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The purpose of this research was to explore drug use in a group of 49 separated\\/divorced persons. We differentiated between nonprescribed, prescribed psychotropic drugs, and other prescribed drugs. The research technique consisted of 3-h in-depth interviews. The independent variables were gender, socio-economicstatus, and the subjects' own parental status. Contrary to earlier studies, we found a higher drug use among
This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economicstatus (SES) and gender.\\u000a Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument.\\u000a Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number\\u000a of books at home together with a separate study room are
This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economicstatus (SES) and gender.\\u000a Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument.\\u000a Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number\\u000a of books at home together with a separate study room are
Uncultivated plants are an important part of agricultural systems and play a key role in the survival of rural marginalized\\u000a groups such as women, children, and the poor. Drawing on the gender, environment, and development literature and on the notion\\u000a of women’s social location, this paper examines the ways in which gender, ethnicity, and economicstatus determine women’s\\u000a roles in
The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economicstatus and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…
|The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economicstatus and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…
This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economicstatus (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.
This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economicstatus (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.
|Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economicstatus (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in mathematics achievement scores among elementary school students placed in departmental and self-contained classroom organizational structures. Previous research on the effects of organizational structures on student achievement has been inconclusive due to several confounding variables. Thus, this study considered the effects of ethnicity, gender, and socio-economicstatus (SES), while comparing
BACKGROUND: Studies that addressed social and economic determinants of cardiovascular diseases, consistently showed an increase prevalence of the individual features of metabolic syndrome in the lower socio-economic strata. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between social class and metabolic syndrome in a sample of urban middle-aged and old Portuguese adults. METHODS: We evaluated 1962 subjects (1207 women and
Malignant melanoma is the cancer that has shown the fastest increase in incidence in most white populations in recent decades. This paper studies the diffusion of the disease for males and females, geographical areas and socio-economic groups. Incidence data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry covering the period 1955–1989 make it possible to establish birth cohorts covering a time span from
BACKGROUND: Consistent with global trends, the prevalence of obesity is increasing among Norwegian adults. This study aimed to investigate individual trends in BMI (kg\\/m2) by age, gender, and socio-economicstatus over an 11-year period. METHODS: A cohort of 1169 adults (n = 581 men; n = 588 women) self-reported BMI during a general health interview twice administered in two regions
Deborah L Reas; Jan F Nygård; Elisabeth Svensson; Tom Sørensen; Inger Sandanger
Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, with women consistently reporting greater sleep problems than men, yet scant sociological research has examined gender differences in sleep quality. This paper analyses (i) gender differences in sleep problems, and (ii) how marital status differences in sleep problems differ among women and men. In both cases, the relative contributions of socio-economicstatus (SES), smoking, worries, health and depression in explaining these gender and marital status differences are analysed. Logistic regression is used to analyse the British Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2000, which interviewed 8578 men and women aged 16 to 74. Women reported significantly more sleep problems than men, as did the divorced and widowed compared with married respondents. Gender differences in sleep problems were halved following adjustment for socio-economic characteristics, suggesting that SES inequalities play a major part in accounting for gender differences. This study casts doubt on the primacy of physiological explanations underlying gender differences in sleep. Marital status differences in sleep are greater among men than women, with previously partnered men reporting particularly poor quality sleep. However, this is largely explained by the more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances of the previously partnered, especially for men. The paper concludes that gender and marital status differences are partly due to the lower socio-economicstatus of women and of the previously partnered. PMID:22768414
This study used an 11-year nationwide database to analyze the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) in subgroups by age, gender, injury level, etiology, and socioeconomic status. The National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, covering over 99% of the population accumulated from 1998 to 2008, was analyzed. All SCI patients>20 years of age and admitted to medical services were identified. Of the 168,832,051.4 person-years, 41,586 newly established diagnoses of SCI were identified, for a SCI incidence of 2.46 per 10,000 person-years, and 61.2% were traumatic. Cervical SCI was the highest at 1.28, followed by lumbar 0.56, and thoracic 0.30 per 10,000 person-years. Males were more likely to have SCI (HR=1.52). Compared to the age group of 20-39 years, the 40-59-year-old group and the group aged ? 60 years were more likely to have SCI (HR=1.66 and 2.12, respectively). Those with the lowest insurance premium (which represents income level) were more likely to have SCI compared to the highest insurance premium group (HR=1.86). Those living in the eastern area were more likely to have SCI than those living in the northern area (where political and economic centers are located) (HR=1.52). Those in the most rural area were more likely (HR=1.69) to have SCI than those in the most urbanized areas. The overall national incidence of adult SCI in Taiwan was 246 per million-person-year. Several groups, such as elderly men with lower socioeconomic status, were more likely to experience SCI. PMID:21510819
|This article highlights how dynamic gender relations affect the diverse experiences of men and women in Appalachia's economic development. The analysis draws from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census data to examine and compare the demographic, social, and economic conditions of women and men in Appalachia. The discussion focuses on geographical…
A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…
South Korea has the highest suicide rate among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), with a rising trend that contrasts with the trend in most other OECD countries. This study assessed differential associations of socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation in South Korea. We used five waves of data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Study subjects included 5803 men and women aged >25 years. We analysed weighted percentages with consideration of the complex survey sample design and unequal weights. Surveylogistic regressions were applied. Protective effects against suicidal ideation were found for higher household income, higher educational attainment, and being married. Functional limitations and depressive symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. However, these significant factors may exert different effects on vulnerability for suicidal ideation among different genders and age groups. Thus, household income was mainly protective for women and subjects aged 25-44 years, and educational attainment was protective for individuals aged >65 years. Our findings suggest the need for extended social protection policies for the less privileged population and special strategies for different groups. PMID:23769392
|Investigated gender differences in economics education and achievement, using data from a study of Australian secondary school students that collected data on student background and economics achievement (via the Test of Economic Literacy). Results showed few gender differences related to item bias, total performance, and student background…
This study estimates the prevalence of known diabetes, and complications of type 2 diabetes, among subjects aged 35-64 years, in relation to socio-economic factors and gender at four primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Stockholm County, Sweden. A total of 685 diabetic subjects aged 35-64 years of age were identified in primary care by diagnosis using electronic patient records. Data were supplied from medical records, and postal questionnaires. The prevalence of known diabetes among subjects aged 35-65 years differed between the PHCCs, with standardised rates between 1.7 and 3.6%, with the highest figure at the PHCC in an underprivileged area. The prevalence was higher among men (2.8% versus 1.7%). A subgroup of the patients, i.e. 389 subjects aged 35-64 years with type 2 diabetes, was studied with regard to complications. Higher education level was protective for microvascular complications (OR 0.50; CI 0.25-1.00). In addition, microvascular complications were predicted by male sex, duration, HbA(1c), and hypertension, and macrovascular complications by male sex, age, and hypertension. Prevalence of known diabetes and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes, are associated with lower socio-economicstatus and male sex. PMID:14757291
One hundred and fifty-seven state college undergraduates (84 females and 73 males) answered the Jackson Incest Blame Scale [JIBS] modified to include mother-blaming after reading one of four vignettes about father-daughter incest in high or low SES White or Black families. Responses about incest prevalence (created for this study) in families with different ethnic and SES backgrounds varied with gender and SES of participants. Gender differences include blame of offender, situation, victim, and mother on the modified JIBS. Parents blamed the offender more than non-parents. Participants who knew an incest survivor disagreed significantly more with victim-blaming statements than those who did not know a survivor of incest. PMID:9169387
|By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…
In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied
Over the past decade, the welfare evaluation of local economic development activities has become increasingly sophisticated. Projected or realized gains have been broken down by wage levels, household income levels, and race. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the distribution of gains by gender. In parallel, the gender literature has recognized the distribution of economic development activity by
Obesity is widely assumed to be associated with economic affluence; it has therefore been assumed to become more common with economic development. However, obesity has also been associated with poverty. These contrary findings highlight the need for an examination of the contribution of social and economic factors to the global distribution of obesity. Males and females may be differently exposed to social and economic inequality, however few studies have considered possible gender differences in the association between socio-economic indices and obesity prevalence. We analysed between-country associations between obesity prevalence and three social or economic indices: per capita gross domestic product (GDP), the Gini index of national wealth inequality, and the gender inequality index (GII). We considered the genders separately, the gender average, and also the gender difference (female excess) in obesity prevalence. Across 68 countries listing sample size, there were 3 obese women for every 2 obese men. Within populations, obesity prevalence in males and females was strongly correlated (r = 0.74), however, only 17% of the female excess prevalence was accounted for by the gender-average prevalence. In both genders, there was a positive association between obesity prevalence and GDP that attenuated at higher GDP levels, with this association weaker in females than males. Adjusting for GDP, both the Gini index and GII were associated with excess female obesity. These analyses highlight significant gender differences in the global distribution of obesity, and a gender difference in the association of obesity prevalence with socio-economic factors. The magnitude of female excess obesity is not constant across populations, and is greater in countries characterised by gender inequality and lower GDP. These findings indicate that improving women's status may be a key area for addressing the global obesity epidemic over the long term, with potential benefits for the women themselves and for their offspring. PMID:22580078
Wells, Jonathan C K; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Cole, Tim J; McCoy, David
Several experimental studies on altruism have found women to be more generous than men. We investigate whether observed gender gaps in generosity can be explained by experimental setting, where some settings are more conducive than others to activating gender identity and social norms. In a dictator game we study priming along two dimensions: 1) some subjects enter their gender on
The current status of lobster culture research is presented in an economic context by describing culture cost projections and their sensitivity to parameter variation. The current state of the mathematical model is described and related to recent research...
Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economicstatus (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression,
|Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…
This article details a study of metaphor production by 64 same-gender dyads engaged in 2 persuasive conversations over chat software. Dyads were comprised of friends or strangers. Overall, men produced more metaphor than women, especially slang. Metaphor production differed by gender as a function of friendship status: Men produced the same amount…
Status differences between women and men can explain why they perceive themselves as having different personality traits.\\u000a The status explanation of gender stereotyping is discussed in relation to two views that have shaped research and theory on\\u000a gender and personality: the traditional view that men and women are characterized by stable, enduring dispositions and the\\u000a more recent view that women’s
This paper integrates research findings on status and the gender stereotyped personality traits and examines the extent to\\u000a which women’s lower status than men can account for two components of gender stereotyping in the United States: the belief\\u000a that women and men have different personality traits and the differences in men’s and women’s perceptions of their own personality\\u000a traits. In
OBJECTIVES. This study examined gender variation in nutritional treatment and anthropometric status of infants in the Gaza Strip. Numerous studies have documented gender differences in health status in developing areas, generally finding boys to be at an advantage over girls. Social and economic characteristics in Gaza suggest that one might expect preferential treatment of boys there. METHODS. The study used data on two samples of infants 0 to 18 months of age collected from five health centers in Gaza. A variety of different analytic methods were used to look for gender differences in feeding patterns, prevalence of malnutrition, and anthropometric status. RESULTS. Although some differences in nutritional treatment and anthropometric outcome for infants of different socioeconomic status and between the earlier and later samples were found, no consistent gender differences were revealed. CONCLUSIONS. The findings are consistent with several different explanations. First, expectations of finding gender differences may have been unfounded. Alternatively, such differences may have existed previously but have been eliminated through successful public health intervention, rising levels of education, and economic development.
This paper reports on the relationship between salary and a set of explanatory variables for a sample of enterprise (management) accountants. In order to conduct the analysis, a sample was drawn from a large southeastern chapter of the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA). Based upon human capital theory and gender research, different groups of variables are regressed against salary for
The environmental justice literature has described differential health effects of environmental toxins and pollutants on people of different socio-economicstatus (SES) that may not always reflect differing levels of exposure. We offer four questions or contentions that together may contribute to understanding this conundrum and then present an empirical exploration of one of these questions: Does the relationship between SES and self-perceived status vary in space? Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults conducted in twenty-five communities in British Columbia, Canada, a supplementary data set containing demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the communities themselves, and multilevel modelling techniques, this article describes relationships between objective and subjective measures of social status, by gender and in space. Our analysis contributes to the development of innovative environmental justice models by bringing some spatial sensitivity to interrelationships among these aspects of status. PMID:16275047
Objectives Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish cultural gendered factors influencing employment decisions (e.g., expected work roles, family responsibilities) from sex-linked biological differences shaping physiological response to workplace physical hazards. Methods We examined effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14,618 white- and blue-collar aluminum manufacturing employees in eight U.S. states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job placement, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Results Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR = 2.02 (95% CI = 1.37–2.97)), partnered men with children less likely (OR = 0.68 (0.56–0.83)). Education, age at hire, and race influenced job placement for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR = 1.78 (1.34 – 2.35)). Conclusions Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (e.g., single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, workplace stressors, and health risks associated with hourly work, is warranted.
Clougherty, Jane E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Slade, Martin D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R.
This research note finds significant earnings differentials across gender that can not be explained by differences in individual, job, or institutional characteristics. Specifically, we find that female economics and business faculty earn between 1.3 and 7.4% less than would be predicted in the absence of discrimination.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand better the gendered nature of role model status within organizations. The paper aims to argue that women require organizational legitimacy to be perceived as a role model, whereas men rely primarily on the strength of social ties within their friendship networks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical study of admissions department employees
Fitness testing is a prominent element in many physical education programs, but there has been limited investigation concerning motivation constructs associated with the testing. This study investigated the relationships among physical education students' award status and gender to achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and intentions. After…
This study examined the effects of marital status and gender on the subjective quality of life in Korea. Respondents included 483 males (125 single; 358 married) and 472 females (78 single; 394 married). Five separate scales were used to measure the quality of life: a single-item general happiness scale; two measures provided by negative-affect scales; a modified version of the Life-in- General Scale; and a scale measuring the sense of personal competence. Findings demonstrated that the nature of the relation between marital status and subjective well-being depends upon which dimension of the quality of life is concerned. Furthermore, being married contributes positively to the level of general happiness. However, analyses with other measures of life revealed that the effect of marital status is moderated by gender; being married negatively affects the quality of life among men, while it has a positive effect on women. In addition, the effect of gender is more consistent and stronger in magnitude than the effect of marital status. Most of these findings were in contrast to previous results conducted in the US; further research was recommended. PMID:12295268
This article joins the debate over the effect of market-driven economic development on women's work opportunities and household gender inequalities. It assesses women's opportunities for off-farm employment, the relative contributions of female off-farm workers to household income, and the distribution of power in families whose male members have left for off-farm jobs, leaving women behind in agricultural work. We find
This paper investigates empirically the determinants of economic growth for a set of semi-industrialized export-oriented economies in which women provide the bulk of labor in the export sector. The primary hypothesis tested is that gender inequality which contributes to women’s relatively lower wages was a stimulus to growth via the effect on exports during 1975–95. Empirical analysis shows that GDP
Immigration has long been a national and state concern. The 1989 Legalized Population Survey (LPS-1) collected data on illegal immigrants to the US who subsequently became legalized aliens under the provisions of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. These data are used in a study assessing whether undocumented male and female immigrants improve their earnings and occupational status over time and the extent of variation in occupational status and mobility by gender and region. The data indicate that both undocumented men and women, on average, improved their earnings and occupational status between their first jobs in the US and their jobs just before applying for legalization under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. However, the earnings, occupational status, and occupational mobility of men were greater than for women. PMID:12321470
The present study examined the effects of gender and status on the use of power strategies. The experiment consisted of a computer-based problem-solving task performed in pairs, where partici- pants interacted with simulated long-distance partners. Participants were 36 female and 38 male undergraduate students, who were assigned to be influencing agents and were required to convince their partners to accept
Shira Keshet; Ronit Kark; Limor Pomerantz-Zorin; Meni Koslowsky; Joseph Schwarzwald
Although recognition of the significance of gender divisions continues to transform economic geography, the discipline nevertheless remains highly uneven in its degree of engagement with gender as a legitimate focus of analysis. In particular, although social institutions are now widely regarded as key determinants of economic success, the regional learning and innovation literature remains largely gender blind, simultaneously subordinating the
|The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…
In this exercise designed for a Race, Class and Gender course. Students will examine the effect of gender and race on social class in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 2000 Census and guides students through data interpretation using table outputs from WebCHIP found at DataCounts!.
This paper uses longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the relationship between changes in marital\\u000a status and economicstatus. Differences between men and women and between whites and blacks are also considered. A major finding\\u000a is that, after adjusting for changes in family size, the economicstatus of divorced or separated men improves, while that
This study complements existing research on the contributions and rankings of female economists with a descriptive analysis of the prevalence of gender issues in U.S. economicsjournals. Assuming that labor economics and development economics are the fields most likely to examine gender issues, I compare the incidence of gender-related articles in the last decade in leading U.S. general economics journals with
This research focuses on the role played by cultural norms in the long run persistence of gender inequalities. Cultural norms about gender roles are considered to be endogenous and can generate gender inequality and low development traps. Indeed, when the gender gap is internalized, it leads to inegalitarian views about gender roles. Due to these inegalitarian beliefs, boys receive more
This study examined the impact of economic deficits due to structural adjustment processes on shifts in the organization of work by gender and migration status in Ecuador. Work is organized according to Lawson's social hierarchy scheme: ownership; authority and control over employees; autonomy in one's own work; and the nature and range of skills used in production. After a brief review of the related empirical literature, the author describes the concepts, categories of, and study area of work and then begins the empirical analysis. Data were obtained from 1,884,816 individual records of economically active persons in 1982 and 2,946,547 persons in 1990, from the censuses of 1982 and 1990 for the entire nation, and from fieldwork observations by Lawson. Structural adjustment policies (SAPs) associated with devolution tend to further aggravate inequities, especially among the disadvantaged. Findings are presented for male and female nonmigrants, migrants, and female migrants. During the 1980s, female migrants experienced primary economic activity, especially as self-employed, family, or low skilled employees; and declines in high skilled public sector employment and service activity, especially in wage labor. The economic impact was greater by gender than by migration status. The shifts only improved the relative position of women in self-employed and ownership jobs. Females lost public-sector employment to males; overall wage declines were more severe in the informal sector. Down-sizing in the public sector and shifts toward capital-intensive production marginalized female migrants. Fieldwork operationalizes losses among females/female migrants. PMID:12321833
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduces fertility,
The report addresses two issues pertaining to the relationships between discrimination, civil rights legislation, and the economicstatus of Asian Americans. One issue is whether discrimination today, despite legal protections, adversely affects the econo...
Participants' interpretations of facial expressions of emotion and judgments made about the poser as a function of gender, job status, and facial expression were examined. Two hypotheses regarding interpretation of expression stress either facial expression alone or a combination of facial expression and social context. Gender and status of target were expected to influence ratings of emotion and personality characteristics.
Sara B. Algoe; Brenda N. Buswell; John D. DeLamater
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine gender differences in occupational status among South Korean workers in 1988 and 1998. In 1988, the South Korean National Assembly enacted an Equal Employment Opportunity Act. The goal is to better understand how occupational status differs by gender between these time periods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using the “88 and 98 Occupational
This paper reviews current knowledge about the role that socio-economic and cultural factors play in determining gender differentials in tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculosis control. The studies reviewed suggest that socio-economic and cultural factors may be important in two ways: first, they may play a role in determining overall gender differences in rates of infection and progression to disease, and second,
This report provides a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in economic support and well-being in eight countries in Southern and Eastern Asia (Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, and Taiwan). We examine multiple economic indicators, including sources of income, receipt of financial and material support, income levels, ownership of assets, and subjective well-being. Results show substantial variation in gender
This article examines recent statistics provided by the government and the library profession concerning gender, professional, and economic parity among academic library directors. The results revealed that women now hold the majority of library directorships and that women's economic compensation in some cases exceeds that of their male counterparts. The author conducted a two-part survey that looked at the gender
Fitness testing is a prominent element in many physical education programs, but there has been limited investigation concerning motivation constructs associated with the testing. This study investigated the relationships among physical education students' award status and gender to achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and intentions. After they had completed a battery of fitness tests, 123 fifth-grade physical education students were classified into two groups: those who received awards and those who did not. They completed a series of questionnaires assessing motivational constructs. Analyses of variance revealed that students who received a fitness award reported higher levels of task-involvement, perceived competence, effort, enjoyment, and future intention than those who did not. Boys reported higher levels of ego-involvement than girls, but no other gender differences were evident. The findings from this study can be used to inform practitioners, test designers, and researchers about the ways fitness testing programs can be structured so that all students receive the potential benefits from participating in such assessments. PMID:20949851
Fisheries Economics of the U.S., 2006 is the first publication in the new series, Economics and Sociocultural Status and Trends, reporting economic data related to commercial and recreational fishing, and fishing-related industries in the United States. T...
This research tests the thesis that the neoclassical micro-economic and the new household economic theoretical assumptions on migration decision-making rules are segmented by gender, marital status, and time frame of intention to migrate. Comparative tests of both theories within the same study design are relatively rare. Utilizing data from the Causes of Migration in South Africa national migration survey, we analyze how individually held "own-future" versus alternative "household well-being" migration decision rules effect the intentions to migrate of male and female adults in South Africa. Results from the gender and marital status specific logistic regressions models show consistent support for the different gender-marital status decision rule thesis. Specifically, the "maximizing one's own future" neoclassical microeconomic theory proposition is more applicable for never married men and women, the "maximizing household income" proposition for married men with short-term migration intentions, and the "reduce household risk" proposition for longer time horizon migration intentions of married men and women. Results provide new evidence on the way household strategies and individual goals jointly affect intentions to move or stay. PMID:20161187
The purpose of this study was to describe domains of family conflict and to examine variations in these domains by adolescent pubertal status, gender, and status as a family member. Sixty-three intact family triads completed an instrument designed to assess pubertal status and the Issues Checklist. Principal Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation resulted in the retention of seven factors accounting
This paper analyses Brazilian socio-economic inequalities in health by measuring the concentration indices for the following variables: health expectancy, self-assessed health status and chronic health problems. Data used were taken from the 1996/1997 Living Standard Measurement Study (LSMS). In summary, as far as gender distinction is concerned, the results showed that up to 5 years of age the mortality rates, reported appearance of chronic health problems as well as the self-assessed health indicated that the boys were in worse health condition than the girls. After this age group there was a tendency for differences to disappear until adulthood, when the situation changed and the women consistently considered themselves less healthy. With reference to the socio-economic inequalities, one generally finds larger differences within the women's groups. The analysis for the different age groups indicated that the pro-rich inequalities increased with age. Both results were clearly proved, especially for the health expectancy variable, by adopting an adjustment of the dominance concept derived from literature on economic inequalities, consisting of comparing concentration curves. PMID:11921312
AIMS: To identify socioeconomic status and gender inequalities in long and short-term Medical Nutrition Therapy among Israeli adult patients with diabetes. METHODS: An analysis of data was performed on 90,900 patients over the age of 18 who were registered as patients with diabetes mellitus in Maccabi Healthcare Service Register which is the second largest health maintenance organization in Israel. Socioeconomic Rank for each patient was determined from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics by geographical area of residence. Medical Nutrition Therapy was defined by the number of visits with registered dietitians. Short-term therapy was defined as one visit and long term therapy as two or more visits during the previous two years. Newly diagnosed patients were compared with veteran patients. RESULTS: Only 25.8% of the patients with diabetes received nutrition therapy during the previous two years. Newly diagnosed patients received therapy more frequently than veterans. We found that long term therapy was positively dependent on socioeconomic rank. Women under the age of seventy five had a higher chance of receiving therapy compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: A nationwide nutritional counseling service is available and accessible to all patients with diabetes. However, the patients with higher socioeconomic rank have a higher rate of persistence with long-term nutritional therapy. PMID:23702029
Endevelt, Ronit; Baron-Epel, Orna; Viner, Anna; Heymann, Anthony David
The risk of separation or divorce late in the marital career is examined from a family development perspective. A hazards framework is used to estimate the effects of women's economic independence, couples' economicstatus, and family life course factors on the risk of middle-age separation or divorce. (Author/EMK)
Hiedemann, Bridget; Suhomlinova, Olga; O'Rand, Angela M.
