Year - 2013/2014 N a m e
Seldin, Jonathan P.
This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas
Timothy A. Judge; Beth A. Livingston
While deleterious consequences of smoking on health have been widely publicized, in many developing countries, smoking prevalence is high and increasing. Little is known about the dynamics underlying changes in smoking behavior. This paper examines socio-economic and demographic characteristics associated with smoking initiation and quitting in Mexico between 2002 and 2010. In addition to the influences of age, gender, education, household economic resources and location of residence, changes in marital status, living arrangements and health status are examined. Drawing data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, a rich population-based longitudinal study of individuals, smoking behavior of individuals in 2002 is compared with their behavior in 2010. Logistic models are used to examine socio-demographic and health factors that are associated with initiating and quitting smoking. There are three main findings. First, part of the relationship between education and smoking reflects the role of economic resources. Second, associations of smoking with education and economic resources differ for females and males. Third, there is considerable heterogeneity in the factors linked to smoking behavior in Mexico indicating that the smoking epidemic may be at different stages in different population subgroups. Mexico has recently implemented fiscal policies and public health campaigns aimed at reducing smoking prevalence and discouraging smoking initiation. These programs are likely to be more effective if they target particular socio-economic and demographic sub-groups. PMID:23888371
Beltrán-Sánchez, HIRAM; Thomas, DUNCAN; Teruel, GRACIELA; Wheaton, FELICIA; Crimmins, EILEEN M.
Background Little is known about how affordability of healthy food varies with community characteristics in rural settings. We examined how the cost of fresh fruit and vegetables varies with the economic and demographic characteristics in six rural counties of Texas. Methods Ground-truthed data from the Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were used to identify all food stores in the rural region and the availability and lowest price of fresh whole fruit and vegetables in the food stores. Socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the 2000 U.S. Census Summary Files 3 at the level of the census block group. We used an imputation strategy to calculate two types of price indices for both fresh fruit and fresh vegetables: a high variety and a basic index; and evaluated the relationship between neighborhood economic and demographic characteristics and affordability of fresh produce, using linear regression models. Results The mean cost of meeting the USDA recommendation of fruit consumption from a high variety basket of fruit types in our sample of stores was just over $27.50 per week. Relying on the three most common fruits lowered the weekly expense to under $17.25 per week, a reduction of 37.6%. The effect of moving from a high variety to a low variety basket was much less when considering vegetable consumption: a 4.3% decline from $29.23 to $27.97 per week. Univariate regression analysis revealed that the cost of fresh produce is not associated with the racial/ethnic composition of the local community. However, multivariate regression showed that holding median income constant, stores in neighborhoods with higher percentages of Black residents paid more for fresh fruits and vegetables. The proportion of Hispanic residents was not associated with cost in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion This study extends prior work by examining the affordability of fresh fruit and vegetables from food stores in a large rural area; and how access to an affordable supply of fresh fruit and vegetables differs by neighborhood inequalities. The approach and findings of this study are relevant and have important research and policy implications for understanding access and availability of affordable, healthy foods. PMID:21244688
Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to Europe and medically highly significant. This study, focused on Poland, investigated individual risk factors for TBE symptomatic infection. Methods and Findings In a nation-wide population-based case-control study, of the 351 TBE cases reported to local health departments in Poland in 2009, 178 were included in the analysis. For controls, of 2704 subjects (matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence) selected at random from the national population register, two were interviewed for each case and a total of 327 were suitable for the analysis. Questionnaires yielded information on potential exposure to ticks during the six weeks (maximum incubation period) preceding disease onset in each case. Independent associations between disease and socio-economic factors and occupational or recreational exposure were assessed by conditional logistic regression, stratified according to residence in known endemic and non-endemic areas. Adjusted population attributable fractions (PAF) were computed for significant variables. In endemic areas, highest TBE risk was associated with spending ?10 hours/week in mixed forests and harvesting forest foods (adjusted odds ratio 19.19 [95% CI: 1.72–214.32]; PAF 0.127 [0.064–0.193]), being unemployed (11.51 [2.84–46.59]; 0.109 [0.046–0.174]), or employed as a forester (8.96 [1.58–50.77]; 0.053 [0.011–0.100]) or non-specialized worker (5.39 [2.21–13.16]; 0.202 [0.090–0.282]). Other activities (swimming, camping and travel to non-endemic regions) reduced risk. Outside TBE endemic areas, risk was greater for those who spent ?10 hours/week on recreation in mixed forests (7.18 [1.90–27.08]; 0.191 [0.065–0.304]) and visited known TBE endemic areas (4.65 [0.59–36.50]; 0.058 [?0.007–0.144]), while travel to other non-endemic areas reduced risk. Conclusions These socio-economic factors and associated human activities identified as risk factors for symptomatic TBE in Poland are consistent with results from previous correlational studies across eastern Europe, and allow public health interventions to be targeted at particularly vulnerable sections of the population. PMID:23029063
Stefanoff, Pawel; Rosinska, Magdalena; Samuels, Steven; White, Dennis J.; Morse, Dale L.; Randolph, Sarah E.
In Central Asia, the post-Soviet transformation period has been accompanied by significant economic and social costs, including the widening of the gender gaps in politics, economy and the social sphere. Tajikistan, which receives the largest amount of international aid and has the worst record of gender inequity in Central Asia, has quickly…
Silova, Iveta; Abdushukurova, Tatiana
The gender earnings differential is an intensely studied issue in labor economics. Most studies analyze gender pay differentials by focusing primarily on the differences in the wage-determining characteristics of men and women and how these characteristics are rewarded. However, most existing analyses have neglected the establishment as a place where the inequality between male and female arise and is maintained.
Anja Heinze; Elke Wolf
Anthropology 314: Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective CRN: 16361 Fall 2010 Tuesday and Thursday 12 contemporary issues and debates about gender as a springboard to examine anthropological data and theories. We-culturally with relation to political, economic, social and cultural roles. Case studies are drawn from Africa, Asia
The ‘Girl Effect’ is a growing but understudied movement that assumes girls are catalysts capable of bringing social and economic change for their families, communities and countries. The evolving discourse associated with this movement holds profound implications for development programmes that focus on girls and use sport and physical activity to promote gender equality, challenge gender norms, and teach confidence
Lyndsay MC Hayhurst
An unresolved debate in the development literature concerns the impact of gender equality on economic growth. Previous studies have found that the effect varies, depending on the measure of equality (wages or capabilities). This paper expands that discussion by considering both the short and long run, evaluating the effects of gender equality in two types of economies—semi-industrialized economies (SIEs) and
This article explores gender, social class and ethnic issues in parental involvement in students' choices of higher education. It draws upon interviews with students and their parents, who were a small group of an Economic and Social Research Council-funded study of students' higher education choice processes in the UK. Gender was highly significant in several respects, illustrating changes in higher
MIRIAM E. DAVID; STEPHEN J. BALL; JACKIE DAVIES; DIANE REAY
After decades of scholarly neglect, the pivotal roles played by enslaved African women in the sociocultural and economic development of New World plantation societies is finally receiving critical attention as historians embark on gendered reappraisals of Caribbean history. Understanding how African women experienced slavery has considerably enriched our knowledge of the complexity of gender, race and sexuality in structuring colonial
This research investigates change in gender beliefs in Japan during a period of economic hard times in the late 1990s. Using data from the International Social Survey Programme on the Japanese population from 1994 (n = 1,054) and 2002 (n = 872), we examined how cohort replacement and intracohort change contributed to changes in gender beliefs. We…
Lee, Kristen Schultz; Tufis, Paula A.; Alwin, Duane F.
Military occupation affects educational space and places, transforming them into politicized, sexed, gendered, and racialized ones. The uncontrolled political violence in conflict zones causes psychological trauma, internal displacement and economic stagnation, and intersect to shape the gendered nature of education. This article is based on data…
Military occupation affects educational space and places, transforming them into politicized, sexed, gendered, and racialized ones. The uncontrolled political violence in conflict zones causes psychological trauma, internal displacement and economic stagnation, and intersect to shape the gendered nature of education. This article is based on data collected from young Palestinian women in the Occupied Palestinian Territories between 2004–2007. Its theoretical
The world is facing an unprecedented crisis as a result of HIV\\/AIDS. The global epidemic is the most devastating in human history - shortening many lives and affecting the economic and social structure of many countries. Central among the factors influencing vulnerability to infection and its consequences are systems and structures of gender. Dominant ideologies of gender influence how women
Purnima Mane; Peter Aggleton
Do women really sleep more than men? Biomedical and social scientific studies show longer sleep durations for women, a surprising finding given sociological research showing women have more unpaid work and less high-quality leisure time compared to men. We assess explanations for gender differences in time for sleep, including compositional differences in levels of engagement in paid and unpaid labor, gendered responses to work and family responsibilities, and differences in napping, bedtimes, and interrupted sleep for caregiving. We examine the overall gender gap in time for sleep as well as gaps within family life-course stages based on age, partnership, and parenthood statuses. We analyze minutes of sleep from a diary day collected from nationally representative samples of working-age adults in the American Time Use Surveys of 2003 to 2007. Overall and at most life course stages, women slept more than men. Much of the gap is explained by work and family responsibilities and gendered time tradeoffs; as such, gender differences vary across life course stages. The gender gap in sleep time favoring women is relatively small for most comparisons and should be considered in light of the gender gap in leisure time favoring men at all life course stages. PMID:25237206
Burgard, Sarah A.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Hypertension (HTN) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lifestyle interrelated diseases of global significance. Interestingly, the prevalence of these diseases in Africa and indeed Nigeria seems to be on the increase. This study, therefore, investigated the socioeconomic status (based on income, education and occupational activity) of 400 subjects (52% female and 48% male) aged 20 years and above who were sampled randomly among the newly diagnosed HTN and/or T2D cases at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, North-West Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the subjects. From the result obtained, most of the respondents who live in towns or city suffer from either HTN or T2D while more town dwellers (28%) suffer from a combination of both diseases. It was also discovered that most respondents who suffer from HTN and from a combination of HTN and T2D belong to the old generation (60-79 years). There is higher prevalence rate of diabetes among the respondents who had no formal education or attended only basic Arabic schools. Most respondents who earn good income (NGN50,000-NGN100,000 and above NGN100,000) suffer HTN, T2D and a combination of both diseases. Those engaged in heavy occupational activities had the lowest prevalence of the disease compared with those of light or moderate occupational activities. These data will be found useful in planning intervention healthcare preventive programs especially on public enlightenment workshops and seminars to educate the populace on the importance of lifestyle modification, healthy diet and regular exercises. PMID:25560354
Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Ibrahim, Sani; Bello, Fatima; Ndidi, Uche Samuel
The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context. PMID:18032808
Vepa, Swarna S
Wisconsin Agriculture 2012 STATUS OF Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics Â· StatusÂExtension College of Agricultural & Life Sciences UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSINÂMADISON #12;#12;Status of Wisconsin Agriculture, 2012 An annual report by the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, UW
Radeloff, Volker C.