The objectives of this study are: (1) to explore the cross-country relationship of gender gap in literacy levels and in enrollment rates to per capita GNP growth; (2) to find out whether the relationship of gender gap to economic growth in the countries of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) and\\/or the EAC (East Asian Countries) differs at a statistically
This study jointly examines the gender earnings gap and employment rate in urban China using a longitudinal data set that covers the period of 1989–2004. Consistent with previous studies, we find that gender earnings gap increased by 5 percentage points between 1989 and 1997. Since then, its changes have become much more moderate. Actually, after controlling for observed characteristics, the
This report documents the scale development process and properties for the 2002 Status of Armed Forces: Workplace and Gender Relations Survey (2002 WGR). This report describes advances from previous surveys and presents results on scale development as obt...
A. J. Ormerod A. K. Lawson C. S. Sims M. C. Lytell P. L. Wadington
In this article, we consider the continuation of race gender stereotypes in advertising images by way of the product's suggestive messages, specifically, connotations of higher or lower social status and promises of intangible social rewards (e.g., friendship, appearance, romance). We examined 1, 709 advertisements in magazines whose primary reading audiences differ by race and\\/or gender: Life, Cosmopolitan, Ebony, and Essence
Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism among Latinos in the United States may not neces- sarily result in negative status attainment consequences. Such studies have typically overlooked gender differences in the consequences of bilingualism. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (N ¼ 866 females; 737 males), we analyzed gender differences in how bilingualism among Latino families (as experienced
The British Picture Vocabulary Scale, second edition (BPVS-II), a measure of receptive vocabulary, is widely used by speech and language therapists and researchers into speech and language disorders, as an indicator of language delay, but it has frequently been suggested that receptive vocabulary may be more associated with socio-economicstatus.…
The purpose of the report is to analyze the use and effectiveness of use of oral contraceptives by women of different economicstatus. The authors used data collected from the Planned Parenthood Center in Buffalo, New York, on the use of birth control pil...
Despite cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the leading killer of both sexes in the US, there are indications that men and women have different experiences in the health system with prevention and treatment practices. Beyond largely descriptive findings, little research exists that addresses how men and women may differ in their response to certain key influences on CVD health services utilization. This paper examines gender differentials in the effect of insurance coverage on CVD preventive health services in the US. An economics framework is used to model individual demand for preventive services as a function of insurance status, while controlling for a comprehensive set of explanatory variables. The services analyzed include cholesterol and blood pressure screening, pharmaceutical use for hypertension and lipid disorders, and CVD-related physician visits. Both general and high-risk samples are evaluated. The results show that while a lack of insurance is associated with lower rates of utilization in both men and women, there are no observed gender differences in insurance-effects for recommended intervals of risk factor screening in the general population. However, for individuals with previously diagnosed heart disease or stroke, a lack of coverage is more strongly associated with lower rates of screening, pharmaceutical management, and physician contact in women than men. Potential reasons for these findings are discussed and policy implications are noted. PMID:16762471
Summary Seguino (2000) shows that gender wage discrimination in export-oriented semi-industrialized countries might be fostering investment and growth in general. While the original analysis does not have internationally comparable wage discrimination data, we replicate the analysis using data from a meta-study on gender wage discrimination and do not find any evidence that more discrimination might further economic growth—on the contrary: if anything the impact of gender inequality is negative for growth. Standing up for more gender equality—also in terms of wages—is good for equity considerations and at least not negative for growth.
This paper, using data from the 1992 Boston Federal Reserve study of mortgage lending, reports preliminary evidence of patterns of gender and familial status discrimination that differ markedly by race in the US. White couples with children experienced familial status discrimination if the female partner was in the labor market, but not if she was at home raising her children.
Cahokia Mound 72 contains 272 human burials dating to the Lohmann and early Stirling phases (ca. 1050–1150 AD) of the Mississippian period. Substantial status- and gender-related differences in burial style are apparent. Some burials are associated with large quantities of prestigious grave goods, suggesting high status. Mass graves of young adult females with skeletal indicators of poor health suggest low
Stanley H. Ambrose; Jane Buikstra; Harold W. Krueger
Schizophrenic outpatients (62 females, 59 males) were evaluated to examine the relationships between menstrual status, gender, clinical measures of psychopathology and drug side effects. Menstrual status was determined for 55 female patients. Blood from 44 female subjects, drawn before the AM dose of neuroleptic, was assayed for prolactin concentrations. In 27 premenopausal women (age<45 years), six (22%) reported irregular menses
|This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…
Barrett's esophagus is thought to be a disease occurring predominantly in White Caucasian males of higher socioeconomic status. There are no published studies simultaneously examining risk of Barrett's esophagus according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status within a single data set. The authors conducted a retro- spective case-control analysis within a cross-sectional study to determine risk of Barrett's esophagus in
Alexander C. Ford; David Forman; P. Dominic Reynolds; Brian T. Cooper; Paul Moayyedi
|This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…
|Presents results of a study examining gender differences in measures of academic aptitude and achievement that predict persistence in introductory economics courses. Concludes that females need more validation than male students to persist in the study of economics. Suggests that the need for female students to overcome classroom climate may…
The purpose of the current study was to examine the roles of acculturation, economic value of education, and gender in the academic achievement of Latino adolescents. Participants (N = 143) were 12th-grade students at an urban public high school. Analyses revealed that a higher economic value of education was related to higher academic…
A population-based study was conducted to validate gender- and age-specific indexes of socio-economicstatus (SES) and to\\u000a investigate the associations between these indexes and a range of health outcomes in 2 age cohorts of women. Data from 11,637\\u000a women aged 45 to 50 and 9,510 women aged 70 to 75 were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis produced four domains of SES
Gita D. Mishra; Kylie Ball; Annette J. Dobson; Julie E. Byles; Penny Warner-Smith
Background Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economicstatus (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N?=?8,568). Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82%) and age eligible children (response rate 57%) were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3%) or obese (6.6%). Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. Conclusions/Significance Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due to the high prevalence of obesity in parents and children, population based interventions are required.
Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.
Socio-economicstatus (SES) may affect health status in airway disease at the individual and area level. In a cohort of adults with asthma, rhinitis or both conditions, questionnaire-derived individual- level SES and principal components analysis (PCA) of census data for area-level SES factors were used. Regression analysis was utilised to study the associations among individual- and area-level SES for the
P. D. Blanc; I. H. Yen; H. Chen; P. P. Katz; G. Earnest; J. R. Balmes; L. Trupin; N. Friedling; E. H. Yelin; M. D. Eisner
Using a unique set of data drawn from the US census, statistics, city directories, and other sources, the author looks at the differences between men and women in the US labour force. She shows that the `gender gap' in income and job level that has existed throughout history cannot be explained simply as a matter of sex discrimination, nor as
Presents the findings of a study of long distance migrations for employment opportunities in both the US and the UK. Compares the cross-national differences between the two countries and tries to investigate the effects of the relative resources of the partner in their subsequent search for employment. Attempts to discover any gender differences based upon occupational status. Evaluates the similarity
Paul Boyle; Tom Cooke; Keith Halfacree; Darren Smith
Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account. PMID:16567334
Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah
Background\\/Aims: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide and has been linked to many diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess the vitamin D status of Jordanians at the national level and to identify groups of the population at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. Methods: Vitamin D status was assessed in a national sample of 5,640
A. Batieha; Y. Khader; H. Jaddou; D. Hyassat; Z. Batieha; M. Khateeb; A. Belbisi; K. Ajlouni
Despite the proliferation of studies documenting the relationship between physical limitation and depressive symptoms in the United States, we currently do not know (1) whether physical impairment is associated with other dimensions of emotional well-being and (2) if these associations differ for men and women as well as married and nonmarried adults. We use panel data from two national samples to examine gender and marital status variations in the impact of physical limitation on four indicators of mental health. We find that physical limitation is associated with increases in depressive symptoms and negative feelings as well as decreases in positive emotions. Although the patterns are complex, we also find gender and marital status differences in these associations. Our results provide additional support for Aneshensel's (1992; Aneshensel, Rutter, and Lachenbruch 1991) argument about the highly contingent nature of stress reactivity and contribute to theory about both gender and marital status differences in the impact of stress on mental health. PMID:23644513
Women's participation in the military has been restricted since gender integration began. About 33,000 women served in World War I - 20,000 of them in the Army and Navy Nurse Corps, which were separate from the regular Army and Navy. In World War II, manp...
We have shown previously that smoking causes a first myocardial infarction (MI) to occur significantly more prematurely in\\u000a women than in men. The aim of the study was to investigate mortality after MI with special emphasis on the impact of smoking\\u000a and gender. The study included 2,281 consecutive patients (36.8% women) who died or were discharged from a central hospital
Morten Grundtvig; Terje P. Hagen; Elin S. Amrud; Aasmund Reikvam
We investigate gender-associated differences in the attitudes of city leaders regarding local economic development priorities. In so doing, we test the thesis that the economic development priorities of women city leaders will reflect postmaterialist values; in other words, women city leaders will place more of an emphasis on quality-of-life issues than do men. We employ results of a survey of
James M. Vanderleeuw; Maria E. Sandovici; Christopher A. Jarmon
This study describes parents' understanding, or explanatory models, of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines how such explanatory models differ by ethnicity, child gender, treatment status, and sociodemographic status. Children with ADHD were identified through a two-stage study of a school district special education population; this study included a screening and a diagnostic phase. In addition, a survey concerning parent-reported knowledge
Regina Bussing; Nancy E. Schoenberg; Kenneth M. Rogers; Bonnie T. Zima; Sherwin Angus
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of economicstatus on clinical care provided to Brazilian youths with type 1 diabetes in daily practice, according to the American Diabetes Association's guidelines. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted between 2008 and 2010 in 28 public clinics in Brazil. Data were obtained from 1,692 patients (55.3 % female, 56.4 % Caucasian), with a mean age of 13 years (range, 1-18), a mean age at diagnosis of 7.1 ± 4 years and diabetes duration of 5 ± 3.7 years. Overall, 75 % of the patients were of a low or very low economicstatus. HbA1c goals were reached by 23.2 %, LDL cholesterol by 57.9 %, systolic blood pressure by 83.9 % and diastolic blood pressure by 73.9 % of the patients. In total, 20.2 % of the patients were overweight and 9.2 % were obese. Patients from very low economicstatus were less likely to attend tertiary care level when compared with those from low, medium and high economicstatus, 64.2 % versus 75.5 % versus 78.3 % and 74.0 %; p < 0.001, respectively. The rate of annual screening for retinopathy, nephropathy and for foot alterations was 66.2, 69.7 and 62.7 %, respectively. Insulin dose, age, very low economicstatus, daily frequency of self-blood glucose monitoring and female gender were independently associated with poor glycemic control. Screening for diabetic complications and attaining glucose, lipid and blood pressure goals present a challenge for young Brazilian type 1 diabetes patients. The low economicstatus of the majority of our patients may represent a barrier to reaching these goals. PMID:22688518
Gomes, Marilia B; de Mattos Matheus, Alessandra Saldanha; Calliari, Luis Eduardo; Luescher, Jorge Luiz; Manna, Thais Della; Savoldelli, Roberta Diaz; Cobas, Roberta A; Coelho, Wellington Siqueira; Tschiedel, Balduino; Ramos, Alberto José; Fonseca, Reine Marie; Araujo, Neuza Braga C; Almeida, Henriqueta Guido; Melo, Naira Horta; Jezini, Debora Laredo; Negrato, Carlos Antonio
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economicstatus and indicators of successful aging\\u000a to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of “Survey of Health and Living\\u000a Status of the Elderly in Taiwan”. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economicstatus was measured by childhood\\u000a economicstatus
The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals. PMID:22928352
|For many decades now the sphere of education in Russia has been considered to be among the most well off among other spheres of activity, from the standpoint of gender equality. One component of radical economic reforms in Russia in the 1990s was the transformation of education financing. During the reform years the number of students in higher…
|Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…
Employment preferences of personnel representatives in electronics firms regarding job applicants who had varying levels of education were investigated. The applicants had either obtained a 4-year college degree, completed 2 years of college, or completed high school. The stimulus jobs required the equivalent of a high school education but varied in terms of status and gender stereotype. The personnel representatives
College students' alcohol use as well documented, and published studies have indicated that athletes drink more frequently and more often to the stage of intoxication than do nonathletes. Some researchers have cited sociological factors to explain these behaviors, but neither the underlying emotional factors that drive students' alcohol use nor the interaction of gender and athletic status have been examined.
Gregory S Wilson; Mary E Pritchard; Jamie Schaffer
The combinations of gender, delinquent status, and social acceptance were examined as predictors of the global self-esteem of teens. Participants (N = 225) were aged 13 to 17 and included juvenile delinquents (n = 60) and high school students (n = 165) in one county in a southwest state. Factor analyses identified two dimensions of social acceptance (social verification, social
William Scott Forney; Judith Cardona Forney; Christy Crutsinger
We examined race and gender stereotypes in fourth-, sixth- and eighth-grade White and Black children. The participants reported their perceptions of the competence of Black, White, female and male children in academic domains, sports and music. In general, low-status groups (girls and Black children) did not endorse stereotypes that reflected…
Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Mistry, Rashmita; Feagans, Laura
This article relies on year-long ethnographic data to examine how the intersection of peer status, gender, and race influenced the role stances children took in one urban fifth grade classroom while participating in three different writing pedagogies: peer tutoring, cooperative peer editing, and collaborative writing. Informed by the sociocultural theories of writing development and literature on peer pedagogies, the study
|Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…
There were two focuses in this study. The first one was to investigate the relationship among science achievement, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs for both 4th and 5th grade and 6th through 8th grade students. The second focus was to explore the relationships among gender, socioeconomic status (SES), metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. Altogether 941 elementary students participated in this study. For
The authors assessed perceived control, dysphoria, hopelessness, self-esteem, and optimism in 280 college students involved in abusive and nonabusive relationships. Women reported higher levels of dysphoria and lower levels of self-esteem and optimism than men. Women in abusive relationships reported more psychological symptoms than men in abusive relationships. After controlling for gender differences in emotional status, participants in abusive relationships
Age, gender, and performance status (PS) are important patient characteristics which might influence to cancer symptom profile. We conducted a secondary analysis of a symptom database to examine any interaction of these factors on symptom prevalence. 38 symptoms were assessed in 1000 consecutive patients with advanced cancer. The association of the three demographic factors with each symptom was examined using
Jordanka Kirkova; Lisa Rybicki; Declan Walsh; Aynur Aktas
Theoretically derived measures and hypotheses concerning the connection between family ideology, gender ideals, and status attainment levels of conservative Christian women are examined in the twenty-first century. Conservative Christian women have a more intensive view of mothering, a stronger prolife stance, a younger age of childbearing, a higher number of children and a lower education level. These trends tend to
The present study utilized a social rules approach to investigate the relative influence of gender and status on managers' self-evaluations of their effectiveness in handling a dominating subordinate. In the first study 84 White middle-class participants identified the prescriptive and proscriptive rules for socially appropriate responding to a stimulus situation involving a pushy subordinate. Four rule sets were identified for
Keithia L. Wilson; Alfred J. Lizzio; Siegrid Zauner; Cynthia Gallois
The intermediate processes through which the various unmarried states can increase the risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease mortality are incompletely understood. An understanding of these processes and how they may vary by gender is important for understanding why marital status is strongly and robustly associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease. In a prospective study of 13,889 Scottish men and women (mean
Gerard John Molloy; Emmanuel Stamatakis; Gemma Randall; Mark Hamer
Environmental and psychosocial factors are recognized as important determinants of disease state expression. This is particularly so in African-Americans and is apparent during early developmental stages. Moreover, genderstatus provides an additional modifier of response to environmental and psychosocial factors particularly as relates to 24-hour hemodynamic patterns. This study examined the relationship between sex, social support, daily hassles, and ambulatory
Domenic A. Sica; Dawn K. Wilson; Ginell Ampey-Thornhill
|This study investigated the relationship between psychological distress and attitudes toward seeking professional help and whether the relationship was moderated by gender and student status (traditional vs. non-traditional) among Chinese college students in Taiwan. 961 first-year university students completed standardised measures of depression,…
Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…
Data from 590 college graduates are used to assess the relationship between family employment status and gender role attitudes for a predominately European American sample. The women in this study are employed full time, part time, or are full-time homemakers, and all report being married to men employed full time. The men in the study are all employed full time
Information processing deficits were explored in a large cohort of schizophrenia patients (N=125) and non-psychiatric subjects (N=52). Gender, medication status and symptom factors were assessed relative to measures of performance in critical stimulus duration (CSD), visual backward masking (VBM) and auditory reaction time (RT) paradigms. Schizophrenia patients exhibited significant impairments in measures of CSD, VBM and both RT speed and
Kristin S Cadenhead; Mark A Geyer; Robert W Butler; William Perry; Joyce Sprock; David L Braff
Our objective is to review and summarize relevant aspects of the literature regarding human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, and to compare how the trajectory of HPV may differ in persons who are and who are not co-infected with HIV. This comparison is particularly important because the literature on HPV has been largely based on individuals who are not co-infected with HIV. Also, HPV findings may differ in HIV-uninfected individuals versus HIV-infected individuals. In addition, many reviews ignore gender differences, although in HIV-uninfected individuals, anal cancers are up to 4 times more prevalent in women than men. Clinical decision making may be problematic if such critical factors as HIV status and gender are neglected. Therefore, we will review existing information on how HIV status and gender may affect the manifestation of HPV, particularly focusing on epidemiology, screening, and treatment issues. PMID:22035525
Míguez, María José; Burbano-Levy, Ximena; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Malow, Robert
|Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…
This paper examines the health status of women in China by reviewing levels and trends of female mortality at several phases of a woman's life cycle focusing on infancy, girlhood, childbearing and old age. The mortality rates of Chinese women and men are compared for the period 1950–1990 as are comparisons with women in selected countries. The cause-specific death rate,
Women's lower status relative to men can account for people's differential attribution to women and men, of the constructs of the Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (EPAQ; Spence, Helmreich, & Holahan, 1979). Ratings in all three studies were made on the EPAQ scales. In Study 1a, participants rated their perceptions of the stereotypes of women and of men. In Study 1b,
The learning status of 95 diabetic boys and girls and 97 matched controls was evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised IQ factors and school histories. Of interest was whether diabetic boys would evidence more learning difficulties. Results indicated that diabetic boys had significantly lower Freedom From Distractibility scores compared with scores of diabetic girls and control Ss and
Clarissa S. Holmes; William P. Dunlap; Ru San Chen; John M. Cornwell
Recently, delay discounting has been argued to be conceptually consistent with the notion of temporal horizon (Bickel et al., 2008). Temporal horizon refers to the temporal distance over which behavioral events or objects can influence behavior. Here we examine the results on two putative measures of temporal horizon, future time perspective (FTP) and delay discounting, collected over three separate studies (n = 227), to determine the influence of smoking and gender on temporal horizon. By comparing the results on these temporal horizon measures we address our population of interest: women who smoke. One of the measures of FTP indicates that smoking women have a shorter temporal horizon than their nonsmoking counterparts. Additionally, the story completion measures of FTP are positively correlated with delay discounting. In contrast, results of delay discounting measures showed no difference between smoking women and nonsmoking women, while results of delay discounting measures indicated smoking men have a shorter temporal horizon than non-smoking men. Additionally, the results of the FTP story completion measure indicated that lower third income earners had a shortened temporal horizon compared to upper third income earners. A possible explanation for these results is explored, and the implications of the modulation of temporal horizon by gender and smoking are discussed.
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies adversely affect a third of the world's people. Consequently, a series of global goals and a serious amount of donor and national resources have been directed at such micronutrient deficiencies. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors in a variety of institutional settings, the article used a computer search of the published scientific literature of the topic, supplemented by reports and published and unpublished work from the various agencies. In examining the effect of sex on the economic and social costs of micronutrient deficiencies, the paper found that: (1) micronutrient deficiencies affect global health outcomes; (2) micronutrient deficiencies incur substantial economic costs; (3) health and nutrition outcomes are affected by sex; (4) micronutrient deficiencies are affected by sex, but this is often culturally specific; and finally, (5) the social and economic costs of micronutrient deficiencies, with particular reference to women and female adolescents and children, are likely to be considerable but are not well quantified. Given the potential impact on reducing infant and child mortality, reducing maternal mortality, and enhancing neuro-intellectual development and growth, the right of women and children to adequate food and nutrition should more explicitly reflect their special requirements in terms of micronutrients. The positive impact of alleviating micronutrient malnutrition on physical activity, education and productivity, and hence on national economies suggests that there is also an urgent need for increased effort to demonstrate the cost of these deficiencies, as well as the benefits of addressing them, especially compared with other health and nutrition interventions. PMID:15883452
Darnton-Hill, Ian; Webb, Patrick; Harvey, Philip W J; Hunt, Joseph M; Dalmiya, Nita; Chopra, Mickey; Ball, Madeleine J; Bloem, Martin W; de Benoist, Bruno
Research has shown that women physicians work fewer hours and are more likely to become inactive professionally and to switch to part-time labor, compared with their male counterparts. The published literature suggests that a gender disparity still exists in medicine which may decrease work motivation among women physicians. The authors investigated whether the experience and the perception of gender-based career obstacles among women physicians in Japan are associated with their working status (i.e., full-time vs. part-time). The present cross-sectional study is based on surveys of alumnae from 13 private medical schools in Japan conducted between June 2009 and May 2011. Of those who agreed to participate in this study, 1684 completed a self-administered questionnaire (overall response rate 83%). Experience of gender-based obstacles was considered affirmative if a woman physician had been overlooked for opportunities of professional advancement based on gender. Perception of gender-based obstacles referred to the self-reported degree of difficulty of promotion and opportunities for a position in higher education. Approximately 20% of the study participants responded that they experienced gender-based obstacles while 24% answered that they were not sure. The scores for perception of gender-based career obstacles were statistically higher among part-time workers compared with full-time workers (mean difference = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.39-2.00). Adjusting for age, marital status, the presence of children, workplace, board certification, holding a PhD degree, overall satisfaction of being a physician, and household income, stepwise logistic regression models revealed that physicians with the strongest perception of gender-based career obstacles were more likely to work part-time rather than full-time (OR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Although the experience of gender-based obstacles was not associated with working status among women physicians, the results demonstrated that a strong perception of gender-based obstacles was associated with part-time practice rather than full-time practice. PMID:22867864
This report presents health service utilization rates by economic and demographic characteristics, health insurance coverage status, and health status.1 The health service utilization rates are measured by the frequencies of visits to service providers, s...
Biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs) provide important information on the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. They are evident before measurable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) take place. A total of 35 adult Saudi patients (23 males; 12 females) with type 2 diabetes and diagnosed to be vitamin D deficient were recruited in this prospective study. Here we investigated the effects of gender, season, and vitamin D status on bone biochemical markers of bone remodeling. Anthropometry and blood samples were collected at different intervals. Metabolic parameters and bone biomarkers were measured routinely and by ELISA. Both males and females had a significant increase in their vitamin D status over time, but no significant changes in the bone biomarkers were observed in females. In males there was a significant increase in circulating levels of corrected calcium and OPN (p = 0.004 and 0.01 respectively) and a significant decrease in crosslaps (p = 0.005). In all subjects there was a modest but significant positive relationship between vitamin D status and OC (R = 0.34; p = 0.04). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that changes in bone remodeling markers are affected by season, gender, and possibly vitamin D status. This gender difference may well reflect the physiologic pathway responsible for the higher peak bone mass achieved in males compared to females. PMID:22785268
Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Yakout, Sobhy M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Fouda, Mona A; Sulimani, Riad; Sabico, Shaun
Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economicstatus (SES), demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, either in a physician's office, outpatient department, emergency room and/or as a hospital inpatient, between April 1st. 1995 to March 31st. 1996. Thirteen types of childhood injury were assessed with respect to age, gender and urban/rural location using ICD9 codes, and were related to SES as determined by an individual level SES indicator, the payment status of the Alberta provincial health insurance plan. The relationships between gender, SES, rural/urban status and injury type were determined using logistic regression. Results Twenty-four percent of Alberta children had an injury treated by physician during the one year period. Peak injury rates occurred about ages 2 and 13–17 years. All injury types except poisoning were more common in males. Injuries were more frequent in urban Alberta and in urban children with lower SES (receiving health care premium assistance). Among the four most common types of injury (78.6% of the total), superficial wounds and open wounds were more common among children with lower SES, while fractures and dislocations/sprains/strains were more common among children receiving no premium assistance. Conclusion These results show that childhood injury in Alberta is a major health concern especially among males, children living in urban centres, and those living on welfare or have Treaty status. Most types of injury were more frequent in children of lower SES. Analysis of the three types of the healthcare premium subsidy allowed a more comprehensive picture of childhood injury with children whose families are on welfare and those of Treaty status presenting more frequently for an injury-related physician's consultation than other children. This report also demonstrates that administrative health care data can be usefully employed to describe injury patterns in children.
Gilbride, Susan J; Wild, Cameron; Wilson, Douglas R; Svenson, Lawrence W; Spady, Donald W
|The purpose of this volume is to present the results of the economic impact analysis in detail by gender and entry level of education. On the data entry side, gender and entry level of education are important variables that help characterize the student body profile. This profile data links to national statistical databases which are already…
|Explores gender differences in persistence (economics students who continue until they graduate or leave their university) in the economics major. Finds that hazard profiles of females and males are indistinguishable and students who earn lower grades and earned only a small amount of credits in economics are more likely to switch majors. (CMK)|
Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate experiences of women in high-wage high-status (HWHS) positions because a growing number of women are employed within such jobs. We propose gender role theory can be used to explain occurrences of IPV among women in HWHS positions and their utilization of organizational benefits. We suggest those in HWHS positions may be likely to have access to organizational benefits (e.g., medical, vacation, and flexible work schedules) and the ability to utilize the Family and Medical Leave Act. However, prevailing gender roles existing in organizations may render women in HWHS positions unlikely to use benefits or to take leave. PMID:17308201
Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M
This study examined the influence of mentor’s status (supervisor vs. non?supervisor) and gender similarity (homogeneous vs. diversified) of mentor–protégé dyads on protégé’s perception of mentoring functions and outcomes. We collected and analyzed data from 217 mentor–protégé dyads comprised of working professionals from a variety of industries. Results of MANCOVA indicated that supervisory mentors provided more career development functions than non?supervisory
Iron depletion seems to occur more frequently among athletes than in the general population and may affect performance capacity.\\u000a Only little information is available about the prevalence of iron status abnormalities in young elite athletes and whether\\u000a iron depletion is associated with gender, sport, age or nutrition- and exercise-related factors in this group. Hence, diet,\\u000a exercise and haematological data from
Karsten Koehler; Hans Braun; Silvia Achtzehn; Ursula Hildebrand; Hans-Georg Predel; Joachim Mester; Wilhelm Schänzer
People frequently place foods into “health” or “diet” categories. This study examined whether (1) evaluations of “healthiness\\/unhealthiness” influence “caloric” estimation accuracy, (2) people evaluate foods for “healthiness\\/unhealthiness” or “weight gain\\/loss” differently, and (3) food evaluations differ by gender, diet status, and weight. Also, undergraduate dieters attempting to lose weight on their own were compared to obese weight loss program participants.
A total of 779 article-embedded photographs from six popular US magazines during 2004 (Newsweek, Time, Fortune, Money, People, and Sports Illustrated) were examined assessing the relationship between occupational status and gender and the depiction of men and women in print\\u000a media. Results show individuals depicted in intellectually focused occupations had higher face-to-body ratios than individuals\\u000a depicted in physically focused occupations.
I use longitudinal data from a national sample of married men with a panel design to examine men's changing beliefs about gender over a twelve-year period and the impact of men's breadwinner status on men's change in beliefs. The majority of the sample are white (including Hispanic origin), with 3. 7% African Americans and 1.2% other racial~ethnic groups. The data
The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether levels of multidimensional intrinsic, multidimensional extrinsic motivation and amotivation could accurately discriminate scholarship status and gender in United States collegiate athletes. Participants comprised 82 male (M age?=?19.89, SD=1.39) and 90 female (M age?=?20.26, SD=1.63) collegiate athletes. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire and the Sports Motivation Scale (Pelletier, L.G., Fortier, M.S.,
Kieran M. Kingston; Chris S. Horrocks; Sheldon Hanton
Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents. Findings indicate that single mothers feel more home-to-job conflict than single fathers, married mothers, and married fathers. Some predictors of home-to-job conflict vary by marital status and gender. Job pressure is related to home-to-job conflict more for single parents than for married parents. Age of children is related to conflict for single fathers only. Whereas an unsupportive workplace culture is related to conflict, especially for married fathers, the lack of spouses’ share of domestic responsibilities is related to conflict, especially for married mothers. These findings indicate that marital status and gender create distinct contexts that shape employed parents’ perceived home-to-job conflict.
This paper follows from the findings of the 2006 review of research on women, gender and migration published in International Migration Review. We begin by discussing three international trends in contemporary migration flows: diversification, bifurcation and feminisation; and examine their significance for New Zealand. We then review the research on gender and economic integration of migrants in developed countries in
Using cross-country and panel regressions, we investigate to what extent gender gaps in education and employment (proxied using gender gaps in labor force participation) reduce economic growth. Using the most recent data and investigating an extended time period (1960–2000), we update the results of previous studies on education gaps on growth and extend the analysis to employment gaps using panel
Three experiments examined how US children perceive occupational status and gender roles. In Experiment 1, 107 6-to-12-year-olds\\u000a rated the status and gender roles of 54 occupations. Feminine occupations were underrepresented among the perceived high status\\u000a jobs. In Experiment 2, 28 6-to-8-year-olds, and in Experiment 3, 36 9-to-12-year-olds, reported their preferences for equally\\u000a high status masculine and feminine occupations and low
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economicstatus and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…
|The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economicstatus and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…
|Using data from the Survey of Adults and Youth, the authors examine the effect of economicstatus on youths' involvement in both school- and nonschool-related extracurricular activities. Specifically, they assess the association between four alternative measures of economicstatus--recipiency of food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent…
Introduction Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35–70 years Tunisians (women: n?=?2964, men: n?=?2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI?=?weight(kg)/height(m)2 and obesity was BMI?30, WHtR?=?waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR?0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). Results BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), P<0.0001) as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR?=?3.8[3.1–7.4], P<0.0001) and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3–4.8], P<0.0001). Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.7]) than rural (OR?=?2.0[0.7–5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR?=?6.9[2.0–23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR?=?1.4[0.5–4.3]) or even employees/workers OR?=?2.3[1.0–5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. Conclusion The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings.
A comprehensive survey was carried out to asses the Vitamin A status of pre-school (0-6 yrs). and school age (6-12 yrs.) children of socio-economically backward families from slums of Bombay and its suburbs. The Vitamin A, protein, calories and iron from the rice and dal based diet was found to be below recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Among the 1956 children surveyed 20% of the children showed low (< 20 micrograms/dl) serum vitamin A levels. 4.8% of the children were suffering from one or the other signs of Vitamin A deficiency. Rose Bengal stain test (RBST) and conjuctival impression cytology (CIC) indicted the signs of mild conjuctival xerosis and of early epithelial changes which were correlated with serum vitamin A levels. Serum iron, PCV, Hb and RBC levels were below normal. The anthropometric measurements of these children were below 50th percentile of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) standards. Due to lack of proper nutrition, the overall growth of children is either retarded or not upto the standard levels as was noted in majority of the children. PMID:10829900
Age, gender, and performance status (PS) are important patient characteristics which might influence to cancer symptom profile. We conducted a secondary analysis of a symptom database to examine any interaction of these factors on symptom prevalence. 38 symptoms were assessed in 1000 consecutive patients with advanced cancer. The association of the three demographic factors with each symptom was examined using logistic regression analysis. Eight symptoms were associated with more than one of the three factors. Model-based estimates of symptom prevalence were calculated for 30 groups based on combinations of age, gender, and ECOG PS (0-4). Prevalence differences between various groups >10% were empirically classified as clinically relevant. The frequency of all eight symptoms (pain, constipation, sleep problems, nausea, anxiety, vomiting, sedation, and blackouts) was associated with more than one of the demographic characteristics of age, gender, and PS level. The prevalence of all eight decreased with older age. Females had more nausea, anxiety, and vomiting than males; males greater sleep problems. The prevalence of constipation, sedation, and blackouts was higher with worse PS, whereas pain and anxiety became less common with worse PS. Age, gender, and PS appeared to be associated with variations in the prevalence of eight gastrointestinal and neuropsychological symptoms in cancer patients. They should be included as important variables in clinical practice symptom research data. PMID:21697140
The aim of the study as to ascertain whether gender and socio-economic variables can explain differences in the degree of severity of hypertension (HT) at the time of diagnosis. Patients were recently diagnosed and never-treated hypertensives, seen in primary care sites and aged 15-75. This study also included a cohort of normotensive patients. All individuals were invited to respond a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and socio-economic data. Target organ damage (TOD) is considered a marker of severity. Three hundred and eighty-eight individuals responded to the questionnaire, 277 hypertensive, 111 normotensive. In an ordered probit model, the odds ratio of presenting with more than one TOD were: Aged >67 (OR=1.22; 1.06-1.38), being a smoker (OR=1.21; 1.02-1.40) or ex-smoker (OR=2.89; 1.27-4.51), primary school education (OR=2.17; 1.47-2.87), being male (OR=0.75; 0.59-0.90), being an agricultural worker (OR=0.03; 0.00-0.05) or a salaried professional (OR=0.96; 0.94-0.99). The results show differences in the severity of the HT in the initial assessment of the patient according to gender or other socio-economic variables. It is particularly important at the time of carrying out the diagnosis and the HT assessment. PMID:19591005
de Tuero, Gabriel Coll; Barcelò, Maria Antònia; Saez, Marc
This study examined whether smoking behavior could be predicted by acculturation level, health locus of control, gender, and generational status. The target population consisted of Greek Americans from the New York City area who varied in acculturation levels and generational status. The Acculturation Rating Scale, the Health Attribution Test, and a smoking behavior scale developed by the National Cancer Institute
This study provides a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in economic support and well- being based on findings of interviews conducted with 743 elderly from rural area under Naogaon district, Bangladesh. We examined multiple economic indicators, including sources of income, receipt of financial support, income levels, ownership of dwelling and satisfaction with adequacy of income. Results showed substantial variation in
Mustafizur Rahman KM; Ismail Tareque M; Mostafizur Rahman M
Background Although there is substantial evidence that social relationships and marriage may influence both psychological and physical\\u000a health, little is known about the influence of children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose This study examined the competing predictions regarding the directional influence of parental status and its interaction with\\u000a gender—given that mothers are typically disproportionately more responsible for everyday care of children—on cardiovascular\\u000a functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method We examined ambulatory
Julianne Holt-Lunstad; Wendy Birmingham; Adam M. Howard; Dustin Thoman
Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital.
We compared self-stereotyping, in-group-stereotyping, and out-group-stereotyping, among members of high- and low-status groups. Because gender inequality is still present in society, we operationalized status in terms of gender. We considered the male (female) gender category to possess relatively high (low) status. As predicted on the basis of an extension of Mullen's model (1991), Italian men showed significant levels of out-group-stereotyping,
Background: We examined the relationships between measures of parental and personal socio-economicstatus and risk of first admission with schizophrenia in order to identify whether low socio-economicstatus in cases is a consequence of the illness process or is a familial risk factor. Methods: A national population-based nested case-control study based on Danish longitudinal registers was conducted. The sample included
Majella Byrne; Esben Agerbo; William W. Eaton; PrebenBo Mortensen
This paper examines the relationship between adolescent behaviour, television viewing and family socio-economicstatus (SES) using the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). The effect of television viewing on adolescents’ behaviour, ranging from pro-social to aggressive, and whether this effect is moderated by family socio-economicstatus is investigated. An adolescent fixed effects model is used to estimate
The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,
This study was designed to examine the influence of sex and gender role orientation on adoption of the ethic of care and on\\u000a postconventional reasoning in married men and women, with and without children. Parental status was unrelated to gender role\\u000a orientation in men but was associated with masculinity in women, such that women with children had lower masculinity scores.
Rachel Karniol; Gali Bar-Av Ekbali; Dana R. Vashdi
|In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online…
This paper assessed gender bias within hospitalisation rates to ascertain whether differential care-seeking practices significantly contribute to excess female mortality. It then examined the impact of socio-economic factors, particularly maternal education and economicstatus, on gender bias. The results find both the clear and significant impact of gender on hospitalisation rates, as well as the simultaneous inability of rising education
|Reviews concepts and studies about social class, educational achievement, and learning styles. Attempts to survey literature pertaining to socioeconomic status and educational achievement and to present the main arguments. (Author/MW)|
Socio-economicstatus effects on total and cause-specific mortality are studied using data on all 15.8 million inhabitants of the Netherlands in 1999. Two problems are addressed that often hamper this kind of research: the lack of reliable social status information at the individual level and the intermingling of individual and neighbourhood status effects. The first problem is dealt with by
Jeroen Smits; Ingeborg Keij-Deerenberg; Gert Westert
This paper provides a critical examination into themes of socio economicstatus related to consumption while using greenhouse gas emissions as the consumption unit. Nine households from across the socio economic spectrum were interviewed and\\/or surveyed and provided with personal greenhouse gas inventories (or ‘carbon footprints’). These carbon footprints were compared across low, middle and high income groups and also
This study examined the associations of popularity, substance use, athletic abilities, physical attractiveness, and physical and relational aggression with likeability by same-gender and cross-gender peers among early adolescents (N = 3,312; M age = 13.60, with 92.7% of the participants in the 12-14 age range). Data collection consisted of peer…
Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene
This paper examines the socio-economicstatus of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economicstatus such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total
|This study examined gender, socio-economic (SES), and ethnic group differences in academic performance (measured at 14 and 16 years) in a sample of 517 British pupils (mean age = 16.5 years). White pupils outperformed their Black and Pakistani counterparts and high SES pupils consistently outperformed their low SES counterparts. Results from two…
While the pursuit of equity of access to health care is a central objective of many health care systems, there is evidence that patients of ethnic minority descent, in lower socio-economic position (SEP) or of female gender are less likely than Whites, more affluent groups or men, respectively, to access secondary and tertiary medical care. However, it is unclear at
Joy Adamson; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Nish Chaturvedi; Jenny Donovan
|EFFORTS TO ELIMINATE NEGRO POVERTY MUST BE UNDERTAKEN WITHIN A FAVORABLE OVERALL ECONOMIC CLIMATE, AND THE CURRENT CLIMATE IS NOT FAVORABLE BECAUSE MANPOWER AND PLANT CAPACITY ARE NOT FULLY UTILIZED. SUCH FACTORS AS LIMITED JOBS, EXAGGERATED JOB REQUIREMENTS, LOWER EARNING CAPACITY, DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT, FLUCTUATIONS OF THE BUSINESS CYCLE,…
|Relatively low rates of school completion among students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a key driver of intergenerational inequality. Linking data from the Programme for International Student Assessment with data from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, we use a decomposition framework to explain the gap in school completion…
|The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economicstatus and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economicstatus-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least…
This document reports on a study to determine Guamanian women's identification of their social status and gender awareness. Participants of the study were 350 randomly selected undergraduate women who responded to questionnaires. A statistical profile of the Guamanian undergraduate women was derived as follows: (1) is a traditional aged student;…
Objective: In a system with implicit queue management, to examine gender and socioeconomic status as determinants of waiting time for inpatient surgery, after adjusting for other potential predictors. Methods: A cohort of 452 subjects was examined in outpatient clinics of a general hospital and referred to inpatient surgery. They were followed until scheduled hospital admission (n=396) or until the requested
The current study investigated group differences in adolescent adjustment by adoption status and adoption subtype in a national sample, in contrast to group differences based on developmental stage or gender. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were performed to describe group differences in a broad range of adjustment measures (a) between adoptees and non-adoptees, (b) between
Anthony L Burrow; Jonathan G Tubman; Gordon E Finley
|This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo
The contributions of age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status to differences in 223 nonreferred (i.e., presumably nonabused) preschool aged children's interactions with anatomically correct dolls were explored. Significant findings were related to age differences and different activities when the interviewer was or was not in the room with the…
The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for
This study examined the associations of popularity, substance use, athletic abilities, physical attractiveness, and physical and relational aggression with likeability by same-gender and cross-gender peers among early adolescents (N = 3,312; M age = 13.60, with 92.7% of the participants in the 12-14 age range). Data collection consisted of peer nominations in 172 classrooms of 34 secondary schools. Taking a
Jan Kornelis Dijkstra; Antonius H. N. Cillessen; Siegwart Lindenberg; René Veenstra
A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120
Nutrition for under-5 children is of great importance as the foundation for life-time health, strength, and intellectual vitality is laid during this period. Globally, more than one-third of the child deaths are attributable to under-nutrition. The discriminatory attitudes against female children vary from being implicit to those that are quite explicit. So, the present cross-sectional study aims to assess the nutritional status (gender differences) of 146 under-5 children attending Anganwadis and also to study the bio-socio-demographic factors associated with malnutrition attending three Anganwadis of Adopted Urban slum area, involving anthropometric examination using standardized techniques and interview using predesigned semi-structured questionnaire for the mothers in September-October 2011. Nutritional status grading was done based on weight for age as per Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Classification and using height for age as per Vishveshwara Rao's Classification. 51.4% were males, majority in age group of 2-3 years. 63% children were malnourished, majority in Grade I malnutrition. Out of the total females, 72% were stunted and 43% were severely malnourished having mid arm circumference <12.5 cm. Birth order (P < 0.05), education status of the mother (P < 0.001), socio-economicstatus (P < 0.05) and type of family (P < 0.05) were found to be significantly associated with malnutrition. PMID:24124435
Patel, Kriti A; Langare, Sanjivani D; Naik, J D; Rajderkar, S S
BackgroundRelative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries.Methods\\/Principal
Saifuddin Ahmed; Andreea A. Creanga; Duff G. Gillespie; Amy O. Tsui; Beverley J. Shea
Background: This study aimed to determine if people living in communities with higher socio-economic deprivation are at an increased risk of cognitive and functional impairment even after controlling for the effects of individual socio-economicstatus. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional data from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study which consists of a community- based sample of Cambridgeshire, Gwynedd,
Nicole E. Basta; Fiona E. Matthews; Mark D. Chatfield; Carol Brayne
This paper examines the contributions of gender dierences in post school investments (PSI) in human capital to the gender earnings gap in China. First, by exploring the exogenous variations in the length of working life caused by dierences in mandatory retirement age, we nd that the gender earnings gap is mainly driven by the dierence in
The adolescent transition is characterized by heightened social pressure to conform to gender expectations from peers and increased female sports attrition. However, few studies examine how gender shapes physical activity participation in peer contexts. Through qualitative life-history interviews with high school basketball players, this study explores female sports participation and attrition throughout adolescence. To what extent do pre- and post-pubertal
This paper provides estimates of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of a mid-temperature parabolic trough system for three different development scenarios. A current technology case is developed that is representative of recent designs and costs for commercial systems, and is developed using data from a recent system installed in Tehachapi, California. The second scenario looks at design enhancements to the currenttechnology case as a way to increase annual energy output and decrease costs. The third scenario uses the annual energy output of the enhanced design, but allows for cost reductions that would be possible in higher volume production than currently exist. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system, and the results were combined with cost data in an economic analysis model. The study indicates that R&D improvements in the current trough system show promise of reducing the (LEC) by about 40%. At higher production rates, the LEC of the solar system with R&D improvements could potentially be reduced by over 50%.
This paper provides estimates of the levelized energy cost (LEC) of a mid-temperature parabolic trough system for three different development scenarios. A current technology case is developed that is representative of recent designs and costs for commercial systems, and is developed using data from a recent system installed in Tehachapi, California. The second scenario looks at design enhancements to the currenttechnology case as a way to increase annual energy output and decrease costs. The third scenario uses the annual energy output of the enhanced design, but allows for cost reductions that would be possible in higher volume production than currently exist. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system, and the results were combined with cost data in an economic analysis model. The study indicates that R D improvements in the current trough system show promise of reducing the (LEC) by about 40%. At higher production rates, the LEC of the solar system with R D improvements could potentially be reduced by over 50%.