In this article we examine whether measures of gender equality, household decision making, and attitudes toward gender-based violence are associated with maternal and child health outcomes in Africa. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from eight African countries and used multilevel logistic regression on two maternal health outcomes (low body mass index and facility delivery) and two child health outcomes (immunization status and treatment for an acute respiratory infection). We found protective associations between the gender equality measures and the outcomes studied, indicating that gender equality is a potential strategy to improve maternal and child health in Africa. PMID:24028632
Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Brodish, Paul
Speaking from the margins, ecofeminist analysis exposes many of the assumptions of neoclassical economics as gender biased and as anti-ecological. It identifies the abstract individual of neoclassical economics as a privileged male individual whose apparent ‘autonomy’ is predicated on the oppression of women, marginal people and nature. Thus ecofeminists tell a different story about economic man — from the grounds
Several women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are working together to raise women's issues, such as land tenure rights, property rights, and inheritance rights, at Habitat II. The NGOs are also pointing out that because women have no control over property, they have difficulty getting loans from banks. Women's inferior status also means that many girls must spent their days performing household tasks while their brothers receive an education. The NGOs hope to raise international awareness of the effects of gender bias and to exchange ideas about ways to empower women. PMID:12158129
Impact of Gender, Ethnicity, Year in School, Social Economic Status, and State Standardized Assessment Scores on Student Content Knowledge Achievement when Using Vee Maps as a Formative Assessment Tool
The National Research Council has recognized the challenge of assessing laboratory investigation and called for the investigation of assessments that are proven through sound research-based studies. The Vee map provides a framework that allows the learners to conceptualize their previous knowledge as they develop success in meaningful learning…
Thoron, Andrew C.; Myers, Brian E.
Laura McCullough at the University of Wisconsin-Stout created this web page that has many links of interest to people concerned with gender equity in the sciences. There is also an extensive bibliography of books and articles on gender equity. The author structures her site in this manner: links to reports and statistics, papers to read, general links, girls and science, and associations/societies/committees. This is an ongoing project for McCullough. She makes it clear from the site her openness for others to contribute to this collection.
SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097
Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.
Background Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. Methods The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N?=?795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants’ workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Results Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. Conclusions The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be explained by differences in the perception of the psychosocial work environment and thus the work environment hypothesis is not supported. Workplaces with a mixed gender composition needs further research attention to explain the negative development of psychological distress during working life for both women and men at these workplaces. PMID:24612791
The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…
Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen
Examines Israel's policy of gender equality in education, discussing: social and economic forces that created the demand for equality; political processes for implementing the policy; and policy content. Data from interviews and document reviews indicate that the policy was devised to address concerns of high-tech industries and women,…
This paper examines the ways in which neoliberal economic policies are affecting academic work in Israeli universities, prioritizing programs that can generate their own funding, External philanthropic support from North America has enabled creation of an interdisciplinary Women and Gender Studies Program at Tel Aviv University that draws…
The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…
Amussen, Susan Dwyer
Examines the role of television advertising among unskilled female factory laborers in Bangalore, India. Demonstrates that television in the global city provides spaces for the expression of urban and gendered identities that could be accessed through the economic benefits of factory labor. Concludes that participatory communication and further…
McMillin, Divya C.
Intended to help economics educators in grades K-12 foster in students the thinking skills and substantive economic knowledge necessary to become effective and participating citizens, this book is organized around four themes. Part I presents an introduction by Mark C. Schug and a section on "The Current Status of Economics in the K-12 Curriculum"…
Schug, Mark C., Ed.
Evidence suggests that there are differences in the capacity for empathy between males and females. However, how deep do these differences go? Stereotypically, females are portrayed as more nurturing and empathetic, while males are portrayed as less emotional and more cognitive. Some authors suggest that observed gender differences might be largely due to cultural expectations about gender roles. However, empathy has both evolutionary and developmental precursors, and can be studied using implicit measures, aspects that can help elucidate the respective roles of culture and biology. This article reviews evidence from ethology, social psychology, economics, and neuroscience to show that there are fundamental differences in implicit measures of empathy, with parallels in development and evolution. Studies in nonhuman animals and younger human populations (infants/children) offer converging evidence that sex differences in empathy have phylogenetic and ontogenetic roots in biology and are not merely cultural byproducts driven by socialization. We review how these differences may have arisen in response to males' and females' different roles throughout evolution. Examinations of the neurobiological underpinnings of empathy reveal important quantitative gender differences in the basic networks involved in affective and cognitive forms of empathy, as well as a qualitative divergence between the sexes in how emotional information is integrated to support decision making processes. Finally, the study of gender differences in empathy can be improved by designing studies with greater statistical power and considering variables implicit in gender (e.g., sexual preference, prenatal hormone exposure). These improvements may also help uncover the nature of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in which one sex is more vulnerable to compromised social competence associated with impaired empathy. PMID:25236781
Christov-Moore, Leonardo; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Coudé, Gino; Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco; Ferrari, Pier Francesco
This study investigates the relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relation varies by social factors. Data was taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, baseline 2003?2006). For the definition of overweight and obesity, body mass index was calculated based on standardized height and weight measurements. SRH of adolescents (n = 6813, 11?17 years) was raised with the question: "How would you describe your health in general?" The response categories were "very good", "good", "fair", "poor", and "very poor". We dichotomized these responses into: "very good/good" vs. "fair/poor/very poor". Socio-economic status (SES) in the family of origin and adolescents' school type were analyzed as modifying factors. Prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression models. We found that overweight and obese boys and obese girls reported fair to very poor SRH more often than their normal weight peers, and that these differences were more apparent in early than late adolescence. In addition, the relation between obesity and SRH was similarly strong in all sub-groups, but there was seldom a relation between overweight and SRH. In summary, the results show that obesity is linked to poor SRH regardless of SES and school type, while the relation between overweight and SRH varies by social factors among adolescents. PMID:25690000
Krause, Laura; Lampert, Thomas
Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…
Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.
Bridging the Gender Gap: Growing the Next Generation of Women in Computing A sobering fact: the U need to ensure our research and development teams are diverse enough to anticipate, respond, and serve Develop: This radically new software development environment lets you write code for your phone on your
Gendered appearance in "World of Warcraft" is of particular interest because it seems to infiltrate interactions between individuals without serving a functional purpose within the game itself. It provides an opportunity to look at avatar choice in environments that have a primary purpose aside from existing as an arena for creating identity, and…
This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…
Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.
Background Women and men share similar health challenges yet women report poorer health. The study investigates the social determinants of self-reported health in women and men, and male-female differences in health. Methods Data on 103154 men and 125728 women were analysed from 57 countries in the World Health Survey 2002–2004. Item Response Theory was used to construct a composite measure of health. Associations between health and determinants were assessed using multivariate linear regression. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition partitioned the inequality in health between women and men into an “explained" component that arises because men and women differ in social and economic characteristics, and an “unexplained" component due to the differential effects of these characteristics. Decomposition was repeated for 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region and 19 countries in the WHO European region. Results Women's health was significantly lower than men's. Health was associated with education, household economic status, employment, and marital status after controlling for age. In the pooled analysis decomposition showed that 30% of the inequality was “explained", of which almost 75% came from employment, education, marital status. The differential effects of being in paid employment increased the inequality. When countries in Africa and Europe were compared, the “explained" component (31% and 39% respectively) was largely attributed to the social determinants in the African countries and to women's longevity in the European countries. Being in paid employment had a greater positive effect on the health of males in both regions. Conclusions Ways in which age and the social determinants contribute to the poorer health status of women compared with men varies between groups of countries. This study highlights the need for action to address social structures, institutional discrimination and harmful gender norms and roles that differently influence health with ageing. PMID:22514667
Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Amin, Avni; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Beard, John; Boerma, Ties; Kowal, Paul; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath
The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…
Henderson, Emily F.
This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…
European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008
The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…
Syracuse University CFE/WS 700 Gender, Disability & Sexuality: Seminar in Feminist Disability, such as gender, race, sexuality, and social class. Issues explored within feminist disability studies are wide--Researching gender/race/class/sexuality from a disability studies lens. In groups of 3 or 4, choose a research topic
Mather, Patrick T.
Abstract. One of the most frequently voiced criticisms of the peer review process is gender bias review, Austrian Science Fund, gender bias, female reviewer salience effect The function of science in connection with peer review, gender bias has been the most frequently named and investigated (Bornmann, 2011
in the gaps with stereotypes and promotes gender bias (Carnes et al., 2007; reviewed by Isaac et al., Acad MedGender Equity as Institutional Change Molly Carnes, MD, MS Professor of Medicine, Psychiatry, and Industrial & Systems Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;Today's Presentation Â· What is gender
This study examined students' perceptions about gender and the subject of mathematics, as well as gender and mathematics learning. Secondary school students and pre-service elementary teachers were surveyed using the Mathematics as a Gendered Domain and Who and Mathematics instruments developed by Leder and Forgasz (Leder, 2001). The data indicate…
Kloosterman, Peter; Tassel, Janet; Ponniah, Ann G.; Esses, N. Kathryn
As a feminist economist who works on gender and development issues, I find that one key constraint to integrating economic and sexual justice is the way that development and international aid initiatives work to normalize gender and sexual identities. Political economy accounts of development often ignore the entrenched nature of heteronormativity in their thinking, in which reproductive heterosexuality is seen
This searchable bibliographic database contains records describing over 5,000 works on "feminist theory, feminist literary criticism and gender studies focusing on English and American literature" from 1950 to the present. The search form is available under the heading Research, where users may indicate which field to search, limit by year of publication, and specify whether to return results in English or German. Works included in the database have been assigned up to 20 keywords from a locally-developed thesaurus for feminist research. A German version of the thesaurus is available in the Deutsche (German) Version and work is underway to translate the thesaurus into English. Work on this database was started in 1987 by Professor Natasha Wurzbach of the University of Cologne (Germany) English Department, and was made accessible via the Internet through a cooperative project with the Department of Art and Design at the Fachhochschule Koln.