Background Few studies focus on pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI) and there is little information regarding the cause, anatomic level, and high risk population of SCI in children. This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors of pediatric SCI. Methods A nationwide cohort of 8.7 million children aged<18 years in an 11-year period was analyzed for causes, age at injury, anatomic sites, disability, and familial socio-economic factors. Incidence rates and Cox regression analysis were conducted. Results A total of 4949 SCI patients were analyzed. The incidence rates of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and other SCI were 4.06, 0.34, 0.75, and 0.85 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The proportional composition of gender, age, and socio-economicstatus of SCI patients were significantly different than those of non-SCI patients (all p<0.001). Male children were significantly more likely to have SCI than females in both the cervical and the other SCI groups [Incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?2.03 and 1.52; both p<0.001]. Young adults and teenagers were also significantly more likely to have SCI than pre-school age children in the cervical SCI (IRR?=?28.55 and 10.50, both p<0.001) and other SCI groups (IRR?=?18.8 and 7.47, both p<0.001). Children in families of lower socio-economicstatus were also significantly more likely to have SCI (p<0.05). Conclusions In the pediatric population, the overall SCI incidence rate is 5.99 per 100,000 person-years, with traumatic cervical SCI accounting for the majority. The incidence rate increases abruptly in male teenagers. Gender, age, and socio-economicstatus are independent risk factors that should be considered.
A report on the examination of the social and economicstatus of the parents of about 500 feebleminded children at Sonoma State Home for the Feebleminded (California). The occupations of the fathers were grouped according to Taussig's grouping, together with occupations of the fathers of 560 of the brightest children in the California public schools, of 300 of the world's
|This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economicstatus families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…
Theoretically, measures of household wealth can be reflected by income, consumption or expenditure information. However, the collection of accurate income and consumption data requires extensive resources for household surveys. Given the increasingly routine application of principal components analysis (PCA) using asset data in creating socio-economicstatus (SES) indices, we review how PCA- based indices are constructed, how they can be
The present study investigated how specific social factors, associated with family life, related to children's volitional participation in physical activity. Of primary interest was an examination of whether differences in children's physical activity could be attributed to either parental participation in regular exercise or to social economicstatus. Information was collected from a sample of Year 6 primary school children
Recent studies tend consistently to confirm the presence of a moderate excess risk of lung cancer in the rubber industry. However, the agent responsible for the excess of lung cancer is still obscure. Also, analyses without regard to the modifying effects of sex, economicstatus, and smoking habit are less than satisfactory. To explore these questions, we have conducted a
Details of existing conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production, both hydrolysis and thermochemical, have been discussed along with their present adoption status. Furthermore, economics of ethanol production by using different conversion technologies has been discussed. Emerging conversion technologies and other developments which might affect the cellulosic ethanol production are also characterized. Based on current estimates, it was found that about
Puneet Dwivedi; Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal
|This article presents the annual report on the economicstatus of the profession. This year's report covers three main issues--all perennial problems, but with new analysis based on the latest data--in addition to summarizing the current results from the annual American Association of University Professors (AAUP) survey of full-time faculty…
|This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economicstatus (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
The economicstatus of the older population has improved significantly since the early 1970s. Yet poverty rates among certain groups of elderly, especially older minorities, have declined very little. To understand the reasons for these seemingly contradictory trends, changes in the income composition of the elderly in Boston are compared to changes in income for the elderly in the United
In emerging economies, the socio-economicstatus is a key element to evaluate social improvement as it provides an understanding of the population's access to housing, education, health or basic services, such as water and electricity. The relationship between such indicators and human physical mobility has been researched mostly in areas like access to medical infrastructures and public transportation. However, such
Vanessa Frias-Martinez; Jesus Virseda-Jerez; Enrique Frias-Martinez
Collective teacher efficacy (CTE) refers to the collective perception in a school that teachers make an educational difference to their pupils over and above the impact of their social circumstances. This study explored the relationships between CTE, socio-economicstatus (SES) and pupil attainment levels in reading, writing and mathematics (at the whole primary school level). Sixty-six teachers in 15 out
Despite its potential influence on quality of care, there has been little research on the way physicians perceptions of and beliefs about patients are affected by patient race or socio-economicstatus. The lack of research in this area creates a critical gap in our understanding of how patients' demographic characteristics influence encounter characteristics, diagnoses, treatment recommendations, and outcomes. This study
This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economicstatus (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…
Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod
|This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economicstatus and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
The report contains information on national development and status of energy production in China with particular attention to technological progress and economical effectiveness in coal and oil industries. The report highlights regulations on nuclear power plant safety issues. Power network, hydroelectricity and thermal power are altogether discussed in detail.
Gender is one of the social structures, along with social class and ethnicity, that shapes women's smoking behaviors. We examined how different responses to gender pressures (internalization and resistance) relate to smoking. We analyzed data from a national random digit dial survey of 945 women and found that never smokers scored high on resistance to gender pressure (indicated by high
Alyssa N. Zucker; Abigail J. Stewart; Cynthia S. Pomerleau; Carol J. Boyd
Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies.
Sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Zyban) is approved as a smoking cessation aid for adults. Since smoking often begins in adolescence, we determined the single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion SR in 75 adolescent subjects ranging from 13 to 18 years old. Subjects self-reported their smoking status. Urinary cotinine concentration was used to verify smoking status. Thirty-seven subjects (18 males, 19 females) were classified as cigarette smokers and 38 were nonsmokers (19 males, 19 females). Fasted subjects received one tablet (150 mg) of bupropion SR, and plasma samples were collected before (0) and 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed for bupropion and its three major metabolites (hydroxybupropion and the aminoalcohol isomers, erythrohydrobupropion plus threohydrobupropion, expressed as a composite) by solid-phase extraction, followed by LC/MS/MS. Factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the effects of smoking and gender on pharmacokinetic parameters. Smokers and nonsmokers differed significantly (p < 0.05) in age and urinary cotinine (p < 0.01) concentration but did not differ significantly in mean weight, height, body surface area, or body mass index. The pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters for bupropion and hydroxybupropion did not differ between smokers and nonsmokers, but differences were found between male and female subjects. Mean values for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC0-->infinity), volume of distribution (Vd beta) normalized to body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) for bupropion were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in females than males, while clearance of bupropion normalized to body weight (CL/f) did not differ between males and females. Females also exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) larger values for hydroxybupropion mean AUC0-->infinity and Cmax than males. The mean ratio of hydroxybupropion to bupropion AUC for adolescents was approximately 4 to 5, which is lower than that previously reported for adults. In conclusion, smoking status does not affect the single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion SR in adolescents. However, females differ from males in several potentially important PK parameters for bupropion and its major metabolite, hydroxybupropion. PMID:11452710
Stewart, J J; Berkel, H J; Parish, R C; Simar, M R; Syed, A; Bocchini, J A; Wilson, J T; Manno, J E
BACKGROUND: While socio-economicstatus has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economicstatus (SES) independent of body mass index. METHODS: Data were from two cohorts
Clemens Drenowatz; Joey C Eisenmann; Karin A Pfeiffer; Greg Welk; Kate Heelan; Douglas Gentile; David Walsh
BACKGROUND: Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economicstatus in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now, there is a lack of evidence on the extent to which the use of different measures of economicstatus
Tanja AJ Houweling; Anton E Kunst; Johan P Mackenbach
We estimate a structural model describing a variety of dynamic causal paths that are likely to relate different health dimensions to different socio-economic measures. We use Asymptotic Least Squares (ALS) as a means of simultaneously testing such causal mechanisms between health status and socio- economicstatus. The ALS method provides an appropriate framework to account for important issues such as
Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation.
Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N
African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening. Few studies have explored African Americans’ own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were patients in a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital. Focus groups were delimited by gender and CRC screening status. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using an iterative coding process with consensus and triangulation to develop thematic categories. Results indicated key thematic differences in perceptions of screening by gender and CRC screening status. While both men and women who had never been screened had a general lack of knowledge about CRC and screening modalities, women had an overall sense that health screenings were needed and indicated a stronger need to have a positive relationship with their doctor. Women also reported that African American men do not get colonoscopy because of the perceived sexual connotation. Men who had never been screened, compared to those who had been screened, had less trust of their doctors and the health care system and indicated an overall fear of going to the doctor. They also reiterated the sexual connotation of having a colonoscopy and were apprehensive about being sedated during the procedure. Overall, men expressed more fear and were more reluctant to undergo CRC screening than women, but among those who had undergone CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, men expressed advantages of having the screening. All groups were also found to have a negative attitude about the use of fecal occult blood testing and felt colonoscopy was the superior screening modality. Results suggest that messages and education about CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, might place more emphasis on accuracy and might be more effective in increasing screening rates among African Americans if tailored to gender and screening status.
Gordon, Thomas F.; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Ruggieri, Dominique G.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects gender, age, income and employment status on consumer response to short message service (SMS)-oriented direct-response requests or a call-to-action tactic in a television advertisement or program, consumer's participation in SMS sweepstakes or other competitions, and consumer uptake of mobile services such as ringtones, logos, screensavers and wallpapers ordered
Objective: To determine serum leptin levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the relationship with gender, nutritional status, liver function, energy metabolism, inflammatory state and refeeding.Subjects: Thirty-seven hospitalized alcoholic cirrhotic patients (M\\/F: 24\\/13), 27 hospitalized patients at risk of malnutrition but with normal liver function (M\\/F: 15\\/12) as control patients, and 31 healthy control subjects (M\\/F: 17\\/14) participated.Design: Liver function was
This study examined whether the effects of student–faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes—i.e., college GPA, degree\\u000a aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction\\u000a with college experience—vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status. The study utilized data on\\u000a 58,281 students who participated in the 2006 University of California Undergraduate Experience
OBJECTIVE: To examine the obesity-related chronic diseases in the US adult population according to gender, race and socioeconomic status.METHODS: Data from the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994–1996 CSFII) conducted by the US Department of Agriculture\\/Agricultural Research Service (USDA\\/ARS) were used in the analysis. Relevant data included self-reported weight and height, self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart
A survey of the nutritional status of women in six villages in the Pune district of Maharashtra, India found young women to have significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than their male peers. The purpose of this study was to identify social and economic factors associated with this difference in thinness, and to explore the behaviour in men and women that might underlie these associations. We compared men and women in 90 families in this part of Maharashtra, recording social and economic details, fasting practices and oil consumption, and took measurements of the height and weight of a married couple of child-bearing age in each family. In this agricultural community, women were thinner in joint, land-owning families where the main occupation was farming, than they did in non-farming families. This was not true of men in this type of family. Men in ‘cash-rich’ families had higher BMIs than men in families without this characteristic. There was no corresponding difference in women’s body mass index. We then examined the lifestyles of men and women in a sub-set of 45 of these families. Women were more likely to work full-time in farming than men, to carry the burden of all household chores, to have less sleep and to eat less food away from home than men. Women fasted more frequently and more strictly than men. Despite identifying significant differences in behaviour between men and women in the same household, we could find no direct link between behaviour and body mass index. We conclude that being married into a farming family is an important factor in determining the thinness of a woman in rural Maharashtra.
|The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…
This article adopts a 'structural perspective' of earnings determinants to examine changes over time in the gender earnings gap in Israeli society. It studies the combined effect of the expansion of the services and public sector employment on the gender earnings gap, utilizing data from the 1972 and 1995 censuses in Israel. It shows that within the context of an
The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…
|In this article we describe gender gaps in mathematics achievement and attitude as measured by the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from 1990 to 2003. Analyzing relationships among achievement and mathematical content, student proficiency and percentile levels, race, and socioeconomic status (SES), we found that gender gaps…
McGraw, Rebecca; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Strutchens, Marilyn E.
Dietary soluble fiber (SF) consistently lowers plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, however, secondary mechanisms governing this reduction are not completely defined. Moreover, these mechanisms appear to differ with gender. Male, female and ovariectomized (to mimic menopause) guinea pigs were used to assess effects of gender, hormonal status and SF on activity and expression of hepatic cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7). Diets were
In this article we describe gender gaps in mathematics achievement and attitude as measured by the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from 1990 to 2003. Analyzing relationships among achievement and mathematical content, student proficiency and percentile levels, race, and socioeconomic status (SES), we found that gender gaps…
McGraw, Rebecca; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Strutchens, Marilyn E.
Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race\\/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational aspirations, persistence, views of science, and educational self-efficacy are examined. African American and Latino
Brea L. Perry; Tanja Link; Christina Boelter; Carl Leukefeld
Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economicstatus (SES) as the contextual determinant of nutritional status of children. Methods Using National Family Health Survey-3 data, an attempt is made to estimate socio-economic inequality in childhood stunting at the state level through Concentration Index (CI). Multi-level models; random-coefficient and random-slope are employed to study the impact of SES on long-term nutritional status among children, keeping in view the hierarchical nature of data. Main findings Across the states, a disproportionate burden of stunting is observed among the children from poor SES, more so in urban areas. The state having lower prevalence of chronic childhood malnutrition shows much higher burden among the poor. Though a negative correlation (r = -0.603, p < .001) is established between Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) and CI values for stunting; the development indicator is not always linearly correlated with intra-state inequality in malnutrition prevalence. Results from multi-level models however show children from highest SES quintile posses 50 percent better nutritional status than those from the poorest quintile. Conclusion In spite of the declining trend of chronic childhood malnutrition in India, the concerns remain for its disproportionate burden on the poor. The socio-economic gradient of long-term nutritional status among children needs special focus, more so in the states where chronic malnutrition among children apparently demonstrates a lower prevalence. The paper calls for state specific policies which are designed and implemented on a priority basis, keeping in view the nature of inequality in childhood malnutrition in the country and its differential characteristics across the states.
The purpose of this essay is to identify gender contracts in self-help housing construction. Gender contracts have been defined as invisible power relationships that determine roles, responsibilities, privileges, status, sexuality and behaviour of men and women within households, communities, the market and the state. Gender contracts shape social, economic, political and sexual relationships in what people often refer to as
• formal or explicit exclusion of women from full citizenship status; • religion and custom; • gender inequalities in property relations; • gender inequalities in family relations; • women's access to justice; • sexual and reproductive health and rights; and • gender justice in economic liberalization. The third section is a brief reflection on links between research and advocacy on
A multidimensional approach to occupational gender type was explored. In Study 1, participants' spontaneous images of various jobs were elicited. The attributes generated were used to develop a job images questionnaire employed in Study 2 on which participants rated a random sample of 100 occupational titles. Occupational images were primarily structured on two orthogonal dimensions: prestige and gender type. The
In a recent work, Erik Olin Wright proposed using the word clender to designate the interaction term between class and gender, emphasizing that class and gender interact in generating effects that are supplemental to their independent effects. This article reports the application of Wright's suggestion to the empirical example of cultural consumption in estimating the interactive effect of class and
This study explores differences in body mass index (BMI), diet, and lifestyle between women of varying socio-economicstatus in Karnataka, India, using data from the National Family Health Survey 2 (n=4374), in-depth interviews (n=20) and six focus group discussions (n=40) completed in Bangalore. Predictors of overweight (BMI ?25kg\\/m2) were modelled using logistic regression. A content analysis of the qualitative data
Quality of life (QoL) and individual perception of health has become a subject of great interest in Lithuania. The relationships\\u000a between country residence, socio-economicstatus (SES), and QoL have not been well characterized among the Lithuanian urban\\u000a and rural populations. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of country residence and SES on QoL in Lithuanian\\u000a urban
Regina R?klaitien?; Migl? Bacevi?ien?; K. Andrijauskas
Conclusion The empirical analysis of the effect of stateERA's on the economicstatus of women yielded mixed results. The amendment has provided more job opportunities and promotions into\\u000a male-stereotyped occupations. TheERA, however, has not commensurately provided equal pay for equal work or higher relative pay. Yet, on balance, theERA has provided gains for women. The employment gains progressed slowly but steadily
JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document concerns economic affairs, especially the status and development of energy. Some topics discussed are national policy, power network, hydropower, thermal power, coal and oil and gas.
JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This report contains articles on economic affairs in China, which include the status and development of energy. Topics include national policy, power network, hydropower, thermal power, coal, oil and gas, nuclear power, and conservation.
SummaryObjective: This study investigates differences in overweight and body fat distribution between Turkish and Moroccan migrants and the ethnic Dutch population, and the contribution of socio-economicstatus to their higher obesity prevalence. Methods: Data were collected as part of a general health survey, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2004). From 1,285 adults information on physical and psychological health, lifestyle and demographic
Joanne K. Ujcic-Voortman; Griët Bos; Caroline A. Baan; Arnoud P. Verhoeff; Jacob C. Seidell
This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5–10 (aged 11–16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio?economicstatus (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a sub?sample of students with
Jarmund Veland; Unni Vere Midthassel; Thormod Idsoe
The study aims to investigate the effect of age and socio-economicstatus (SES) on breast cancer relative survival at 5 years from diagnosis (RS-5%). The Liguria Region Cancer Registry collected clinico-pathological information for 1081 patients resident in Genoa city diagnosed in 1996 and 2000. Patients were divided into three age groups (0–49, 50–69 and ?70 years) and into quintiles of
Alberto Quaglia; Roberto Lillini; Claudia Casella; Giovanna Giachero; Alberto Izzotti; Marina Vercelli
Associations between stomach cancer and occupational exposure to rubber remain uncertain, and thus far only a few studies have been carried out to investigate risks of stomach cancer in different jobs in the rubber industry, and confounding of the risk/exposure relationship by non-occupational risk factors, especially by the economicstatus. This study was aimed to explore these questions. Following a case-cohort design, we used the data of 36 stomach cancer deaths in 1973-95 and a random sample (sub-cohort) of 188 from among 1598 subjects employed in a rubber plant in Shanghai, China. We analysed stomach cancer risks by the economicstatus, smoking, alcohol consumption, and residential exposure to coal burning-related pollution, etc., and assessed by jobs and years, unadjusted and adjusted. The rate ratios for stomach cancer were found to be 1.70 for 1-19 yr of employment and 1.79 for 20 or more yr of employment in the inner tire tube department. After the economicstatus was adjusted, the rate ratios were 1.54 and 1.64, respectively. Although the front processing of rubber was also included in our analysis no evidence of any excess risk of stomach cancer was found. Rate ratios adjusted for four job groups were the highest in the low income group. The association followed a pattern of a dose-response relationship--increasing rate ratios correlated with decreasing annual income (statistic trend: chi 2(1) = 8.35, p = 0.004). The data obtained suggest that excess risks of stomach cancer in the rubber workers were mainly related to their economicstatus and only slightly (some 1.6) to the talc powder exposure. Results of this study fail to provide any statistically significant evidence to support the hypothesis that there was high risk of death from stomach cancer among the rubber workers employed in high dusty departments. PMID:10703182
Recent studies tend consistently to confirm the presence of a moderate excess risk of lung cancer in the rubber industry. However, the agent responsible for the excess of lung cancer is still obscure. Also, analyses without regard to the modifying effects of sex, economicstatus, and smoking habit are less than satisfactory. To explore these questions, we have conducted a case-cohort study using the data of 51 lung cancer deaths in 1973-1997 and a random sample (sub-cohort) of 188 from among 1598 subjects in a rubber factory in Shanghai, China. We computed the risks of lung cancer by economicstatus, smoking habit, coal fumes in home, and year of first employment. We assessed lung cancer risks for occupational exposures, unadjusted and adjusted for economicstatus and smoking. After confounding effects of smoking and economicstatus were controlled, we found that rate ratios were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-4.69), 1.79 (95% CI 0.64-5.03), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.44-9.86) for 1-14, 15-29, and 30-45 exposure-years in curing department, respectively. The data showed significant trends in increased risk of lung cancer with duration of exposure in tire-curing department (score test for trend:, P = 0.004). However, in front rubber processing (weighing and mixing, calendering, extruding, and milling), no significant excess risk of lung cancer was found. If it can be confirmed that nitrosamines are mainly generated in back rubber processing (curing and vulcanizing), it would be reasonable to conclude that excess risk of lung cancer in rubber industry is attributable, at least partially, to exposure to nitrosamines. PMID:12734051
The report contains information on national development and status of energy production in China with particular attention to technological progress and economical effectiveness in coal and oil industries. The report highlights and covers research and development in nuclear fission reactors with a focus on nuclear safety engineering and progress of construction of nuclear power plants. The issues of power network, hydroelectricity and thermal power are altogether discussed in detail.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the impact that raised mother's education and a relative change in family affluence might have on adolescent general self-efficacy (GSE). METHODS: Data on 600 children born in Poland in January 1995 and their families were used. Data from early childhood and adolescence (2008) were considered and the change between these two periods was determined. RESULTS: Family affluence increased in 37.3 % of families with mothers, who had raised their education level (12.6 % of the sample), in comparison to 26.8 % in the group with no change, p < 0.001. The average GSE scores in those groups were 73.4 and 68.1, respectively, p < 0.001. In the best linear regression model adjusted for gender, the independent predictors of GSE turned out to be mother's education change and the family's current affluence. CONCLUSIONS: Raised mother's education level may encourage building up developmental assets in older children. Based on the structural model, where self-efficacy is the mediator of the relationship between socio-economicstatus change and the quality of life (KIDSCREEN-10) these results may be of importance in further research. PMID:23546391
Data from the 2000 Time Use Survey (TUS; n=1819) are used to analyze the composition of media repertoires of the Dutch population. Bourdieu's theory of taste would predict that a repertoire is internally consistent in terms of status: in the repertory of high status groups, highbrow is coupled with highbrow (NYT with PBS) while in low status groups lowbrow goes
Using data from the 1979 to 1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the author explores how gender, family, and class alter the impact of self-employment on earnings. Fixed-effect regression results show that while self-employment positively influences men’s earnings, not all women similarly benefit. Professionals receive the same self-employment earnings premium, regardless of gender. However, self-employment in nonprofessional
This study investigated the extent to which reported gender differences in values are attributable to differences in national\\u000a culture and organizational seniority. Locus of control and affectivity scores were obtained from 4599 managers and employees\\u000a in business organizations located in 14 countries. Across nations, men and those in senior positions were more internal and\\u000a less affective. Gender effects were additional
The effect of ethnicity and socio-economicstatus on the survival of a population-based cohort of 1979 children diagnosed with cancer between 1974 and 1995 was investigated. Ethnicity was assigned by computer algorithms and visual inspection as south Asian (or not) for each child, based on their full name. Socio-economicstatus was measured using the Carstairs index, based on census areas
P. A. McKinney; R. G. Feltbower; R. C. Parslow; I. J. Lewis; S. Picton; S. E. Kinsey; C. C. Bailey
The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…
This paper examines the nature and implications of the implicitly gendered changes in development paradigms that have accompanied recent restructuring of Latin American economies in order to contribute to the formulation of a more transformative approach toward the development of women. Analysis suggests that the marginalization of women in development planning and the labor market is caused by, and reproduces,
This article investigates the relationship between changing gender definitions and eco- nomic development in the United States and Mexico over the course of a century. On the basis of historical research and fieldwork, the author highlights the role played by the national state in both countries in defining the proper ambit and behavior of men and women. She maintains that
|The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and…
This paper examines the gender patterns of occupational mobility in post-reform Urban China using a national representative dataset. The results reveal marked differences between married men and women: women are more likely than men to undergo lateral or downward occupational changes, but are less likely to experience upward mobility. The results also show that the public-sector restructuring has increased the
Although some research suggests that the healthy immigrant effect extends to cognitive functioning, it is unclear whether this general pattern varies according to gender. We use six waves of data collected from the original cohort of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate a series of linear growth curve models to assess variations in cognitive functioning trajectories by nativity status and age at migration to the U.S.A. among women and men. Our results show, among women and men, no differences in baseline cognitive status (intercepts) between early- (before age 20) and late-life (50 and older) immigrants and U.S.-born individuals of Mexican-origin. We also find, among women and men, that middle-life (between the ages of 20 and 49) immigrants tend to exhibit higher levels of baseline cognitive functioning than the U.S.-born. Our growth curve analyses suggest that the cognitive functioning trajectories (slopes) of women do not vary according to nativity status and age at migration. The cognitive functioning trajectories of early- and late-life immigrant men are also similar to those of U.S.-born men; however, those men who migrated in middle-life tend to exhibit slower rates of cognitive decline. A statistically significant interaction term suggests that the pattern for middle-life migration is more pronounced for men (or attenuated for women). In other words, although women and men who migrated in middle-life exhibit higher levels of baseline cognitive functioning, immigrant men tend to maintain this advantage for a longer period of time. Taken together, these patterns confirm that gender is an important conditioning factor in the association between immigrant status and cognitive functioning. PMID:22609085
Hill, Terrence D; Angel, Jacqueline L; Balistreri, Kelly S; Herrera, Angelica P
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
|The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Males and females engage in comparable rates of binge eating, but gender differences in what constitutes a "binge" may contribute to the disproportionate likelihood of females meeting diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder (BED). Using data from one university enrolled in the 2010 Healthy Minds Study, we investigated the differences in "eating binge" definitions as a function of gender, BED status, and their interaction. This sample of 969 undergraduate college students was 64.0% female, and 9.3% (10.7% of women; 6.9% of males) met the screening criteria for BED. Open-ended responses defining a "binge" were coded into psychological/behavioral and food themes. Females with BED were most likely to mention loss of control when defining an eating binge, and relative to males with BED, they were significantly more likely to mention sweet foods; males with BED were significantly more likely to mention pizza. Findings suggest that among those without BED, females mentioned mood, type of food, and engaging in compensatory behaviors significantly more often than males. Results suggests that the diagnostic emphasis on binge eating as involving "loss of control" may lead to a heightened diagnosis of BED among females, yet both genders may experience a comparable weight-related sequelae from binge eating. PMID:21741023
|This paper addresses issues involving the designing of new job training and education programs in central Appalachia in response to national policies for economic improvement. In March 1994, the Reemployment Act of 1994 was announced as the Clinton administration's response to problems caused by radical and worldwide economic restructuring. The…
|Compiling data from several government surveys, this article identifies key social indicators of economic security associated with nonstandard employment in Japan. Empirical trends of nonstandard employment are contextualized in the development of Japanese coordinated capitalism from the economic boom during the 1960s through the recession of the…
Objectives To determine whether access to rapid access chest pain clinics of people with recent onset symptoms is equitable by age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender, according to need. Design Retrospective cohort study with ecological analysis. Setting Patients referred from primary care to five rapid access chest pain clinics in secondary care, across England. Participants Of 8647 patients aged ?35?years referred to chest pain clinics with new-onset stable chest pain but no known cardiac history, 7570 with documented census ward codes, age, gender and ethnicity comprised the study group. Patients excluded were those with missing date of birth, gender or ethnicity (n=782) and those with missing census ward codes (n=295). Outcome measures Effects of age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on clinic attendance were calculated as attendance rate ratios, with number of attendances as the outcome and resident population-years as the exposure in each stratum, using Poisson regression. Attendance rate ratios were then compared with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality ratios to determine whether attendance was equitable according to need. Results Adjusted attendance rate ratios for patients aged >65?years were similar to younger patients (1.1, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.16), despite population CHD mortality rate ratios nearly 15 times higher in the older age group. Women had lower attendance rate ratios (0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.84) and also lower population CHD mortality rate ratios compared with men. South Asians had higher attendance rates (1.67, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.77) compared with whites and had a higher standardised CHD mortality ratio of 1.46 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.51). Although univariable analysis showed that the most deprived patients (quintile 5) had an attendance rate twice that of less deprived quintiles, the adjusted analysis showed their attendance to be 13% lower (0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.94) despite a higher population CHD mortality rate. Conclusion There is evidence of underutilisation of chest pain clinics by older people and those from lower socioeconomic status. More robust and patient focused administrative pathways need to be developed to detect inequity, correction of which has the potential to substantially reduce coronary mortality.