and Gender Studies 1000 - Knowing Bodies: An Introduction to Women and Gender Studies _____ Women and Gender in Women and Gender Studies: www.uleth.ca/artsci/women-gender-studies Academic Calendar: www Planning Guides: www.uleth.ca/ross/ppgs Department: Women and Gender Studies #12;2 Bachelor of Arts - Women
Inequalities in features and severity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have been noticed between men and women, suggesting a possible influence of gender on disease phenotypes. Comparing disease features and characterization of gender differences in clinical features and medications could help elucidate the potential influence of gender on the severity of AS in patients. This study aims to assess the influence of gender on disease patterns in Iranian patients with AS. Three hundred and twenty patients diagnosed with primary AS were assessed for demographic variables, clinical manifestations, HLA status, disease severity, functional capacities, quality of life, and treatment status. Sixty-seven women and 253 men were included corresponding to a male to female ratio of 3.78:1. Both groups were similar regarding ethnicity, positive family history, and juvenile onset AS. HLA-B27 was more frequent among males (78.3 vs. 55.2 %; p?0.001). There was a higher proportion of female patients with overall enthesitis (p?0.05). Extra-articular manifestations and treatment modalities presented similar frequencies in both genders. No difference in gender-associated diagnostic delays was observed. Female disease was at least as severe as male disease, and in some aspects, females presented with more severe disease. Despite a relatively similar disease profile, we observed a higher rate of enthesitis among women. Together with the equally high rate of disease activity indices in both genders, these findings indicate an overall longer delay to diagnosis in our country. Early detection and specialized care would be of great practical importance. PMID:24288047
Shahlaee, Abtin; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Farhadi, Elham; Fallahi, Sasan; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza
Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25247364
Camerer, Colin F
... false What is a misrepresentation of SDB status? 124.1004 Section 124.1004...1004 What is a misrepresentation of SDB status? (a) Any person or entity that...economically disadvantaged individuals” (“SDB status”) in order to obtain an...
This study sought to establish whether differences in gender-based (coeducational versus single-sex school) and socioeconomic status-based (working-middle versus upper-middle class) contexts would be associated with differences in dieting status among female adolescents. A second goal was to determine whether those differences would be independent of body mass index (BMI). Girls attending four separate high schools completed the Dieting Status Measure
Gail Huon; Anoushka Gunewardene; Angela Hayne
The objective of this article is to explore how parental status, gender, and their interaction influence a variety of aspects of searching for online health information. Drawing on nationally representative survey data, the results show that in a number of ways parenting and gender have separate but significant influences on the following: online…
Stern, Michael J.; Cotten, Shelia R.; Drentea, Patricia
Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the New England Common Assessment Program (NECAP), this report examines how gender gaps differ between Vermont NAEP scores and U.S. NAEP scores and between Vermont NAEP and NECAP scores in grades 4 and 8. Overall and disaggregated by poverty and disability status, gender…
Louie, Josephine; Ehrlich, Stacy
Examines the effects and interactions of gender, pubertal status, and body weight on the self-concept of young adolescent Australian students. The mean self-concept score was significantly related to students' standard body weight, and there was an interaction between gender and puberty, with postpubertal males having the highest and…
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne
The achievement of upward mobility through participation in international labour markets has become possible for nurses in the context of a 'new' democratic South Africa, but this contrasts sharply with the predicament of many in the post-apartheid context, for whom economic vulnerability and unemployment are the prevailing norm. Such a stark contrast has tended to complicate the domestic relations experienced by nurses who, as working professionals, often have significantly greater financial resources and career flexibility than their husbands. Looking at the possibilities and constraints that are created for nurses in their social relationships particularly with their husbands, I draw on Belinda Bozzoli's concept of 'domestic struggles' in order to emphasise the multiplicity and changeability of gendered relations, instead of assuming a single patriarchal status quo.1 Fixed representations of gender roles nonetheless play an important part in nurses' own commentary on migration. While many nurses speak enthusiastically of the possibilities of seeking work overseas, others draw upon familiar representations of female domestic duty to condemn migrants for neglecting their family in pursuit of financial gain. I argue that this criticism is rooted in a fear of the threat that migration presents to existing nursing hierarchies, as a new and powerful tool for status acquisition in the post-apartheid context. PMID:21280395
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418
Aparisi Miralles, Angela
The focus of this article is to show that in Italy nowadays it is not important to relate psychopathology with violence. That is because it seems that it is more important to study gender and domestic violence as a social and cultural phenomenon than analyzing its psychopathological issues. Obviously, in accord with the literature there is a relationship about psychopatholgy and violence and this relationship concerns only about 5% of the total violence reported. PMID:25413541
Anzallo, Calogero; Carmignani, Michela
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…
Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.
Are occupational and work conditions associated with work-to-home conflict? If so, do those associations vary by gender? Among a sample of adults in Toronto, Canada, we found that men and women in higher-status occupations reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict than workers in lower-status jobs. In addition, we observed higher levels of…
Schieman, Scott; Whitestone, Yuko Kurashina; Van Gundy, Karen
This study investigated the differences among 403 middle adolescents regarding Marcia's four identity statuses in terms of perceived parental attitudes and gender. The Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS-2) and Parental Education Scale (PAS) were used to collect data. Results showed that children of authoritative parents…
Cakir, S. Gulfem; Aydin, Gul
This article discusses the reasons for conducting gender impact assessment in microfinance and microenterprise. Although women are increasingly being targeted in microfinance and microenterprise projects, this does not necessarily mean that gender relations are being taken into account. Rather, targeting women raises a host of questions about the context in which women are operating their businesses or handling finance. Assessing gender impact in microfinance and microenterprise can help answer the questions in order to understand whether women are able to use the services and make the anticipated improvements in their livelihoods. Moreover, several approaches are suggested: 1) establish a gender baseline; 2) consider the potential impacts of the project on gender relations; 3) establish the information and indicators required; and 4) collect and analyze the data using tools and techniques appropriate to the task. However, in the context of gender relations there remains much ground, which often cannot be openly discussed. The discussion of how people organize their financial and economic affairs inside the household is usually a delicate area. Hence, it is suggested that such matters should be handled very carefully and to consider the composition and dynamics of the research team itself. PMID:12295962
This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure. Women…
Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.
Background Pain management is a complex and evolving topic. Treatment of pain must account for biochemical as well as social and economic\\u000a factors. Sex, gender, and ethnic differences exist in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and provision of care for patients with\\u000a pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes We sought to identify the sex, gender, and ethnic disparities leading to care inequalities with respect to pain management.\\u000a Our
Atul F. Kamath; Mary I. O’Connor
Ideas of fairness influence economic transactions. Men and women may differ systematically in the nature and extent of this influence. We investigate gender differences in the impact of fairness on the outcome of economic transactions. In our “punishment game” subjects may choose to split a larger pie with a “bad” partner, or a smaller pie with a “good” partner. We
Catherine C. Eckel; Philip J. Grossman
Over the past two decades, India has seen a startling rise in the male-to-female sex ratio of children under the age of 7, which has been especially troubling because it has taken place in the midst of rapid economic growth. My thesis aims to investigate why gender equality, often viewed as a consequence of economic development, has not improved despite
This paper explores the cultural and economic strategies of educated but un/under-employed young Muslim men aged between 20 and 34 in a village in western Uttar Pradesh, north India. Drawing on Connell's gender theory, the paper demonstrates how economic and political forces shape Muslim young men's strategies. The paper distinguishes between…
Jeffrey, Craig; Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia
Centenarians are often concerned with outliving their accumulated resources. Yet, research consistently finds that older adults, despite low incomes, are more financially satisfied than younger adults. This "satisfaction paradox" has been attributed to psychological accommodation to poor financial circumstances and lower expectations. As a result,…
Garasky, Steven; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Cho, Jinmyoung
Two theoretical perspectives have dominated debates about the impact of development on gender stratification: modernization\\u000a theory, which argues that gender inequalities decline with economic growth, and the “women in development” perspective, which\\u000a argues that development may initially widen gender gaps. Analyzing cross-sectional surveys and time-series data from China,\\u000a this article indicates the relevance of both perspectives: while girls’ educational opportunities
Provided by the Institute for International Economics (IIE) (reviewed in the December 4, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this site is a useful resource for Economics or International Relations courses. Using testimony, speeches, articles, working papers, and an interesting case study (of Myanmar), the site explains and explores the economic and political goals and impact of sanctions. Additional Hot Topics features include the Japan Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, and the Euro Conversion.
A new project from the Gender & Diversities Institute and the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse, the Gender and Science Digital Library (GSDL) is a major initiative to create an interactive digital library of high quality gender and science resources. The library will assist K-12 educators in providing equitable science education by raising awareness of the effects that gender has on learning science and sharing teaching methods to address gender differences. The site is currently seeking educators to share resources that they have developed and to review material submitted by others. Teachers can also contribute by responding to a focus group survey on the design of the site. For those users who would like further information, there is also a link to the upcoming conferences in which GSDL will participate. This is an important site to watch for any science teacher concerned about gender equity issues.