Pain is a major burden for society and a great challenge for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of socio-economicstatus (SES) with pain, and assess if there were socio-economic differences in the impairment due to pain, even when the same level of pain was reported. Data were sourced from the Austrian Health Interview
Thomas E Dorner; Johanna Muckenhuber; Willibald J Stronegger; Éva Ràsky; Burkhard Gustorff; Wolfgang Freidl
Objectives This study investigated secular trends in socio-economicstatus (SES) differentials in Australian suicide (1979–2003), which\\u000a includes overall declines in male suicide from 1998.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Suicide rates were stratified by approximate equal-population quintiles of area-based SES for the period 1979–2003 and examined\\u000a across five quinquennia, centred on each Australian Census from 1981 to 2001, to determine if (1) SES differentials in suicide
Andrew Page; Stephen Morrell; Richard Taylor; Greg Carter; Michael Dudley
This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status.
BackgroundA number of studies have examined the relationship between high ambient temperature and mortality. Recently, concern has arisen about whether this relationship is modified by socio-demographic factors. However, data for this type of study is relatively scarce in subtropical\\/tropical regions where people are well accustomed to warm temperatures.
Weiwei Yu; Pavla Vaneckova; Kerrie Mengersen; Xiaochuan Pan; Shilu Tong
Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ? 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p < 0.01). Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children.
This paper examines inequalities in the self-reported health of men and women from white and minority ethnic groups in the UK using representative data from the Health Survey for England, 1993–1996. The results show substantially poorer health among all minority ethnic groups compared to whites of working-age. The absence of gender inequality in health among white adults contrasts with higher
Three gender-linked traits were examined with respect to adjustment to a coronary event: agency, a focus on the self; communion, a focus on others; and unmitigated communion, an extreme focus on others to the exclusion of the self. Participants (n = 65) were interviewed 1 week and 4 months after a 1st coronary event. Hypotheses were that agency should predict
Three hundred fifteen adolescents were administered the Portuguese versions of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Love Attitudes Scale. Analyses showed that loneliness was negatively associated with Eros for males and females, and positively correlated with Ludus for males and with Pragma for females. Significant gender differences were found on Ludus, Storge, Pragma and Agape love styles. Males were
With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population. PMID:20947184
We explore whether perceptions of discrimination are related to ordinary statistical measures. The majority of disabled respondents report feeling some discrimination due to their disability, the majority of women feel some discrimination because of their gender, and a surprising number of men also report some discrimination. We do not find a strong link between perceptions of discrimination and measured discrimination
Kevin F. Hallock; Wallace Hendricks; Emer Broadbent
Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (?=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (?(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks. PMID:23675996
Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A
The author uses data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey to investigate the extent and determinants of gender differences in days lost from work due to illness. She finds that for both men and women, health status measures, such as self-reported health status and medical events, more consistently explained absenteeism than did economic factors such as wages and the
Significant gaps exist in health care regarding gender in the United States. Health status, social roles, culturally patterned behavior and access to health care can be influenced by gender. Women have been the primary users of health care and minority women usually have received poorer quality care than Non-Hispanic White (NHW) females. The objectives of this study were to identify
Alberto Coustasse; Karan P. Singh; Sue G. Lurie; Yu-Sheng Lin; Claudia S. Coggin; Fernando Trevino
Purpose To measure and analyse national EQ-5D data and to provide norms for the Chinese general population by age, sex, educational\\u000a level, income and employment status.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The EQ-5D instrument was included in the National Health Services Survey 2008 (n = 120,703) to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL). All descriptive analyses by socio-economicstatus (educational\\u000a level, income and employment status) and by clinical
Sun Sun; Jiaying Chen; Magnus Johannesson; Paul Kind; Ling Xu; Yaoguang Zhang; Kristina Burström
Sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Zyban®) is approved as a smoking cessation aid for adults. Since smoking often begins in adolescence, we determined the single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion SR in 75 adolescent subjects ranging from 13 to 18 years old. Subjects self-reported their smoking status. Urinary cotinine concentration was used to verify smoking status. Thirty-seven subjects (18 males, 19 females) were classified
John J. Stewart; Hans J. Berkel; Roy C. Parish; M. Renee Simar; Azeem Syed; Joseph A. Bocchini; John T. Wilson; Joseph E. Manno
One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economicstatus with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economicstatus suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668
Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H
This article compares heterosexual and sexual minority street-involved youth across a number of sociodemographic, risk and current mental health, victimization and delinquency measures with a particular focus on gender differences. The sample consists of 147 homeless and street-involved young men and women aged 16–21 years in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses indicate that many of the differences between the heterosexual
Tyler J. Frederick; Lori E. Ross; Tara L. Bruno; Patricia G. Erickson
The main aim of this study was to evaluate intersections of gender (female\\/male), class (household income), and ethnicity (country of birth) in relation to various measures of psychological and physical health. The study is based on data from the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2006, comprising a randomly-selected sample of 26,305 men and 30,584 women aged 16–84 years. Of these
This study addresses responses to gender inequality in the division of family work as well as the outcomes of those responses. Ninety-eight husbands and 95 wives responded to stimulus information manipulated by means of scenarios. Participants reported more wife-demand\\/husband-withdraw interaction than husband-demand\\/wife-withdraw interaction when the wife was discontent with her spouse's contribution to family work, but the demand\\/withdraw interaction patterns
This study is about Tunisian women's work and lives in the present era of economic neoliberalism. The focus is women in the city of Bizerte, Tunisia, both those who work in Bizerte's export processing zone (EPZ), as well as those who work outside it. This study is a qualitative examination of formal and informal employment, set inside and outside of
China is experiencing the most rapidly expanding HIV prevalence in the world, with the percentage of Chinese women living with HIV\\/AIDS also increasing significantly. Chinese women's risk of HIV infection is heavily influenced by patriarchal cultural beliefs, Confucian doctrines, and rapid social and economic changes in China. Chinese women generally have a low level of awareness of HIV\\/AIDS. With inherent
|Asserts that, on average, women score lower on the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) Subject Test in Economics. Reports on a study of 149 student scores on the test to identify factors associated with this differential performance. Finds little support for the notion that men are simply better than women in quantitative areas. (CFR)|
A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more
Julie M. Hupp; Jessi L. Smith; Jill M. Coleman; Amy B. Brunell
Background Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Methods Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l’ALIMentation et de l’Activité Physique (PRALIMAP) trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. Results The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%), and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042). All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=<0.0001). Weight status was not associated with physical and social scores neither in boys nor in girls. Conversely, it was associated with mental score, but differently in girls than boys. As compared with normal-weight girls, thin girls had better mental HRQoL (?=+6.17, p=0.0010), and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (?=?3.89 and ?=?5.90, respectively, p<0.001). Mental HRQoL was lower for thin, overweight and obese boys than for normal-weight boys (?= ?4.97, ?= ?1.68 and ?= ?3.17, respectively, p<0.0001). Conclusions Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during adolescence.
This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed. PMID:20401788
Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485
Minorities outmarried to Whites are often assumed to exchange their higher achieved status for an ascribed racial status. This study challenges this traditional exchange perspective by examining three SES measures (education, job prestige and income), using census 2000 PUMS data. Findings indicate that couples have similar statuses in all types of marriages, either endogamous or exogamous, and there is no
Efforts to establish, test and analyse hypotheses regarding cross-country variations in women's economicstatus are hampered by the lack of a readily accessible and easily used information resource on the various dimensions of gender inequality. Addressing this gap, this paper introduces the Gender, Institutions and Development data base (GID)…
Jutting, Johannes P.; Morrisson, Christian; Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Drechsler, Denis
A follow-up study of malnutrition and its determinants among children 6 to 24 months of age was carried out in rural areas of Punjab State in India 30 years after the original study, and following a period of rapid economic growth. The original 1971 study had found a high preva- lence of mortality and malnutrition and the worst gender difference
F. James Levinson; Sucheta Mehra; Dorothy Levinson; Anita Kumari Chauhan; Guy Koppe; Brian Bence; Astier M. Almedom
|Peer nominations and demographic information were collected from a diverse sample of 1493 elementary school participants to examine behavior (overt and relational aggression, impulsivity, and prosociality), context (peer status), and demographic characteristics (race and gender) as predictors of teacher and administrator decisions about…
Horner, Stacy B.; Fireman, Gary D.; Wang, Eugene W.
The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…
|The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and
BACKGROUND: Weight-related issues such as obesity, dieting and eating disorders in adolescents are major public health problems. Moreover, undertaking a diet tends to be common among school children and the reasons for doing so are not always related to weight status. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of body mass index (BMI), gender and self-esteem in
Margherita Ferrante; Maria Fiore; Gina E Sciacca; Luca Leon; Salvatore Sciacca; Marine Castaing; Gianbattista Modonutti
|We used hypothetical vignettes to examine whether older adults' endorsement of interpersonal strategies for dealing with health-related (arthritis) everyday problems varied as a function of marital status, gender, and the severity of the problem. Adults 60 years and older (N= 127, M= 71.40 years, SD = 7.21) rated interpersonal (i.e., discuss with…
Strough, Jonell; McFall, Joseph P.; Schuller, Kelly L.
This was an exploratory, qualitative study of contextual cultural and social realities of the sexual interactions of a representative sample of African American women of unidentified HIV status. The study expanded our understanding of family and gender role variables by exploring influences of family of origin and idealistic perceptions of roles on sexual relationships. Data was collected on 51 African
S. L. Jarama; F. Z. Belgrave; J. Bradford; M. Young; J. A. Honnold
|Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…
Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.
Marital status and other characteristics of 970 residents of Los Angeles County in whom cancer of the anus (including perianal skin) was diagnosed during the period 1972-1981 were compared with those of all county residents and all other persons in whom cancer was diagnosed during the same period. The incidence rate of anal cancer for single males was 6.1 times
|The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…
DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette
This study aimed to explore relations between Internet use, socio-economicstatus (SES), social support and subjective health. Participants were from representative samples between 15 and 80 years of age from seven different European countries. Two different survey datasets were used: (i) eHealth trends (eHT; N = 7934) and (ii) the European social survey (ESS2; N = 11248). Internet users who had used the Internet for health purposes were compared with Internet users who had not used it for health purposes. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the relationships between SES, Internet use, social support and subjective health. Use of other media was compared to Internet use in relation to social support and subjective health. Internet use was found to be more closely related to social support and subjective health than use of other media. Internet use was also found to be a plausible mediator between SES and subjective health, especially through interacting with social support. PMID:18083686
Wangberg, Silje C; Andreassen, Hege K; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Santana, Silvina Maria Vagos; Sørensen, Tove; Chronaki, Catharine E
The proportion of female members in The Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) is 18% with the proportion of female members higher among the young generation (20-30 Y.O.; 34.8%, 30-40 Y.O.; 26.8%). However, the number of female members in the Board of Directors has been zero or one (0 or 6%) for many years. More than two female members are necessary on the Board to promote the diversity in the management of the JAA. The numbers of female members in other committees has shown gradual increase in recent years. A substantial increase in female faculty members including professors in each university and school will support the future development of the anatomical research field and the association. We have made the first great step by setting up the committee on promotion of gender equality in JAA in March, 2011. In the next year, JAA became a member of Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). Our committee's activity includes holding workshops and seminars at the annual meetings to promote gender equality in the research field and to encourage mutual support and friendship, not only among women members but also among all members. PMID:24066390
Introduction The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35–70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n?=?2741, men n?=?2004) and Tunisia (women n?=?2964, men n?=?2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI)?=?weight/height <18.5 kg/m2, obesity as BMI ?30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ?0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Results Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9–8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8–32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4–39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1–11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2–15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4–5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1–4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9–3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0–5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. Conclusion The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities.
The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economicstatus and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economicstatus-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = .28) and for samples that were least educated (r = .36). The relation was weakest among high-income developing economies (r = .10) and for highly educated samples (r = .13). Controlling for numerous covariates, the partial r effect size remained significant for the least-educated samples (pr = .18). Moderator analyses showed the economicstatus-SWB relation to be strongest when (a) economicstatus was defined as wealth (a stock variable), instead of as income (a flow variable), and (b) SWB was measured as life satisfaction (a cognitive assessment), instead of as happiness (an emotional assessment). Findings were replicated with a meta-analysis of the World Values Survey data. Discussion centers on the plausibility of need theory, alternative explanations of results, interpretation of moderators, and directions for future research. PMID:18605819
As women have gained status in Western cultures in the last few decades, they have increasingly endorsed stereotypically masculine\\u000a instrumental\\/assertive traits. However, men have also endorsed these traits at a higher frequency and show only a weak trend\\u000a toward embracing more stereotypically feminine expressive\\/communal traits. Overall, Western cultures have moved toward valuing\\u000a instrumental\\/assertive traits and devaluing expressive\\/communal traits. The paradox
As one of the poorest countries in the world, Ethiopia¿s rate of child malnutrition is one of the highest, even within sub¿Saharan Africa. The causes and relative importance of various determinants of malnutrition in Ethiopia are not well understood. This paper specifically explores some of the less obvious factors affecting children¿s nutritional status in Ethiopia. It is based on information
A. Mekonnen; T. O. Bezuayehu; T. Woldehanna; N. Jones; J. Seager; T. Alemu; G. Asgedom
Previous research has shown that people use warmth and competence as basic dimensions to evaluate others and to interpret their behavior, but little research has examined the conditions under which low-warmth targets are liked. A series of 3 experiments involving 4 vignettes showed, in general, that low-warmth targets were better liked when they exhibited higher competence and that high-status persons
Wen-Ying Lin; Jenn-Wu Wang; Hung-Yu Lin; Hui-Tzu Lin; Blair T. Johnson
|This study tested whether socio-economicstatus (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…
Over a five-year period in the 1990s Vietnam experienced annual economic growth of more than 8% and a 15 point decrease in the proportion of children chronically malnourished (stunted). We estimate the extent to which changes in the distribution of child nutritional status can be explained by changes in the level and distribution of income, and of other covariates. This
Owen O'Donnell; Ángel López Nicolás; Eddy Van Doorslaer
|Proceedings of the 1981 conference on the legal and economicstatus of collective bargaining in higher education, sponsored by the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions, are presented. Papers and authors are as follows: "Yeshiva Shock Waves" (David Kuechle); "The Yeshiva Case: One Year…
|This article compares the economicstatus of adults with visual impairments with those with non-visual impairments using data from the National Health Interview Survey. Employment rates and mean household incomes were lower and receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance higher among those blind in both eyes than those with less severe visual…
This study tested whether socio-economicstatus (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…
The outcome of treatment by age and socio-economicstatus was examined for 1,588 women with invasive cancer of cervix resident in the West of Scotland and diagnosed between 1980 and 1987. There was no difference in prognosis according to either variable once analysis was controlled for stage at presentation, treatment type and tumour grade. Tumour histology, date of treatment and
DW Lamont; RP Symonds; MM Brodie; NJ Nwabineli; CR Gillis
The focus of this thesis is twofold, the first being theoretical, the second being methodological. Chapter I consists of a review of the migration literature, specifically that relevant to tie relationship between socio-economicstatus and the migrant's integration into a new community. From this review, a number of hypotheses are generated and subsequently tested employing data from the Migrant Relocation
In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students’ socio-economicstatus (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students’ learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students’ achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University’s educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.
The attempts of social network members to regulate individuals’ health behaviors, or health-related social control, is one mechanism by which social relationships influence health. Little is known, however, about whether this process varies in married versus unmarried individuals managing a chronic illness in which health behaviors are a key component. Researchers have proposed that social control attempts may have dual effects on recipients’ well-being, such that improved health behaviors may occur at the cost of increased emotional distress. The current study accordingly sought to examine marital status differences in the sources, frequency, and responses to health-related social control in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,477 patients with type 2 diabetes from southern California, USA. Results from two-way ANCOVAs revealed that married individuals reported their spouses most frequently as sources of social control, with unmarried women naming children and unmarried men naming friends/neighbors most frequently as sources of social control. Married men reported receiving social control most often, whereas unmarried men reported receiving social control least often. Regression analyses that examined behavioral and emotional responses to social control revealed that positive social control strategies were associated with better dietary behavior among married patients. Results also revealed a complex pattern of emotional responses, such that social control was associated with both appreciation and hostility, with the effect for appreciation most pronounced among women. Findings from this study highlight the importance of marital status and gender differences in social network members’ involvement in the management of a chronic illness.
There is a paucity of research on micro-level assessment of the dynamics of socio-economicstatus following health interventions. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in low-income countries. Indeed, in such settings information about income is usually lacking and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economicstatus of 159 households in a village in north-western Tanzania before and 1 year after participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based on durable assets ownership (e.g. bicycle and radio) and household characteristics dealing with ownership of land and house construction features (e.g. type of walls and roof). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economicstatus, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economicstatus. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.761 to -0.448, and the mean from -0.204 (standard deviation (SD) 1.924) to 0.193 (SD 2.079) between pre- and post-intervention phases. The difference in socio-economicstatus of the people comparing the pre- and post-intervention phases was highly statistically significant (p<0.001). This observation was confirmed by a multinomial model with a random effect on the households. We argue that significant changes in the socio-economicstatus observed in our study are attributable to the PHAST intervention, despite other sporadic interventions against schistosomiasis. PMID:23333229
Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Rumisha, Susan F; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg
Background: Evaluating the malaria status of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) member countries relation to goal 6 of 3rd Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which includes have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria. Methods: By 2009, we reviewed the MDGs reports, extracted the data from surveillance system, published, and unpublished data. The main stakeholders, from both governmental and international organizations in the country have been visited and interviewed by the research team as part of the data validation process. Results: The malaria incidence is very heterogeneous among ECO countries, which differ less than 200 cases in total country in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan to 82,564 cases (2,428/100,000) in Afghanistan and 59,284 cases (881/100,000) in Pakistan and about 18/100,000 in Iran in 2008. Malaria has been a major public health problem in Pakistan and Afghanistan and will continue to pose serious threat to millions of people due to poor environmental and socioeconomic conditions conducive to the spread of disease. The main malaria endemic areas of Iran are in southeastern part of the country; consist of less developed provinces that are bordered in the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are little valid information about proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures indicators. Conclusion: All ECO countries could achieve MDGs malaria indicators by 2015 except Pakistan and Afghanistan, unless preparing urgent intervention programs to fulfill the goals.
Holakouie Naieni, K; Malekafzali, H; Rashidian, A; Vazirian, P; Moradi, G; Mirzazadeh, A; Mirmohammadkhani, M; Shamshiri, A
Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate partners' ability to negotiate their multiple roles. We hypothesized that the covariance between changes in workload and marital satisfaction over time should be moderated by (a) the extent to which spouses like their work, (b) their parental status, and (c) their gender. Analyses drawing upon eight waves of data on workload, work satisfaction, and marital satisfaction from 169 newlywed couples assessed over four years confirmed these predictions. Specifically, across couples, demands at work covaried positively with marital satisfaction for spouses who were more satisfied with their jobs. For nonparent couples, increases in husbands' workload covaried with increases in marital satisfaction for both spouses. For parent couples, however, increases in husbands' workload covaried with declines in marital satisfaction for both spouses. Unexpectedly, for parent couples, increases in wives' workload corresponded with increased marital satisfaction. Finally, consistent with predictions, wives were more affected by their husbands' workload than vice versa. Thus, tension between work and marriage is not inevitable, instead depending on circumstances that facilitate or impair performance in multiple roles. Couples, employers, and practitioners should recognize the role that external circumstances play in determining how work and marital life interact. PMID:21553965
van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R
More research is needed on the socio-environmental determinants of obesity in lower- and middle-income countries. We used generalized estimating equations to evaluate the cross-sectional effect of urban residence and multiple individual-level indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) on the odds of overweight or central adiposity in a birth cohort of young adult (mean age 21.5 y) Filipino males (n = 987) and females (n = 819) enrolled in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Overweight was defined as BMI >/=25 kg/m(2) and central adiposity was defined as a waist circumference >85 cm for males or >80 cm for females. Community-level urbanicity was measured on a continuous scale. Multiple indicators of SES included assets, income, education, and marital status. In the final multivariable models, assets and being married were positively related to overweight and central adiposity in males (P < 0.05), but being married was the only predictor of these outcomes in females. However, once the modifying effects of urban residence were accounted for, assets were positively related to overweight and central adiposity among the most rural women, but not in more urban women. Our results are consistent with a growing body of literature that suggests the relationship between SES and obesity is positive in lower-income contexts and inverse in higher-income contexts, particularly in females. The pattern of relationships we observed suggests that as the Philippines continues to develop economically, the public health impact of obesity will increase similarly to what has been observed in countries further along in their economic transition. PMID:20032487
Dahly, Darren L; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M; Kaufman, Jay S; Adair, Linda S
Council tax valuation bands (CTVBs) are a categorisation of household property value in Great Britain. The aim of the study was to assess the CTVB as a measure of socio-economicstatus by comparing the strength of the associations between selected health and lifestyle outcomes and CTVBs with two measures of socio-economicstatus: the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and the
David L Fone; Frank Dunstan; Stephen Christie; Andrew Jones; Jonathan West; Margaret Webber; Nathan Lester; John Watkins
This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economicstatus, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economicstatus. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health.
Bond, Jason C.; Roberts, Sarah C.M.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B.
Feminists have long argued that structural inequality between men and women influences the prevalence of female homicide victimization. In the present study, a cross-sectional analysis was performed using data on 3,083 U.S. counties in 2000 to assess the impact of women’s absolute status and gender inequality along educational, employment, income, and occupational dimensions and patriarchal culture on their risk of
Lynne M. Vieraitis; Sarah Britto; Tomislav V. Kovandzic
Objective: This study examined dieting, weight perceptions, and self-efficacy to eat healthy foods and engage in physical activity and their relationships to weight status and gender among American Indian elementary schoolchildren.Research Methods and Procedures: Data for this study were collected as part of the baseline examination for the Pathways study. Participants were 1441 second- through third-grade American Indian children in
Mary Story; June Stevens; Marguerite Evans; Carol E. Cornell; Juhaeri; Joel Gittelsohn; Scott B. Going; Theresa E. Clay; David M. Murray
The primary objective of this study was to develop empirical generalizations regarding occupational status projections of non-metropolitan Southern youth. Using a standardized survey instrument, data were collected (1966 and 1967) from 5 Southern states (Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, and Texas). The sample consisted of…
Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economicstatus; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited. PMID:18786752
Overwhelmingly, teachers of sexuality education in Australia are drawn from the physical education, home economics and science disciplines, with a declining sprinkle of teachers with a gender equity background. They have little background and training in sexuality education, are concerned about attitudes and backlash, and are often reluctant to teach the more sensitive issues, particularly issues around gender and homosexuality.
BACKGROUND: Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economicstatus but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies) of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a) breast-feeding (b) personal and
Norman Beale; Gill Kane; Mark Gwynne; Carole Peart; Gordon Taylor; David Herrick; Andy Boyd
This paper investigates the compensation of Court musicians in the late 16thcentury, a period of transitionfrom a medieval feudal system to a market economy. Using data from theTyrolian archives, the paper demonstratesthat one cannot measure the socio-economicstatus of Court musicians in theHousehold of Archduke Ferdinand IIin Innsbruck only by their wages, but that one must also take intoconsideration all
There continues to be debate about how best to conceptualize and measure the role of exposure to ethnicity-related and socio-economic\\u000a status-related stressors (e.g. racism, discrimination, class prejudice) in accounting for ethnic health disparities over the\\u000a lifecourse and across generations. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the evidence of health disparities among\\u000a ethnic groups, and the major evidence
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to examine, whether middle-aged and older adults spontaneously engage in proactive coping to prevent future problems associated with ageing and whether differences in proactive coping were associated with socio-economicstatus (SES). METHODS: As part of the cross-sectional Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2, 2001), a representative sample of 3189 adults aged
AN important question in studies of mental ability concerns the effect of parental socio-economicstatus (SES) on the IQ of their offspring. Only a full cross-fostering study, including children born to biological parents from the most highly contrasting SES and adopted by parents with equally constrasting SES, can answer this question. Previous adoption studies using incomplete cross-fostering designs1-3 have indicated
The possible effects of migration and socio-economicstatus (SES) on age at menarche (MENA), age at menopause (MENO), potential\\u000a reproductive period (PRP), and the correlation between MENA and MENO, were studied in 216 women in the Yucatan, Mexico. They\\u000a were divided into three groups: migrant from the sisal-growing area on the coast, and sisal and coastal sedentary.\\u000a \\u000a Coastal sedentary women,
This study tested the applicability of Tajfel and Turner's (1986) Social Identity Theory (SIT) to cooperative behavior in a mixed-gender setting. SIT suggests that as a “socially subordinate” group in a male-dominated society, women, when their gender is in the numerical minority, will engage in social competition in an attempt to enhance social identity. However, gender-based socialization may encourage men
Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6%) and vitamin C (70.7%) were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%), whey protein (31.7%), echinacea (30.9%), iron (29.9%) and caffeine (23.7%). Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously shown to increase the probability of prohibited substance use, groups exhibiting high use of nutritional supplements should be monitored. Future research should incorporate a wide range of supplements and enquire about the daily amount ingested. In addition to tutoring, preventive measures should incorporate offering acceptable and healthy alternatives for assisted performance enhancement.
Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input\\/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged
The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical
Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner
The way in which an all-women's department, the Department of Home Economics at the University of California (Berkeley), tried to raise its status and adhere to academic values of a research university after starting out as a low prestige undergraduate program is analyzed. Some of the related research questions are: whether academic departments…
|The gendered speech in a foreign language has been found to pose barriers for learners due to different gender norms associated with their mother tongue and the foreign language. The problem is especially serious with the masculine and feminine forms of speech in the Japanese language, as these are strongly linked with social inequality between…
Early research on the role of gender in criminal justice processing led to the hypothesis that women received preferential treatment, particularly at the sentencing stage. More recent studies have argued that the preferential treatment of women depends on the type of current offense. Women convicted of property crimes, that is crimes more typical of their gender, will be treated more
Males and females engage in comparable rates of binge eating, but gender differences in what constitutes a “binge” may contribute to the disproportionate likelihood of females meeting diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder (BED). Using data from one university enrolled in the 2010 Healthy Minds Study, we investigated the differences in “eating binge” definitions as a function of gender, BED
Uric acid seems to be causally involved in a variety of medical disorders involving oxidative stress. Although alcohol abuse and obesity are known to increase serum uric acid, the interactions between moderate drinking, adiposity, and uric acid metabolism have remained poorly understood. We examined serum uric acid concentrations from 2062 apparently healthy volunteers (970 men, 1092 women) reporting either no alcohol (abstainers) or <40 g of ethanol consumption per day (moderate drinkers). The study population was further classified according to BMI as follows: <19 (underweight), 19-25 (normal weight), 25-30 (overweight), and >30 (obese). Serum uric acid concentrations in male moderate drinkers were significantly higher, and in females they were lower, than in the corresponding groups of abstainers. In the BMI-based subgroups, the highest concentrations were found in those who were overweight or obese. Significant two-factor interactions occurred between gender and drinking status (p<0.001) and between gender and BMI (p<0.02). Serum uric acid also correlated with indices of hepatocellular health (GGT, ALT, AST). The data indicate distinct gender-dependent impacts of alcohol consumption and BMI on serum uric acid. These findings should be applicable to the assessment of oxidative stress status and associated morbidity in alcohol consumers and individuals with excess body weight. PMID:19439211
Alatalo, Päivikki I; Koivisto, Heidi M; Hietala, Johanna P; Bloigu, Risto S; Niemelä, Onni J
The principle objective of this study was to assess the association between socio-economicstatus (SES) and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents aged 13-18, using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). The secondary objective was to assess the influences of other factors (pocket money, school type, family structure and psychological factors) on this association. Cross-sectional data were from the national 2007 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Oral health-related behaviours included health-enhancing behaviours (frequency of toothbrushing and dental visits) and health-compromising behaviours (smoking and frequency of intake of soft drinks and confections). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. To assess the influence of other factors, additional models adjusting for sex, school grade and each of the other factors were compared to the initial model, which adjusted for sex and school grade only. We found that family affluence had a linear association with health-enhancing behaviours and a roughly U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours. After adjusting for a number of variables, the linear association with health-enhancing behaviours persisted. The U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours remained but was partly attenuated and flattened. In addition, we found a marked influence of school type and family structure and pocket money on the association between FAS and oral health-compromising behaviours. The findings indicate that the health-enhancing behaviours of adolescents were strongly associated with family affluence, but the health-compromising behaviours were more strongly linked to factors other than family affluence. However, it is difficult to determine which factors contribute most in relation to family affluence because of other confounding factors, such as the education system, peer group, youth culture, part-time work and advertising. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess factors that interact with family SES to better understand the association between the SES and the oral health-compromising behaviours of adolescents. PMID:20359807
Jung, Se-Hwan; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Ryu, Jae-In; Watt, Richard G
There is a pervasive pattern of discrimination and prejudice against transgendered people within society. Both economic discrimination and experiencing violence could be the result of a larger social climate that severely sanctions people for not conforming to society's norms concerning gender; as such, both would be strongly associated with each other. Questionnaires were distributed to people either through events or
Emilia L. Lombardi; Riki Anne Wilchins; Dana Priesing; Diana Malouf
|Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)|
SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economicstatus in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. DESIGN In a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance study of all new pulmonary TB cases conducted in Vitoria between 2002 and 2006, spatial patterns of disease incidence were compared using spatial clustering statistics (Anselin’s local indicators of spatial association [LISA] and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics), smoothed empirical Bayes estimates and model-predicted incidence rates. Spatial Poisson models were fit to examine the relationship between socio-economicstatus and TB incidence. RESULTS A total of 651 TB cases were reported across 78 neighborhoods, with rates ranging from 0 to 129 cases per 100 000 population. Moran’s I indicated strong spatial autocorrelation among incidence rates (0.399, P < 0.0001), and four areas of high incidence were identified by LISA and Gi* statistics. Smoothed spatial empirical Bayes estimates demonstrate that two of these areas range from 70 to 90 cases/100 000, while the other two range from 40 to 70 cases/100 000. TB incidence and socioeconomic status had a significant curvilinear relationship (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Data derived from these spatial statistical tools will help TB control programs to allocate TB resources to those populations most at risk of increasing TB rates and to target areas where TB control efforts need to be concentrated.
Maciel, E. L. N.; Pan, W.; Dietze, R.; Peres, R. L.; Vinhas, S. A.; Ribeiro, F. K.; Palaci, M.; Rodrigues, R. R.; Zandonade, E.; Golub, J. E.
Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…
Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson
|The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economicstatus (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…
Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.
Diet and lifestyle related to socioeconomic status emerged as risk factors for gastric cancer in several studies. However, the results were not always consistent with the socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors independent from education as a measure of socioeconomic status. Two hundred and fifty-three patients with gastric cancer diagnosed in 2005 and equal number of control subjects were interviewed for several characteristics and diet. Matching was done for age, gender, city of residence and also for the level of education. Despite these matching preferences, patients had significantly lower income when compared to the control subjects (P = 0.0001). Higher rate of patients were smoking more than 2 packs/day of cigarettes (P = 0.018). Also significantly higher rate of control subjects were using antibiotics (P = 0.002). Coffee (P < 0.0001), salad (P = 0.006), bread (P = 0.005), vegetable-derived cooking oil (P = 0.003) consumptions appeared as highly protective factors against gastric cancer in univariate analysis in the present trial. In multivariate analysis, significant risk reducing factors were bread (P = 0.005) and coffee consumption (P = 0.0001) other than the level income (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the goal of obtaining comparable socioeconomic status by including the level of education in the matching criteria was not met in our study because of the difference in income level. The only risk reducing factor that was not in accordance with income level was the unexpectedly higher rate of bread consumption in control group. PMID:20054718
Icli, F; Akbulut, H; Yalcin, B; Ozdemir, F; Is?kdogan, A; Hayran, M; Unsal, D; Coskun, S; Buyukcelik, A; Yamac, D
Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nation’s efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a country’s or region’s economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industry’s output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given industry.
BACKGROUND: Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of
Matthias Richter; Anja Leppin; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn
The paper examines the distribution of income between strong and weak economic competitors over time, and whether any inequality is accentuated under conditions of industrial development. Data from a longitudinal (1966-1971) study of the construction of a...
This article highlights the importance of socio-economicstatus to children's understandings of their own identity and belonging. It draws on a participatory research project with two groups of children, aged 8–13 years, from different socio-economic backgrounds, in two different geographic locations. It explores how children perceive and understand their own social and economic situations in relation to others. Whilst the
There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations. Their social value stems from their capacity to reduce the uncertainty in human interactions thereby both reducing transaction costs and, importantly, enabling the initiation and sustainability of various activities (instrumental value). Furthermore, institutions tend to be formed around certain ethical positions and as a consequence, act in binding future decision making to these positions (intrinsic value). Incorporating such notions of social value within a conventional welfare-based measure of benefit is problematic as institutional development is not necessarily consistent with individual utility. An institutionalist approach allows for these additional domains to be factored into economic evaluation. IMAGE is an intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV through microfinance, health education and community development, and involves significant initial investment in institution-building activities, notably through training activities with program staff and community members. The key to employing an institutionalist approach to the evaluation of IMAGE is in understanding the nature of those actions that can be seen as institution-building and determining: (1) the instrumental value of follow-up activities by appropriate amortisation of transaction costs over an horizon that reflects the economies gained from the intervention; and (2) the intrinsic value of any transformation in the community through a cost-consequences approach informed by an a priori conceptual model. This case study highlights how health sector interventions can effect institutional changes and how these are captured within a theory-based economic evaluation framework. PMID:18162273
|Gender differences in health and education are a concern for a number of developing countries. While standard theory predicts human capital should respond to market returns, social norms (e.g., disapproval of women working outside the home) may weaken or even sever this link for girls. Though many studies have examined the link between women's…
Background There are few population-based studies from low- and middle-income countries that have described the association of socio-economic, gender and health factors with common mental disorders (CMDs) in rural women. Methods Population-based study of currently married rural women in the age group of 15–39 years. The baseline data are from the National Family Health Survey-II conducted in 1998. A follow-up study was conducted 4 years later in 2002–03. The outcome of CMD was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Due to the hierarchical nature and complex survey design, data were analysed using mixed-effect logistic regression with random intercept model. Results A total of 5703 women (representing 83.5% of eligible women) completed follow-up. The outcome of CMD was observed in 609 women (10.7%, 95% confidence interval 9.8–11.6). The following factors were independently associated with the outcome of CMD in the final multivariable model: higher age, low education, low standard of living, recent intimate partner violence (IPV), husband’s unsatisfactory reaction to dowry, husband’s alcohol use and women’s own tobacco use. Conclusions Socio-economic and gender disadvantage factors are independently associated with CMDs in this population of women. Strategies that address structural determinants, for example to promote women’s education and reduce their exposure to IPV, may reduce the burden of CMDs in women.
This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by paediatricians. The age-5 performances on various literacy and cognitive tasks, gender and group status (familial risk or language delayed) were used to predict developmental dyslexia 2 years later using logistic regression analysis. Results showed that greater risk of dyslexia was related to slower rapid automatized naming, lower scores on morphological awareness, Chinese character recognition and English letter naming, and gender (boys had more risk). Three logistic equations were generated for estimating individual risk of dyslexia. The strongest models were those that included all print-related variables (including speeded number naming, character recognition and letter identification) and gender, with about 70% accuracy or above. Early identification of those Chinese children at risk for dyslexia can facilitate better dyslexia risk management. PMID:22271420
Wong, Simpson W L; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W F; Doo, Sylvia
Background There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Methods The study was carried out on the total population aged 20?years or older in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for the individual level of multi-morbidity in the population to which we have related the odds ratio for individuals and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for patients of using licit prescription drugs, defined daily doses (DDDs) and total costs of licit prescription drugs after adjusting for age, gender and socioeconomic factors (educational and income level). Results After adjustment for multi-morbidity level male individuals had less than half the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.40-0.42)) compared to female individuals. Among the patients, males had higher total costs (IRR 1.14 (95% CI 1.13-1.15)). Individuals above 80?years had nine times the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 9.09 (95% CI 8.33-10.00)) despite adjustment for multi-morbidity. Patients in the highest education and income level had the lowest DDDs (IRR 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80), IRR 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.74)) after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Conclusions This paper shows that there is a great variability in licit prescription drug use associated with gender, age and socioeconomic status, which is not dependent on level of multi-morbidity.
After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…
|This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…
|After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…
|The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…
We use two datasets for urban China to examine whether an increase in reference group income lowers or increases job satisfaction. The former is consistent with a status effect — an increase in the income of others lowers my satisfaction because I feel jealous. The latter is consistent with a signal effect — an increase in the income of others
In a series of exploratory analyses, we examined the roles of gender, reproductive status and negative affect on smoking abstinence in subjects participating in a large (n=385) 6-week randomized clinical trial (RCT) of nicotine patch therapy, with varying doses of oral naltrexone (0mg, 25mg, 50mg, 100mg) treatment. Negative affect was assessed daily during the first post-quit week via telephone interactive voice response (IVR). Weight and adverse events were recorded weekly. In the intent to treat sample, the effects of dose on continuous abstinence were non-significant in the overall model for men and women. In the 295 study completers, there was a significant effect of dose on continuous abstinence in women only (F=8.53, p=0.04). In the 100mg group, 71% of women were continuously abstinent compared to 41% in the placebo group (p<0.05). Women in the active naltrexone groups gained less weight (F=2.91, df=3, p=0.04). Women in the 100mg vs. placebo group were less adherent with medication (F=3.19, p<0.05). These effects were not significant in men. Naltrexone treatment condition (100mg vs. placebo, p=0.02, odds ratio (OR)=0.28), gender (OR=0.55 p=0.09), and IVR ratings of negative affect (OR 1.02, p=0.04) predicted abstinence at Week 1 in study completers. Menstrual cycle status on quit day had a modest affect on abstinence. These data suggest that naltrexone dose, gender, and negative affect play a role in smoking abstinence, particularly in the early stages of treatment. When used in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy, naltrexone dose may be important in women. PMID:20561758
Epperson, C Neill; Toll, Benjamin; Wu, Ran; Amin, Zenab; Czarkowski, Kathryn A; Jatlow, Peter; Mazure, Carolyn M; O'Malley, Stephanie S
In a series of exploratory analyses, we examined the roles of gender, reproductive status and negative affect on smoking abstinence in subjects participating in a large (n=385) 6-week randomized clinical trial (RCT) of nicotine patch therapy, with varying doses of oral naltrexone (0 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg) treatment. Negative affect was assessed daily during the first post-quit week via telephone interactive voice response (IVR). Weight and adverse events were recorded weekly. In the intent to treat sample, the effects of dose on continuous abstinence were non-significant in the overall model for men and women. In the 295 study completers, there was a significant effect of dose on continuous abstinence in women only (F=8.53, p=0.04). In the 100 mg group, 71% of women were continuously abstinent compared to 41% in the placebo group (p<0.05). Women in the active naltrexone groups gained less weight (F=2.91, df=3, p=0.04). Women in the 100 mg versus placebo group were less adherent with medication (F=3.19, p<0.05). These effects were not significant in men. Naltrexone treatment condition (100 mg vs placebo, p=0.02, odds ratio (OR)=0.28), gender (OR=0.55 p=0.09), and IVR ratings of negative affect (OR 1.02, p=0.04) predicted abstinence at Week-1 in study completers. Menstrual cycle status on quit day had a modest affect on abstinence. These data suggest that naltrexone dose, gender, and negative affect play a role in smoking abstinence, particularly in the early stages of treatment. When used in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy, naltrexone dose may be important in women.
Epperson, C. Neill; Toll, Benjamin; Wu, Ran; Amin, Zenab; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Jatlow, Peter; Mazure, Carolyn M.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.
The prevalence of physical domestic violence – violence against women perpetrated by husbands – is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status,
Suneeta Krishnan; Corinne H. Rocca; Alan E. Hubbard; Kalyani Subbiah; Jeffrey Edmeades; Nancy S. Padian
|Rough financial seas had been buffeting many colleges and universities for years before the recession that began in late 2007. Then in mid-September 2008, an economic tsunami crashed into campuses, challenging their ability to provide the accessible, high-quality education necessary to achieve long-term national goals. As the economy weakened at…
Data from the Current Population Survey's Displaced Workers Supplement for year 2000 indicate that after job loss, women become reemployed less frequently than do men. To explain this difference, we test sets of hypotheses derived from Human Capital and Gender Queuing theories. The results support the theory that in their hiring of displaced workers, employers tend to place men in
|Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…
Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…
This longitudinal study tested for changes in how students used and were called homophobic epithets as they progressed through high school. Boys used and were called these epithets with increased frequency over time, whereas girls reported decreases on both. Distinct gender socialization processes may contribute to these different patterns for boys and girls. Also, variability in students' own bullying and
|This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation…
Background Investigations of the impact of ethnicity and socio-economicstatus on incidence and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia are limited. Methods We prospectively identified all S. aureus bacteraemia episodes in the Australian New Zealand Cooperative on Outcomes in Staphylococcal Sepsis cohort study between 2007 and 2010. We calculated population level incidence rates using regional postcodes and stratified the analysis by ethnicity, age and socio-economicstatus indexes. Results There were 7539 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia with an annual incidence of 11·2 episodes per 100,000 population. The age-adjusted incidence in the Indigenous population was 62·5 per 100,000 population with an age standardized incidence rate ratio of 5·9 compared to the non-Indigenous population and an incidence rate ratio of 29.2 for community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Populations in the lowest socio-economicstatus quintile had an increased S. aureus bacteraemia incidence compared to higher quintiles. However, there was a disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations across all socio-economicstatus quintiles. The lower 30-day mortality for Indigenous patients (7%) compared to non-Indigenous patients (17%) was explained by differences in age. Conclusions Indigenous Australians suffer from a higher rate of S. aureus bacteraemia than non-Indigenous Australians, particularly for community-associated MRSA. Ethnicity and socio-economicstatus had little impact on subsequent mortality, with other host factors contributing more significantly.
Knowledge of the status of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) in temperate southeastern Pacific countries (Chile and Peru)\\u000a is incipient. Nevertheless, at least in Chile, the problem has recently been addressed by taxonomists and ecologists (e.g.\\u000a Baez et al. 1998; Gajardo and Laikre 2003; Castilla et al. 2005; Camus 2005). While numerous NIS have been intentionally introduced\\u000a for aquaculture purposes (e.g.
Prior research has yielded mixed evidence of a relationship between immigrant generational status or acculturation and overweight or obesity among children of immigrants. This study examined socioeconomic status (SES) and economic development of the sending country as additional factors influencing children body mass index (BMI) and as moderating the relationship between parental generational status and BMI. Using data from the kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (N=16,664 children) carried out in the USA, the research estimated growth curve models and tested the significance of interaction terms between generational status (i.e., children of the 1.0 generation, who arrived at age 12 or older; children of the 1.5 generation, who arrived between the ages of birth and 11; and children of natives), SES, and the country of origin's gross domestic product per capita. Results indicate that the children of the 1.0 generation from higher-income countries tended to gain more weight than children from lower-income countries. The relationship between family SES and weight gain was positive among the first-generation children and stronger among those from lower-income countries than from higher-income countries. Weight gain was positively associated with generation only among lower SES children from low-income countries. It was negatively associated with generation for higher SES children from low-income countries. The results are consistent with a conceptual model of BMI assimilation that links global nutrition patterns to the levels and socioeconomic variations in BMI among the 1.0-generation and their children, and conceptualizes assimilation as occurring within socioeconomic strata. This approach leads to the expectation that overweight is likely to be positively associated with generation among those from low-income countries (as measured by GDP/capita) with low SES but negatively associated among those from low-income countries with high SES. PMID:17570571
The aim of the study was to verify if the accuracy of weight perception among young women depends on their socio-economicstatus and BMI-based weight status. In addition, the survey contained questions whether women were satisfied with their weight and tested if the desire to change weight is affected by real body weight and weight perception. The sample consisted of 1,129 female university students, aged 20-24. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. The questionnaire contained questions about socio-economicstatus, weight perception and desired body weight. 71.9% of the surveyed students correctly estimated, 24.2% overestimated and 3.9% underestimated their body weight. Underweight women tended to incorrectly assess their body weight more often than normal weight women or overweight women (43.2% vs. 75.4% vs. 77.2%). Students from families of high socio-economicstatus slightly more often estimated their weight status correctly than students with average and low status, but the difference was statistically significant only in the case of the factor "mother's education". Most of surveyed women expressed the desire to weigh less or/and to have thinner waist, hips or thighs. The desire to be thinner was associated with body weight status and body weight perception. PMID:24069860
Wronka, Iwona; Suliga, Edyta; Pawli?ska-Chmara, Romana
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20–65 year old adults (N=2194) living in 154 census collection districts of Adelaide, Australia (overall response rate: 12%). Participants completed two surveys six months
JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document contains articles on economic affairs in China. Topics include national policy, power network, hydropower, thermal power, supplemental sources and conservation.
Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading\\u000a instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool\\u000a year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level path model was applied. More\\u000a frequent training sessions were connected
Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…
Abstract Gender, ethnicity, and lifestyle factors affect bone mass acquisition during childhood, thus the need for age- and sex-adjusted Z scores using ethnic-specific data for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. This study aimed,at establishing normative data for BMD in healthy Lebanese children and adolescents. Three hundred sixty-three healthy children aged 10 to 17 years (mean F SD: 13.1 F 2.0)
Gender, ethnicity, and lifestyle factors affect bone mass acquisition during childhood, thus the need for age- and sex-adjusted Z scores using ethnic-specific data for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. This study aimed at establishing normative data for BMD in healthy Lebanese children and adolescents. Three hundred sixty-three healthy children aged 10 to 17 years (mean ± SD: 13.1 ± 2.0)
This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6–12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression.
There has been a vast amount of scholarly work investigating the many factors that influence an individual?s academic performance: socio-economicstatus, race, sex, family size and type of school, to name a few. This research takes an identity theory perspective and investigates the role ones gendered self-concepts have on academic performance. Gender roles are socially constructed binaries, separate from, though
A growing scientific literature highlights concern about the influence of social bias in medical care. Differential treatment of male and female patients has been among the documented concerns. Yet, little is known about the extent to which differential treatment of male and female patients reflects the influence of social bias or of more acceptable factors, such as different patient preferences or different anticipated outcomes of care. This paper attempts to ascertain the underlying basis for an observed differential in physicians' tendency to advice activity restrictions for male and female patients. We explore the extent to which the gender-based treatment differential is attributable to: (1) patients' health profile, (2) patients' role responsibilities, (3) patients' illness behaviors, and (4) physician characteristics. These four categories of variables correspond to four prominent social science hypotheses concerning gender differences in health and health care utilization. Data are drawn from the longitudinal observational study more of the 2000 IDP patients from Abkhazia. Gender differences in illness behavior and medical activities of the patients both appear to contribute to the observed differential. Female patients exhibit more illness behavior than males, and these behaviors increase physicians' tendency to prescribe activity restrictions. PMID:21178205
The objective of this study was to broaden our understanding of the specific characteristics of community-dwelling seniors who are at increased risk of falling and becoming injured, by paying particular attention to gender and veteran status. The 137 respondents included 69 senior male veterans and 68 seniors in the general population. Results indicated that the veterans were at higher risk of falling than the general senior population, and were at higher risk of becoming injured after falling. Senior women were at less risk of falling and becoming injured than the veterans, but were at higher risk than the senior nonveteran men. It is imperative to target screening and falls prevention activities at these and other specific subgroups in the senior population that are at high risk of falling and becoming injured. PMID:19241648
|This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's status. It…
Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring and control. We used computer-linked flight mills to investigate diel flight activity and flight performance in relation to gender, age, mating status, and body size. Maximal flight activity for both mated and unmated moths occurred during twilight, whereas flight activity was low during photophase. The total distance flown and the number of initiated flights within a diel cycle were higher in both unmated and mated females than in males, but the longest single flight was similar in both genders. These findings suggest that pheromone trap captures of males likely indicate the simultaneous presence of females and that mated females might even be in areas where males are not detected yet. Flight performance heterogeneity was large, with a small portion of the population (both males and females) performing long unbroken flights, whereas the majority made short flights. Females had higher pupal and adult body size and shorter longevity than males. A few individuals, particularly young mated females, flying long distances may be important for active spread of a population and the colonization of new habitats. Implications of this study in the control of the cactus moth by using the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:18459394
Sarvary, Mark A; Bloem, Kenneth A; Bloem, Stephanie; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Dorn, Silvia
"This article examines the incorporation of a national sample of undocumented immigrants both before and after they applied to legalize their status under the provisions of the [U.S.] Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). Data from the 1989 and 1992 Legalized Population Surveys (LPS-1 and LPS-2) are used. These surveys provide labor force and occupational data for three critical reference periods: as newly arrived undocumented immigrants, as experienced undocumented immigrants, and as documented immigrants.... The overall upward mobility of both men and women between first job and the occupation held at time of application for legalization continued after legalization. On average, men also continued to report higher status jobs than women, although women did somewhat better after their status was legalized." This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. PMID:12294297
The socio-economicstatus of urbanised families throughout the world influences the caries experience of children. The higher the socio-economicstatus the lower the caries experience. Therefore, in surveys undertaken to determine caries experience of large communities it is necessary to take the above mentioned factor into consideration during the sampling process. It is, however, difficult and time consuming to classify individual children in terms of their socio-economicstatus. During a recent large scale survey in Port Elizabeth and Despatch, the whole area was divided into three socio-economic sub-sections decided on the basis of residential property values. All children attending school in a particular area was regarded as being from that particular socio-economic group. The results of the survey show that this method of classification into socio-economic groups yields similar results to those of more accurate methods of classification. The influence of the intervention by dental personnel on the caries experience, as expressed in the dmft and DMFT counts in 6-, 12- and 15-year-old children, is a matter of concern and needs further investigation. PMID:9461986
This study aimed to review European national health-economic (HE) guidelines and to identify recent developments in guideline recommendations by comparing the findings with those of a review published in 2001. Guidelines were identified by searching websites of the Internal Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and government health insurance agencies, and by a literature review. National guidelines showed broad consistency in ranking clinical data sources and choice of comparators for HE analysis, but varied in recommended costs to be included, methods related to cost calculation and discounting. Many European countries have developed or revised national HE guidelines. The recommendations in these guidelines differ in some key aspects, limiting transferability of outcomes of HE evaluations. PMID:24138645
Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction. PMID:23407502
Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economicstatus but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies) of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a) breast-feeding (b) personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random) of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.
Speech characteristics of male and female characters in fictional television have received only scant attention in media content research. A content analysis of prime-time television revealed that male characters were more likely to initiate disruptive interruptions than female characters whereas female characters were more likely to use cooperative interruptions than male characters. Such differences, however, were moderated by status differential
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to analyze the low status of women as being a major contributor for the observed gender inequality in the spread of HIV\\/AIDS in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses data from National Aids Control Organization, National Family Health Survey, and the Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Findings – This study highlights the
This paper considers the situation of Congolese women and their almost complete social, political and economic marginalization in society. The Congolese constitution formulates the principle of gender parity between men and women; however, numerous provisions of the law still actively discriminate against women, relegating them to the status of second-class citizens. The violent conflict that the Congo has experienced and
We establish some new interesting stylized facts on the changes in boy versus girl nutritional status in India during the nineties, a period of rapid economic growth. Our analysis is based on the comparison, over time and across genders, of the distribution of z-scores calculated for height and weight measures. Overall, we find that child nutrition improved substantially, but we
Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.
Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.
Military equipment with moving parts requires antifriction bearings. Superprecision bearings, which are manufactured with closer tolerances under more stringent conditions, are often needed to meet high-performance characteristics such as silencing in submarines. A steady increase in imports of antifriction bearings coupled with reduced prices and profitability in the domestic industry led domestic manufacturers to seek legislative and regulatory relief from foreign competition. Since 1987, the Government has provided two types of relief to the industry. First, after a Department of Commerce investigation established that foreign producers were selling products in the U.S. market at prices below those they charged in their home markets, the Government imposed antidumping duties on several types of bearings from 12 countries. Second, the DoD restricted the purchase of antifriction bearing for use in defense end items to those of domestic manufacture. Although that restriction is due to expire on 30 Sep. 1991, the DoD may renew it for an additional 2 years if conditions warrant. This study assesses the current economic health of the U.S. antifriction bearing industry, analyzes the relative impact of the two forms of relief provided to the industry, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of DoD's policy options.
Peterson, Donna J.; Kelley, Gerald T.; Myers, Myron G.
The paper presents preliminary data collected in an assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin. A summary of the status of control and strategies for the future is given. The report draws on field observations made, studies through interviews of affected communities and organisations, personal communications and published reports by scientists
|Although it is well established that school characteristics (SCH) and socio-economicstatus (SES) are associated with academic achievement (ACH), these correlations are not necessarily causal. Because academic achievement shows substantial genetic influence, it is useful to embed such investigations in genetically sensitive designs in order to…
Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess iron status in women of different physiological staus of two socio-economic groups in Bangladesh. Design: Cross sectional study, using 3-day food record and blood haemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin concentrations. Setting: Two regions of Bangladesh. The Dhaka city area and west region of Nandail, Mymensingh. Subjects: Women aged 16 - 40
MZ Islam; C Lamberg-Allardt; MAH Bhuyan; Q Salamatullah
BACKGROUND: Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economicstatus (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older
Theresa L Grant; Nancy Edwards; Heidi Sveistrup; Caroline Andrew; Mary Egan
|In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economicstatus and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…
The research is about an inventory of water, sanitation, health- and socio-economicstatus in three villages, within the municipality of Capao Bonito, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The research was done in terms of the 'Projeto Saneamento Rural', which aims to...
The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of women's…
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death among older Americans. Many of the chronic health conditions that result in the loss of independence, disability, and reduced quality of life in older adults are preventable through healthful lifestyle including proper nutrition. Household income is a major economic factor that impacts food choices and nutritional status of individuals. The study examines
Background. This study examined whether there were associations between individual measures of socio-economicstatus (SES) and the 12-month prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in representative samples of Blacks, Latinos, Asians and Whites in the USA. Method. The data used were from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). Results. There was an association between household income and MDD among Whites.
A. R. Gavin; E. Walton; D. H. Chae; M. Alegria; J. S. Jackson; D. Takeuchi
This paper investigates the influence of socio-economicstatus, entry style and instructional variables on post-secondary mathematics performance of internal and external students at the University of Papua New Guinea. The 1984 and 1985 intakes of Preliminary Year and Matriculation Studies were taken as samples. Six instruments were developed and administered. The data was analysed using techniques of multiple linear regression
|The relationship between women's status--defined in terms of the degree to which they are economically dependent on men--and fertility in developing nations is examined. After a brief introduction, part 2 discusses a particular theoretical perspective regarding fertility determinants in developing countries and explores the implications of…
Background We examined associations between socio-economic (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Methods Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2,218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education, and paternal education. CVD risk factors included body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and CVD risk factors. Results Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants’ own education, and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all three SES indicators adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score; compared with those in the lowest fifth of the possessions score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR=6.4, 95%CI 3.4, 11.6), high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95%CI 1.6, 3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95%CI 1.9, 4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2, 0.6) was lower. Except hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. Conclusion In rural and urban populations, higher SES, as reflected by household possessions, was associated (apart from tobacco use) with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile.
Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economicstatus (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56)) with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60) in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65) in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16) and 1.73 (1.46-2.06). The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64) in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01) in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations with long-term sickness absence and disability pension tended to be stronger in women.
|This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…
BACKGROUND: With an established, yet avoidable, link between dietary intake and poor health, the nutritional habits of adolescents remains a public health concern. Previous studies report an inverse relationship between dietary intake and socio-economicstatus (SES), although few studies have considered the influence of the SES gradient. The present study compared the nutritional profiles of neighbouring schools with pupils from middle to high economic backgrounds. METHODS: One hundred and ninety pupils from a high SES school (HSESS) and 159 pupils from a middle SES school (MSESS) (aged 11-12 years) completed a 63-item validated food frequency questionnaire. Pupils rated their diet quality and this was compared with a composite Healthy Eating Index (HEI). RESULTS: Children attending MSESS consumed significantly higher intakes of energy (P < 0.001), carbohydrate (P = 0.001), fat (P < 0.001) and protein (P = 0.001). As a percentage of energy contribution, pupils in both schools consumed excess saturated fat (HSESS, +5% boys, +4% girls; MSESS, +4% both boys and girls) and sugar (HSESS, +9% boys, +11% girls; MSESS, +10% boys, +11% girls). When HEI was compared with self-report diet quality, 96% HSESS pupils and 94% MSESS pupils over-rated the quality of their diet. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified that, although pupils from MSESS consume a significantly higher intake of energy and macronutrient compared to a nearby HSESS, the percentage of energy contribution of saturated fat and sugar is above government recommendations for pupils from both schools. Additionally, the majority of pupils from both schools substantially over-rated their diet quality compared to a HEI. PMID:23662683
Greatwood, H C; Daly-Smith, A; McGregor, S; McKenna, J
College student participants (N=1063; 77.8% response rate) completed a web-based survey assessing demographics, depression, anxiety, body image, cigarette smoking, and weight history. Among overweight participants, 42.6% of those who believed they were overweight admitted to binge eating, while only 30.1% who did not feel overweight did so (p<.05). Among non-overweight participants, 43.2% of those who believed they were overweight admitted to binge eating, while only 32.9% of those who did not feel overweight did so (p<.05). Weight Problem Perception (WPP) mediated the contribution of BMI on binge eating outcomes, and WPP contributed significantly to the prediction of binge eating, beyond the risk conferred by established correlates of binge eating (e.g., gender, mood, and cigarette smoking). Results suggest that when assessing risk for binge eating, a one-question assessment of whether or not an individual believes s/he is overweight has significant predictive power. Findings are consistent with literature on the importance of the "fat self-schema" [Stein, K.F., & Corte, C. (2007). Identity impairment and the eating disorders: Content and organization of the self-concept in women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. European Eating Disorders Review, 15 (1), 58-69] in disordered eating and theory implicating identity in the maintenance of addictive behavior [West, R.W. (2006). Theory of Addiction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Inc.]. PMID:19171310
The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economicstatus in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (? (2) = 6.821, p < .009) 'safe drinking water' (? (2) = 13.506, p < .004) and purchasing medications (? (2) = 9.958, p < .019). Conversely, participants from above poverty line were dissatisfied in emotional needs dimension i.e. 'commenting on physical appearance (? (2) = 8.337, p < .040), afraid of family members (? (2) = 17.809, p < .000). Thus, there is an urgent need to implement mental illness awareness campaigns and government should take active steps for providing employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres. PMID:23288490
Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada
Gender differences in health status and illness behavior have been explained in terms of sex roles and gender-related personality traits. It may be hypothesized that in a community that is committed to gender-negating ideology, where men and women alike participate in public life, and housework and child care largely collectivized, gender health differences will disappear. The kibbutz movement is committed
The role of gender in schizophrenia is explored, and literature on gender and schizophrenia is critically reviewed. The importance of investigating gender differences in schizophrenia is underscored by the lack of sufficient research in this area to date and the comparative neglect of sociocultural issues during the \\
Elizabeth H. Nasser; Natalie Walders; Janis H. Jenkins
Every year, the World Economic Forum publishes the World Gender Gap Report mainly based on the results of the Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) computed by country. This index is made out of four subindexes to capture the magnitude of the gender gap in 4 areas: educational attainment, economic participation and opportunity, political empowerment, and health and survival; its methodology
Teresa Corbella i Domenech; Misericòrdia Domingo Vernis
In this paper we construct the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) and its five subindices Family code, Civil liberties, Physical integrity, Son Preference and Ownership rights using variables of the OECD Gender, Institutions and Development database. Instead of measuring gender inequality in education, health, economic or political participation, these indices allow a new perspective on gender issues in developing
|Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender…
In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economicstatus (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. PMID:22387166
BACKGROUND: Increases in the prevalence of child and adolescent obesity have accelerated since the mid 1980s. Socio-economicstatus (SES)-adiposity relationships appear less clear in adolescence than childhood, and evidence on whether increasing obesity is itself patterned according to SES is inconsistent. Increasing prevalence may have increased the tolerance, and reduced recognition of, or concern about, obesity. The aim of this
Objective: To examine how dietary intake varies with age in a nation-wide sample of adult Norwegian women, and to evaluate the impact of lifestyle and socio-economicstatus on important dietary aspects.Design: Cross-section study.Setting and subjects: A food frequency questionnaire was mailed to a random, nation-wide sample of 20 000 women aged 45–69 y, and 9885 questionnaires were accepted for nutritional
Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully\\u000a capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social\\u000a status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample\\u000a of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American
A. B. de Castro; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economicstatus (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. METHODS: Anthropometric parameters (height,
Roger Sodjinou; Victoire Agueh; Benjamin Fayomi; Hélène Delisle
This study aimed to reveal the causal relationships of dietary and lifestyle habits with socio-economicstatus (SES) and three health-related factors (physical, mental and social health) in elderly urban dwellers in Japan. All the elderly urban dwellers aged 65 years or more in an urban area of Tokyo were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire in September 2001. There were 13,195
Abstract The association between,socio-economic,status (SES) and untreated,hypertension,varies according,to a country’s level of development,and racial\\/ethnic group. We sought to confirm this variation in women,from China and the United States (US) as well as to investigate the impact of SES on several mediating,risk factors. We also investigate the extent to which SES explains racial\\/ethnic differences in untreated hypertension,in the US. We used
The association between socio-economicstatus (SES) and untreated hypertension varies according to a country's level of development and racial\\/ethnic group. We sought to confirm this variation in women from China and the United States (US) as well as to investigate the impact of SES on several mediating risk factors. We also investigate the extent to which SES explains racial\\/ethnic differences
BACKGROUND: Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years) mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economicstatus and decision-making. METHODS: The study was
Mesganaw Fantahun; Yemane Berhane; Ulf Högberg; Stig Wall; Peter Byass
The account of the last ten years of technical and economical development related to windmills was produced at Risoe National Laboratory for the Danish Energy Agency (Energistyrelsen) ranging under the Danish government. A comparison is also made between ...
In postindustrial societies, like the United States, the loss of socioeconomic power and status among older people have created an arena where patriarchal rules and gender-based expectations have been altered, providing the context for new (de)gendered identities. In this article, we analyze assumptions regarding gender and age representations. By comparing different views of ageing—psychoanalytic, feminist, and that of older people
In this paper we construct the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) and its five subindices Family code, Civil liberties, Physical integrity, Son Preference and Ownership rights using variables of the OECD Gender, Institutions and Development database. Instead of measuring gender inequalities in education, health, economic or political participation, these new indices allow a new perspective on gender issues in
Women’s status in the Western world has improved enormously, but the revolution that would make women and men truly equal has not yet occurred. I argue that the reason is that gender divisions still deeply bifurcate the structure of modern society. Feminists want women and men to be equal, but few talk about doing away with gender divisions altogether. From
Although some researchers have proposed a link between family environment and identity status (Grotevant & Cooper, 1981; Sabatelli & Mazor, 1985) and a positive relationship between identity status and future time perspective (Erikson, 1968), few studies have examined the relationships between family cohesion and identity development and between identity status and perception about future. Also, both gender and gender roles
The study suggests that gender inequality acts as a significant constraint to growth in sub-Saharan Africa, and that removing gender-based barriers to growth will make a substantial contribution to realizing Africa's economic potential. In particular we highlight gender gaps in education, related high fertility levels, gender gaps in formal sector employment, and gender gaps in access to assets and inputs
Mark Blackden; Sudharshan Canagarajah; Stephan Klasen; David Lawson
In this paper we use data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine differences in retirement behavior, wealth, Social Security and pension benefits by race and gender. The differences observed among groups are sometimes substantial. We then estimate models jointly explaining retirement and wealth by race and gender. We decompose differences in outcomes into those due to differences in
This paper discusses the development and application of a socio-economicstatus (SES) index, created to explore the relationship between socio-economic variables and psychiatric service use. The study was conducted in a community-based mental health service (CMHS) in Verona, Northern Italy, utilising service use data from 1996. An ecological SES index was constructed through a factor analysis from 1991 Census data, at census block level. Three factors reflected the following domains: the educational-employment sector (with four components), the relational network (with three components) and the material conditions (with three components). All service users were assigned a SES value, according to their place of residence in 1996. When these data were explored spatially, using ArcView 8.3, an association was observed between socio-economic deprivation and psychiatric service use. The SES index was then successfully validated using occupational status at the individual level. This study confirms the usefulness of developing and validating an ecological census-based SES index, for service planning and resource allocation in an area with a community-based system of mental health care. PMID:15922500
|To test effects of family constellation on children's acquisition of sex-role, the sex-role behavior of 175 children between the ages of 3 and one half and 6 years from one-child and two-child families was compared. Included in the design were five categories: only children, and four additional categories based on sex and relative age of siblings…
Two hundred and thirty-seven women, undergoing multimodality treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were retrospectively analyzed for age, menopausal status, socio-economicstatus (SES), tumor size, nodal involvement, tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR) status and tumor stage. Primary purpose was to assess outcomes of these patients treated in a low-income country as defined by the World Bank and using limited-level treatment resources as defined by Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) guidelines. Secondary objectives included correlation of predictive and prognostic features with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. Predictors of decreased EFS or OS included lower SES [P=0.05 (95%CI 0.34-1.0) and P=0.1 (CI 0.29-1.14)], larger tumor size [P=0.01 (95%CI 1.06-1.59) and P=0.3 (CI 0.86-1.50)] and positive lymph node status [P=0.04 (95% CI 1.0-1.55) and P<0.0001 (CI 1.37-2.64). In women diagnosed with LABC in Pakistan, patients with lower SES had larger, more aggressive tumors with worsened survival outcomes. Optimal breast cancer care warrants consideration for health care policies that address access to diagnostic and treatment services for financially disadvantaged women. PMID:19892552
Aziz, Zeba; Iqbal, Javaid; Akram, Muhammad; Anderson, Benjamin O
Purpose – To provide a critical review of existing contributions to gender and change management and in doing so highlight how organizational change needs to be read more readily from a gendered perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper argues that gender has received little attention regarding the change management side of managerial practice and reviews recent contributions to gender and change
Though there is now a great deal of attention to the question of women workers and Corporate Social Responsibility (csr), a more far reaching analysis, which is informed by feminist economics approaches, stresses the importance of the gendered nature of the institutional context in which value chains operate, and the importance of acknowledging that labour markets are themselves gendered institutions
Description: This course examines the role of gender and women in Latin American politics. The course is organized around particular political and economic regime types: revolutionary, authoritarian, neoliberal and democratic. We will analyze the ways that gender is used by particular regimes and how it shapes transitions between regimes. Of special interest will be the political mobilization of women (Left
The broad objective of the study was to understand better anxiety among adolescents in Kolkata city, India. Specifically, the study compared anxiety across gender, school type, socio-economic background and mothers' employment status. The study also examined adolescents' perceptions of quality time with their parents. A group of 460 adolescents…
Girls completing primary schooling in Cote d'Ivoire are less likely to go to secondary schools because of inferior performance in the examination used to ration access. The gender gap in educational achievement varies with household economicstatus, with poverty inhibiting girls' performance more than boys'. Female students from poorer households spend less time in school than their male counterparts and
Cancer gender disparity in incidence, disease aggressiveness and prognosis has been observed in a variety of cancers. Thyroid cancer is one of the fastest growing cancer diagnoses worldwide. It is 2.9-times more common in women than men. The less aggressive histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer are more common in women, whereas the more aggressive histologic subtypes have similar gender distribution. The gender disparity in incidence, aggressiveness and prognosis is well established for thyroid cancer but the cause of the disparity is poorly understood. The aim of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the cause of thyroid cancer gender disparity. Dietary and environmental factors do not appear to have a significant role in thyroid cancer gender disparity. Common somatic mutations in BRAF, rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinomas (RET/PTC) and neurotrophin receptor-tyrosine kinase (NTRK) also do not account for the gender disparity in thyroid cancer. While reproductive factors would seem a logical hypothesis to account for the gender disparity, there appears to be no conclusive effect on the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Recent studies on estrogen receptor status in thyroid cancer show a difference in the receptor subtypes expressed based on the histology of thyroid cancer. Moreover, the response to estrogen is dependent on the specific estrogen receptor expressed in thyroid cancer cells. However, what determines the tumor-specific sex hormone receptor expression is unclear. No established molecular factors appear to explain gender differences in thyroid cancer. Therefore, the application of high-throughput genomic and proteomic approaches to the study of thyroid cancer gender disparity could be helpful for better understanding the molecular basis for gender differences in thyroid and other cancers.
The globalization of migration has entailed a greater diversity and stratification of migration. Integrative approaches, such as transnationalism, structurationism and alternative circuits of globalization, have helped to place migration in broader socio- cultural fields but have not adequately addressed the complex gendered stratification generated in countries of origin and destination. Much literature focuses on the socio-economically disadvantaged, especially those undertaking
The investigation describes the relationship of disability prevalence, low-income status, and family structure among ethnic and racial minorities in the United States. Analyses were based on the 1992 and 1993 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the 1993 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Estimates were congruent with previous reports indicating highest overall rates for disability among Native Americans,
Glenn T. Fujiura; Kiyoshi Yamaki; Susan Czechowicz
This study explores how work incentive policies influence the socioeconomic status of welfare leavers. Logistic and ordinal regression methods were used to analyze 1999 statewide survey data on West Virginia WORKS leavers. This study found that people who had more months of eligibility remaining for TANF were more likely to have jobs than those with fewer months of eligibility. People
Objective To assess change in cognitive functioning following iron deficiency in infancy, depending on socio-economicstatus (middle- vs. low-SES). Design Longitudinal study. Setting Urban community in Costa Rica (infancy phase, 1981-1984, through 19-year follow-up, 2000-2002). Participants 185 individuals enrolled at 12-23 months (no preterm/low birth weight or acute/chronic health problems), assessed in infancy and at 5, 11-14, 15-18, and 19 years. 97% evaluated at 5 or 11-14 years; 78% at 15-18 or 19 years. Exposure Infancy iron status: chronic iron deficiency (iron deficiency with hemoglobin (Hb) ? 10.0 g/dL or, with higher Hb, not fully corrected with 3 months of iron therapy) vs. good iron status (Hb ? 12.0 g/dL and normal iron measures before and/or after therapy). For middle-SES, 20 chronic-iron-deficiency compared to 67 good-iron-status group. For low-SES, 33 chroniciron-deficiency compared to 65 good-iron-status group. Outcome Measures Cognitive change over time (composite of standardized scores at each age). Results For middle-SES participants, scores averaged 101.2 in chronic-iron-deficiency vs. 109.3 in good-iron-status groups in infancy and remained 8-9 points lower through 19 years (95% CI -10.1 to -6.2). For low-SES participants, the gap widened from 10 points (93.1 v. 102.8; 95% CI for the difference, -12.8 to -6.6) to 25 points (70.4 vs. 95.3; 95% CI for the difference, 20.6 to 29.4). Conclusions The chronic-iron-deficiency group did not catch up to the good-iron-status group in cognitive scores over time. There was a widening gap for those in low-SES families. The results suggest the value of preventing iron deficiency in infancy.
|The document has 3 goals (1) to examine the distribution of economic benefits of industrial development as reflected by the concept of competition in human ecology; (2) to provide an empirical test of the ecological model, and (3) to relate the findings to public policy. Two Illinois study areas were identified. First, as an experimental region,…
We employ a hazard function approach to estimate the effect of socio-economic and individual characteristics on the length of time that an individual remains in good health. The European Community Household Panel data set, for 13 European countries, for the years 1994-2002 is used. The study employs a relatively objective measure of physical health, the physical and mental health problems,
This brief, part of a series on labor trends and their policy implications, uses data on wage rates and hours worked from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to look at two questions about wage inequality since the mid-1980s. One question is whether wage differentials are becoming more related to education and less to gender and…
This paper investigates the experiences of Spanish-speaking Latina immigrants within a worker-owned housecleaning cooperative. Their learning challenges with language, gender, race and class issues in the process of organizing and managing their cooperative business is discussed from a feminist, learning perspective, popular education and community development approaches within immigrant populations.
In this paper, I provide an analytic framework based on postcolonial theories for addressing gender within management and organization literatures. Specifically, this paper offers a ‘non-Western’ theoretical intervention into ‘Western’ management texts that address gender and organizational issues as they relate to non-Western people and cultures. In order to highlight the contributions of postcolonial theories to feminist concerns around gender
The purpose of this article is to advance a new understanding of gender as a routine accomplishment embedded in everyday interaction. To do so entails a critical assessment of existing perspectives on sex and gender and the introduction of important distinctions among sex, sex category, and gender. We argue that recognition of the analytical independence of these concepts is essential
This paper focuses on employment narratives recounted in life history interviews with women workers in Nanjing, China. Drawing on feminist perspectives on gender and global economic changes, it examines the micro-processes that underpinned China's economic restructuring and, through a gender-based analysis, shows how working women lost out in this process. After an overview of the institutional context in which China's
|The author explored the relationships among women's gender identity constructs as well as the relationships of those constructs to ethnic identity. Nine of the 12 hypothesized relationships between gender self-definition and female identity development statuses and between gender self-acceptance and female identity development statuses were…
Background? Several studies have addressed mothers' perceptions of their children's weight status; however, there is no investigation on Portuguese children (a country with one of the highest levels of children's overweight and obesity in Europe). The aim of this study was to quantify maternal misclassification of child weight status in a sample of Portuguese children aged 9 to 12 years, according to gender, family income, and maternal weight status, education level and age. Methods? Data were collected in a school-based study (school year 2009/2010) in northern Portugal with 499 urban children (236 girls; 47.3%). Body mass index was calculated from measurements of height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m(2) )]. Mothers' perceptions of child's weight status, age, height and weight were accessed by a questionnaire. Children's age, gender and socio-economicstatus were extracted from the schools' administrative record systems. Cohen's Kappa was used to analyse the misperceptions and the agreement between children's objectively measured weight status and mothers' perception of their child's weight status. Results? The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in children was 4.6%, 25.5% and 6.4%, respectively. A proportion of 65.2% of underweight and 61.6% of overweight/obese children were misclassified by their mothers. For the majority of variables presented, the values of agreement were fair (k ranged from 0.257 to 0.486), but were statistically significant. Significant differences in the percentages of mothers who correctly classified their children's weight status were only found among the most educated in the overweight/obese group and among the normal-weight mothers in the underweight group. Conclusions? Many mothers do not properly recognize their children's weight status and frequently underestimate their children's body size. PMID:22515551
It was a common belief that cancer is more prevalent among the lower socio-economic group. It was also generally accepted that mortality was higher in this group due to various reasons. In this hospital based study, an attempt had been made to find out any association between cancer incidence and socio-economic factors like age, sex, education, occupation, and income. The relative distribution of cancers in different parts of the body was also analysed. Collected data for cancers of the breast, lung, cervix and gall bladder were also analysed separately. It was found that there was a significant association between the occurrence of cancer and the middle income group earning Rs 12000-60000 annually. On the other side people having higher education and higher income were less likely to suffer from cancer and presented at an earlier stage. PMID:21510570
Bandyopadhyay, Gargi; Lahiri, Somdatta; Khan, Imran; Ghosh, Shibajyoti
Background Household characteristics are important influences on the risk of child death. However, little is known about this influence in HIV-endemic areas. We describe the effects of household characteristics on children’s risk of dying in rural South Africa. Methods We use data describing the mortality of children younger than 5 years living in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system study population in rural northeast South Africa during the period 1994–2008. Using discrete time event history analysis we estimate children’s probability of dying by child characteristics and household composition (other children and adults other than parents) (N = 924 818 child-months), and household socio-economicstatus (N = 501 732 child-months). Results Children under 24 months of age whose subsequent sibling was born within 11 months experience increased odds of dying (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.7). Children also experience increased odds of dying in the period 6 months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.6), 3–5 months (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5–5.9), and 2 months (OR 11.8; 95% CI 7.6–18.3) before another household child dies. The odds of dying remain high at the time of another child’s death (OR 11.7; 95% CI 6.3–21.7) and for the 2 months following (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.9–8.6). Having a related but non-parent adult aged 20–59 years in the household reduces the odds (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5–0.8). There is an inverse relationship between a child’s odds of dying and household socio-economicstatus. Conclusions This detailed household profile from a poor rural setting where HIV infection is endemic indicates that children are at high risk of dying when another child is very ill or has recently died. Short birth intervals and additional children in the household are further risk factors. Presence of a related adult is protective, as is higher socio-economicstatus. Such evidence can inform primary health care practice and facilitate targeting of community health worker efforts, especially when covering defined catchment areas.
Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen M; Clark, Samuel J
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status. This study used mortality data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. To analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status, the population was classified into employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Demographic and socioeconomic variables such as gender, age, educational level, annual household income, marital status, and self-rated health status were controlled. In this study, the generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the relationship between the morality rate and the changes in employment status. The mortality rate was higher (odds ratio = 4.31) among the population that experienced a change in economicstatus from employed to unemployed than those who maintained employment. The mortality rate for the population who became unemployed or economically inactive was higher (odds ratio = 5.05) in cases of death by disease. PMID:23674827
Kim, Ji Man; Son, Nak-Hoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun
J. Silveira [(1980), “Generic Masculine Words and Thinking,” Women's Studies International Quarterly, Vol. 3, pp. 165–178] suggested that most individuals adopt a “people = male” bias evidenced by gender-unspecified individuals being attributed male gender. We evaluated whether subject gender, subject status on the Bem Sex Role Inventory [BSRI; S. L. Bem (1974), “The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny,” Journal of Consulting
Empirical studies from developed countries observe that women report worse health and higher healthcare utilization than men, but the health disadvantage diminishes with age; gender differences in self-rated health often vanish or are reversed in older ages. Comparable assessments of health during later life from developing countries are limited because of the lack of large-scale surveys that include older women.
This study examined the time Dutch mothers (N = 301) and fathers (N = 255) spend per day engaging in 4 activities (going somewhere, doing something, watching TV, and eating together) with their adolescent children both concurrently and 5 years later. Also assessed was whether parent-child shared time was related to parent or child gender and whether age-related differences could
This paper aims to examine the relationship between parental socio-economicstatus (SES) and adolescent substance use. The central question posed in the title is approached in two stages. First, theoretical and empirical research in this area is reviewed. Second, data from an ongoing longitudinal study of young people in England (the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study--PADS+) are used to highlight the nature of this relationship in one city. Results from discrete-time event history analyses show that when examining what predicts initiation of substance use, familial and demographic factors emerge as important predictors, but SES does not appear to be relevant. The concluding discussion focuses on whether support is found for hypotheses derived from the existing literature and implications for future research. PMID:22361091
We have previously observed that 11-year-old children of low socio-economicstatus (LSES) showed a delayed physical growth of approximately 2 years and developed lower normalized short-term power output than children of high socio-economicstatus (HSES) of the same age. In contrast, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) per unit of fat free mass was no different in either group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthropometric characteristics between HSES and LSES prepubertal children in aerobic and anaerobic performance. To compare children of the same body dimensions, 11-year-old boys (n = 30) and girls (n = 31) of LSES and 9-year-old boys (n = 21) and girls (n = 27) of HSES were studied. Anthropometric measurements, VO2max (direct test), maximal anaerobic power (Pmax, force-velocity test) and mean anaerobic power (P, Wingate test) were determined. In these children having the same body dimensions: mean VO2max were the same in LSES and HSES children [1.2 (SD 0.2) l.min-1]; Pmax and P were lower in LSES subjects [154.0 (SD 33.2) vs 174.6 (SD 38.4) W and 116.3 (SD 23.3) vs 128.2 (SD 28.0) W, respectively]; the linear relationships between VO2max and fat free mass were the same in LSES and HSES boys but, in the girls, the LSES group had lower values. For anaerobic performance, the relationships were significantly different: the slopes were the same but LSES values for the both sexes were lower. These results would suggest that factors other than differences in body dimensions alone were responsible for the lower performance of LSES girls and boys. Cultural factors and motor learning, structural and functional alterations of muscle induced by marginal malnutrition have been discussed. PMID:8911830
de Jonge, R; Bedu, M; Fellmann, N; Blone, S; Spielvogel, H; Coudert, J
Background Mortality and morbidity have been shown to follow a ‘social gradient’ in Canada and many other countries around the world. Comparatively little, however, is known about whether ageing amplifies, diminishes or sustains socio-economic inequalities in health. Methods Growth curve analysis of seven cycles of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (n=13 682) for adults aged 20 and older at baseline (1994/95). The outcome of interest is the Health Utilities Index Mark 3, a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Models include the deceased so as not to present overly optimistic HRQL values. Socio-economic position is measured separately by household-size-adjusted income and highest level of education attained. Results HRQL is consistently highest for the most affluent and the most highly educated men and women, and is lower, in turn, for middle and lower income and education groups. HRQL declines with age for both men and women. The rate of the decline in HRQL, however, was related neither to income nor to education for men, suggesting stability in the social gradient in HRQL over time for men. There was a sharper decline in HRQL for upper-middle and highest-income groups for women than for the poorest women. Conclusion HRQL is graded by both income and education in Canadian men and women. The grading of HRQL by social position appears to be ‘set’ in early adulthood and is stable through mid- and later life.
Ross, Nancy A; Garner, Rochelle; Bernier, Julie; Feeny, David H; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson; Orpana, Heather M; Oderkirk, Jillian
Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economicstatus backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula.
Examined is the experience of loneliness as it relates to selected health conditions and selected economic conditions. The effects on loneliness of age, gender, marital status, number of sons, number of daughters, number of male friends, and number of female friends also were examined and controlled. Results are based on a sample from the Senior Citizens Nutrition and Activities Program
Larry C. Mullins; Roxenne Smith; Rachel Colquitt; Mary Mushel
Purpose Although greater gender equality at the state-level is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in women after controlling for individual-level confounders, the extent to which state-level women’s status is related to psychiatric disorders in women and gender differences in psychopathology has never been examined. We examined these associations in the current report. Methods We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653), a national probability sample of US adults. Respondents completed structured diagnostic assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between four state-level indicators of women’s status (political participation, employment/earnings, social/economic autonomy, and reproductive rights) and odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. We also tested whether women’s status predicted the magnitude of gender differences in psychiatric disorders. Results State-level political participation, employment/earnings, and social/economic autonomy were unrelated to odds of 12-month mood and anxiety disorders among women. However, the prevalence of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder was lower in states where women have greater reproductive rights (OR 0.93–0.95), controlling for individual-level risk factors. None of the women’s status indicators predicted gender differences in mood and anxiety disorder prevalence. Conclusions State-level women’s status was largely unrelated to mood and anxiety disorders in women or to gender differences in these disorders. Investigation of social factors that play a role in shaping the distribution of individual-level risk factors that are associated with gender disparities in psychiatric disorders represents an important avenue for future research.
Xuan, Ziming; Subramanian, S. V.; Koenen, Karestan C.
Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position.
|Describes the processes and challenges of conducting gender sensitivity workshops for men in India and Nepal to create awareness of the gendered division of labor, clear up misconceptions about feminism, and analyze social and economic systems of oppression. (SK)|
In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation. PMID:12321345
|This issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" focuses on gender issues in early childhood. The first article, "Both Halves of the Sky: Gender Socialization in the Early Years," focuses on the arguments that have led to an international call for increased participation of girls in education, an introduction to studies which map young children's…
This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…
Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.
|A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…
A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…
As children grow up they form a general sense of self and the ability to relate to others and play a part in society. In this process they also develop beliefs about the roles and expectations that are associated with each sex group (gender roles) and a self-identity as a member of one sex group or the other (gender identity).
|This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…
Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.
Research Resource: gender Inn is a database, currently containing some 5700 bibliographic records pertaining to feminist theory, gender studies and feminist literary criticism with a strong focus on British and American literature. Great emphasis is placed upon the inclusion of general resources and introductory texts in feminist theory. Because of the database's interdisciplinary orientation, feminist literature on pedagogy, sociology, history
This article investigates the effect of change in average age, socio?economicstatus (SES) and class size upon the change in average reading achievement between the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001 and PIRLS 2006 at the country level. First, we consider the effect of age upon reading achievement. We use regression–discontinuity to analyze the effects of age and
Jan Van Damme; Hongqiang Liu; Lobke Vanhee; Heidi Pustjens
|The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economicstatus. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…
Abstract Objective. The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adult Iranian students and to examine gender, birth order, socioeconomic status (SES), and history of ADHD as potential predictors of adult ADHD. Methods. A total of 387 young adult students (mean age: 19.6 years; 66.3% females) completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-V1.1 symptom checklist to assess current symptoms of ADHD and the Wender Utah Rating Scale to assess symptoms of ADHD in childhood and adolescence. Experts' ratings were based on Wender-Reimherr Interview. Results. Self-rated and expert-rated prevalence rates were 16.5% and 13.4%, respectively. Past symptoms of ADHD were correlated with current symptoms. Childhood ADHD, current hyperactivity, and disorganization predicted current ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian students, the prevalence rates of ADHD were higher than estimated rates worldwide. Data also show child ADHD to be associated with adult ADHD; gender, age, birth order, and SES did not seem to influence current symptomatology. PMID:23808614
Funded by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the Institute for Social Studies and Action (ISSA) joined forces in 1994 with the Malaysian-based International Council on Management of Population Programs (ICOMP) to develop and implement a pilot project designed to heighten the extent to which frontline health workers and basic health services are sensitive about gender. A government rural health unit and a nongovernmental organization (NGO) clinic providing family planning program services integrated into primary health care were chosen to pilot gender-sensitive services. Although the target health workers strongly resisted any outside interference in their operations, and some were uncomfortable discussing gender issues, the NGO-government (NGO-GO) effort successfully increased gender sensitivity, with a higher level of gender sensitivity still being maintained even 1 year after the project's official end. This partnership was chosen by the Southern Luzon Commission of Population in 1996 as a successful example of NGO-GO collaboration. PMID:12294069
The cultural equivalence of psychological outcome measures remains a major area of investigation. The current study sought to test the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) with a sample of adult individuals of Mexican descent (N = 923) across nativity status (U.S.- vs. foreign-born), language format…
Torres, Lucas; Miller, Matthew J.; Moore, Kelly M.
|A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were…