Key studies have established an association between women's social roles and their midlife personalities. The current research expands our understanding by examining personality traits in midlife women who followed normative or non-normative life paths. The normative/non-normative distinction was based on two kinds of social roles that college-educated women undertook until midlife: work and family. Gender-linked personality traits were compared between (1) women in high status professions and women in moderate status professions; (2) women without children and women with children; and (3) single mothers and married mothers. Composite measures of gender-linked traits, based on expert-identified Q-sort items, were used. Each non-normative social role group exhibited a different pattern of gender-linked personality traits inconsistent with conventional female gender roles. PMID:23559687
Newton, Nicky J.; Stewart, Abigail J.
BRIDGE (briefings on development and gender) is an information service provided by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex. BRIDGE supplies development agencies with briefings that "present state of the art research findings, review current policy debates, synthesize best practice, and evaluate strategies for translating gender policies into practice." This site includes full-text BRIDGE publications, a bibliographic database, and links to other gender and development resources.
Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence 1 Running Head: Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence Christopher T. Allen University of New York #12;Gender Symmetry, Sexism, & Intimate Partner Violence 2 Abstract The current study
Gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules 1 Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPLIANCE Gender Differences in Preschool Children's Declared and Behavioral Compliance with Pedestrian Rules ABSTRACT The study examined gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules among preschool
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Consistent with the dictum, "the personal is political," feminist scholars have maintained that gender equity in security, access to education, economic opportunity, and property ownership are central to women's well-being. Empirical research evaluating this thesis can include nation-level indicators of gender equity, such as the United Nation…
Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Grabe, Shelly
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. PMID:23998673
Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
Gender assignment relates to a native speaker's knowledge of the structure of the gender system of his/her language, allowing the speaker to select the appropriate gender for each noun. Whereas categorical assignment rules and exceptional gender assignment are well investigated, assignment regularities, i.e., tendencies in the gender distribution…
Schwichtenberg, Beate; Schiller, Niels O.
The aim of this study was to examine ego identity status among Swedish adolescents using the EOM-EIS-II. Identity status scores and distributions were examined for 222 (108 female, 114 male) Swedish high school students. Identity status differences were found between genders. There was a greater likelihood of female adolescents being categorized…
Bergh, Susanne; Erling, Ann
Summary Our analysis suggests that Weitzman’s finding concerning the precipitous decline in the economic status of women following\\u000a divorce is likely to be incorrect. Her findings not only imply improbably large changes in income but are also inconsistent\\u000a with the information she reports on changes in income and in income per capita. Corrected estimates suggest a decline in economic\\u000a status of
Saul D. Hoffman; Greg J. Duncan
Despite the steady increase of women in faculty positions over the last few decades and the research on gender norms in the academy, what remains unclear is why many female faculty continue to conform to gender norms despite their acknowledgement of the discriminatory nature of these norms, their dissatisfaction performing the norms, and the lack…
Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ? 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%). 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1%) (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean). Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD) 0.18), median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.848 to 1) and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18), median 1 (IQR 1 to 1). Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL) was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention. PMID:22533538
The decrease in occupational segregation between the genders indicates a need to reposition traditionally gender-based customer services. This study examines advertising effectiveness in terms of the gender of the chef endorser in restaurant advertisements, and also explores the influence of respondents' gender stereotypes and respondents' genders on perceived effectiveness. We used the chef's gender as the independent variable, the effectiveness
Hsiang-Fei Luoh; Pei-Chun Lo
The decrease in occupational segregation between the genders indicates a need to reposition traditionally gender-based customer services. This study examines advertising effectiveness in terms of the gender of the chef endorser in restaurant advertisements, and also explores the influence of respondents' gender stereotypes and respondents' genders on perceived effectiveness. We used the chef's gender as the independent variable, the effectiveness
Hsiang-Fei Luoh; Pei-Chun Lo
Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996
Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond
This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women’s access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system—a product of the Communist era—while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women’s migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women. PMID:21308565
STECKLOV, GUY; CARLETTO, CALOGERO; AZZARRI, CARLO; DAVIS, BENJAMIN
Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 Â· Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse
Minnesota, University of
This study evaluated the effect of a 10-week fundamental motor skill programme in pre-schoolers with motor problems. Alongside the general effect of the intervention, we also explored possible gender differences and the role of the environmental context (living community, socio-economic status, and recreational space inside/outside the house). The intervention group (n=47; 20 ? and 27 ?) received twenty 60-min motor skill sessions (2 per week) in addition to the regular physical education curriculum for pre-schoolers; the control group (n=46; 21 ? and 25 ?) did not receive additional practice. General motor competence, and locomotor and object control subscales, were assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition (TGMD-2). Data regarding environmental factors were gathered through a questionnaire. A Group×Gender×Time ANOVA revealed that the intervention group benefited significantly from the intervention and scored better than the control group at the post-test for general motor competence and both sub-categories (locomotor and object control skill). Moreover, the intervention programme was found to be effective in helping 49% of the intervention group to achieve an average motor skill level, according to the TGMD-2 norms, while a further decline in motor competence was observed in the control group. Interestingly, the effect appeared to be gender-specific, since object control skill improved only in girls of the intervention group. Considering the environmental context, none of the above-mentioned factors was found to have an influence on the effectiveness of the intervention. The present study highlights the need for an early motor skill programme with a gender-specific approach in order to help low skilled boys and girls master a diverse set of motor skills. PMID:24183475
Bardid, Farid; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Descamps, Sofie; Verhoeven, Liesbeth; De Pooter, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; D'Hondt, Eva
The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…
Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga
Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…
Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona
"Gender, Masculinities and Lifelong Learning" reflects on current debates and discourses around gender and education, in which some academics, practitioners and policy-makers have referred to a crisis of masculinity. This book explores questions such as: Are men under-represented in education? Are women outstripping men in terms of achievement?…
Bowl, Marion, Ed.; Tobias, Robert, Ed.; Leahy, Jennifer, Ed.; Ferguson, Graeme, Ed.; Gage, Jeffrey, Ed.
Gender differences in cognitive abilities were determined using the norms from the four standardizations of the Differential Aptitude Tests conducted between 1947 and 1980, and from the four standardizations of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test\\/Scholastic Aptitude Test conducted between 1960 and 1983. The standardized gender differences (ds) were averaged over grade of examinees and year of standardization to obtain a
Since the 1960s, gender differences in mathematics performance have been a major topic in educational and mathematical research. This study entails a gender comparative analysis of students' mathematics performance as determined by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and by the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency. In a public school system in rural…
Porter, Rhonda C.
LETTER Gender, biology, and mathematics performance In their analyses of gender and cultural is sex differences in mathematical disability, defined and categorized by DSM-IV as developmental in overall mathematical abilities. Interpretation of such patterns, however, is a fundamentally different
Crespi, Bernard J.
Large national data sets and curvilinear growth models were used to examine gender differences in mathematics achievement trajectories from elementary through high school. Despite relatively equal starting points and relatively equal slopes, boys had a faster rate of acceleration, resulting in a slight gender difference by 12th grade. (Contains 39…
Leahey, Erin; Guo, Guang
The term ‘gender’ refers to socially determined roles and responsibilities of women and men and the relationship between them in society. The concept is widely misunderstood and seen as synonymous with women. If biodiversity is to survive, women and men both need to play a role in its management. To examine gender concerns in the use of coastal bio-resources, a
While the importance of female education has been widely recognised, gender disparity in education persists in a number of developing countries. The evidence from sub-Saharan Africa shows that the disparity is prominent both in access and quality. This paper attempts to discuss the issue of gender and education from the perspectives of \\
Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…
Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu
English male and female names have different phonological properties. This article examines 3 questions about this phenomenon: How informative is phonology about gender? Have English speakers learned this information? Does this knowledge affect name usage? Results from a connectionist model indicate that English phonology predicts name gender quite well. Experiments found that English speakers have learned these cues. For example,
Kimberly Wright Cassidy; Michael H. Kelly; Lee'at J. Sharoni
This study explored gender differences in the reasons why academics accept or reject offers of faculty positions. Using both open-ended questions and rating scales, 115 academics in the early stages of their careers who had accepted or declined\\/resigned university positions between 1986 and 1989 were interviewed. Contrary to suggestions in the literature, few significant gender differences emerged. In particular, family
James J. Teevan; Susan Pepper; Joseph R. Pellizzari
A study investigated gender stereotypes in photographs of female and male athletes, noting differences in the way the two genders are depicted in photographs taken by the Associated Press (AP) and also in photos chosen by newspaper editors. Every photograph sent by AP from the 1987 Wimbledon tennis tournament to one Texas newspaper was coded in…
Wanta, Wayne; Leggett, Dawn
Gender equity has been a national and global aim for over half a century (Ceci & Williams, 2007; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; National Science Board, 2008). While gains have been made, one area where inequity remains is spatial reasoning ability, where a large gender gap in favor of males has persisted over the years…
Dancu, Toni Nicole
This article addresses 2 questions. First, to what extent are sex and gender incorporated into research on genetics and health? Second, how might social science understandings of sex and gender, and gender differences in health, become more integrated into scholarship in this area? We review articles on genetics and health published in selected peer-reviewed journals. Although sex is included frequently as a control or stratifying variable, few articles articulate a conceptual frame or methodological justification for conducting research in this way, and most are not motivated by sex or gender differences in health. Gender differences in health are persistent, unexplained, and shaped by multilevel social factors. Future scholarship on genetics and health needs to incorporate more systematic attention to sex and gender, gender as an environment, and the intertwining of social and biological variation over the life course. Such integration will advance understandings of gender differences in health, and may yield insight regarding the processes and circumstances that make genomic variation relevant for health and well-being. PMID:23927517
Yang, Yang Claire; Jenkins, Tania M.
The purpose of this paper is to study how progress in home production technologies and in medical technologies influences gender differences in labor market outcomes and the household division of labor, in an economy with endogenous gender roles. We consider a model in which incentive problems on the labor market play a crucial role in the emergence of unequal labor
Stefania Albanesi; Claudia Olivetti
The Economics Challenge is a economics competition for high school students living in the twelfth district -- Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. The competition strives to "increase [high school students's] knowledge and understanding of economics." Winning team members will receive $1,000 US savings bonds. The site includes a description of the competition, registration forms for these states, and two sets of practice questions and answers.
Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtai