Note: This page contains sample records for the topic economic status gender from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: August 15, 2014.
This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economicstatus (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…
The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economicstatus (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…
This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economicstatus (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.
This study investigated students’ scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economicstatus (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.
This research was carried out using the survey method in an attempt to find out the relationship between the life satisfaction and socio-economicstatus (SES) of adolescents. The research was conducted among 275 young Turkish people chosen by the random sampling method. The research findings determined that there was a significant difference…
The proper lifestyle of a child, including proper eating habits, should be monitored to ensure proper physical and psychological development. This applies particularly to rural areas which are economically, socially and educationally backward. The study included 1,341 rural schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9-13 years (734 females, 607 males). The representative survey research was conducted in 2008, making use of an original survey questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of respondents eat improperly. 83.2% of them have regular breakfast, and 62.6% have regular light lunch. Most respondents do not eat more than 4 meals a day (usually 3-4). It is worrying that the consumption of sweets is high (34.9% of the surveyed group eat them regularly), whereas fruit and vegetable consumption is low. In this study, relationships between types of diet and such descriptive variables as gender, parents' educational status, and economic situation of the households are described. In families where the parents have a higher education and the household situation is good, the eating habits are much better. The list of poor dietary habits of pupils from rural schools includes skipping breakfast and/or light lunch, high consumption of sweets and low consumption of fruit and vegetables. There are correlations between improper dietary habits and gender of the children and adolescents, educational status of parents, economic situation of households, and housing conditions. PMID:22216818
Ko???taj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Ko???taj, Barbara
BACKGROUND: Studies that addressed social and economic determinants of cardiovascular diseases, consistently showed an increase prevalence of the individual features of metabolic syndrome in the lower socio-economic strata. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between social class and metabolic syndrome in a sample of urban middle-aged and old Portuguese adults. METHODS: We evaluated 1962 subjects (1207 women and
Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1) anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS) and pain, and 2) cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economicstatus with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year), gender (-0.27 conditions for female), education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level) and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit). The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female), while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female), but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the multimorbidity pattern concerned, i.e. there seem to be at least two types of elderly multimorbid patients. First, there are patients with mainly cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, who are more often male, have an older age and a lower socio-economicstatus. Second, there are patients mainly with ADS and pain-related morbidity, who are more often female and equally distributed across age and socio-economic groups. Trial registration ISRCTN89818205
This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…
The article develops a 3-sector general equilibrium model appropriate for economies with female labour oriented export sector to examine the effects of economic liberalisation policies on gender based wage inequality. It is assumed that there exist disparities in efficiencies between male and female labour due to skewed access to education and health, and differences in their spending patterns leading to
Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Gerber (2009) proposes an integration of status and gender stereotypes with status mediating the influence of gender. In her model, status\\u000a is assumed to explain gender stereotypes, as well as self perceptions of such traits and their evaluation. The person-situation\\u000a personality literature, cross-cultural gender research, and developmental studies of gender stereotypes and behavior are reviewed.\\u000a A
Examining the economicstatus of Native women in Alaska, this report compares the economic well being of Native women to other women in the state and nation, looks at factors contributing to their economicstatus, and makes positive action recommendations. Based on 1970 and 1980 census data, chapter I analyzes the 50% increase of Alaska Native…
A factional survey analysis of 198 older adults found that the old and the young are apparently accorded less status or prestige than persons in midlife. Gender differences were smaller and status ratings less extreme than those made by earlier samples of university students. Status ratings were unaffected by respondents' age, sex, marital status,…
Background:Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown.Objectives:We examined the independent effects of socio-economicstatus (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP) and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of
According to the Spatial Agency Bias (SAB), more agentic groups (men) are envisioned to the left of less agentic groups (women). This research investigated the role of social status in shaping the spatial representation of gender couples. Participants were presented pairs consisting of one male and one female target who confirmed gender stereotypes. The status of the targets in each pair was systematically varied (high-status vs. low-status job). Participants chose the target order (female/male vs. male/female) they preferred. In line with gender-status expectations (male: high-status, female: low-status), a male in a high-status job led to a spatial arrangement that favored the male/female order, regardless of the status of the female target. The female/male order was favored only when the female had a high-status job and the male a low-status job. No SAB occurred for pairs in which both targets displayed low-status jobs. The implications of status for the SAB are discussed. PMID:24765816
Social distinction or status is an important motivation of human behaviour. This paper provides a selective survey of recent advances in the economic analysis of the origins and consequences of social status. First, a selection of empirical research from a variety of scientific disciplines is discussed to underpin the further theoretical analysis. I then consider the origins and determinants of
1. Overview Software is valuable when it produces information in a manner that enables people and systems to meet their objec- tives more effectively. Software engineering techniques have value when they enable software developers to build more valuable software. Software economics is the sub-field of software engineering that seeks improvements which enable software engineers to reason more effectively about important
A number of studies have noted that small religious groups with charismatic leaders seem to have different gender dynamics than do groups without. We argue that the presence of such a leader changes what charisma “means” in such a group. Without such a leader, strong personalities may appear charismatic and lead to positions of high status—and such dynamics historically have tended to be associated with a positional advantage to males. With such a leader, however, charisma is more likely to be compatible with receptivity and decoupled from gender characteristics that tend to disadvantage women, leading charismatic women to have greater status than they would otherwise have. PMID:22616087
Martin, John Levi; Van Gunten, Tod; Zablocki, Benjamin D
A study of American Economic Association members (633 women, 1,245 men) indicated that in the 1960s-early 1980s, female economists had lower professional attainment and career advancement. Women's promotion prospects significantly improved during the 1980s in all ranks and for Ph.D.-granting and non-Ph.D. granting institutions. By the end of the…
McDowell, John M.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.; Ziliak, James P.
The 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations gathered information on demographics, workplace information, mentoring, readiness, and health and well-being, gender related experiences in the military and gender relations. Surv...
Fitness testing is a prominent element in many physical education programs, but there has been limited investigation concerning motivation constructs associated with the testing. This study investigated the relationships among physical education students' award status and gender to achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and intentions. After…
Examines status and gender role explanations of the tendency for women to conform more than men in group pressure settings. Analysis of age and sex differences revealed that older females were significantly more conforming than older males when under surveillance and when subjects formed impressions of group members' likability. Among younger…
This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…
Research indicates that the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and delinquency is not as strong as suggested by the leading crime theories. This article argues that such theories do not predict that SES in and of itself causes delinquency but rather that the economic problems associated with SES cause delinquency. Such problems…
Social science findings routinely rely on proxy-reported economic data in household surveys. A typical assumption is that this information is not biased compared to self-reports, but empirical findings on the issue are mixed. Using a dataset that links workers in the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation to their W-2 tax records, we estimate the effects of reporting status (proxy vs. self) on the magnitude and direction of measurement bias in earnings data and explore whether these effects are heterogeneous across gender and marital status. A slight downward bias in proxy-reported earnings is observed; however, these effects are associated with demographic variables. For married workers, proxies do not contribute substantial bias in earnings measurement regardless of the target respondent's gender. However, for single female workers, proxy interviews are a significant source of downward bias in earnings estimates. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23347491
Although recognition of the significance of gender divisions continues to transform economic geography, the discipline nevertheless remains highly uneven in its degree of engagement with gender as a legitimate focus of analysis. In particular, although social institutions are now widely regarded as key determinants of economic success, the regional learning and innovation literature remains largely gender blind, simultaneously subordinating the
Objective The study was conducted to investigate the association between economicstatus and depressive symptoms by comparing the prevalence rates of depressive symptoms at community level and analyzing the possibility of depressive symptoms at individual level. Methods A survey was conducted from November, 2006 to November, 2007 on 966 and 992 representative subjects recruited by stratified clustered sampling in two regions located in Seoul. We used a standardized questionnaire including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression and questions on the socioeconomic characteristics. The adjusted prevalence rates of depressive symptoms were compared at community level, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between depressive symptoms and economicstatuses at individual level among each region. Results The adjusted prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in the region with a high socioeconomic status (23.1%) than in the region with a lower economicstatus (16.6%)(p<0.001). However, logistic regression analysis of individual level revealed that a higher economicstatus was significantly associated with a lower possibility of depressive symptoms among the females in the low economicstatus region. This tendency was not observed among the males in both of the regions. Conclusion The association between economicstatus and depressive symptoms was found to be different when it was approached at community level or individual level. In addition, the association of two variables was different by gender at individual level. Further studies that consider the third mediators are needed to determine the association between the two variables.
Jo, Sun-Jin; Bang, Myeong Hee; Lee, Mi Ok; Jun, Tae-Youn; Choi, Jin-Sook; Lee, Myung-Soo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong-Moon
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychiatric condition for which veterans receive service-connected disability benefits from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Historically, women have been less likely than men to obtain PTSD disability benefits. The authors examined whether these gender disparities have been redressed over time and, if not, whether appropriate clinical factors account for persisting differences. METHODS This longitudinal, observational study was based on a gender-stratified, nationally representative sample of 2,998 U.S. veterans who applied for VA disability benefits for PTSD between 1994 and 1998. The primary outcome was change in PTSD service connection over a ten-year period. RESULTS Forty-two percent (95% confidence interval [CI]=38%-45%) of the women and 50% (CI=45%-55%) of the men originally denied service connection for PTSD eventually received such benefits. Only 8% (CI=7%-10%) of women and 5% (CI=4%-6%) of men lost PTSD disability status. Compared with men, women had lower unadjusted odds of gaining PTSD service connection (odds ratio [OR]=.70, CI=.55-.90) and greater unadjusted odds of losing PTSD service connection (OR=1.76, CI=1.21-2.57). Adjusting for clinical factors accounted for the gender difference in gaining PTSD service connection; adjusting for clinical factors and demographic characteristics eliminated the gender difference in loss of PTSD service connection. CONCLUSIONS Gender-based differences in receipt of PTSD service connection persisted in this cohort over a ten-year period but were explained by appropriate sources of variation. Further research on possible disparities in loss of PTSD disability benefits is warranted. PMID:24535436
Sayer, Nina A; Hagel, Emily M; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Spoont, Michele R; Rosenheck, Robert A; Griffin, Joan M; Arbisi, Paul A; Murdoch, Maureen
The varied relationships among status, gender, and mortality are complex, historically produced phenomena that shape people's lives and deaths in socially meaningful ways. Paleodemographic analysis coupled with acute sensitivity to site-specific context has the potential to move us toward a greater understanding of these experiences in the past. After considering the potential effects of migration and fertility on the age-at-death profiles of adult individuals interred at the Gilbertine Priory of St. Andrew, Fishergate, York (n = 200), it is asserted that these profiles primarily reveal expected and unexpected relationships among status, gender, and mortality in this Medieval context. Collectively, the long lives of religious-status males compared to other composite and genderedstatus groups suggest that they experienced a relatively comfortable existence despite periodic complaints of destitution. The postulated demographic advantage of high-status males did not materialize in the analysis, and a reevaluation of the skeletal evidence indicates that nearly 20% of these individuals died violently. Unexpectedly, moderate-status females shared a mortality profile similar to that of religious-status males and retained a demographic advantage over all other secular status groups. In contrast to the experiences of moderate-status females, low-status females had, on average, the shortest lives at St. Andrew's. This pattern is intimately linked to their restriction from crucial social and economic resources, and provides further evidence of their marginalization in York's wage-labor economy. Overall, these relationships suggest that traditional, highly stratified and gendered notions of Medieval status and mortality are not adequate for understanding the intricacies of everyday life and death at St. Andrew's. PMID:15252861
This research focuses on the role played by cultural norms in the long run persistence of gender inequalities. Cultural norms about gender roles are considered to be endogenous and can generate gender inequality and low development traps. Indeed, when the gender gap is internalized, it leads to inegalitarian views about gender roles. Due to these inegalitarian beliefs, boys receive more
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduces fertility,
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic…
The interrelationship between economic development and gender relations has been found to be multidimensional and complex. This article attempts to analyse the changing gender relations in Arunachal Pradesh, a state that has seen rapid economic transformation in the past few decades, on the basis of women’s relative position in a few socioeconomic spheres. Although Arunachal Pradesh, like other north- eastern
Gender and maturation affect glutathione status in human neonatal tissues. The objective was to verify if human tissues derived from baby girls had a greater ability then tissues derived from males to stimulate the glutathione-reductase, when faced with an oxidative challenge. In vitro, the effect of a calibrated oxidative challenge was studied in endothelial cells. In vivo, the effect of a clinically relevant oxidative challenge was studied in cells from tracheal aspirates derived from oxygen-dependent newborn infants. In endothelial cells, the oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide had a stimulating effect on GSSG-R activity in cells derived from females. The peroxide produced a time, concentration and gender-dependent cytotoxicity, with female-derived cells exhibiting a better viability. In vivo, the intracellular total glutathione content was higher in female-derived cells and in cells from more mature babies; postnatal age and gestational age had a positive effect on the activity of GSSG-R. Oxygen (FiO2 > or = 0.3) was associated with a lower activity of GSSG-R in boys, early in life. Considering that glutathione is a central element in the antioxidant defense, these results suggest that specific tissues derived from the baby girl are potentially better protected against an oxidative stress than those derived from the boy. PMID:9215810
This study had two goals. The first goal was to examine the association between two indicators of negative bias in children and their associations with children's aggression. The second goal was to examine a possible dual role of social status, operationalized as popularity, as a concurrent correlate of negative bias and as a moderator of the effect of negative bias on children's aggression. The roles of gender and type of aggression were also examined. Participants were 366 fifth- and sixth-grade children (49% girls; M age = 11.07 years, SD = 0.85 year) who completed peer- and self-report measures in their classrooms. The results showed that the two indicators of negative bias were associated with each other and with children's aggression. Popularity was weakly associated with negative bias. However, popularity did moderate the association of hostile attributions with aggression. The associations of both measures of negative bias with aggression also varied by gender, with stronger associations for boys than for girls. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25047289
Cillessen, Antonius H N; Lansu, Tessa A M; Van Den Berg, Yvonne H M
A follow-up study of malnutrition and its determinants among children 6-24 months of age was carried out in rural areas of Punjab state in India 30 years after the original study, and following a period of rapid economic growth. The original 1971 study had found a high prevalence of mortality and malnutrition, and the worst gender difference in nutritional status
F. James Levinson; Sucheta Mehra; Dorothy Levinson; Anita Kumari Chauhan; Guy Koppe; Brian Bence; Astier M. Almedom
Background & objectives: Socio-economicstatus is associated with increased morbidity in patients with asthma. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between socio-economicstatus and family history of asthma in adult asthma patients. Methods: The study included 200 adults with asthma and 400 non-asthmatic controls. Socio-economicstatus was determined based on income. Regression analysis was used to estimate odd ratios in relation to socio-economic class, using age, gender, family history of asthma and smoking habits. Results: The highest occurrence of having any family history of asthma was observed in the high class group (88.2%), followed by upper middle class (79.5%), lower middle class (60%) and the lowest in the low class group (34%). Having any family history of asthma was an important risk factor in both univariate and multivariate analyses in lower middle class, upper middle class and high class, but not in the low class group. Interpretation and conclusions: The results indicated a positive association between having a family history of asthma and higher socio-economicstatus. Further studies on a large representative sample need to be conducted to confirm these findings.
Davoodi, Parisa; Mahesh, P.A.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Ramachandra, Nallur B.
This research tests the thesis that the neoclassical micro-economic and the new household economic theoretical assumptions on migration decision-making rules are segmented by gender, marital status, and time frame of intention to migrate. Comparative tests of both theories within the same study design are relatively rare. Utilizing data from the Causes of Migration in South Africa national migration survey, we analyze how individually held “own-future” versus alternative “household well-being” migration decision rules effect the intentions to migrate of male and female adults in South Africa. Results from the gender and marital status specific logistic regressions models show consistent support for the different gender-marital status decision rule thesis. Specifically, the “maximizing one’s own future” neoclassical microeconomic theory proposition is more applicable for never married men and women, the “maximizing household income” proposition for married men with short-term migration intentions, and the “reduce household risk” proposition for longer time horizon migration intentions of married men and women. Results provide new evidence on the way household strategies and individual goals jointly affect intentions to move or stay.
This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gender, AIDS, and acetylator status on the steady-state concentrations of orally administered isoniazid in plasma and lungs. Isoniazid was administered at 300 mg once daily for 5 days to 80 adult volunteers. Subjects were assigned to eight blocks according to gender, presence or absence of AIDS, and acetylator
John E. Conte Jr; Jeffrey A. Golden; Mari McQuitty; Juliana Kipps; Sheila Duncan; Elaine McKenna; Elisabeth Zurlinden
The causes of gender differences in nonverbal behavior are not well understood. The present article discusses status as a possible explanation and analyzes some of the methodological and conceptual challenges associated with testing that hypothesis. The study by Helweg-Larsen, Cunningham, Carrico, and Pergram (2004), which investigated gender in…
The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economicstatus of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…
The correlation between health and economic performance is extremely robust across communities and over time. Many factors exogenous to income play an important role in determining health status, including a number of geographical, environmental, and evolutionary factors. This suggests the existence of simultaneous impacts of health on wealth and wealth on health. Potential health impacts on national economic performance are
While much has been written about the medical, economic, and social causes of cross-national differences in some mortality related phenomena such as in life expectancy and infant mortality, much less attention has been given to maternal mortality, the focus of the present study. In the studies of maternal mortality that have been done, there has been very little effort to assess the potential relevance of the gender stratification and dependency theory perspectives. Using lagged cross-sectional and path analysis with a sample of 79 less developed countries, this article focuses on the impact of predictors linked to three theoretical perspectives - modernization, economic dependency, and gender stratification. We find that women's status, as measured by indicators such as level of education relative to men, age at first marriage, and reproductive autonomy, is a strong predictor of maternal mortality. We find that economic dependency, especially multinational corporate investment, has a detrimental effect on maternal mortality that is mediated by its harmful impacts on economic growth and the status of women. We also find support for developmental theory, a variant of modernization theory. PMID:10414829
Cost-of-illness analyses are concerned with the societal economic impact of obesity such as treatment-costs and lost production related to morbidity and mortality. As regards allocation of resources a growing number of cost-effectiveness analyses of different interventions have appeared. In addition several economic analyses look at how obesity affects wage level and how the use of price-subsidies affects the consumption of products and services. Most recently health economic analyses of possible explanations of the rise in the prevalence of obesity have emerged. PMID:16403351
In this sociometric study, we aimed to investigate the social position of gender-referred children in a naturalistic environment.\\u000a We used a peer nomination technique to examine their social position in the class and we specifically examined bullying and\\u000a victimization of gender dysphoric children. A total of 28 children (14 boys and 14 girls), referred to a gender identity clinic,\\u000a and
Madeleine S. C. Wallien; René Veenstra; Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis
Background This study described the differences between elderly men and women living in Lebanese long-term care nursing homes on socio-economic, health and nutritional status. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. Field researchers obtained data from 221 residents; 148 (67%) women and 73 (33%) men, living in 36 nursing homes. Data on health conditions; nutritional, psychological, and functional status; socio-demographic characteristics, as well as social relations were collected. The analysis used both chi-square and t-test tests. Results The majority of elderly had low socio-economic and poor health status. In comparison to men, women were significantly less educated, had lower occupational status, had no partner, relied financially on their children and relatives, and enjoyed better social relations and health behaviours. Furthermore, the prevalence of both; malnutrition, and at risk of malnutrition, were at 3.2% and 27.6% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between women and men on Mini Nutritional Assessment, Activities of Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases. While women reported “good” health status compared to men, they continued to have higher prevalence of diseases and chronic pain. Conclusions This study explored the socio-demographic, health, and nutritional status of elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes and compared these characteristics across gender. The results indicated the need of health support and institutional interventions for elderly women residents.
This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…
We use data from the PSID to assess whether the effect of parental income on son's economicstatus has changed for cohorts born between 1949 and 1965. We find that the effect of parental income on sons' family income and wages at age thirty declined over this period. This was largely because the effect of parental income on son's years
Numerous previous studies have used sibling correlations to measure the importance of family background as a determinant of economicstatus. The sibling correlations estimated in these studies, however, have been depressed by a failure to distinguish transitory and permanent income variation and, in some cases, by overly homogeneous samples. This paper presents a methodology to address these problems and applies
Gary Solon; Mary Corcoran; GRoger Gordon; Deborah Laren
The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy. PMID:24767598
Women's participation in the military has been restricted since gender integration began. About 33,000 women served in World War I - 20,000 of them in the Army and Navy Nurse Corps, which were separate from the regular Army and Navy. In World War II, manp...
This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…
We work from a life course perspective to assess the impact of marital status and marital transitions on subsequent changes in the self-assessed physical health of men and women. Our results suggest three central conclusions regarding the association of marital status and marital transitions with self-assessed health. First, marital status differences in health appear to reflect the strains of marital dissolution more than they reflect any benefits of marriage. Second, the strains of marital dissolution undermine the self-assessed health of men but not women. Finally, life course stage is as important as gender in moderating the effects of marital status and marital transitions on health.
We investigate gender-associated differences in the attitudes of city leaders regarding local economic development priorities. In so doing, we test the thesis that the economic development priorities of women city leaders will reflect postmaterialist values; in other words, women city leaders will place more of an emphasis on quality-of-life issues than do men. We employ results of a survey of
James M. Vanderleeuw; Maria E. Sandovici; Christopher A. Jarmon
We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.
Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette
This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the
Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…
Having health insurance is a crucial factor for many to sustain life in America. This study examines the demographic determinants of health care coverage within the United States with a focus on how gender and marital status influence the likelihood of having health insurance. Using the human capital theory and the theory of statistical discrimination, it is predicted that married
Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…
This paper draws from four sets of four in-depth interviews and one subsequent focus group to examine how undocumented Mexicana students navigate identities and the meanings of race, gender, class, and legal status. We mobilize a critical race theory framework to center and explore the content of students' counterstories. While majoritarian…
In the indigenous Mexican village of Hueyapan, there is a dear contrast between the supernatural beliefs curers use to explain illness and the naturalistic assumptions made by this community's bonesetters. In addition to employing different conceptual models, the two types of healers differ with respect to their manner of recruitment, training, types of illnesses treated, social status, and gender. These
This descriptive study assessed teachers' attitudes about their formative supervision and the observational ability of principals through the constructs of teacher tenure status and gender. In sum, 255 teachers responded to an online survey indicating teachers' desired feedback focused on classroom climate, student engagement, and…
Range, Bret G.; Finch, Kim; Young, Suzanne; Hvidston, David J.
Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism among Latinos in the United States may not necessarily result in negative status attainment consequences. Such studies have typically overlooked gender differences in the consequences of bilingualism. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (N=866 females; 737 males), we…
We examined race and gender stereotypes in fourth-, sixth- and eighth-grade White and Black children. The participants reported their perceptions of the competence of Black, White, female and male children in academic domains, sports and music. In general, low-status groups (girls and Black children) did not endorse stereotypes that reflected…
Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Mistry, Rashmita; Feagans, Laura
The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R)
The authors assessed perceived control, dysphoria, hopelessness, self-esteem, and optimism in 280 college students involved in abusive and nonabusive relationships. Women reported higher levels of dysphoria and lower levels of self-esteem and optimism than men. Women in abusive relationships reported more psychological symptoms than men in abusive relationships. After controlling for gender differences in emotional status, participants in abusive relationships
This article relies on year-long ethnographic data to examine how the intersection of peer status, gender, and race influenced the role stances children took in one urban fifth grade classroom while participating in three different pedagogies: peer tutoring, cooperative peer editing, and collaborative writing. Informed by the sociocultural…
Objectives The present study examines gender differences in changes in functional status after age 50 and how such differences vary across different age groups. Methods Data came from the Health and Retirement Study, involving up to six repeated observations of a national sample of Americans older than 50 years of age between 1995 and 2006. We employed hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates in depicting temporal variations in functional status between men and women. Results As a quadratic function, the worsening of functional status was more accelerated in terms of the intercept and rate of change among women and those in older age groups. In addition, gender differences in the level of functional impairment were more substantial in older persons than in younger individuals, although differences in the rate of change between men and women remained constant across age groups. Discussion A life course perspective can lead to new insights regarding gender variations in health within the context of intrapersonal and interpersonal differences. Smaller gender differences in the level of functional impairment in the younger groups may reflect improvement of women’s socioeconomic status, greater rate of increase in chronic diseases among men, and less debilitating effects of diseases.
Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M.; Shaw, Benjamin A.; Quinones, Ana R.; Ye, Wen; Xu, Xiao; Ofstedal, Mary Beth
The present research investigated the influence of gender and tenure status in academicians' experiences of balancing parenthood and an academic career. Men (n = 85) and women (n = 179) employed full-time in tenure-track academic positions with at least one child younger than the age of 16 responded via the Internet to a 36-item questionnaire…
Sex hormones in the prenatal brain of humans influence the subsequent sexual status or orientation of the individual as bisexual, heterosexual, or homosexual. Postnatal socialization is another contributing factor. Sexual orientation is not under the direct governance of chromosomes and genes. (Author/VM)
Evaluated learning status of 95 diabetic children and 97 matched controls. Results indicated that diabetic boys had significantly lower Freedom from Distractibility scores compared with scores of diabetic girls and controls, and lower Perceptual Organization scores compared with scores of control boys. Diabetic children experienced more learning…
Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…
Family economicstatus is generally considered to be an important factor associated with students' educational outcomes. However, to evaluate the strength of this contention, it is important to first have appropriate measures of family economicstatus. Measuring the economicstatus of Vietnamese people has been particularly difficult as the…
Research has shown that women physicians work fewer hours and are more likely to become inactive professionally and to switch to part-time labor, compared with their male counterparts. The published literature suggests that a gender disparity still exists in medicine which may decrease work motivation among women physicians. The authors investigated whether the experience and the perception of gender-based career obstacles among women physicians in Japan are associated with their working status (i.e., full-time vs. part-time). The present cross-sectional study is based on surveys of alumnae from 13 private medical schools in Japan conducted between June 2009 and May 2011. Of those who agreed to participate in this study, 1684 completed a self-administered questionnaire (overall response rate 83%). Experience of gender-based obstacles was considered affirmative if a woman physician had been overlooked for opportunities of professional advancement based on gender. Perception of gender-based obstacles referred to the self-reported degree of difficulty of promotion and opportunities for a position in higher education. Approximately 20% of the study participants responded that they experienced gender-based obstacles while 24% answered that they were not sure. The scores for perception of gender-based career obstacles were statistically higher among part-time workers compared with full-time workers (mean difference = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.39-2.00). Adjusting for age, marital status, the presence of children, workplace, board certification, holding a PhD degree, overall satisfaction of being a physician, and household income, stepwise logistic regression models revealed that physicians with the strongest perception of gender-based career obstacles were more likely to work part-time rather than full-time (OR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Although the experience of gender-based obstacles was not associated with working status among women physicians, the results demonstrated that a strong perception of gender-based obstacles was associated with part-time practice rather than full-time practice. PMID:22867864
This dissertation explores undergraduate engineering experiences, comparing men with women and switchers with non-switchers. Factors related to a chilly academic climate and gender-role socialization are hypothesized to contribute to variations in men's and women's academic experiences and persistence rates. Both quantitative and qualitative data are utilized in an effort to triangulate the findings. Secondary survey data, acquired as result of a 1992 Academic Environment Survey, were utilized to test the hypothesis that sex is the most important predictor (i.e., demographic variable) of perceptions of academic climate. Regression analyses show that sex by itself is not always a significant determinant. However, when sex and college (engineering vs. other) are combined into dummy variables, they are statistically significant in models where sex was not significant alone. This finding indicates that looking at sex differences alone may be too simplistic. Thirty personal interviews were conducted with a random stratified sample of undergraduate students from the 1993 engineering cohort. The interview data indicate that differences in childhood socialization are important. With regard to persistence, differences in socialization are greater for switchers vs. non-switchers than men vs. women. Thus, gender-role socialization does not appear to play as prominent a role in women's persistence as past literature would indicate. This may be due to the self-selection process that occurs among women who choose to pursue engineering. Other aspects of childhood socialization such as parents' level of educational and occupation, students' high school academic preparation and knowledge of what to expect of college classes appear to be more important. In addition, there is evidence that, for women, male siblings play an important role in socialization. There is also evidence that women engineering students at Midwestern University face a chilly academic climate. The factors which appear to contribute the most to an inhospitable atmosphere include subtle behaviors on the part of faculty and administrators and blatant sexist, derogatory and hostile comments and jokes on the part of male undergraduate students. Personal interview data indicate continued resistance among some male administrators, faculty and students to women pursuing majors in engineering.
This article explores the profoundly gendered nature of the split between the disciplines of economics and sociology that took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emphasizing implications for current efforts to bring the fields more closely together. Drawing on historical documents and feminist studies of science, it investigates the gendered processes underlying the divergence of the disciplines in definition, method, and degree of engagement with social problems. The recently developed field of economic sociology and other efforts to bridge the disciplinary gap have the potential to heal this disciplinary split, if they are broadened, deepened, and made wiser and more self-reflective through the use of feminist analysis. PMID:20939131
Background The ever-increasing older population and its association with serious overweight problems have garnered much attention. The correlation between being overweight and socioeconomic status factors could be helpful for understanding the inequalities among the overweight population. We examined the correlation between being overweight and some key variables, such as demographics, socioeconomic status, general health status, and health behavior in a large sample of older individuals, by each gender. Methods We used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging and it included 8,157 participants who were 45 years or older. To understand the relationship between the overweight participants in accordance to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status, and health behaviors, a weighted chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted by separating variables related to overweight, according to the genders. Results The number of people in the normal group was 6,347 (77.8%), while the people who were considered overweight were 1,810 (22.2%). Women (n?=?4,583) constituted 52.7% of the subject, 24.9% of whom were classified as overweight. Meanwhile, 20.6% of the 47.3% (n?=?3,574) of the sample who were men were classified as overweight. Participants between the ages of 45 and 64 with chronic diseases were more likely to be overweight. Men in the 4th quartile of household income were more likely to be overweight than those who were in the 1st quartile, in contrast, while unemployed women with lower education levels and urban residents were at greater risk for being overweight. Conclusions Among the men, health status and health behavior appeared to show a correlation with being overweight; however, among women, socioeconomic status factors were strongly related to being overweight. These findings appear to support the association of gender-specifics with the prevalence of being overweight.
Noh, Jin-Won; Jo, Minkyung; Huh, Taewook; Cheon, Jooyoung; Kwon, Young Dae
This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status. PMID:22483443
Background Current knowledge is limited regarding patient characteristics related to treatment outcome of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in refugees and asylum seekers. Objective Gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression were investigated for possible effects on the treatment outcome. Method Patient characteristics were explored in 54 refugees and asylum seekers who had completed a treatment program for PTSD. Non-responders (10), those who had the same or higher levels of symptom severity after treatment, were compared with responders, those who had lower symptom severity after treatment (44). Symptom severity was measured by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The non-responders and responders constituted the dichotomous, dependent variable. The independent variables were gender, torture status, offender status, level of anger, and level of depression. T-tests and Exact Unconditional Homogeneity/Independence Tests for 2×2 Tables were used to study the relationship to treatment outcome. Results Being male and reporting to have been a violent offender were significantly more frequent characteristics among the non-responders compared to the responders. The levels of pretreatment anger, depression and torture status did not affect the treatment outcome. Conclusions The study adds support to findings that females benefit more from treatment of PTSD than males and that violent offenders are difficult to treat within the standard treatment programs.
Stenmark, Hakon; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Elbert, Thomas; Holen, Are
Objectives This study was conducted to explore symptoms, other quality of life (QoL) aspects and impact of age, gender, marital status, cancer diagnosis and time of survival in patients with advanced cancer admitted to palliative care.Patients and methods A cross-sectional study of 278 cancer patients completing the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 at referral to palliative care.Main
The purpose of the present study was to examine depressive symptoms as a function of eating disorder (ED) diagnostic status and gender. A demographic questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer & Brown, 1996), and the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (Q-EDD; Mintz, O'Halloran, Mulholland & Schneider, 1997) were administered to a nonclinical sample of college-aged men (n =
Melinda A. Green; Norman A. Scott; Jada Hallengren; Christopher Davids
Infant mortality differentials in a metropolitan aggregate of eight Ohio cities were examined for the years 1979-81. The primary analytical unit was the census tract of mother's usual residence. The independent variable was defined as the percentage of low-income families in each tract at the 1980 census. Results of the analysis revealed that in spite of some very substantial declines in the overall level of infant mortality in recent decades, there continues to be a pronounced inverse association between the aggregate economicstatus of an area and the probability that a newborn infant will not survive the first year of life. This inverse association characterizes both males and females, whites as well as nonwhites, and it is observed during both the neonatal and postneonatal age intervals. Moreover, it is apparent that the adverse influence of a low economicstatus is reflected in the incidence of mortality from all major exogenous and endogenous causes. Since these two cause groups have such different underlying determinants, this finding has important implications for the development and implementation of specific maternal and child health care policies and programs.
Introduction Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35–70 years Tunisians (women: n?=?2964, men: n?=?2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI?=?weight(kg)/height(m)2 and obesity was BMI?30, WHtR?=?waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR?0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). Results BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), P<0.0001) as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR?=?3.8[3.1–7.4], P<0.0001) and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3–4.8], P<0.0001). Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.7]) than rural (OR?=?2.0[0.7–5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR?=?6.9[2.0–23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR?=?1.4[0.5–4.3]) or even employees/workers OR?=?2.3[1.0–5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR?=?3.3[1.3–8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. Conclusion The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings.
Previous research has shown that people use warmth and competence as basic dimensions to evaluate others and to interpret their behavior, but little research has examined the conditions under which low-warmth targets are liked. A series of 3 experiments involving 4 vignettes showed, in general, that low-warmth targets were better liked when they exhibited higher competence and that high-status persons displayed greater tolerance toward the low-warmth person of low status. Exceptions to these patterns were predicted and found as a function of the type of organizational context in which evaluations were made: groups that place priority on individual goals over common goals and groups that are performance oriented rather than relationship oriented. Target gender interacted with competence and relative status. PMID:21560807
Introduction. Gonial angle and antegonial region are important landmarks in mandible which is influenced by gender, age, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth and to investigate their relationship to gender, age group, and dental status. Materials and Methods. A total of 1060 panoramic radiographs were evaluated: the dentulous group, 854 subjects and the edentulous group, 206 subjects. The patients were grouped into six age groups of 10-years each. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth were measured from panoramic radiographs. Results and Discussion. Corelation of age with gonial angle, antegonial angle and antegonial depth was not significant. Significant difference in mandibular angle was found between males and females. Males had significantly smaller antegonial angle and greater antegonial depth than females. Significant difference was found for gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth between right and left sides of mandible. Conclusion. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth can be implicated as a forensic tool for gender determination but not suitable for age determination.
Previous research on migration and gendered career outcomes centers on couples and rarely examines the reason for the move. The implicit assumption is usually that households migrate in response to job opportunities. Based on a two-year panel from the Current Population Survey, this article uses stated reasons for geographic mobility to compare earnings outcomes among job migrants, family migrants, and quality-of-life migrants by gender and family status. We further assess the impact of migration on couples' internal household economy. The effects of job-related moves that we find are reduced substantially in the fixed-effects models, indicating strong selection effects. Married women who moved for family reasons experience significant and substantial earnings declines. Consistent with conventional models of migration, we find that household earnings and income and gender specialization increase following job migration. Married women who are secondary earners have increased odds of reducing their labor supply following migration for job or family reasons. However, we also find that migrating women who contributed as equals to the household economy before the move are no more likely than nonmigrant women to exit work or to work part-time. Equal breadwinner status may protect women from becoming tied movers. PMID:22109084
The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,
Background the aim of this study is to assess the association of harmful alcohol use based on the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score with periodontal status according to gender and smoking in a representative sample of Korean adults. Methods This study analyzed 5,291 participants older than 19 years whose data of harmful alcohol use and periodontal status were available. Harmful alcohol use was defined by the WHO guidelines for the administration of AUDIT. The periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, oral and general health behavior, oral health status and systemic conditions. All analyses considered a complex sampling design, and multivariate analysis was also performed in the subgroups. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a marginal association between harmful alcohol use and higher CPI in the total sample. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of harmful alcohol use was 1.16 (0.97 to 1.38) for higher CPI. Higher CPI was significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60) and non-smokers (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57). Conclusion Periodontal status is significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men and non-smokers in a representative sample of Korean adults.
Background Although there is substantial evidence that social relationships and marriage may influence both psychological and physical\\u000a health, little is known about the influence of children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose This study examined the competing predictions regarding the directional influence of parental status and its interaction with\\u000a gender—given that mothers are typically disproportionately more responsible for everyday care of children—on cardiovascular\\u000a functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method We examined ambulatory
Julianne Holt-Lunstad; Wendy Birmingham; Adam M. Howard; Dustin Thoman
This research tests the relations of parental practices to child competence and assertions that practices differ by gender of the child. Home-based interviews and structured observations of parent-child interactions were conducted with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of families (N = 501) whose 4-year-old children were served in public prekindergarten. Study data confirmed the importance of parental practices for children's academic and social competence but did not support claims that use of any of the practices was related to the child's gender. Significant differences were found for economicstatus on dialogic practices and for ethnicity on control and ethnic socialization. Poor parents employed dialogic practices less than nonpoor parents' and African American parents employed dialogic practices less often and control and ethnic socialization more often than European Americans. Dialogic practices were related to competence, but parental control and ethnic socialization were not. PMID:23889013
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economicstatus and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…
Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economicstatus variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p?0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p?0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p?0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p?0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p?0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p?0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p?0.004]. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS.
Metabolic profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could serve as a less invasive and more direct alternative to tissue biopsies or serum in metabolomic research. We conducted two exploratory independent studies in order to characterise PBMC's metabolomic profile following short-term vitamin D3 supplementation and to determine gender effects. In the first study, eight healthy males and females aged 40-65 y were randomly selected for profiling of PBMCs after receiving either 15 µg of vitamin D3 or placebo for four weeks. In the second study, twenty younger healthy males and females were studied. Cell metabolites were extracted and deproteinised using methanol/chloroform/water method and analysed by GC-MS. Higher vitamin D status had no effect on the fatty acid profile of PBMCs, but inflammatory biomarkers and adipokines correlated positively with stearic acid levels. In the second study, no gender-specific metabolites were identified. Valine, leucine and aspartic acid were identified as potential BMI-sensitive amino acids. Larger studies are needed to confirm the influence of BMI on these parameters. This work clearly demonstrates the utility of metabolomics profiling of PBMCs and paves the way for future applications of metabolomics in identifying metabolic profiles of blood cells as a measure for dietary intakes or physiological status. PMID:24957025
Stepien, Magdalena; Nugent, Anne P; Brennan, Lorraine
Metabolic profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could serve as a less invasive and more direct alternative to tissue biopsies or serum in metabolomic research. We conducted two exploratory independent studies in order to characterise PBMC’s metabolomic profile following short-term vitamin D3 supplementation and to determine gender effects. In the first study, eight healthy males and females aged 40–65 y were randomly selected for profiling of PBMCs after receiving either 15 µg of vitamin D3 or placebo for four weeks. In the second study, twenty younger healthy males and females were studied. Cell metabolites were extracted and deproteinised using methanol/chloroform/water method and analysed by GC-MS. Higher vitamin D status had no effect on the fatty acid profile of PBMCs, but inflammatory biomarkers and adipokines correlated positively with stearic acid levels. In the second study, no gender-specific metabolites were identified. Valine, leucine and aspartic acid were identified as potential BMI-sensitive amino acids. Larger studies are needed to confirm the influence of BMI on these parameters. This work clearly demonstrates the utility of metabolomics profiling of PBMCs and paves the way for future applications of metabolomics in identifying metabolic profiles of blood cells as a measure for dietary intakes or physiological status.
Stepien, Magdalena; Nugent, Anne P.; Brennan, Lorraine
This study examined the relationships among gender, perceived financial barriers to health care, and selected health status indicators in a randomly selected rural Appalachian sample. The data were gathered through the Johnson County Health Survey. The survey was conducted through personal interviews with 207 females and 178 males representing 197 households. The Duke Health Profile was used to measure the perceived health of the respondents. Analysis of variance, t tests, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Analysis of the data revealed that women perceive financial barriers to health care significantly more than men (P < 0.01), even when living in the same household; women had significantly poorer health than men (P < 0.01); and both women and men with perceived financial barriers experienced poorer health (P < 0.01) than those who did not perceive such barriers. Conclusions from the study suggest that in this rural sample women were the most compromised by both gender and health status, and that they perceived that their health care needs were not being adequately met. PMID:10162850
This secondary analysis used Goffman’s (1963) model of stigma to examine how social support and health status are related to HIV stigma, after controlling for specific socio-demographic factors, and how these relationships differed between men and women living with HIV. Baseline data from 183 subjects in a behavioral randomized clinical trial were analyzed using multi-group structural equation modeling. Women reported significantly higher levels of stigma than men after controlling for race, history of injecting drug use, and exposure category. HIV-related stigma was negatively predicted by social support regardless of gender. The theorized model explained a significant amount of the variance in stigma for men and women (24.4% and 44%, respectively) and may provide novel and individualized intervention points for health care providers to affect positive change on perceived stigma for the person living with HIV. The study offers insight into understanding the relationships among gender, health status, social support, and HIV-related stigma.
Colbert, Alison M.; Kim, Kevin H.; Sereika, Susan M.; Erlen, Judith A.
...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern or women-owned small business (WOSB) concern eligible...firm's status as an economically disadvantaged women-owned small business (EDWOSB) concern...
Background Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a cancer usually associated with high socio-economic level in the literature. Few studies have, however, assessed this relationship by gender and site or the association between CM and rurality. Methods A major-sized historical occupational Swedish cohort comprising 2,992,166 workers was used to estimate relative risk of cutaneous melanoma, broken down by gender and anatomical site, for occupational sectors (as a proxy of socio-economic class) and rurality. To this end, Poisson models were fitted for each site in men and women, including occupational sector and town size, with adjustment for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area as possible confounding factors. Results White collar workers presented a marked increased of risk in men in all melanoma cases, as well as in trunk, upper and lower limbs. This pattern was less clear for women, in which some heterogeneity appeared, as low risks in lower socioeconomic sectors in trunk, or risk excesses in white collar workers in lower limbs did not achieve statistical significance. Males also showed significant differences in risk by rural/urban distribution, but in women this association was limited to CM of lower limb. Risk of CM of head/neck did not vary by occupational sector or town size, thus depicting a specific epidemiological profile, which proved common to both sexes. Conclusion While differences in risk between men and women could suggest greater homogeneity in UV-exposure behaviour among women, the uniform risk pattern in head and neck melanoma, present in both sexes, might support the coexistence of different aetiological pathways, related to anatomical site.
Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational…
Perry, Brea L.; Link, Tanja; Boelter, Christina; Leukefeld, Carl
Adolescents (n = 962; 55% migrant and 45% native) between the age of 11 and 19 were administered the Kovac's Children Depression Inventory (CDI), Children Trait Anxiety Inventory (CTAI), Offer's Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and Brähler's Checklist of Symptom Complaints (GBB). Foreign-born and German-born samples were matched for age, gender, and educational status. Females were more anxious and complained more about physical ailments, particularly tiredness, stomach disorders, colds, and circulatory ailments than males, but not for depression. Adolescent migrants did not display any significant differences in terms of physical health, but they did report more depression and anxiety measures. The association between anxiety, depression, and physical ill-health was significant for both males and females, but tended to be more pronounced for females. There was scarce evidence of gender making an impact on the migration-health linkage. The implications of the results are discussed within the framework of migration and health policies for second generation children and their families. PMID:19526696
Kirkcaldy, Bruce D; Furnham, Adrian F; Siefen, Rainer G
This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status.…
This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo
This document reports on a study to determine Guamanian women's identification of their social status and gender awareness. Participants of the study were 350 randomly selected undergraduate women who responded to questionnaires. A statistical profile of the Guamanian undergraduate women was derived as follows: (1) is a traditional aged student;…
The current study investigated group differences in adolescent adjustment by adoption status and adoption subtype in a national sample, in contrast to group differences based on developmental stage or gender. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were performed to describe group differences in a broad range of…
Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Finley, Gordon E.
This article examines the World Bank's discourse of neoliberalism with a view to understanding how this informs and sustains the Bank's policies and practices in particularly gendered ways. "Neoliberalism" is, here, a discursive structure that constitutes a powerful and pervasive contemporary model of economic development, resting on assumptions…
Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120
The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. However, its potential role in white adipose tissue (WAT), one of the most important tissues involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is not well-studied. The aim of this work was to elucidate the regulation of NR4A in WAT under different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance such as fasting, postnatal development, gender, hormonal deficiency and pregnancy. We compared NR4A mRNA expression of Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor 1 and found a clear regulation by nutritional status, since the expression of the 3 isoforms is increased after fasting in a leptin-independent manner and sex steroid hormones also modulate NR4A expression in males and females. Our findings indicate that NR4A are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in glucose metabolism and energy status.
Perez-Sieira, S.; Lopez, M.; Nogueiras, R.; Tovar, S.
This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of hearing status by gender; popularity varied as a function of hearing status and educational setting. Deaf boys in mainstream education were less accepted and popular than their hearing classmates and than deaf peers in special education. Deaf girls in mainstream education were also less popular but not less accepted. Communicative skills varied as a function of hearing status, whereas social behavior varied as a function of educational setting. Deaf mainstreamed children showed less developed pragmatic and strategic communicative skills (monitoring, improvisation, initiating/maintaining) than their hearing classmates, but more social adjustment than deaf peers in special education (more prosocial behavior, less antisocial or withdrawn behavior, and more agreeableness). For acceptance, deaf girls in mainstream education compensated the lack of improvisation with higher levels of prosocial behavior, agreeableness, monitoring, and pragmatic skills, and lower levels of antisocial behavior than deaf boys. Monitoring and pragmatic skills negatively affected a deaf mainstream boy's acceptance. In special education, gender differences in prosocial behavior explained deaf boys' lower acceptance. Popularity was explained by pragmatic skills and improvisation as a function of hearing status. Voter population difference and different social behavior norms are considered as an explanation for popularity differences as a function of educational setting. PMID:21840686
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Verhoeven, Ludo
The authors examined the contributions of economicstatus (ES) and citizenship status to health differences between European Americans, Latino Americans, and noncitizen Latinos. The investigation was framed using social identity and comparison theories. Southern California residents (N = 2,164) were randomly selected to complete a telephone…
Campbell, Kelly; Garcia, Donna M.; Granillo, Christina V.; Chavez, David V.
In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online…
Background/Aims It is essential that clinicians have an understanding of patients’ perceptions of constipation as well as constipation mis-perception (CM), which can be defined as failure to recognize the six constipation symptoms (infrequency, straining, hard stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction or manual maneuver). The aims of our study were to identify the prevalence of CM and its association with demographics and clinical features. Methods This nationwide survey included 625 self-reported constipated subjects (431 females; mean age, 41.2 years) among random participants in the National Health Screening Program. The prevalence of CM for each constipation symptom was estimated, and the participants were classified into nil (0), low (1–2), mid (3–4) and high (5–6) level CM subgroups according to the number of misperceived symptoms. Results The highest rate of CM was observed for manual maneuver (48.3%), followed by anorectal obstruction (38.4%), stool infrequency (34.6%), incomplete evacuation (32.2%), hard stool (27.2%) and straining (25.4%). Among the nil (n = 153), low (n = 242), mid (n = 144) and high level (n = 86) subgroups, there were significant differences in the proportions of males (18.3%, 34.3%, 39.6% and 30.2%; P = 0.001, respectively), never-married status (25.7%, 38.2%, 36.8% and 45.9%; P = 0.030, respectively) and those who did not receive treatment for constipation (41.8%, 47.5%, 58.3% and 66.3%; P < 0.001, respectively). There was a significant linear trend of increasing degree of CM with decreasing symptoms experienced (P < 0.001). Conclusions CM is significantly associated with gender, marital status, treatment utilization and the range of constipation symptoms experienced.
Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Suck Chei; Park, Moo In; Park, Kyung Sik; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Kee Wook; Koo, Hoon Sup; Kim, Wan Jung; Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Ji Sung
The current research synthesis integrates the findings of 111 independent samples from 54 economically developing countries that examined the relation between economicstatus and subjective well-being (SWB). The average economicstatus-SWB effect size was strongest among low-income developing economies (r = 0.28) and for samples that were least…
An incongruence between one's physiological sex and the gender identity that is one's basic sense of self as a man or a woman is known as gender identity disorder. In general, the conditions of physiological men having female gender identity and physiological women having male gender identity are called male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder, respectively. Although the precise pathogenesis of gender identity disorder remains unclear, the prevalence of gender identity disorder is quite high, with the rates calculated for male-to-female to be 1:25,000 and female-to-male to be 1:12,000 in Hokkaido, Japan. The diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder in Japan are based on the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Gender Identity Disorder, 4th edition. Although gender identity disorder was previously thought to be a psychiatric condition, it is extremely difficult to assign gender identity to physiological sex by psychiatric and psychological treatments. To adapt the figure of the body to the native gender identity, physical treatments such as administration of cross-sex steroids and sex reassignment surgery are considered. However, there are very few institutions that routinely carry out sex reassignment surgery in Japan, even though it is mandatory for changing sex on the census register at the present time. Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female and female-to-male patients includes orchiectomy, penectomy, clitoroplasty, vaginoplasty and vulvoplasty, and hysterectomy, ovariectomy, metoidioplasty and phalloplasty, respectively. To provide accurate information about physical treatment for patients with gender identity disorder, even urologists who are not actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder should understand the fundamental aspects and contemporary problems of gender identity disorder. PMID:22372595
EFFORTS TO ELIMINATE NEGRO POVERTY MUST BE UNDERTAKEN WITHIN A FAVORABLE OVERALL ECONOMIC CLIMATE, AND THE CURRENT CLIMATE IS NOT FAVORABLE BECAUSE MANPOWER AND PLANT CAPACITY ARE NOT FULLY UTILIZED. SUCH FACTORS AS LIMITED JOBS, EXAGGERATED JOB REQUIREMENTS, LOWER EARNING CAPACITY, DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT, FLUCTUATIONS OF THE BUSINESS CYCLE, AND…
Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies.
Williams and Sommer found that ostracized women, but not men, worked harder on a subsequent collective task, speculating that\\u000a women’s social compensation was motivated by threatened belongingness. The present 2?×?3 design with 180 U.S. women and men\\u000a replicated this gender gap in work contributions then closed it using two status-manipulations that favored women’s task abilities\\u000a or the higher education of
African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening. Few studies have explored African Americans’ own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were patients in a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital. Focus groups were delimited by gender and CRC screening status. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using an iterative coding process with consensus and triangulation to develop thematic categories. Results indicated key thematic differences in perceptions of screening by gender and CRC screening status. While both men and women who had never been screened had a general lack of knowledge about CRC and screening modalities, women had an overall sense that health screenings were needed and indicated a stronger need to have a positive relationship with their doctor. Women also reported that African American men do not get colonoscopy because of the perceived sexual connotation. Men who had never been screened, compared to those who had been screened, had less trust of their doctors and the health care system and indicated an overall fear of going to the doctor. They also reiterated the sexual connotation of having a colonoscopy and were apprehensive about being sedated during the procedure. Overall, men expressed more fear and were more reluctant to undergo CRC screening than women, but among those who had undergone CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, men expressed advantages of having the screening. All groups were also found to have a negative attitude about the use of fecal occult blood testing and felt colonoscopy was the superior screening modality. Results suggest that messages and education about CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, might place more emphasis on accuracy and might be more effective in increasing screening rates among African Americans if tailored to gender and screening status.
Gordon, Thomas F.; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Ruggieri, Dominique G.
This study examined whether the effects of student–faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes—i.e., college GPA, degree\\u000a aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction\\u000a with college experience—vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status. The study utilized data on\\u000a 58,281 students who participated in the 2006 University of California Undergraduate Experience
Of all the social constructs impacting the contemporary world, gender is perhaps the most pervasive and the most insidious. Its inequities creep into our everyday lives with impunity. Across the globe, gender construction has evoked challenge, undergone reform and, in some instances, transformed thinking in societies. Yet, for all the gains made…
PurposeThis article examines gender differences in attitudes toward sexual risk–taking behaviors of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)–orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda.
Fred M. Ssewamala; Leyla Ismayilova; Mary McKay; Elizabeth Sperber; William Bannon Jr.; Stacey Alicea
A survey of the nutritional status of women in six villages in the Pune district of Maharashtra, India found young women to have significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than their male peers. The purpose of this study was to identify social and economic factors associated with this difference in thinness, and to explore the behaviour in men and women that might underlie these associations. We compared men and women in 90 families in this part of Maharashtra, recording social and economic details, fasting practices and oil consumption, and took measurements of the height and weight of a married couple of child-bearing age in each family. In this agricultural community, women were thinner in joint, land-owning families where the main occupation was farming, than they did in non-farming families. This was not true of men in this type of family. Men in ‘cash-rich’ families had higher BMIs than men in families without this characteristic. There was no corresponding difference in women’s body mass index. We then examined the lifestyles of men and women in a sub-set of 45 of these families. Women were more likely to work full-time in farming than men, to carry the burden of all household chores, to have less sleep and to eat less food away from home than men. Women fasted more frequently and more strictly than men. Despite identifying significant differences in behaviour between men and women in the same household, we could find no direct link between behaviour and body mass index. We conclude that being married into a farming family is an important factor in determining the thinness of a woman in rural Maharashtra.
The economic benefits of postsecondary education are well established. However, there still seem to be differences in employment outcomes by gender or equity status. This exploratory research examined employment differences at the intersection of gender and equity status. Data were derived from a graduate survey and institutional records of a…
We explored the prevalence and predictors of transactional sex with casual partners and main girlfriends among 1,288 men aged 15-26 from 70 villages in the rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with young men enrolling in the Stepping Stones HIV prevention trial. A total of 17.7% of participants reported giving material resources or money to casual sex partners and 6.6% received resources from a casual partner. Transactionally motivated relationships with main girlfriends were more balanced between giving (14.9%) and getting (14.3%). We constructed multivariable models to identify the predictors for giving and for getting material resources in casual and in main relationships. Each model resulted in remarkably similar predictors. All four types of exchange were associated with higher socio-economicstatus, more adverse childhood experiences, more lifetime sexual partners, and alcohol use. Men who were more resistant to peer pressure to have sex were less likely to report transactional sex with casual partners, and men who reported more equitable gender attitudes were less likely to report main partnerships underpinned by exchange. The most consistent predictor of all four types of transaction was the perpetration of intimate partner violence and rape against women other than a main partner. The strong and consistent association between perpetration of gender-based violence and both giving and getting material goods from female partners suggests that transactional sex in both main and casual relationships can be viewed within a broader continuum of men's exercise of gendered power and control. HIV prevention interventions need to explicitly address transactional sex in the context of ideas about masculinity which place a high emphasis on heterosexual success with, and control of, women.
Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, Nwabisa; Levin, Jonathan; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Koss, Mary P
Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P?0.001). Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time. PMID:23347097
This study used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to assess the extent to which economicstatus is transmitted from one generation to the next, focusing on whether the effect of parental income on sons' family income and wages changed for cohorts between 1949 and 1965. The PSID is a longitudinal data set initiated with a core…
Recent studies tend consistently to confirm the presence of a moderate excess risk of lung cancer in the rubber industry. However, the agent responsible for the excess of lung cancer is still obscure. Also, analyses without regard to the modifying effects of sex, economicstatus, and smoking habit are less than satisfactory. To explore these questions, we have conducted a
A study was conducted to find whether race, socio-economicstatus (SES) and language cues of speakers modify the ratings of white experienced teachers. Subjects were 250 white male and female experienced teachers whose responses were recorded on a semantic differential designed to assess teacher expectancies on two concepts: speaker and speaker's…
This article presents the annual report on the economicstatus of the profession. This year's report covers three main issues--all perennial problems, but with new analysis based on the latest data--in addition to summarizing the current results from the annual American Association of University Professors (AAUP) survey of full-time faculty…
We model fertility as endogenous to the family's economicstatus because poor households choose to have large families in the absence of adequate social insurance. Because of a strong son preference in India, having two girls first can proxy an exogenous increase in fertility, and is therefore a good instrument for fertility in determining poverty of rural households. The 1993–1994
Although a positive relationship between socio-economicstatus and academic achievement is well-established, how it varies with age is not. This article uses four data points from Canada's National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine how the academic achievement gap attributed to SES changes from childhood to adolescence…
This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economicstatus families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…
In emerging economies, the socio-economicstatus is a key element to evaluate social improvement as it provides an understanding of the population's access to housing, education, health or basic services, such as water and electricity. The relationship between such indicators and human physical mobility has been researched mostly in areas like access to medical infrastructures and public transportation. However, such
Vanessa Frias-Martinez; Jesus Virseda-Jerez; Enrique Frias-Martinez
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economicstatus (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
Coal gasification has been the subject of a great deal of study and development worldwide over the past decade. The open literature currently contains bewildering and often inconsistent information concerning the development status and economic viability of coal gasification systems. The Advanced Power Systems Division of EPRI has devoted considerable resources to the development and demonstration of coal gasification technology
This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economicstatus and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
As the economic rewards of education continue to increase, so too do the numbers of people in the United States with degrees and credentials.1 With an increasing number of adults returning to school and young people making choices about education, it is v...
This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status.
In the present study we investigated the impact of respiratory allergy on quality of life in young people, and examined whether socio-economicstatus modifies the above dependence. The study was conducted in 458 female and 363 male university students, aged 18-25. Information on socio-economicstatus (SES) was collected using a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were medically diagnosed. Quality of life (QoL) was based on the Polish version of the SF-36 test. Respiratory allergy or respiratory and food allergy were declared by 19.2 % of women and 19.0 % of men. The prevalence of allergy was higher in students with high SES. The students suffering from allergy obtained lower scores in all domains of QoL, but the differences were statistically insignificant. However, the overall test result in allergic students was significantly lower than that in non-allergic students. Differences QoL were significantly associated with socio-economic variables. In persons with low SES, the differences in QoL between those suffering from allergy and those who did not have allergy were larger than in persons with high SES. The results indicate that the course of allergic diseases is highly dependent on socio-economicstatus. The prevalence of allergy among students of low status is lower than among those of high status. However, allergy to a greater extent impairs the quality of life of students with low than high SES. PMID:23836002
The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…
This paper estimates a neoclassical growth model that includes female and male education as separate explanatory variables. The model can be reparameterised so that the gender gap in education enters the model. The interpretation of its coefficient depends crucially on what other education variables appear in the equation. The average long-run effects of female and male education on output per
This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender. PMID:12295424
Objectives To determine whether access to rapid access chest pain clinics of people with recent onset symptoms is equitable by age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender, according to need. Design Retrospective cohort study with ecological analysis. Setting Patients referred from primary care to five rapid access chest pain clinics in secondary care, across England. Participants Of 8647 patients aged ?35?years referred to chest pain clinics with new-onset stable chest pain but no known cardiac history, 7570 with documented census ward codes, age, gender and ethnicity comprised the study group. Patients excluded were those with missing date of birth, gender or ethnicity (n=782) and those with missing census ward codes (n=295). Outcome measures Effects of age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on clinic attendance were calculated as attendance rate ratios, with number of attendances as the outcome and resident population-years as the exposure in each stratum, using Poisson regression. Attendance rate ratios were then compared with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality ratios to determine whether attendance was equitable according to need. Results Adjusted attendance rate ratios for patients aged >65?years were similar to younger patients (1.1, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.16), despite population CHD mortality rate ratios nearly 15 times higher in the older age group. Women had lower attendance rate ratios (0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.84) and also lower population CHD mortality rate ratios compared with men. South Asians had higher attendance rates (1.67, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.77) compared with whites and had a higher standardised CHD mortality ratio of 1.46 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.51). Although univariable analysis showed that the most deprived patients (quintile 5) had an attendance rate twice that of less deprived quintiles, the adjusted analysis showed their attendance to be 13% lower (0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.94) despite a higher population CHD mortality rate. Conclusion There is evidence of underutilisation of chest pain clinics by older people and those from lower socioeconomic status. More robust and patient focused administrative pathways need to be developed to detect inequity, correction of which has the potential to substantially reduce coronary mortality.
This document is a transcript of a Congressional hearing on the economicstatus of women held by the Joint Economic Committee on February 3, 1982. Witnesses who testified at the hearing included Representatives Reuss, Richmond, Heckler, Wylie and Schroeder, Senators Jepsen and Kassenbaum, and a number of women active in women's equality programs.…
Compiling data from several government surveys, this article identifies key social indicators of economic security associated with nonstandard employment in Japan. Empirical trends of nonstandard employment are contextualized in the development of Japanese coordinated capitalism from the economic boom during the 1960s through the recession of the…
The cultural equivalence of psychological outcome measures remains a major area of investigation. The current study sought to test the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) with a sample of adult individuals of Mexican descent (N = 923) across nativity status (U.S. vs. Foreign-born), language format (English vs. Spanish), and gender. The results show that one factor and three factor measurement models provided a good fit to the data; however, a single factor model was deemed more appropriate and parsimonious. Tests of measurement invariance and invariance of factor variances (i.e., structural invariance) indicated at least partial measurement invariance across gender, nativity status, and language format. These findings suggest that the BSI-18 operates in a similar fashion among adults of Mexican descent regardless of nativity status, language format of the survey, and gender. Clinical and practical implications for use of the BSI-18 with Latino populations are discussed.
Torres, Lucas; Miller, Matthew J.; Moore, Kelly M.
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…
Three hundred fifteen adolescents were administered the Portuguese versions of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Love Attitudes Scale. Analyses showed that loneliness was negatively associated with Eros for males and females, and positively correlated with Ludus for males and with Pragma for females. Significant gender differences were found on Ludus, Storge, Pragma and Agape love styles. Males were
Equal career opportunities require working conditions that make it possible to reconcile family needs and career development. This article describes the goals and main findings of a pilot investigation that has recently been carried out at ESO focusing on gender balance issues.
The authors used a representative national sample (N = 777) to test the evolutionary hypothesis that men would be more bothered by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity, the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) effect. Our alternative conceptualization of jealousy suggests that there are distinct emotional components of jealousy that did not evolve differently by gender. The
Researchers have found that religious participation is correlated with marital satisfaction. Less is known about whether religion also benefits participants in nonmarital, intimate relationships or whether religious effects on relationships vary by gender. Using data from the first three waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we…
Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (?=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (?(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks. PMID:23675996
Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A
Within the school-class context, children attain a social position in the peer hierarchy to which varying amounts of status are attached. Studies have shown that peer status - i.e. the degree of acceptance and likeability among classmates - is associated with adult health. However, these studies have generally paid little attention to the fact that health problems are likely to coincide with other adverse circumstances within the individual. The overarching aim of the current study was therefore to examine the impact of childhood peer status on the clustering of social, economic, and health-related circumstances in adulthood. Using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 14,294), four outcome profiles in adulthood were identified by means of latent class analysis: 'Average', 'Low education', 'Unemployment', and 'Social assistance recipiency and mental health problems'. Multinomial regression analysis demonstrated that those with lower peer status had exceedingly higher risks of later ending up in the more adverse clusters. This association remained after adjusting for a variety of family-related and individual factors. We conclude that peer status constitutes a central aspect of children's upbringing with important consequences for life chances. PMID:24508719
Our objective was to evaluate the relation between age, gender, initial functional, cognitive and motor condition, spasticity, diabetes mellitus, and functional outcome after rehabilitation of stroke patients. Eighty-eight patients who had suffered stroke were administered in this study. Participants were stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in Istanbul Physical Treatment and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital. Functional condition (Functional Independence Measurement (FIM)), spasticity (Ashworth Scale), cognitive condition (Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE)), post-treatment FIM were measured. A significant positive association between MMSE at admission and the functional discharge measures was observed. A significant positive association Brunnstrom (upper lower extremity assessment) scores and the functional discharge measures was observed. A significant positive association between spasticity at admission and the functional discharge measures was observed. In conclusions, the admission functional, motor, cognition condition, age, spasticity were a significant predictors of total and motor FIM score at discharge, but not gender and diabetes mellitus. PMID:20037216
This study examines the relation between adolescents’ anti-social behaviors and adrenocortical activity during a laboratory visit in a sample of economically disadvantaged families (N = 116, ages 12 – 14, 51% female). Pre-task cortisol levels indexed adolescents’ pre-challenge response to the lab visit, while adolescents’ response to a conflict discussion with their caregivers was indexed with residualized change in pre- to post- conflict cortisol levels. A trait measure of anti-social behavior (derived from parent, teacher, and self-reports) was associated with lower pre-task cortisol levels but greater cortisol response to the conflict discussion. Gender moderated anti-social adolescents’ cortisol response to the conflict discussion with girls who reported more covert risky problem behaviors showing an increased cortisol response. The findings suggest that, while anti-social adolescents had lower pre-task cortisol levels, conflict discussions with caregivers present a unique challenge to anti-social girls compared with anti-social boys.
A child who is highly gender schematic readily uses gender when processing new information. In the current study, we examined whether and how family structure predicts a child's level of gender-typed knowledge (as assessed by a gender-stereotype sorting task) once the category of gender is in place (as assessed by a gender-labeling task). It was predicted that children from more
Julie M. Hupp; Jessi L. Smith; Jill M. Coleman; Amy B. Brunell
In the present study, 648 youths from across the state of Kansas voluntarily evaluated themselves and their parents using the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. Self-concept was found to be significantly higher for those from intact families in comparison with those from divorced remarried families. Evaluations of mothers were significantly higher for those from intact and divorced nonremarried families as compared with those from divorced remarried families. The ratings of fathers by youths from intact families were significantly more favorable than the ratings by those from either divorced nonremarried or divorced remarried families. Interestingly, gender by family status two-way interaction effects were also found for self-concept and ratings of fathers. Possible explanations for these findings, and their implications, are discussed. PMID:2048465
The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been used successfully in the past to account for pedestrians' intentions to cross the road in risky situations. However, accident statistics show age and gender differences in the likelihood of adult pedestrian accidents. This study extends earlier work by examining the relative importance of the model components as predictors of intention to cross for four different adult age groups, men, women, drivers and nondrivers. The groups did not differ in the extent to which they differentiated between two situations of varying perceived risk. The model fit was good, but accounted for less of the variance in intention for the youngest group (17-24) than for other age groups. Differences between the age groups in intention to cross seemed to be due to differences in perceived value of crossing rather than differences in perceived risk. Women were less likely to intend to cross than men and perceived more risk, and there were important age, gender and driver status differences in the importance of the TPB variables as predictors of intention. A key implication of these findings is that road safety interventions need to be designed differently for different groups. PMID:16979132
Background Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Methods Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l’ALIMentation et de l’Activité Physique (PRALIMAP) trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. Results The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%), and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042). All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=<0.0001). Weight status was not associated with physical and social scores neither in boys nor in girls. Conversely, it was associated with mental score, but differently in girls than boys. As compared with normal-weight girls, thin girls had better mental HRQoL (?=+6.17, p=0.0010), and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (?=?3.89 and ?=?5.90, respectively, p<0.001). Mental HRQoL was lower for thin, overweight and obese boys than for normal-weight boys (?= ?4.97, ?= ?1.68 and ?= ?3.17, respectively, p<0.0001). Conclusions Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during adolescence.
Many academic commentators have pointed to how the widening and deepening of a neoliberal reform agenda in Southeast Asia has brought about the end of developmental forms of state governance and the emergence of less directly market interventionist states pursuing economic ‘competitiveness’. In this paper, I note how notions of competitiveness are increasingly fused with ideas regarding the contribution of
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for obesity, particularly when offspring are born into an unrestricted nutritional environment. In this study, we investigated the impact of IUGR and gender on circulating lipids and on expression of adipogenic, lipogenic and adipokine genes in perirenal adipose tissue. Singleton lambs born to overnourished adolescent dams were normal birth weight (N) or IUGR (32% lower birth weight due to placental insufficiency). IUGR lambs exhibited increased fractional growth rates but remained smaller than N lambs at necropsy (d77). At 48 days, fasting plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol were elevated predominantly in IUGR males. Body fat content was independent of prenatal growth but higher in females than in males. In perirenal fat, relative to male lambs, females had larger adipocytes; higher lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase and leptin and lower IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA expression levels, and all were independent of prenatal growth category; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA expression were not affected by IUGR or gender. Adiposity indices were inversely related to G3PDH mRNA expression, and for the population as a whole the expression of IGF system genes in perirenal fat was negatively correlated with plasma leptin, fat mass and adipocyte size, and positively correlated with circulating IGF1 levels. Higher plasma lipid levels in IUGR males may predict later adverse metabolic health and obesity, but in early postnatal life gender has the dominant influence on adipose tissue gene expression, reflecting the already established sexual dimorphism in body composition. PMID:24928206
Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P; Adam, Clare L
The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…
Purpose was to study the effect of professionally applied topical fluoride on oral health status on the population level in adolescents with lower socio-economicstatus. Adolescents attending dental clinics where professional fluoride application is a routine procedure (high-fluoride group) were compared to adolescents from other clinics (low-fluoride group). The study consisted of a questionnaire, a clinical examination with two bitewing radiographs. X-rays showed no statistically significant differences in the number of DS, FS or DFS. Clinically, there were no statistically significant differences in the number of FS or in the number of DFS. The low-fluoride group had a statistically significant higher number of DS than the high-fluoride group. The results suggest that professionally applied fluoride has a limited effect on caries and treatment experience in a population. These results justify a randomised clinical trial to study the effectiveness of professionally applied topical fluorides. PMID:14606245
The reemergence of dengue as an important public health problem reflects the difficulties in sustaining vertically organized, effective, control programs and the need for community-based strategies for Aedes aegypti control that result in behavioral change. We aimed to disentangle the relationships between underlying determinants of dengue related practices. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 780 households in La Lisa, Havana, Cuba. A questionnaire and an observation guide were administrated to collect information on variables related to economicstatus, knowledge on dengue, risk perception and practices associated with Aedes aegypti breading sites. To test a conceptual model that hypothesized direct relationships among all these constructs, we first used Exploratory Factor Analysis with Principal Component Analysis to establish the relationship between observed variables and the underlying latent variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the observed data supported the conceptual model through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated that the items measured could be reduced into five factors with an eigenvalue >1.0: Knowledge on dengue, Intradomiciliar risk practices, Peridomiciliar risk practices, Risk perception and Economicstatus. The proportion of the total variance in the data explained by these five factors was 74.3%. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis model differed from our hypothesized conceptual model. Only Knowledge on dengue had a significant, direct, positive, effect on Practices. There was also a direct association of Economicstatus with Knowledge on dengue, but not with Risk perception and Practices. Clarifying the relationship between direct and indirect determinants of dengue related practices contributes to a better understanding of the potential effect of Information Education and Communication on practices and on the reduction of Aedes aegypti breeding sites and provides inputs for designing a community based strategy for dengue control.
Castro, Marta; Sanchez, Lizet; Perez, Dennis; Sebrango, Carlos; Shkedy, Ziv; Van der Stuyft, Patrick
A follow-up study of malnutrition and its determinants among children 6 to 24 months of age was carried out in rural areas of Punjab State in India 30 years after the original study, and following a period of rapid economic growth. The original 1971 study had found a high preva- lence of mortality and malnutrition and the worst gender difference
F. James Levinson; Sucheta Mehra; Dorothy Levinson; Anita Kumari Chauhan; Guy Koppe; Brian Bence; Astier M. Almedom
Design: Retrospective study of clinical records. Two stage stratified cluster sampling was used to select a nationally representative sample of patients receiving a coronary revascularisation procedure in 1997. Setting: All of Spain. Main outcome measures: Odds ratios (OR) in men and women for different clinical and diagnostic variables related with coronary disease. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the association between coronary symptoms and gender. Results: In the univariate analysis the prevalence of the following risk factors for coronary heart disease was higher in women than in men: obesity (OR=1.8), hypertension (OR=2.9) and diabetes (OR=2.1). High surgical risk was also more prevalent among women (OR=2.6). In the logistic regression analysis women's risk of being symptomatic at the time of revascularisation was more than double that of men (OR=2.4). Conclusions: Women have more severe coronary symptoms at the time of coronary revascularisation than do men. These results suggest that women receive revascularisation at a more advanced stage of coronary disease. Further research is needed to clarify what social, cultural or biological factors may be implicated in the gender differences observed.
The proportion of female members in The Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) is 18% with the proportion of female members higher among the young generation (20-30 Y.O.; 34.8%, 30-40 Y.O.; 26.8%). However, the number of female members in the Board of Directors has been zero or one (0 or 6%) for many years. More than two female members are necessary on the Board to promote the diversity in the management of the JAA. The numbers of female members in other committees has shown gradual increase in recent years. A substantial increase in female faculty members including professors in each university and school will support the future development of the anatomical research field and the association. We have made the first great step by setting up the committee on promotion of gender equality in JAA in March, 2011. In the next year, JAA became a member of Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). Our committee's activity includes holding workshops and seminars at the annual meetings to promote gender equality in the research field and to encourage mutual support and friendship, not only among women members but also among all members. PMID:24066390
Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…
Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.
The goals of Healthy People 2010 are to increase the quality of life and life expectancy, and eliminate health disparities. There is no clear picture, however, if these goals are being addressed by African American adolescents. This study was conducted to evaluate health status of African American adolescents aged 13-19 in Florida's Big Bend Region. Healthy People 2010 objectives were
The author reports on various aspects of teaching economics in an interdisciplinary, team-taught course, including reflections on a unique experiment in teaching economics to nonmajors. By the incorporation of selected topics of gendereconomics into the interdisciplinary course about the changing economicstatuses of women throughout history, the…
This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black–white (63%), male Hispanic–white (78%) and female Hispanic–white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one-half of the female black–white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black–white and Hispanic–white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black–white and Hispanic–white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic–white BMI gap than the black–white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black–white and Hispanic–white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents.
Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Krauss, Ramona C.; Wang, Youfa
Based on survey and ethnographic research conducted in New York, this paper shows how the discrepancy between Korean immigrant women's increased economic role and persistence of their husbands' traditional patriarchal ideology causes marital conflicts and tensions. While only a small proportion of married women participate in the labor force in South Korea, the vast majority of Korean immigrant wives work
Marital terminations are life transitions that may lead to changes in diet, activity, and body weight. This investigation\\u000a examined how marital status was associated with relative body weight, underweight, overweight, and obesity among men and women\\u000a in the United States using cross-sectional nationally representative data from the 1992 HRS cohort age 51–61 and the 1993\\u000a AHEAD cohort age 70 and
The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economicstatus (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25?BMI<30) and obesity (30?BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women.
Using a cross-country dataset and microdata from India and Thailand, we examine how women's work status changes with economic development. Several clear patterns emerge: women's labor force participation first declines and then rises with development; women move from work in family enterprises to work as paid employees; fertility declines; and gender gaps in education narrow. Women's education levels, and those
One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economicstatus with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economicstatus suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668
Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H
While the African-American community has disproportionate rates of morbidity and mortality from chronic diet-related diseases, few studies have examined demographically the spectrum of these outcomes in the population. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which published scientific literature has examined African-American samples with sufficient specificity to identify nutrition problems in subsets of the population. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, geographic location, and sample size are used to examine study questions. In addition, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Continuing Survey of Food Intakes for Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 is used to illustrate how evaluating nutrient variables by demographic indicators provides insights into the heterogeneity of nutrient intake patterns among African Americans. Relative to the adequacy of scientific investigation into these issues, a review of twenty-nine studies conducted from 1970 to the present demonstrates bias in gender, income, and sample size for African-Americans-only dietary research samples. Relative to identifying dietary patterns that do not meet US dietary guidelines, pervasive patterns that persist across income groups were found, indicating the need for nutrition education programs at all levels. Although there are science based diet information available, it does not seem to have reached the African-American community in numbers sufficient to be reflected in dietary changes as reported by surveys. This research demonstrates the need for detailed studies highlighting these issues, as well as the production of culturally appropriate nutrition education materials and methods that will be effective in reaching this population. PMID:11289234
Bronner, Y L; Harris, E; Ebede, T L; Hossain, M B; Nowverl, A
As the “baby boomers” age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult. This susceptibility has been known to increase with age. Therefore it is important to understand the interplay between aging, injury and recovery at the mucosal surface. Sex hormones play an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier function as well as the mucosa associated immune function in both genders. Menopause in women is a defined time period in which major hormonal changes occur such as a decline in systemic estradiol levels. The differential levels of sex hormones contribute to the sexual dimorphism seen in response to injury at the mucosal surface, prior to and following menopause. Thus the effect of sex hormone and aging on mucosal mechanisms in response to injury is an important area of investigation.
One hundred and twenty mothers from upper socio-economicstatus and education up to graduation level were assessed for infant feeding practices using a pre-tested questionnaire. Prelacteal feed of honey was administered by 51.7% and initiation of breast feeding delayed by more than 24 hours by 68.3% of mothers. Colostrum was discarded by 53% mothers; 83% introduced bottle feeding in the first month of life; and poor bottle hygiene was seen in 54% cases. Addition of semisolids was delayed by almost 50% of mothers, the reason given being fear of liver disorders. These observations highlight ignorance about basic infant feeding practices in the educated elite section of our country. Health education in schools, colleges, non formal gatherings and during the antenatal period are suggested as means to remove this ignorance. PMID:2253995
Objective: This study examined dieting, weight perceptions, and self-efficacy to eat healthy foods and engage in physical activity and their relationships to weight status and gender among American Indian elementary schoolchildren.Research Methods and Procedures: Data for this study were collected as part of the baseline examination for the Pathways study. Participants were 1441 second- through third-grade American Indian children in
Mary Story; June Stevens; Marguerite Evans; Carol E. Cornell; Juhaeri; Joel Gittelsohn; Scott B. Going; Theresa E. Clay; David M. Murray
In a series of exploratory analyses, we examined the roles of gender, reproductive status and negative affect on smoking abstinence in subjects participating in a large (n=385) 6-week randomized clinical trial (RCT) of nicotine patch therapy, with varying doses of oral naltrexone (0mg, 25mg, 50mg, 100mg) treatment. Negative affect was assessed daily during the first post-quit week via telephone interactive
C. Neill Epperson; Benjamin Toll; Ran Wu; Zenab Amin; Kathryn A. Czarkowski; Peter Jatlow; Carolyn M. Mazure; Stephanie S. O’Malley
Background "The gender gap" refers to a lifelong higher rate of emotional problems in girls, as compared to boys, that appears during adolescence. The gender gap is a well-replicated finding among older adolescents and is assumed to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. However, these cross-cultural studies have not investigated the gender gap in ethnic minorities but sampled ethnic majority adolescents in different countries. Some studies that investigated the gender gap across ethnic groups indirectly (by presenting emotional problem scores stratified by gender and ethnic group) indicate that the gender gap is less prominent or even absent among minorities. The aims of this study were to assess whether the gender gap is found in both majority and minority preadolescents, and to investigate whether a possible (gender and ethnic) group difference can be accounted for by differences in home or school hassles. Methods Participants were 902 preadolescent students (aged 10 to 12) from two cities in Norway. We collected self-report measures of emotional problems and home and school hassles. Using mediated moderation analysis we tested whether the interaction effect between gender and ethnic minority background on emotional problems was mediated by home or school hassles. Results The gender gap in emotional problems was restricted to ethnic majority preadolescents. School hassles but not home hassles accounted in part for this effect. Conclusions The absence of the gender gap among minority as opposed to majority preadolescents may indicate that social circumstances may postpone or hamper the emergence and magnitude of the gender gap in ethnic minority preadolescents. In this study, school hassles partly accounted for the combined gender and ethnic group differences on emotional problems. This indicates that school hassles may play a role in the higher levels of emotional problems in preadolescent minority boys and consequently the absence of a gender gap found in our minority sample.
Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. PMID:20579944
Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias
This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economicstatus and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children. PMID:18086547
The data presented is part of the findings from a four-year collaborative research project between Universiti Putra Malaysia, the Institute for Medical Research and the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The project assessed the nutritional status of the major functional groups in Peninsular Malaysia. Mukim Sayong and Pulau Kemiri in the District of Kuala Kangsar, Perak were two of the subdistricts selected to represent small rubber holdings in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper attempts to analyse the socio-economic profile of the households and the nutritional status of children below 9 years of age. A total of 307 households were studied. Approximately 63% of the households were involved in rubber activities and the majority of them were hired tappers. The average monthly income of the households was RM467 and the income ranged between RM30 to RM2120. Based on the per capita poverty line income of RM84.38, it was found that 14.1% of the households earned less than RM42.19, which can be considered as hard-core poor, while 32.7% were poor (monthly per capita income between RM42.19 and RM84.38). Slightly more than half (52.7%) earned income above the poverty line. The average family size was 4.5, ranging from 1 through to 16. The majority of the heads of households (56.6%) had between 3 and 6 years of education, and 14.5% did not receive any formal education. The prevalence of stunting among children 0-5 years of age was 26%, while 31.5% were underweight and 3.8% wasted. Among children aged between 5 and 9 years, almost the same pattern of nutritional status was noted. The overall percentages of stunting, underweight and wasting among these children were 29.2%, 26.1% and 0.62%, respectively. Analysis on nutritional status according to income level showed a noticeable difference in the prevalence of malnutrition in children above and below the poverty line income. The Student's t-test indicated significant differences in weight-for-age and weight-for-height between the two poverty line income for children below 5 years of age. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between height-for-age with household size (r = -0.26, p<0.05), and monthly per capita income with weight-for-height (r = 0.25, p<0.05). There was a highly significant correlation between acreage of land cultivated and weight-for-height (r = 0.42, p<0.01), and weight-for-age (r = 0.25, p<0.05). The findings indicated the influence of socio-economic factors on the nutritional status of children. PMID:24393689
Despite the well-known health risks, smoking is still highly prevalent worldwide. Greece has the highest level of adult smoking rate (40%) across the European Union. We investigated gender and socio-economic differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation among Greek adults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October and November 2009 in 434 adults residing in a Greek rural area. Data were collected with the use of the World Health Organization Global Adult Tobacco Survey (WHO GATS) Core Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into smokers (if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and continued to smoke) or non-smokers. Overall, 58.1% (n=252) were smokers (58.5% male, n=127 and 57.8% female, n=125); 51.2% (n=222) were younger than 18 years-old when they started smoking. Men tended to start smoking at a younger age, to smoke more cigarettes/day and to have smoked a greater average of cigarettes during the last 5 days. Overall, 82.5% of smokers attempted to stop smoking a year prior to the study, with women having a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. The main source of information on smoking was the mass media (73.5%) and books (53.7%), whereas doctors and other health professionals were the least listed source of relative information (27.7 and 8.1%, respectively). Smoking rates among Greek adults were high, but a considerable number of individuals who smoked, wished to quit and had attempted to do so. Smoking cessation clinics are not perceived as a valuable support in quitting effort.
Background Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY) in Eldoret, Kenya. Methods Participants were eligible if they were aged 12–21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time), or nights and days on the street (full-time) and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other). Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3. Results Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01–5.35), name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03–6.45), have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67–18.34), and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01–12.82). Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14–6.18), and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47–7.02). Conclusions These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.
In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…
This article compares the economicstatus of adults with visual impairments with those with non-visual impairments using data from the National Health Interview Survey. Employment rates and mean household incomes were lower and receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance higher among those blind in both eyes than those with less severe visual…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three basic demographic variables on reading test scores for students in the middle elementary grades. Limited English proficiency (LEP), race/ethnicity and socio-economicstatus (SES) were studied to determine their influence individually and in combination on performance in large-scale…
This study tested whether socio-economicstatus (SES) moderated the association between the psychosocial constructs included in the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy (ASE) model and fruit intake in Norwegian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 962 Norwegian sixth graders, mean age 11.3 years. They were split into three SES groups, and…
This article presents the annual report on the economicstatus of the profession. Although the results of this year's survey of full-time faculty compensation are marginally better than they have been the last two years, 2011-12 represents the continuation of a historic low period for faculty salaries. The overall average salary for full-time…
Proceedings of the 1981 conference on the legal and economicstatus of collective bargaining in higher education, sponsored by the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions, are presented. Papers and authors are as follows: "Yeshiva Shock Waves" (David Kuechle); "The Yeshiva Case: One Year…
Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economicstatus, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE) were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional) was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits) and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6%) stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p < 0.05). The prevalence of self-reported eczema among the economically active population varied from 17.1% to 8.2% with the highest rates among assistant non-manual employees. However, when controlling for age, gender and risk occupation there was no association between low social position and eczema. Living close to heavy traffic (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.25–1.67) and living seaside (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01–1.35) but not urban/suburban living was associated with eczema. Heredity of eczema (OR = 5.77, 95% CI 5.02–6.64), self reported allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 2.00–2.68), self reported asthma (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.56–2.51) and self reported CBE (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.87) were all associated with eczema. Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis.
We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economicstatus. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality. PMID:24134511
Background Owing to the mechanics of anti-doping regulation via the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List, nutritional supplement use received little attention in comparison to the prevalence of doping. The aims of this study were to investigate supplement use, identify groups of athletes with high levels of supplement use and the prevalence of concomitant use of supplements. Methods Survey data from 847 high-performing athletes in the UK were analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey, conducted by UK Sport, consisted of questions regarding knowledge of the prohibited substances, testing procedure, nutritional supplement use and perceptions of the doping problem. The proportion of supplement users and the relative use of each supplement were compared by age, gender and professional status. Results Among 874 high-performing athletes in the UK sample, 58.8% of them reported the use of at least one nutritional supplement. Among supplement users, 82.6% used more than one and 11.5% reported use of more than five nutritional supplements. Of the 9 supplements listed, multivitamins (72.6%) and vitamin C (70.7%) were used most, followed by creatine (36.1%), whey protein (31.7%), echinacea (30.9%), iron (29.9%) and caffeine (23.7%). Less than 11% reported the use of magnesium or ginseng. Creatine use was typically associated with males regardless of status and across all ages, whereas iron was characteristically used by females. A 'typical' supplement user is male, between 24 and 29 years of age, involved in professional sport and using a combination of supplements. Male professional players between age 30 and 34 years, and female non-professional athletes between 24 and 29 years of age also represented a considerable proportion of supplement users. Athletes older than 40 years of age were practically non-users. Concomitant use of supplements is characteristic of male users more than females. Conclusion As supplement use has been previously shown to increase the probability of prohibited substance use, groups exhibiting high use of nutritional supplements should be monitored. Future research should incorporate a wide range of supplements and enquire about the daily amount ingested. In addition to tutoring, preventive measures should incorporate offering acceptable and healthy alternatives for assisted performance enhancement.
This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n = 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of anti-social behaviour were used to distinguish subgroups. These subgroups were created on the basis of anti-social behaviour profile scores, using Latent Class Analysis. Moderator effects of gender and ethnic background were investigated using a log-linear analysis. The main finding was that each sociometric status group consisted of subgroups that differed in terms of prevalence of self-reported anti-social behaviour. At-risk young adolescents who reported involvement in anti-social behaviour appeared in every status group, including the popular group. Implications for school prevention programmes for anti-social behaviour are discussed. PMID:20079920
van de Schoot, Rens; van der Velden, Floor; Boom, Jan; Brugman, Daniël
Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI) population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdivided into the permanently sick, looking after home and family [LAHF] and others) in Scotland. Methods Using data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, the differences in health and health behaviours among the employed, unemployed and the subgroups of the EI population were examined. Results Both low educational attainment and residence in a deprived community were more likely in the permanently sick group. The LAHF and the unemployed showed worse self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness compared to the employed but no significant differences were observed between these groups. The permanently sick group had significantly poorer health outcomes than all the other economic groups. Similar to the unemployed and LAHF they are more likely to smoke than the employed but less likely (along with LAHF and ‘others’) to exhibit heavy alcohol consumption. Interestingly, the LAHF showed better mental health than the rest of the EI group, but a similar mental health status to the unemployed. On the physical health element of lung function, the LAHF were no worse than the employed. Conclusion While on-going health promotion and vocational rehabilitation efforts need to be directed towards all, our data suggests that the EI group is at higher risk and policies and strategies directed at this group may need particular attention.
An in-depth understanding of the economic problems confronting trauma centers is essential for their continued development and to address impending changes of health care reform. A comprehensive financial and demographic survey was sent to 839 hospitals identified as potential trauma centers. A total of 313 surveys from 48 states were returned. Extensive information was collected in several areas including financial status (58% reported serious financial problems and 36% reported minor financial problems; 68% reported a financial loss), cost containment and management strategies, marketing, "halo" effect (53% reported positive effect), operational impacts, physician support (47% reported problems), malpractice (92% reported no special problem), role of auto insurance reimbursement, and access to rehabilitation. Detailed financial data of actual costs and reimbursements (95 respondents) were analyzed with the costing method used by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). These data will allow us to develop better strategies to deal with the problems of uncompensated and underfunded trauma care and improve trauma center viability. PMID:8015006
Eastman, A B; Bishop, G S; Walsh, J C; Richardson, J D; Rice, C L
Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065
Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economicstatus (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected from a random probability sample household survey conducted in the Mutoko district of north-western Zimbabwe in 2005. We selected variables that described the economicstatus of the respondent, including: being paid to work, employment status, and SES by assets. Respondents were also asked about where they most often utilized healthcare when they or their family was sick or hurt. Of 2,874 respondents, all forms of healthcare tended to be utilized by those of high or medium-high SES (65%), including private (65%), church-based (61%), traditional (67%), and other providers (66%) (P=0.009). Most respondents of low SES utilized government providers (74%) (P=0.009). Seventy-one percent of respondents utilizing health services were employed. Government (71%), private (72%), church (71%), community-based (78%) and other (64%) health services tended to be utilized by employed respondents (P=0.000). Only traditional health services were equally utilized by unemployed respondents (50%) (P=0.000). A wide range of health providers are utilized in rural Zimbabwe. Utilization is strongly associated with SES and employment status, particularly for services with user fees, which may act as a barrier to HIV treatment and care access. Efforts to improve access in low-SES, high HIV-prevalence settings may benefit from the subsidization of the health care payment system, efforts to improve SES levels, political reform, and the involvement of traditional providers.
Kevany, Sebastian; Murima, Oliver; Singh, Basant; Hlubinka, Daniel; Kulich, Michal; Morin, Stephen F.; Sweat, Michael
Background Residential property is reported as the most valuable asset people will own and therefore provides the potential to be used as a socio-economicstatus (SES) measure. Location is generally recognised as the most important determinant of residential property value. Extending the well-established relationship between poor health and socio-economic disadvantage and the role of residential property in the overall wealth of individuals, this study tested the predictive value of the Relative Location Factor (RLF), a SES measure designed to reflect the relationship between location and residential property value, and six cardiometabolic disease risk factors, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL), hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and high low density lipoprotein (LDL). These risk factors were also summed and expressed as a cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score. Methods RLF was calculated using a global hedonic regression model from residential property sales transaction data based upon several residential property characteristics, but deliberately blind to location, to predict the selling price of the property. The predicted selling price was divided by the actual selling price and the results interpolated across the study area and classified as tertiles. The measures used to calculate CMR were collected via clinic visits from a population-based cohort study. Models with individual risk factors and the cumulative cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score as dependent variables were respectively tested using log binomial and Poisson generalised linear models. Results A statistically significant relationship was found between RLF, the cumulative CMR score and all but one of the risk factors. In all cases, participants in the most advantaged and intermediate group had a lower risk for cardio-metabolic diseases. For the CMR score the RR for the most advantaged was 19% lower (RR?=?0.81; CI 0.76-0.86; p <0.0001) and the middle group was 9% lower (RR?=?0.91; CI 0.86-0.95; p <0.0001) than the least advantaged group. Conclusions This paper advances the understanding of the nexus between place, health and SES by providing an objective spatially informed SES measure for testing health outcomes and reported a robust association between RLF and several health measures.
Background We sought to determine whether socio-economicstatus (SES) is an independent predictor of outcome following total knee (TKR) and hip (THR) replacement in Australians. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we included patients undergoing TKR and THR in a public hospital in whom baseline and 12-month follow-up data were available. SES was determined using the Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘Index of Relative Advantage and Disadvantage’. Other independent variables included patients’ demographics, comorbidities and procedure-related variables. Outcome measures were the International Knee Society Score and Harris Hip Score pain and function subscales, and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical and mental component scores. Results Among 1,016 patients undergoing TKR and 835 patients undergoing THR, in multiple regression analysis, SES score was not independently associated with pain and functional outcomes. Female sex, older age, being a non-English speaker, higher body mass index and presence of comorbidities were associated with greater post-operative pain and poorer functional outcomes following arthroplasty. Better baseline function, physical and mental health, and lower baseline level of pain were associated with better outcomes at 12 months. In univariate analysis, for TKR, the improvement in SF-12 mental health score post arthroplasty was greater in patients of lower SES (3.8?±?12.9 versus 1.5?±?12.2, p?=?0.008), with a statistically significant inverse association between SES score and post-operative SF-12 mental health score in linear regression analysis (coefficient?0.28, 95% CI: ?0.52 to ?0.04, p?=?0.02). Conclusions When adjustments are made for other covariates, SES is not an independent predictor of pain and functional outcome following large joint arthroplasty in Australian patients. However, relative to baseline, patients in lower socioeconomic groups are likely to have greater mental health benefits with TKR than more privileged patients. Large joint arthroplasty should be made accessible to patients of all SES.
The relationships between ethnicity, socio-economicstatus (SES) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been well characterised in most Asian populations. We therefore studied the influence of ethnicity and SES on HRQoL in a multi-ethnic urban Asian population, adjusting for the influence of other known determinants of HRQoL. In a disproportionately stratified, cross-sectional, population-based survey, Chinese, Malay and Indian
Background The small but growing literature on socio-economic inequality in morbidity among older persons suggests that social inequalities in health persist into old age. A largely separate body of literature looks at the predictors of long-term care use, in particular of institutional care. Various measures of socio-economicstatus are often included as control variables in these studies. Review articles generally conclude that the evidence for such variables being a predictor for institutionalization is “inconclusive”. In this paper we look at the association among older persons in Belgium between one particular measure of socio-economicstatus – preferential status in public health care insurance – and first use of home long-term care and residential care. Preferential status entitles persons to higher reimbursement rates for health care from the public health care insurance system and is conditional on low income. We also study whether preferential status is related to the onset of five important chronic conditions and the time of death. Methods We use survival analysis; the source of the data is a large administrative panel of a sample representative for all older persons in Belgium (1,268,740 quarterly observations for 69,562 individuals). Results We find a strong association between preferential status and the likelihood of home care use, but for residential care it is small for men and non-existent for women. We also find that preferential status is significantly related to the chance of getting two out five chronic conditions – COPD and diabetes, but not dementia, hip fracture and Parkinson’s disease – and to the probability of dying (not for women). For home care use and death, the association with preferential status declines with increasing age from age 65 onwards, such that it is near zero for those aged around 90 and older. Conclusion We find clear associations between an indicator of low income and home care use, some chronic conditions and death. The associations are stronger among men than among women. We also find that the association declines with age for home care use and death, which might be explained by selective survival.
Gender differences in health and education are a concern for a number of developing countries. While standard theory predicts human capital should respond to market returns, social norms (e.g., disapproval of women working outside the home) may weaken or even sever this link for girls. Though many studies have examined the link between women's…
There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations. Their social value stems from their capacity to reduce the uncertainty in human interactions thereby both reducing transaction costs and, importantly, enabling the initiation and sustainability of various activities (instrumental value). Furthermore, institutions tend to be formed around certain ethical positions and as a consequence, act in binding future decision making to these positions (intrinsic value). Incorporating such notions of social value within a conventional welfare-based measure of benefit is problematic as institutional development is not necessarily consistent with individual utility. An institutionalist approach allows for these additional domains to be factored into economic evaluation. IMAGE is an intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV through microfinance, health education and community development, and involves significant initial investment in institution-building activities, notably through training activities with program staff and community members. The key to employing an institutionalist approach to the evaluation of IMAGE is in understanding the nature of those actions that can be seen as institution-building and determining: (1) the instrumental value of follow-up activities by appropriate amortisation of transaction costs over an horizon that reflects the economies gained from the intervention; and (2) the intrinsic value of any transformation in the community through a cost-consequences approach informed by an a priori conceptual model. This case study highlights how health sector interventions can effect institutional changes and how these are captured within a theory-based economic evaluation framework. PMID:18162273
Objects The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades globally. The objective of the present study is to elucidate whether hospitalization for bronchiolitis in infancy and low socioeconomic status interact for bronchial hyperreactivity during teenage years. Method We studied 522 children age 13-14 years attending schools in rural and urban areas to investigate the risk factors for bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR), defined as a provocation concentration of methacholine that causes a decrease of 20% (PC20) in forced expiratory volume within 1 second. Clinical examination, skin prick test, spirometry, and methacholine challenge were performed on all study subjects, who provided written consent. We used multivariate logistic regression to investigate the risk factors for BHR, and analyze the interaction between hospitalization for bronchiolitis in infancy and low socioeconomic status. Results Forty-six (10.3%) positive BHR cases were identified. In the multivariate logistic analysis, as independent predictors of BHR, adjusted odds ratio of bronchiolitis diagnosed before 2 years of age in low income families was 13.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 135.0), compared to reference group, controlling for age, gender, parental allergy history, skin prick test, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Interaction was observed between bronchiolitis before 2 years old and low socioeconomic status on children's bronchial hyperreactivity (p-interaction=0.025). Conclusions This study showed that bronchiolitis diagnosed before 2 years of age and low socioeconomic status interacted on children's bronchial hyperreactivity. Prevention of acute respiratory infection in early childhood in low socioeconomic status is important to prevent BHR as a precursor of asthma.
This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…
Women's labor force participation has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Although previous research has documented that a wide array of labor market characteristics affect health, more work is needed to understand how women are impacted by gender-specific employment patterns and exposures. We examine a cohort of 659 employed women from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study in the USA. Baseline and follow-up data collected 13 years apart are used to identify associations between demographic, labor market, work organization, and occupational gender inequality with four health outcomes: generalized distress, depressive syndrome, anxiety and fair or poor health. We also use gender-specific data on the workplace to create indicators of occupational gender inequality. We found wide gender inequalities in terms of pay and power in this sample of employed women. Financial strain was associated with all of our mental health outcomes with those reporting financial strain having increased odds of distress, depressive syndrome and anxiety for the 13 years prior to the interview. Workplace factors that were found to be associated with the four outcomes included experiencing a promotion or demotion in the 13 years prior to the interview; working at a large firm; and being a professional. Occupations where women compared to men had lower levels of job strain-domestic workers in private households, machine operator and transportation-showed increased risk for anxiety or fair/poor health. Our findings suggest that measuring the complexities of employment including promotion or demotion history, firm characteristics and even occupational gender inequality can yield important information about associations with health among women. PMID:14652054
O'Campo, Patricia; Eaton, William W; Muntaner, Carles
Background Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System (HIS). Methods Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population) were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Results Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5) was higher than in Africa on average (1.8). Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1). The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD) visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient visits attributable to host community members was higher than that for refugees. There was no statistically significant difference between the size of the male and female populations across refugee settlements. Across all settlements reporting to the UNHCR database, the percent of the refugee population that was less than five years of age is 16% on average. Conclusions The availability of a centralized database of health information across UNHCR-supported refugee settlements is a rich resource. The SPHERE standard for emergencies of 1-4 visits per person per year appears to be relevant for Asia in the post-emergency phase, but not for Africa. In Africa, a post-emergency standard of 1-2 visits per person per year should be considered. Although it is often assumed that the size of the female population in refugee settlements is higher than males, we found no statistically significant difference between the size of the male and female populations in refugee settlements overall. Another assumption---that the under-fives make up 20% of the settlement population during the emergency phase---does not appear to hold for the post-emergency phase; under-fives made up about 16% of refugee settlement populations.
Based on evolutionary reasoning, Trivers & Willard (1973) predicted status-biased sex composition and parental investment with son-preferencing effects in higher, and daughter-preferencing effects in lower status groups. Previous research shows mixed results. This study uses event-history methods and Swedish register data to study one possible mechanism in isolation: do parents in different status groups vary in their proclivities to continue fertility based on the sex composition of previous offspring? The results show no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis on a wide range of different status indicators. Future research on the stated hypothesis should focus on physiological rather than behavioural mechanisms. PMID:22989525
Dunn RA, Sharkey JR, Lotade-Manje J, Bouhlal Y, Nayga RM Jr. Socio-economicstatus, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas.
Background Individuals with certain personal, family and job characteristics are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the respective\\u000a role of obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse, low education, income, living and family conditions, and socio-occupational category\\u000a in fatigue\\/insomnia (FI), nervousness (N) and frequent drug use for those disorders (DFI and DN) among men and women and in\\u000a gender disparities are not
Patrick Peretti-Watel; Stéphane Legleye; Michèle Baumann; Marie Choquet; Bruno Falissard; Nearkasen Chau
Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…
The purpose of this research was to analyze the contents of the sports section of Canada's National newspaper (The Globe and Mail) for one year (July, 1988 to June, 1989). The variables considered included: gender; amateur versus professional coverage; and Canadian, American, and International content. All articles, editorials, and pictures found in the sports section were included in the analysis.
Purpose – Various studies have shown that nearly three-quarters of older people living within retirement housing are female single persons, leading some researchers to argue that sheltered housing is essentially a gender or health-related issue, which can be explained demographically. Possible differences in the buyer behaviour of men and women or single people and married couples are ignored. If differences
Background. Narghile (waterpipe) smoking is increasing across the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR), though little is known about the social attitudes and perceptions related to this method of tobacco use, and how those attitudes and perceptions are influenced by gender.Methods. Data from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2003 in Aleppo, Syria, were used to examine these issues. Overall, 855 participants were
W. Maziak; S. Rastam; T. Eissenberg; T. Asfar; F. Hammal; M. E. Bachir; M. F. Fouad; K. D. Ward
Ninety-six male and female university employees (93% White, 6% African American, 1% Asian) were photographed in dyads while they conversed about working at their university (candid photographs) and again while they deliberately faced the camera (posed photographs). Eight nonverbal behaviors were coded from the photographs, and relative status was ascertained from a postexperimental questionnaire. Status differences were found for upward
Judith A. Hall; Lavonia Smith LeBeau; Jeannette Gordon Reinoso; Frank Thayer
According to sex stereotypes, women are more easily influenced than men. This stereotype may derive from perceivers' inferences that women occupy lower status positions than men, and the lower an individual's status in relation to other persons, the more he or she yields to their influence. Each subject (N=408) read a scenario describing a…
Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)
SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economicstatus in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. DESIGN In a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance study of all new pulmonary TB cases conducted in Vitoria between 2002 and 2006, spatial patterns of disease incidence were compared using spatial clustering statistics (Anselin’s local indicators of spatial association [LISA] and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics), smoothed empirical Bayes estimates and model-predicted incidence rates. Spatial Poisson models were fit to examine the relationship between socio-economicstatus and TB incidence. RESULTS A total of 651 TB cases were reported across 78 neighborhoods, with rates ranging from 0 to 129 cases per 100 000 population. Moran’s I indicated strong spatial autocorrelation among incidence rates (0.399, P < 0.0001), and four areas of high incidence were identified by LISA and Gi* statistics. Smoothed spatial empirical Bayes estimates demonstrate that two of these areas range from 70 to 90 cases/100 000, while the other two range from 40 to 70 cases/100 000. TB incidence and socioeconomic status had a significant curvilinear relationship (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Data derived from these spatial statistical tools will help TB control programs to allocate TB resources to those populations most at risk of increasing TB rates and to target areas where TB control efforts need to be concentrated.
Maciel, E. L. N.; Pan, W.; Dietze, R.; Peres, R. L.; Vinhas, S. A.; Ribeiro, F. K.; Palaci, M.; Rodrigues, R. R.; Zandonade, E.; Golub, J. E.
PURPOSE We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on both locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). METHODS AND MATERIALS Patients from RTOG 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered/non-partnered), race (white/non-white), and sex (female/male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values. RESULTS 1736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS to partnered females (adjusted HR=1.22, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.36)), partnered males (adjusted HR=1.20, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.28)), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR=1.20, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.32)). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC than partnered males (adjusted HR=1.26, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.46)) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI=(1.05, 1.62)). White females had superior LRC to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC than non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC than partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC than unpartnered non-whites. CONCLUSIONS Race, gender, and partner status impacted on both overall survival and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.
Dilling, Thomas J.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Garden, Adam S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian; Movsas, Benjamin
Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.
Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Departments of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kian Ang, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States)
This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's status. It…
Considers economic factors in the development of employer child care, noting the expansion of two large child care provision corporations despite slow economic growth and changes for smaller child care providers. Quotes program administrators on trends in employer child care services and provides a list of the 14 largest employer child care…
Previous research reported that economic crises may have important implications for increasing suicide rates. We investigated official data on completed suicide in Italy during the recent economic crisis as related to age and gender. Data were extracted from the Italian Mortality Database. The trend in suicide rates from 1980 to 2010 (the most recent year available) was analysed by joinpoint regression analysis. Rate ratios were calculated to compare suicide rates before and after the present economic crisis. Suicide rates for men 25-64 years of age (those involved in the labour force) started to increase in 2008 after a period of a statistically significant decrease from 1994 to 2007 and their suicide rate was 12% higher in 2010 compared with that in 2006. In contrast, suicide rates declined for women of all ages and for men younger than 25 and older than 65 years of age. After 2007, there was a noticeable increase in suicide rates among Italian men involved in the labour force. PMID:24313850
Pompili, Maurizio; Vichi, Monica; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Yang, Bijou; De Leo, Diego; Girardi, Paolo
Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nation’s efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a country’s or region’s economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industry’s output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given industry.
Purpose This paper examines gender differences in attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behaviors of AIDS-orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda. Methods Adolescents (average age 13.7 years) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS from fifteen comparable schools were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=135) or control condition (n=142). Adolescents in the experimental condition, in addition to usual care, also received support and incentives to save money toward secondary education. Results Findings indicate that although adolescent boys and girls within the experimental condition saved comparable amounts, the intervention appears to have benefited girls, in regards to the attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behavior, in a different way and to a lesser extent than boys. Conclusions Future research should investigate the possibility that adolescent girls might be able to develop equally large improvements in protective attitudes towards sexual risk-taking through additional components that address gendered social norms.
Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In compl...
Research demonstrates that the psychological well-being, health, and educational progress and success are negatively influenced by school victimization. It is also known that gender, generational status, and race and ethnicity are linked to distinct school experiences for youth. What remains uncertain is how the intersection of gender, generational status, and race and ethnicity are linked to the school victimization of
Dixie J. Koo; Anthony A. Peguero; Zahra Shekarkhar
Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economicstatus of the individual concerned.
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and had their height and weight measured. Participants (n = 1131) were aged 6-19 years from 12 schools in New South Wales. SES, age, gender, body weight, body image, skipping breakfast, physical self-esteem, attempts to lose or gain weight, and dietary and weight control advice received from others were examined. Log-linear, chi 2 and MANOVA analyses were used to determine interactions between variables. Low SES children were more likely to be overweight, to skip breakfast, to perceive themselves as 'too thin', to be trying to gain weight and less likely to receive dietary or weight control advice. Physical self-esteem was lowest among overweight girls of middle/upper SES and greatest among boys of low SES, despite the latter being more likely to be overweight. Being overweight does not appear to adversely affect the physical self-esteem of children of low SES, particularly boys. Health educators should examine these issues with young people to help make health education and nutrition education most relevant and appropriate. PMID:11675800
Abstract Objetive: To determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economicstatus in the city of Popayan-Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated. Results: Mean age 33.5±10,2; 66 %women. Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86 % (95% CI:1.87-5.85), greater in men (7.38%; p= 0.013). Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 h). Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection.
Simulated jurors judged a defendant on trial for armed robbery after reading trial transcripts and other background information in a two x two factorial design which varied the defendant's race and socioeconomic status (SES). Higher SES defendants were judged less guilty and assigned fewer years in prison. (Author)
This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…
This paper examines the impact of family structure variables, family socioeconomic status, and participation in center-based preschool day care programs on the social-psychological development of children in terms of their affective identification with parents, self-concept development, and a variety of indices of social behavior adjustment.…
We use two datasets for urban China to examine whether an increase in reference group income lowers or increases job satisfaction. The former is consistent with a status effect ??? an increase in the income of others lowers my satisfaction because I feel jealous. The latter is consistent with a signal effect ??? an increase in the income of others
We use two datasets for urban China to examine whether an increase in reference group income lowers or increases job satisfaction. The former is consistent with a status effect -- an increase in the income of others lowers my satisfaction because I feel jealous. The latter is consistent with a signal effect -- an increase in the income of others
After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to analyze the low status of women as being a major contributor for the observed gender inequality in the spread of HIV\\/AIDS in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses data from National Aids Control Organization, National Family Health Survey, and the Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Findings – This study highlights the
This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…
Mortality data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study were used to determine whether the conventional classification of married women by their husband's occupation under-estimates the extent of social differences in lung cancer among this group. Differences existed for social class measures but alternatives based on housing tenure and car access defined socio-economic differences wider than any other previously recorded for England
Helena Pugh; Christine Power; Peter Goldblatt; Sara Arber
Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it’s yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0±1.1 months (mean±SD), we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (±SD) serum hepcidin was 6.0 (±3.4) ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor) were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA) infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (±4.9) vs. 3.4 (±4.9) ng/mL; P<0.001). Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation.
Jaeggi, Tanja; Moretti, Diego; Kvalsvig, Jane; Holding, Penny A.; Tjalsma, Harold; Kortman, Guus A. M.; Joosten, Irma; Mwangi, Alice; Zimmermann, Michael B.
Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48), running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92), shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73), ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67). In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45). Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs) is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.
Goesch, Julia N; Schwarz, Norbert G; Decker, Marie-Luise; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Borchert, Lea B; Kombila, Ulrich D; Poetschke, Marc; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P
The aim of this article is to examine the role of person-organization (P-O) fit in the relationship between work status and\\u000a organizational commitment. To this end, this article looks at whether women and workers on part-time or short-term contracts\\u000a show a lower degree of commitment to the organization than their counterparts in Korea, before and after controlling for P-O\\u000a fit.
Using representative national surveys, this paper compares economic outcomes among Latin American migrants to Spain and the United States in the first cross-national comparison using quantitative data. Considering the geographic location and social proximity of each country with respect to Latin America, we detect a critical selection effect whereby the majority of Latin American migrants to Spain originate in South America from middle class backgrounds, whereas most migrants to the United States are Central Americans of lower class origins. This selection effect accounts for cross-national differences in the probability of employment, occupational attainment, and wages earned. Despite differences in the origins and characteristics of Latino immigrants to each country, demographic and human and social capital factors appear to operate similarly in both places; and when models are estimated separately by legal status, we find that effects are more accentuated for undocumented compared with documented migrants, especially in the United States.
Research on the impact of socio-economicstatus (SES) on access to health care services and on health status is important for allocating resources and designing pro-poor policies. Socio-economic differences are increasingly assessed using asset indices as proxy measures for SES. For example, several studies use asset indices to estimate inequities in ownership and use of insecticide treated nets as a way of monitoring progress towards meeting the Abuja targets. The validity of different SES measures has only been tested in a limited number of settings, however, and there is little information on how choice of welfare measure influences study findings, conclusions and policy recommendations. In this paper, we demonstrate that household SES classification can depend on the SES measure selected. Using data from a household survey in coastal Kenya (n = 285 rural and 467 urban households), we first classify households into SES quintiles using both expenditure and asset data. Household SES classification is found to differ when separate rural and urban asset indices, or a combined asset index, are used. We then use data on bednet ownership to compare inequalities in ownership within each setting by the SES measure selected. Results show a weak correlation between asset index and monthly expenditure in both settings: wider inequalities in bednet ownership are observed in the rural sample when expenditure is used as the SES measure [Concentration Index (CI) = 0.1024 expenditure quintiles; 0.005 asset quintiles]; the opposite is observed in the urban sample (CI = 0.0518 expenditure quintiles; 0.126 asset quintiles). We conclude that the choice of SES measure does matter. Given the practical advantages of asset approaches, we recommend continued refinement of these approaches. In the meantime, careful selection of SES measure is required for every study, depending on the health policy issue of interest, the research context and, inevitably, pragmatic considerations. PMID:19218332
The economic crisis has had an impact across the European Union (EU), but has had a devastating impact on the labor market in Spain, which has become the country within the EU-15 with the worst employment indicators. The situation is worse in younger people, half of whom were unemployed in 2012, with a slightly higher rate in men (54.4%) than in women (51.8%). This high unemployment rate will be even more difficult to redress because of the decrease in public spending on active employment per percentage point of unemployment in 2012 compared with 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in spending on passive employment policies will worsen the health of the unemployed population. PMID:24863992
Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…
Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economicstatus and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economicstatus was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (sd 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (sd 0.1) v. 60.4 (sd 2.8), respectively; P< 0.001; ? = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831
Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J
Background Stroke campaigns are educating about the need to immediately contact the emergency medical system if symptoms occur. Despite higher stroke rates among patients with diabetics and some migrant populations, there are few data about stroke knowledge in these groups. Methods We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 250 diabetes patients from Germany and Turkey in a primary care and diabetes practice center. The two-page questionnaire asked for stroke knowledge and socio-demographic data. Also, medical and communication data were obtained. Stroke knowledge was defined as good if a participant knew (1) at least two stroke symptoms (good symptom knowledge) and (2) that immediate hospital admission or an emergency call is necessary in case of stroke symptoms (good action knowledge). Results A total of 231 of 250 patients took part in the survey (participation rate 92.4%) with 134 natives (53.6%), 84 migrants from Turkey (33.6%) and 13 migrants (5.2%) from other countries. Comparing natives and migrants from Turkey good symptom knowledge was documented in 52.8% of the participants, good action knowledge in 67.9%, and good stroke knowledge in nearly forty percent (39.4%) of patients (n?=?218). A logistic regression analysis showed better stroke knowledge if patients were younger than 61 years, had good language abilities and were living in an one-generation household (p?0.05), while gender, years since migration and diabetes control did not play a role. Conclusions We documented stroke knowledge deficits among patients with diabetes, both natives and migrants. Additional information strategies for these high risk populations are needed.
Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.
Background: There are many different scales to measure socioeconomic status (SES). The present study was conducted with the objective to compare the most commonly used SES in rural and urban setting. Materials and Methods: This exploratory study was conducted in the rural and urban field practice area of a medical college situated in Bangalore for a period of 3 months between January and April 2010. Statistical Analysis Used: To measure the agreement between the scales spearman's rank correlations was applied. Results: A total of 120 families were included in the study. Among the 60 families surveyed at rural setting, it was observed that, majority 40 (67%) belonged to high class when the Standard of Living Index (SLI) scale was applied. Among the 60 families surveyed at urban setting, majority 30 (50%) belonged to high class when the SLI scale was applied. Conclusions: The SLI scale gives a more accurate and realistic picture of the SES of the family and hence should be the scale recommended for classification of SES in urban and rural setting.
Data from Hong Kong were used to examine how the demand for children is affected by the economic returns to different types of market activities. The specific data used was a 1% sample of the 1976 "Hong Kong By-Census of Population." Only women under 50 who were currently married and living with their husbands were included. The households were restricted to land-based and non-farm families with economically active husbands. There were a total of 4128 families in the sample; in 3768 families the wife had experienced at least 1 birth. A simple 1-period model of household production and fertility demand is outlined. Emphasis was on 2 aspects of the demand for children in households who choose to work in the informal sector: children are more readily employed in a family business; and wife's work in a family business or in a wage employment at home is more compatible with childcare activities. Both effects imply that holding constant other characteristics, a higher desired stock of children will be demanded. As expected, an increase in wife's predicted log earnings in home work had a negative effect on the demand for children. The effect was almost always significant. An increase in wife's productivity in the family business, as proxied by her predicted log earnings in the family business, increased the demand for children significantly. This usually is interpreted to be a result of entering a market activity which is compatible with childcare. Another possible explanation is that the price of children is lowered because if children work in the family business then their productive contributions subsidize their parents' consumption. Yet, without direct measures or proxies for these effects, it is not possible to distinguish between them. An increase in husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment had a significant negative effect on demand for children. This can be interpreted in 2 ways: if an interior solution exists for husband's allocation of time, then a negative effect implies either that children are inferior (or are observed to be so) or husband's predicted log earnings in wage employment increases the probability of specializing in it. Thus, the role of children in the family business vanishes, and the desired number of children is reduced. Both husband's and wife's schooling reduced significantly the demand for children. In general, estimates of coefficients from families with at least 1 child were smaller in absolute magnitude and less significant statistically. PMID:12269084
Data from the Current Population Surveys of October 1984, October 1989, and January 1991 were used to examine the role of computer and mathematical skills in the U.S. labor market from 1984-91. Particular attention was given to their actual and potential effect on the economicstatus of women. Data confirmed the overall increase in the education…
The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economicstatus (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…
De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.
The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economicstatus students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…
BACKGROUND: Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economicstatus (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older
Theresa L Grant; Nancy Edwards; Heidi Sveistrup; Caroline Andrew; Mary Egan
In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economicstatus and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…
When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness.
Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) is emerging as the primary cause for some head and neck cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between head and neck cancer (HNC) survival and socioeconomic status (SES) in Canada, and to investigate changes in the relationship between HNC survival and SES from 1992 to 2005. Methods Cases were drawn from the Canadian Cancer Registry (1992–2005), and were categorized into three subsites: oropharynx, oral cavity, and “other” (hypopharynx, larynx, and nasopharynx). Demographic and socioeconomic information were extracted from the Canadian Census of Population data for the study period, which included three census years: 1991, 1996 and 2001. We linked cases to income quintiles (InQs) according to patients’ postal codes. Results Overall survival, without controlling for smoking, for oropharyngeal cancer increased dramatically from 1992–2005 in Canada. This increase in survival for oropharynx cancer was eliminated by the introduction of controls for smoking. Survival for all head and neck cancer subsites was strongly correlated with SES, as measured by income quintile, with lower InQ’s having lower survival than higher. Lastly, the magnitude of the difference in survival between the highest and lowest income quintiles increased significantly over the time period studied for oropharynx cancer, but did not statistically significantly change for oral cavity cancer or other head and neck cancers. Conclusions These data confirm a significant impact of socioeconomic deprivation on overall survival for head and neck cancers in Canada, and may provide indirect evidence that HPV-positive head and neck cancers are more common in higher socioeconomic groups.
When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516
Background Hgb A1c levels may be higher in persons without diabetes of lower socio-economicstatus (SES) but evidence about this association is limited; there is therefore uncertainty about the inclusion of SES in clinical decision support tools informing the provision and frequency of Hgb A1c tests to screen for diabetes. We studied the association between neighborhood-level SES and Hgb A1c in a primary care population without diabetes. Methods This is a retrospective study using data routinely collected in the electronic medical records (EMRs) of forty six community-based family physicians in Toronto, Ontario. We analysed records from 4,870 patients without diabetes, age 45 and over, with at least one clinical encounter between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2011 and one or more Hgb A1c report present in their chart during that time interval. Residential postal codes were used to assign neighborhood deprivation indices and income levels by quintiles. Covariates included elements known to be associated with an increase in the risk of incident diabetes: age, gender, family history of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose. Results The difference in mean Hgb A1c between highest and lowest income quintiles was -0.04% (p?=?0.005, 95% CI -0.07% to -0.01%), and between least deprived and most deprived was -0.05% (p?=?0.003, 95% CI -0.09% to -0.02%) for material deprivation and 0.02% (p?=?0.2, 95% CI -0.06% to 0.01%) for social deprivation. After adjustment for covariates, a marginally statistically significant difference in Hgb A1c between highest and lowest SES quintile (p?=?0.04) remained in the material deprivation model, but not in the other models. Conclusions We found a small inverse relationship between Hgb A1c and the material aspects of SES; this was largely attenuated once we adjusted for diabetes risk factors, indicating that an independent contribution of SES to increasing Hgb A1c may be limited. This study does not support the inclusion of SES in clinical decision support tools that inform the use of Hgb A1c for diabetes screening.
Tanzania has a generalised AIDS epidemic but the estimated adult HIV prevalence of 6% is much lower than in many countries in Southern Africa. HIV infection rates are reportedly higher in urban areas, among women and among those with more education. Stigma has been found to be more common in poorer, less-educated people, and those in rural areas. We examined associations between poverty and other variables and a stigmatising attitude (belief that HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning). The variables we examined in a multivariate model included: food sufficiency (as an indicator of poverty), age, sex, marital status, education, experience of intimate partner violence, condom-related choice disability, discussion about HIV/AIDS, sources of information about HIV/AIDS and urban or rural residence. Of the 1,130 men and 1,803 women interviewed, more than half (58%) did not disagree that "HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning". Taking other variables into account, people from the poorest households (without enough food in the last week) were more likely to believe HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.06-1.59). Others factors independently associated with this stigmatising attitude were: having less than primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.62); having experienced intimate partner violence in the last year (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75); being choice disabled for condom use (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71); and living in rural areas (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.06-2.90). The level of HIV and AIDS stigma in Tanzania is high with independent associations with several disadvantages: poverty, less education and living in rural areas. Other vulnerable groups, such as survivors of intimate partner violence, are also more likely to have a stigmatising attitude. HIV prevention programmes should take account of stigma, especially among the disadvantaged, and take care not to increase it. PMID:21347901
Amuri, Mbaraka; Mitchell, Steve; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil
Background Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economicstatus (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product) among the 3 populations of interest. Results “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment”. For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third) of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48%) and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%). Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations.
Dilley, Julia A.; Peterson, Erin; Bobo, Matthew; Pickle, Kathryn E.; Rohde, Kristen
Background Ethnic diversity is increasing through migration in many developed countries. Evidence indicates that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence varies by ethnicity and socio-economicstatus (SES), and that in many settings, migrants experience a disproportionate burden of disease compared with locally-born groups. Given Australia’s multicultural demography, we sought to identify groups at high risk of T2DM in Victoria, Australia. Methods Using population data from the Australian National Census and diabetes data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme, prevalence of T2DM among immigrant groups in Victoria in January 2010 was investigated, and prevalence odds versus Australian-born residents estimated. Distribution of T2DM by SES was also examined. Results Prevalence of diagnosed T2DM in Victoria was 4.1% (n?=?98671) in men and 3.5% (n?=?87608) in women. Of those with T2DM, over 1 in 5 born in Oceania and in Southern and Central Asia were aged under 50 years. For both men and women, odds of T2DM were higher for all migrant groups than the Australian-born reference population, including, after adjusting for age and SES, 6.3 and 7.2 times higher for men and women born in the Pacific Islands, respectively, and 5.2 and 5.0 times higher for men and women born in Southern and Central Asia, respectively. Effects of SES varied by region of birth. Conclusions Large socio-cultural differences exist in the distribution of T2DM. Across all socio-economic strata, all migrant groups have higher prevalence of T2DM than the Australian-born population. With increasing migration, this health gap potentially has implications for health service planning and delivery, policy and preventive efforts in Australia.
Pediculosis is a common infestation in schoolchildren but little is known about the factors influencing its prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice in schoolchildren in Ghent and to investigate the independent association between individual characteristics of the child, socio-economicstatus (SES) of the family and head lice. The prevalence of head lice at baseline and 14 days after treatment advice was determined by the wet combing method in a total of 6,169 schoolchildren age 2.5 to 12 years from Ghent (Belgium). Age, sex, educational level and hair characteristics of the child, SES of the family, and number of children in the family was collected by the school health department. The prevalence of head lice was 8.9%. The only statistically significant factors at the child level are SES, the number of children in the family, hair length and hair colour. Treatment failure was recorded in 41% of the children positive at baseline screening and was significantly related to hair colour and SES. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of head lice is determined by clustering of children rather than by characteristics of the child. The management of head lice should take a community-based approach equally involving families, schools, health care professionals and the government. PMID:16172050
Willems, Sara; Lapeere, Hilde; Haedens, Nele; Pasteels, Inge; Naeyaert, Jean-Marie; De Maeseneer, Jan
The influences of formal child care before age 4 on behavioral problems at 3, 5, and 7 years of age were assessed in 18,932 Dutch twins (3,878 attended formal child care). The effect of formal child care was studied on the average level of problem behavior and as moderator of genetic and non-genetic influences, while taking into account effects of sex and parental socio-economicstatus (SES). There was a small association between attending formal child care and higher externalizing problems, especially when SES was low. Heritability was lower for formal child care and in lower SES conditions. These effects were largest at age 7 and for externalizing problems. In 7 year-old boys and girls, the difference in heritability between the formal child care group of low SES and the home care group of high SES was 30 % for externalizing and ~20 % for internalizing problems. The decrease in heritability was explained by a larger influence of the environment, rather than by a decrease in genetic variance. These results support a bioecological model in which heritability is lower in circumstances associated with more problem behavior. PMID:24878694
Middeldorp, Christel M; Lamb, Diane J; Vink, Jacqueline M; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I
Phytoestrogens, naturally occurring plant compounds having oestrogenic and/or anti-oestrogenic activity, are present in many human foodstuffs including hop. Moderate intakes of isoflavonoid phytoestrogens have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular diseases incidence. So, it is possible that hop (Humulus Lupulus L.) might similarly contribute to the reported health-beneficial effects of moderate beer consumption. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro effects of aqueous hop extract on thoracic vascular reactivity in Sprague Dawley male and female rats. Endothelium-intact thoracic arterial rings from male rats (MALE, n=8), sham-ovariectomized (Sham OVX) female (n=8) and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats (n=8) were used. We assessed the relaxation induced by aqueous hop extract (10(-9), 10(-2)g/l) in aortic rings precontracted with norepinephrine (10(-7)M), in the absence or in the presence of l-NAME (10(-4)M), indomethacin (10(-5)M), thapsigargin (10(-4)M), iberiotoxin (3.10(-8)M), apamin (3.10(-8)M) and TEA (3.10(-4)M). Aqueous hop extract induced relaxation of endothelium-intact thoracic arterial rings in MALE and Sham OVX rats, whereas a weak effect was observed in OVX rats. This vasorelaxation was strongly inhibited in presence of l-NAME, indomethacin and thapsigargin. These data indicated that aqueous hop extract-induced vasodilation, in male and intact female rats, is mediated by NOS activation, cyclooxygenase products and Ca(2+) pathways. Moreover, our results suggested that effect of hop in enhancing vascular reactivity was independent of gender but strongly related to hormonal status. PMID:17951040
Figard, H; Girard, C; Mougin, F; Demougeot, C; Berthelot, A
Previously, little information has been available about life expectancy and the probability of survival by socio-economicstatus or for Aboriginal groups. However, data from the 1991 to 2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study made it possible to construct life tables for the non-institutional population aged 25 or older by a range of census variables. Those life tables have now been updated to include deaths through to the end of 2006. This report summarizes the updated findings. Life expectancy at age 25 and the probability of survival to age 75 tended to be low for people with low income and education, for residents of shelters, rooming houses and hotels, and for Registered Indians, non-Status Indians and Métis. In general, socio-economic disparities in mortality were greater for men than for women. PMID:22352150
In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economicstatus (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. PMID:22387166
The broad objective of the study was to understand better anxiety among adolescents in Kolkata city, India. Specifically, the study compared anxiety across gender, school type, socio-economic background and mothers' employment status. The study also examined adolescents' perceptions of quality time with their parents. A group of 460 adolescents…
Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economicstatus is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more than for boys and for parental occupation more than family affluence. For future studies it might be important to look at the effects of socio-economicstatus within the context of other peer, family and school related factors in order to assess to what extent those factors might mediate the effects of social class background.
Richter, Matthias; Leppin, Anja; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse
The current study departs from existing analyses by examining change in crude birthrates in a large sample of societies spanning all levels of development and by considering the effects of changes in independent variables on unit changes in fertility rates. It tests for the effects of levels and changes in female labor force representation and for effects of levels and changes in variables derived from classic demographic transition theory -- energy consumption per capita and child mortality. Additionally, it considers the possibility that these variables have differing impacts in least-developed (periphery) and developing (semiperiphery) nations than they had in already developed (core) nations. Data on dependent and independent variables were obtained from tables compiled by the World Bank (1980). In the 1st stage of the analysis, associations between coterminous trends in the dependent and independent variables were examined. To measure trends in fertility between 1960-77 the 1960 crude birthrates were sXrtracted from 1977 crude birthrates. Also obtained from the World Tables were child mortality rates (ages 1-4), female labor force representation (females per 100 persons in the labor force), and energy consumption per capita for both 1960 and 1977. Energy consumption per capita was chosen as the indicator of general development. Both 1960 values and changes between 1960 and 1977 were used as independent variables in the analysis. The blocks derived by Snyder and Kick (1979) were used to assign nations to either the core, semiperiphery, or periphery of the world system. It was possible to classify 93 of the original 100 cases, meaning only 7 cases were excluded in the analyses of subgroups. In the 2nd stage of the analysis, associations between fertility change and lagged changes in its proposed determinants were examined. Analysis of coterminous trends allowed for determining if overall trends in the dependent and independent variables were associated. All 3 theories underlying the hypotheses on causes of fertility change -- demographic transition theory, Caldwell's (1978) revision of the latter as it would be reflected in the economicstatus of women, and world system theory -- received some support, but it is argued that the evidence from the indirect test of Caldwell's theory of fertility decline was mixed, second, that a number of the results converged in their support for demographic transition theory, and third, that the overall pattern of findings failed to correspond well with expectations based on world system's theory. PMID:12340268
Low socioeconomic status, as measured by neighbourhood median household income, is linked with a higher incidence of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), fewer medical interventions (such as coronary angiography) and a higher death rate. These relationships have been demonstrated in community and hospital inpatient settings. The authors of this study looked at the effects of socioeconomic status on one-year mortality
Wei-Ching Chang; Padma Kaul; Cynthia M. Westerhout; Michelle M. Graham; Paul W. Armstrong
We used micro-level data from the censuses of 1900 to investigate the impact of socio-economicstatus on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the USA). The study is therefore unlike most previous research on the historical fertility transition, which used aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels. Our data included information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence, and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:24684711
Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J David; Scalone, Francesco
This issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" focuses on gender issues in early childhood. The first article, "Both Halves of the Sky: Gender Socialization in the Early Years," focuses on the arguments that have led to an international call for increased participation of girls in education, an introduction to studies which map young children's…
Examined relationship between parental socioeconomic status (SES), sex, and initial pubertal problems among Nigerian adolescents (n=700). Found that boys from low SES groups experienced more physical problems than other groups. Low SES students experienced more health problems, and boys experienced more problems than girls. Sex was important…
This paper provides descriptive data on differences in civic engagement between advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Because there is not always consensus on what measure best describes disadvantaged, this paper used multiple indicators (race, ethnicity, citizenship status, family income and educational attainment) across four measures of civic…
Aim This study was conducted to investigate anthropometric nutritional indicators that correlated with sociodemographic and economic\\u000a factors among preparatory school-aged children (PSC) in the Gaza Strip.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods The study subjects were chosen purposively from three different sociodemographic and economic areas in the Gaza Strip: the\\u000a Jabalia refugee camp (JRC), Gaza City (GC), and Al-Garrara village (GV). They were selected randomly
The objective of this study is to examine gender and ethnic differences in Veterans Affairs (VA) health services utilization among Iraq and Afghanistan military Veterans diagnosed with depression. With VA administrative data, sociodemographics, utilization of outpatient primary care, specialty mental health and mental health treatment modalities (psychotherapy and antidepressant prescriptions) were collected from electronic medical records of 1,556 depressed Veterans treated in one VA regional network from January 2008 to March 2009. Health care utilization patterns were examined 90 days following being diagnosed with depression. ?(2) and t-tests were used to evaluate unadjusted differences in VA service use by gender and ethnicity. Logistic regression was used to fit study models predicting VA service utilization. Study results indicate no ethnic or gender differences in the use of specialty mental health services or in the use of mental health treatments. However, women Veterans, especially those from ethnic minority groups, were less likely to use primary care than white and nonwhite male Veterans. Collectively, these findings signal a decrease in historically documented disparities within VA health care, especially in the use of mental health services. PMID:24806496
Davis, Teri D; Deen, Tisha L; Fortney, John C; Sullivan, Greer; Hudson, Teresa J
Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economicstatus using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economicstatus and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed.
Objectives of this study were to examine for associations of casino industry economic development on improving community health status and funding for public health services in two counties in the Mississippi Delta Region of the United States. An ecological approach was used to evaluate whether two counties with casino gaming had improved health status and public health funding in comparison with two noncasino counties in the same region with similar social, racial, and ethic backgrounds. Variables readily available from state health department records were used to develop a logic model for guiding analytical work. A linear regression model was built using a stepwise approach and hierarchical regression principles with many dependent variables and a set of fixed and nonfixed independent variables. County-level data for 23 variables over an 11-year period were used. Overall, this study found a lack of association between the presence of a casino and desirable health outcomes or funding for public health services. Changes in the environment were made to promote health by utilizing gaming revenues to build state-of-the-art community health and wellness centers and sports facilities. However, significant increases in funding for local public health services were not found in either of the counties with casinos. These findings are relevant for policy makers when debating economic development strategies. Analysis similar to this should be combined with other routine public health assessments after implementation of development strategies to increase knowledge of health outcome trends and shifts in socioeconomic position that may be expected to accrue from economic development projects. PMID:17299329
Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economicstatus; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economicstatus, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents.
Vitamin D has important benefits in reducing the risk of many conditions and diseases. Those diseases for which the benefits are well supported and that have large economic effects include many types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, several bacterial and viral infections, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Europeans generally have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels owing
William B. Grant; Heide S. Cross; Cedric F. Garland; Edward D. Gorham; Johan Moan; Meinrad Peterlik; Alina C. Porojnicu; Jörg Reichrath; Armin Zittermann
Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The principal aim of this study was to assess risk factors for LBW in a large multi-ethnic and socio-economically disadvantaged population. Data from 3242 mothers, who attended the Well Baby Clinic (Southwestern Sydney, Australia) for the first time, were analysed
H. Phung; A. Bauman; T. V. Nguyen; L. Young; M. Tran; K. Hillman
Examined is the experience of loneliness as it relates to selected health conditions and selected economic conditions. The effects on loneliness of age, gender, marital status, number of sons, number of daughters, number of male friends, and number of female friends also were examined and controlled. Results are based on a sample from the Senior Citizens Nutrition and Activities Program
Larry C. Mullins; Roxenne Smith; Rachel Colquitt; Mary Mushel
... who you have a crush on". What does "transgender" mean? Transgender people are people whose gender identity (feeling about ... are a female trapped in a boy's body. Transgender people feel strongly that their mind is right, ...
Background Household characteristics are important influences on the risk of child death. However, little is known about this influence in HIV-endemic areas. We describe the effects of household characteristics on children’s risk of dying in rural South Africa. Methods We use data describing the mortality of children younger than 5 years living in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system study population in rural northeast South Africa during the period 1994–2008. Using discrete time event history analysis we estimate children’s probability of dying by child characteristics and household composition (other children and adults other than parents) (N = 924 818 child-months), and household socio-economicstatus (N = 501 732 child-months). Results Children under 24 months of age whose subsequent sibling was born within 11 months experience increased odds of dying (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.7). Children also experience increased odds of dying in the period 6 months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.6), 3–5 months (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5–5.9), and 2 months (OR 11.8; 95% CI 7.6–18.3) before another household child dies. The odds of dying remain high at the time of another child’s death (OR 11.7; 95% CI 6.3–21.7) and for the 2 months following (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.9–8.6). Having a related but non-parent adult aged 20–59 years in the household reduces the odds (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5–0.8). There is an inverse relationship between a child’s odds of dying and household socio-economicstatus. Conclusions This detailed household profile from a poor rural setting where HIV infection is endemic indicates that children are at high risk of dying when another child is very ill or has recently died. Short birth intervals and additional children in the household are further risk factors. Presence of a related adult is protective, as is higher socio-economicstatus. Such evidence can inform primary health care practice and facilitate targeting of community health worker efforts, especially when covering defined catchment areas.
Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen M; Clark, Samuel J
Objective. To determine the relationship between hospital admissions for falls and hip fracture in elderly people and area characteristics such as socio-economic deprivation.Study design. Ecological study of routinely collected hospital admissions data for falls and hip fracture in people aged 75 years or over for 1992–1997, linked at electoral ward level with characteristics from census data.Methods. In total, 42,293 and
J Hippisley-Cox; C. A. C. Coupland; G. M. Price; L. M. Groom; D Kendrick; E. Webber
PARTIAL CONTENTS: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES - LIAOWANG Reviews Status of Price Reform; Six Measures Proposed for Economic Readjustment; PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS -Report on Guangxi People's Congress Meeting; Sichuan Holds Economic, Technological Cooperation Con...
Background Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Objective To measure the effect of socio-economicstatus (age, education, occupation, income, religion and family structure) of mothers on the management of febrile conditions in under-fives children Method Two hundred mothers who brought their febrile under-five children to a health facility were interviewed on the treatment they gave to their children before reporting at health facility. Data collected were entered and analyzed using the SPSS software. Binary logistic regression was adopted for the quantitative analysis of the effect of socio-economic variables on the mothers' actions prior to utilizing the health facility. Results Results showed that while mothers' age was negatively correlated (-0.13), occupation was positively correlated (0.17) with under-fives mothers' action. Education, religion, income and family structure were however insignificant at 5% level Conclusion This poses a lot of challenges to policy makers in the developing nations where women's education and earning capacity is low. There is therefore a need to increase the number of women benefiting from micro credit. This will ensure that more women are engaged in a form of occupation that is profitable and can sustain the economic and health needs of the family.
Background. Structural characteristics of social networks such as primary group size have received less attention than measures of perceived social support. Previous research suggests that associ- ations between social network size and later common mental disorder status may differ according to sex and initial mental state. Method. Adults participating in the 2000 British National Household Survey of psychiatric morbidity were
TRAOLACH S. BRUGHA; SCOTT WEICH; NICOLA SINGLETON; GLYN LEWIS; PAUL E. BEBBINGTON; RACHEL JENKINS; HOWARD MELTZER
A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were…
The aim of this study was to provide insight into the bone mineral status and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in a Chinese population from Shenyang, in the north of China, where hip fracture incidence is low. A total of 194 healthy men and women, aged 25–35 years and 65–75 years, were studied. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar
L Yan; A Prentice; B Zhou; H Zhang; X Wang; D. M Stirling; A Laidlaw; Y Han; A Laskey
Childhood circumstances such as socio-economicstatus and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-EconomicStatus (SES) and home environment on children’s OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents’ age, and parents’ oral health literacy) on children’s OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project’s Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children’s Perception Questionnaire11-14 were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers’ age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children’s OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed.
Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…
Researchers have not yet reached agreement about the validity of several competing explanations that seek to explain ethnic differences in juvenile violent offending. Ethnicity cannot solely explain why boys with an ethnic minority background commit more (violent) crimes. By assessing the intersectionality of structural, cultural and individual considerations, both the independent effects as well as the interplay between different factors can be examined. This study shows that aforementioned factors cumulatively play a role in severe violent offending, with parental connectedness and child abuse having the strongest associations. However, since most variables interact and ethnicity is associated with those specific factors, a conclusion to be drawn is that ethnicity may be relevant as an additional variable predicting severe violent offending although indirectly. PMID:23932431
Lahlah, Esmah; Lens, Kim M E; Bogaerts, Stefan; van der Knaap, Leontien M
This paper summarizes recent research in economics that investigates differentials by race and gender in the labor market. We start with a statistical overview of the trends in labor market outcomes by race, gender and Hispanic origin, including some simple regressions on the determinants of wages and employment. This is followed in Section 3 by an extended review of current
Background There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Methods Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n?=?755). Results The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p?=?0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p?0.001). Women held donor cards significantly more often (28.6%) than men (19.4%, p?=?0.004). The majority of students were against direct payments as incentives for deceased and living donations. Nevertheless, 37.5% of the respondents support the idea that the funeral expenses of deceased organ donors should be covered. Women voted significantly less often for the coverage of expenses than men (women 31.6%, men 44.0%, p?=?0.003). The number of those in favor of allowing to sell one’s organs for money (living organ donation) was highest among students of economics (p?=?0.034). Conclusion Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward.
This study examined black-white differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban US subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether black-white differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that shift, if any, was associated with racial differences in the rate and mental health consequences of early adult social roles (e.g., living arrangements, work/college status, and single-parenthood) and socio-economicstatus (SES). As expected, growth in depressive affect pivoted around the onset of early adulthood, with the trajectory pivoting upward for Black Americans and downward for White Americans. Due to deficits in SES, the relation between challenging early adult social roles - under/unemployment in particular - and growth in depressive affect was more positive for Black Americans. This differential “vulnerability” appears to underlie racial differences in early adult growth (and by connection contribute to racial differences in growth pivot). The extent to which Black Americans were at a greater risk (relative to White Americans) for an upward pivot increased as the number of challenging roles increased. Black Americans facing only optimal early adult social roles were not at a greater risk, while those facing only challenging social roles were at the greatest risk.
Donors have developed an array of innovative programs for removing or mitigating gender-specific barriers to economic growth. Yet, moving from theory to action still remains a challenge for many program managers. USAID program managers must contend with t...
Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence children’s health-related quality of life. Many SES indicators assess distinct dimensions of a family’s position rather than measuring the same underlying construct. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable. The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Validation Study. The SES variables were family income, Hollingshead Index (occupational prestige), and highest parent educational attainment level. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Correlations tested the relationship among the three SES indicators. Regression-based modeling was used to calculate the strength of the association between SES measures and the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Results The correlations among the SES measures were moderately high, with the correlation between the Hollingshead Index and parental education being r?=?0.62 (95% CI?=?0.56-0.65). There were equally high correlations between family income and the Hollingshead (r?=?0.61, 95% CI?=?0.57-0.65) and a slightly lower correlation between family income and parental education (r?=?0.55, 95% CI?=?0.52-0.59). Family income had the highest explanatory value compared to the Hollingshead Index or parental educational attainment, while controlling for sex, race, current cardiac status, and original diagnosis, accounting for 4-5% of the variation in patient and parent Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Total score, respectively, compared to the other SES measures. Conclusion Family income as an SES measure demonstrated the greatest fidelity with respect to health-related quality of life as measured by the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory across respondent groups and explained more of the variation compared to the Hollingshead Index or highest parental educational attainment.
Introduction Quality of care could be influenced by individual socio-economicstatus (SES) and by residential area deprivation. The objective is to synthesize the current evidence regarding inequalities in health care for patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Methods The systematic review focuses on inequalities concerning process (e.g. measurement of HbA1c, i.e. glycolised haemoglobin) and intermediate outcome indicators (e.g. HbA1c level) of Type 2 diabetes care. In total, of n?=?886 publications screened, n?=?21 met the inclusion criteria. Results A wide variety of definitions for ‘good quality diabetes care’, regional deprivation and individual SES was observed. Despite differences in research approaches, there is a trend towards worse health care for patients with low SES, concerning both process of care and intermediate outcome indicators. Patients living in deprived areas less often achieve glycaemic control targets, tend to have higher blood pressure (BP) and worse lipid profile control. Conclusion The available evidence clearly points to the fact that socio-economic inequalities in diabetes care do exist. Low individual SES and residential area deprivation are often associated with worse process indicators and worse intermediate outcomes, resulting in higher risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications. These inequalities exist across different health care systems. Recommendations for further research are provided.
Vitamin D has important benefits in reducing the risk of many conditions and diseases. Those diseases for which the benefits are well supported and that have large economic effects include many types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, several bacterial and viral infections, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Europeans generally have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels owing to the high latitudes, largely indoor living, low natural dietary sources of vitamin D such as cold-water ocean fish, and lack of effective vitamin D fortification of food in most countries. Vitamin D dose-disease response relations were estimated from observational studies and randomized controlled trials. The reduction in direct plus indirect economic burden of disease was based on increasing the mean serum 25(OH)D level to 40 ng/mL, which could be achieved by a daily intake of 2000-3000 IU of vitamin D. For 2007, the reduction is estimated at euro187,000 million/year. The estimated cost of 2000-3000 IU of vitamin D3/day along with ancillary costs such as education and testing might be about euro10,000 million/year. Sources of vitamin D could include a combination of food fortification, supplements, and natural and artificial UVB irradiation, if properly acquired. Additional randomized controlled trials are warranted to evaluate the benefits and risks of vitamin D supplementation. However, steps to increase serum 25(OH)D levels can be implemented now based on what is already known. PMID:19268496
The paper presents gender-based violence and theories its causes and correlates; it then reviews global information on the prevalence of gender-based violence against women and its health consequences. The national context on gender-based violence against women is outlined. It then presents an overview of the status of women in Kerala and the paradoxical coexistence of indicators of high status with
Developed as a supplement to existing materials on gender equity, this curriculum guide is designed to supply indepth information on sex bias and sex-role stereotyping in vocational education. It is intended for educators, students, and parents who can learn from its contents through workshops, seminars, organizational meetings, and classroom…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…
Background Gender norms determine the status of Pakistani women that influence their life including health. In Pakistan, the relationship between gender norms and health of women is crucial yet complex demanding further analysis. This paper: determines the reasons for reiteration of gender roles; describes the societal processes and mechanisms that reproduce and reinforce them; and identifies their repercussions on women’s personality, lives and health especially reproductive health. Methods As part of a six-country study titled ‘Women’s Empowerment in Muslim Contexts’, semi-structured group discussions (n?=?30) were conducted with women (n?=?250) who were selected through snowballing from different age, ethnic and socio-economic categories. Discussion guidelines were used to collect participant’s perceptions about Pakistani women’s: characteristics, powers, aspirations, needs and responsibilities; circumstances these women live in such as opportunities, constraints and risks; and influence of these circumstances on their personality, lifestyle and health. Results The society studied has constructed a ‘Model’ for women that consider them ‘Objects’ without rights and autonomy. Women’s subordination, a prerequisite to ensure compliance to the constructed model, is maintained through allocation of lesser resources, restrictions on mobility, seclusion norms and even violence in cases of resistance. The model determines women’s traits and responsibilities, and establishes parameters for what is legitimate for women, and these have implications for their personality, lifestyle and health, including their reproductive behaviours. Conclusion There is a strong link between women’s autonomy, rights, and health. This demands a gender sensitive and a, right-based approach towards health. In addition to service delivery interventions, strategies are required to counter factors influencing health status and restricting access to and utilization of services. Improvement in women’s health is bound to have positive influences on their children and wider family’s health, education and livelihood; and in turn on a society’s health and economy.
Gender, or the socially constructed roles and responsibilities of men and women, defines the power relations between the two sexes in terms of access to economic, social and political power. The power imbalance between men and women circumscribes the opportunities, voice, and agency of women. Further the power relations are reinforced through gender conflict, or gender based violence which women
This contribution examines the connections between gender and international migration around three themes: globalization, national economic development, and governance. First, it discusses the connections between globalization and the multiplicity of processes that have contributed to international migration and its feminization, arguing that gender awareness is crucial to understanding these processes. Gender analysis makes visible the increasing commodification of care work
The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economicstatus. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…
Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses. PMID:22113627
Lifestyle interventions to improve health in young children tend to target areas of relative deprivation, but the evidence for so doing is largely historical. Accordingly, we have re-examined the link between deprivation, obesity and metabolic risk in contemporary UK children. Using a postcode-based index of multiple deprivation (IMD), we assessed 269 children from the community-based EarlyBird Study, attending 53 schools representing a wide socio-economic range. Annual measures of fatness from 5 to 8 yr included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sum of five skinfolds (SSF). A metabolic risk score, based on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance, was derived from annual fasting blood samples. There were no significant associations between deprivation and any measure of adiposity in girls (all p > 0.37). In boys, there was a weak but consistently inverse relationship between deprivation and WC (r = -0.19, p = 0.03) and BMI (r = -0.14, p = 0.09) at 8 yr. Changes in adiposity over 3 yr were unrelated to deprivation in boys. In girls there was a slight but significant increase in SSF only (1 mm/yr per 20 IMD units, p = 0.001). Importantly, in both genders, metabolic risk score was unrelated to deprivation throughout (r values -0.05 to -0.13, all p > 0.12), as was change in metabolic risk (all p > 0.30). Our data do not support the assumption that obesity, metabolic disturbance and thus risk of type 2 diabetes are more prevalent among poorer children. In today's increasingly obesogenic environment, youngsters from all backgrounds appear to be vulnerable, with population-wide implications for public health spending, and the prevention of diabetes in contemporary youth. PMID:24827703
Understanding current patterns of population smoking by socioeconomic position (SEP) can be substantially enhanced by research that follows birth cohorts over long periods of time, yet such data in the US are rare. Information from birth cohorts followed during critical time periods when the health consequences of smoking became widely known can inform the ways in which current smoking prevalence has been shaped by the historical processes that preceded it. The present study utilizes data from a substudy of the Child Health and Development Study pregnancy cohort (N = 1612). Women were queried about smoking status in 1959–1962, 1971–1972 and 1977–1980. Women were divided into three cohorts based on date of birth. Offspring represented another birth cohort assessed for smoking in 1977–1980. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of smoking exhibited cohort-specific patterns that persisted across time. Notably, the youngest maternal cohort (born 1937–1946) had high smoking prevalence throughout and showed no appreciable decrease (44.7%, 41.4%, 40.1% for 1959–1962, 1971–1972, and 1977–1980). Results also indicated that the relation of smoking to SEP exhibited cohort-specific patterns over time. Among the oldest birth cohort (born 1914–1930), no inverse relation of SEP to smoking was observed at any time; in contrast, an inverse relation emerged by 1959–1962 among the youngest cohort of mothers. Among the adolescent offspring, there was a strong SEP gradient (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4–3.0) that was stronger than in any maternal birth cohort at any assessment (? = 0.40, SE = 0.1, p < 0.01). We conclude that SEP gradients in smoking emerge across birth cohorts rather than time alone, with increasingly strong gradients across time especially among younger cohorts.
Keyes, Katherine M.; March, Dana; Link, Bruce G.; Chilcoat, Howard D.; Susser, Ezra
Current health inequality targets include the goal of reducing the differential in infant mortality between social groups. This article reports on a multivariate analysis of risk factors for infant mortality, with specific focus on deprivation and socio-economicstatus. Data on all singleton live births in England and Wales in 2005-06 were used, and deprivation quintile (Carstairs index) was assigned to each birth using postcode at birth registration. Deprivation had a strong independent effect on infant mortality, risk of death tending to increase with increasing levels of deprivation. The strength of this relationship depended, however, on whether the babies were low birthweight, preterm or small-for-gestational-age. Trends of increasing mortality risk with increasing deprivation were strongest in the postneonatal period. Uniquely, this article reports the number and proportion of all infant deaths which would potentially be avoided if all levels of deprivation were reduced to that of the least deprived group. It estimates that one quarter of all infant deaths would potentially be avoided if deprivation levels were reduced in this way. PMID:19562908
Background The study was conducted to determine whether perceived racial, economic, and gender discrimination has an impact on contraception use and choice of method. Methods We analyzed the first 2,500 women, aged 14–45 years enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study aimed to reduce barriers to long-acting reversible contraception. Items from the “Experiences of Discrimination” (EOD) scale measured experienced race-, gender-, and economic-based discrimination. Results Overall, 57% of women reported a history of discrimination. Thirty-three percent reported gender- or race-based discrimination and 24% reported discrimination attributed to socioeconomic status (SES). Prior to study enrollment, women reporting discrimination were more likely to report any contraception use (61% vs. 51%, p<0.001), but were more likely to use less effective methods (e.g., barrier methods, natural family planning or withdrawal; 41% vs. 32%, p<0.001). In adjusted analyses, gender-, race- or SES-based discrimination were associated with increased current use of less effective methods (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22, CI 1.06–1.41; aRR 1.25, CI 1.08–1.45; aRR 1.23, CI 1.06–1.43, respectively). After enrollment, 67% of women with history of experience of discrimination chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive method (intrauterine device or implantable) and 33% chose a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate or contraceptive pill, patch or ring. Conclusions Discrimination negatively impacts a woman’s use of contraception. However, after financial and structural barriers to contraceptive use were eliminated, women with EOD overwhelmingly selected effective methods of contraception. Future interventions to improve access and utilization of contraception should focus on eliminating barriers and targeting interventions that encompass race-, gender-, and economic-based discrimination.
Kossler, Karla; Kuroki, Lindsay M.; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Secura, Gina M.; Roehl, Kimberly A.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few and very small N studies published indicated that males have a poorer pre-morbid cognitive performance than females. This study examined the gender differences in premorbid cognition, utilizing cognitive assessments performed on female and male adolescents before induction into military service. The Israeli Draft Board Registry, which contains cognitive assessments equivalent to IQ scores on 16-18 year old Israeli adolescents, was linked with the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry, which records all psychiatric hospitalizations in the country. Scores on premorbid cognitive performance in schizophrenia were examined in 90 female-male case pairs matched for school attended as a proxy for socio-economicstatus. The mean age of first hospitalization was 20. 1+/-1.8 years of age for males and 19.6+/-1.8 years of age for females. A repeated-measures ANCOVA with age of first hospitalization and years of formal education as covariates, and controlling for gender differences in cognitive performance in healthy adolescents, revealed a significant difference in pre-morbid cognitive performance between males and females on all four cognitive measures [F(1,87)=8.07, P=0.006] with females scoring lower (worse) than males. In this national cohort, pre-morbid cognition was poorer in female, compared with male, adolescents who will suffer from schizophrenia in the future, a result consistent with some, but not all, similar studies. These results may be valid only for patients with first hospitalization around age 20. Hence, gender differences in premorbid cognition should be taken into account when assessing gender differences in cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:11042436
Weiser, M; Reichenberg, A; Rabinowitz, J; Kaplan, Z; Mark, M; Nahon, D; Davidson, M
Background Norwegian children and adolescents eat less than half of the recommended 5 portions of fruit and vegetables (FV) per day. Gender and socioeconomic disparities in FV consumption shows that boys and children of lower socioeconomic status (SES) eat less FV than girls and high SES children. We also know that accessibility and preferences has been identified as two important determinants of FV intake. The objectives of this study were to compare FV intake among Norwegian 6th and 7th graders in 2001 and 2008, to explore potential mediated effects of accessibility and preferences on changes in FV over time, to explore whether these changes in FV intake was moderated by gender and/or SES and whether a moderated effect in FV intake was mediated by accessibility and preferences of FV. Methods The baseline survey of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project was conducted in 2001 at 38 randomly chosen schools in two Norwegian counties. A second survey was conducted at the same schools in 2008. A total of 27 schools participated in both surveys (2001 n = 1488, 2008 n = 1339). FV intake was measured by four food frequency questions (times/week) in a questionnaire which the pupils completed at school. SES was based on parents' reports of their own educational level in a separate questionnaire. The main analyses were multilevel linear regression analyses. Results A significant year*parental educational level interaction was observed (p = 0.01). FV intake decreased among pupils of parents with lower educational level (13.9 vs. 12.6 times/week in 2001 and 2008, respectively), but increased among pupils of parents with higher education (14.8 vs. 15.0 times/week, respectively). This increasing SES disparity in FV intake was partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences over time, wherein children with higher educated parents had a steeper increase in accessibility and preferences over time than children with lower educated parents. The year*sex interaction was not significant (p = 0.54). Conclusions This study shows an increase in SES disparities in 6th and 7th graders FV intake from 2001 to 2008, partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences of FV.
Double pre-beta lipoproteinemia (DPBL) is a plasma lipoprotein phenotype characterized by the presence of two agarose gel electrophoretic populations of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs, d < 1.006 g/mL), i.e., normal pre-beta-migrating VLDL and slow pre-beta VLDL. Slow pre-beta VLDL represents remnant lipoproteins derived from the hydrolysis of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), and thus DPBL is a characteristic of plasma remnant lipoprotein accumulation. To determine the prevalence of DPBL in our lipid clinic population, patients (n = 2501) were selected who (1) had an unambiguous VLDL electrophoretic phenotype and could be classified as having either DPBL (DPBL+), beta-migrating VLDL (beta-VLDL +), or an absence of both (DPBL/beta-VLDL-/-) and (2) had hypercholesterolemia (HC: plasma cholesterol > or = 6.2 mmol/L, n = 1017), hypertriglyceridemia (HTG: plasma TG > or = 2.3 mmol/L but < 15 mmol/L, n = 554) or combined hyperlipidemia (HC + HTG, n = 930). Patients with TG < 2.3 mmol/L and cholesterol < 5.2 mmol/L acted as control subjects (n = 343). Using a commercially available agarose gel electrophoresis system, we identified 220 hyperlipidemic patients (8.8%) with DPBL (versus < 1% of control). The prevalence of DPBL was higher in (1) male than in female patients (10.7% versus 6.7%), (2) postmenopausal than in premenopausal females (7.3% versus 4.1%), and (3) patients with HC + HTG than in those with HTG or HC alone (15.8% versus 8.3% versus 2.7%, respectively). Patients with an epsilon 2 allele had a higher prevalence of DPBL; i.e., 26.9% of apoE 3/2 and 26.2% of apoE 4/2 patients had DPBL compared with 6.5%, 6.8%, and 7.4% of apoE 3/3, 4/3, and 4/4 patients, respectively. DPBL patients consistently had increased levels of VLDL-C and (LDL + HDL)-TG and decreased levels of LDL-C, and their plasma lipid profiles were intermediate between those of beta-VLDL+ and DPBL/beta-VLDL -/- patients. These results demonstrate that male sex, postmenopausal status in women, and the presence of an apoE 3/2 or apoE 4/2 phenotype are associated with an increased incidence of DPBL in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:9409236
Background Much research has been conducted into the determinants of physical activity (PA) participation among adolescent girls. However, the more specific question of what are the determinants of particular forms of PA participation, such as the link between participation through a sports club, has not been investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between participation in a sports club and socio-economicstatus (SES), access to facilities, and family and peer support, for female adolescents. Methods A survey of 732 female adolescent school students (521 metropolitan, 211 non-metropolitan; 489 Year 7, 243 Year 11) was conducted. The survey included demographic information (living arrangements, ethnicity indicators, and indicators of SES such as parental education and employment status and locality); access to facilities; and family and peer support (travel, encouragement, watching, praise, joint participation). For each characteristic, sports club participants and non-participants were compared using chi-square tests. Multiple mediation analyses were used to investigate the role of access, family and peer support in the link between SES and sport participation. Results There were significant associations (p<0.05) between sports club participation and: all demographic characteristics; all measures of family and peer support; and access to sport-related facilities. Highest levels of participation were associated with monolingual Australian-born families, with two parents, at least one of whom was well-educated, with both parents employed, and high levels of parental assistance, engagement and support. Participation in club sport among both younger and older adolescent girls was significantly positively associated with the SES of both their neighbourhoods and their households, particularly in metropolitan areas. These associations were most strongly mediated by family support and by access to facilities. Conclusions To facilitate and promote greater participation in club sport among adolescent girls from low SES neighbourhoods and households, strategies should target modifiable determinants such as facility access and parental support. This will involve improving access to sports facilities and promoting, encouraging and assisting parents to provide support for their daughters’ participation in sport clubs.
Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict.
\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to explore issues of gender in educational change. The scholarship on change rarely explores\\u000a gender issues, and, when gender is considered, it is usually synonymous with female.
Although significant associations between childhood socio-economicstatus (SES) and adult mental disorders have been widely documented, SES has been defined using several different indicators often considered alone. Little research has examined the relative importance of these different indicators in accounting for the overall associations of childhood SES with adult outcomes. Nor has previous research distinguished associations of childhood SES with first onsets of mental disorders in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood from those with persistence of these disorders into adulthood in accounting for the overall associations between childhood SES and adult mental disorders. Disaggregated data of this sort are presented here for the associations of childhood SES with a wide range of adult DSM-IV mental disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative sample of 5,692 adults. Childhood SES was assessed retrospectively with information about parental education and occupation and childhood family financial adversity. Associations of these indicators with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disorders that included anxiety, mood, behavioral, and substance disorders at different life course stages (childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and mid-later adulthood) and the persistence/severity of these disorders were examined using discrete-time survival analysis. Lifetime disorders and their ages-of-onset were assessed retrospectively with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Different aspects of childhood SES predicted onset, persistence, and severity of mental disorders. Childhood financial hardship predicted onset of all classes of disorders at every life-course stage with odds-ratios (ORs) of 1.7–2.3. Childhood financial hardship was unrelated, in comparison, to disorder persistence or severity. Low parental education, although unrelated to disorder onset, significantly predicted disorder persistence and severity, whereas parental occupation was unrelated to onset, persistence, or severity. Some, but not all, of these associations were explained by other co-occurring childhood adversities. These specifications have important implications for mental health interventions targeting low-SES children.
McLaughlin, Katie A.; Breslau, Joshua; Green, Jennifer Greif; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Cancer registries in the 1970s showed that parts of Golestan Province in Iran had the highest rate of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the world. More recent studies have shown that while rates are still high, they are approximately half of what they were before, which might be attributable to improved socio-economicstatus (SES) and living conditions in this area. We examined a wide range of SES indicators to investigate the association between different SES components and risk of OSCC in the region. Methods Data were obtained from a population-based case–control study conducted between 2003 and 2007 with 300 histologically proven OSCC cases and 571 matched neighbourhood controls. We used conditional logistic regression to compare cases and controls for individual SES indicators, for a composite wealth score constructed using multiple correspondence analysis, and for factors obtained from factors analysis. Results We found that various dimensions of SES, such as education, wealth and being married were all inversely related to OSCC. The strongest inverse association was found with education. Compared with no education, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for primary education and high school or beyond were 0.52 (0.27–0.98) and 0.20 (0.06–0.65), respectively. Conclusions The strong association of SES with OSCC after adjustment for known risk factors implies the presence of yet unidentified risk factors that are correlated with our SES measures; identification of these factors could be the target of future studies. Our results also emphasize the importance of using multiple SES measures in epidemiological studies.
During sepsis, a complex network of cytokine, immune, and endothelial cell interactions occur and disturbances in the microcirculation cause organ dysfunction or even failure leading to high mortality in those patients. In this respect, numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate sex-specific differences in infectious diseases and sepsis. Female gender has been demonstrated to be protective under such conditions, whereas male gender may be deleterious due to a diminished cell-mediated immune response and cardiovascular functions. Male sex hormones, i.e., androgens, have been shown to be suppressive on cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, female sex hormones exhibit protective effects which may contribute to the natural advantages of females under septic conditions. Thus, the hormonal status has to be considered when treating septic patients. Therefore, potential therapies could be derived from this knowledge. In this respect, administration of female sex hormones (estrogens and their precursors) may exert beneficial effects. Alternatively, blockade of male sex hormone receptors could result in maintained immune responses under adverse circulatory conditions. Finally, administration of agents that influence enzymes synthesizing female sex hormones which attenuate the levels of pro-inflammatory agents might exert salutary effects in septic patients. Prospective patient studies are required for transferring those important experimental findings into the clinical arena.
Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Hubbard, William J; Chaudry, Irshad H
A large body of literature argues that marriage promotes health and increases longevity. But do these benefits extend to maintaining a healthy body weight, as the economic theory of health investment suggests they should? They do not. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), I find that entry into marriage among both men and women aged 51-70 is associated with weight gain and exit from marriage with weight loss. I evaluate three additional theories with respect to the cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in the data. First, it may be that a broader set of shared risk factors (such as social obligations regarding meals) raises body mass for married couples. However, the shared risk factor model predicts that the intra-couple correlation should increase with respect to marital duration. Instead, it declines. Second, scholars have recently promoted a "crisis" model of marriage in which marital transitions, not marital status, determine differences in body mass. The crisis model is consistent with short-term effects seen for divorce, but not for the persistent weight gains associated with marriage or the persistent weight loss following widowhood. And transition models, in general, cannot explain significant cross-sectional differences across marital states in a population that is no longer experiencing many transitions, nor can it account for the prominent gender differences (in late middle-age, the heaviest group is unmarried women and the lightest are unmarried men). Third, I argue that pressures of the marriage market, in combination with gendered preferences regarding partner BMI, can account for all the longitudinal and cross-sectional patterns found in the data. PMID:22795874
This study examined the importance of gender and gender role in understanding self-perceptions of body image. Male and female college students (N=166) who differed in gender role as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, a new measure of body image containing 140 items which fit a 3 x 3 matrix that…
Objective: Maternal mortality is a major public health problem in low-income countries, such as Bangladesh. Women's empowerment in relation to enhanced utilization of delivery care is underexplored. This study investigates the associations between women's economic empowerment and their utilization of maternal health care services in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 4925 women (15–49 years of age) with at least one child from whole Bangladesh constituted the study sample. Home delivery without skilled birth attendant and use of institutional delivery services were the main outcome variables used for the analyses. Economic empowerment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, household economicstatus, and demographic factors were considered as explanatory variables. The chi square test and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were applied at the collected data. Results: In the adjusted model, respondent's and husband's education, household economicstatus, and residency emerged as important predictors for utilization of delivery care services. In the unadjusted model, economically empowered working and microfinanced women displayed more home delivery. Conclusion: The current study shows that use of delivery care services is associated with socioeconomic development and can be enhanced by societies that focus on general issues such as schooling, economic wellbeing, and gender-based discrimination.
Dalal, Koustuv; Shabnam, Jahan; Andrews-Chavez, Johanna; Martensson, Lena B.; Timpka, Toomas
The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942
US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserted in a March 1997 speech to the State Department that integrating gender issues into foreign policy forwards the interests of the US government. Albright noted that advancing the status of women is necessary to build the kind of future the US wants for the world. This cannot happen unless women have the equal access, rights, and protection necessary to contribute to society to their full potential. Advancing the status of women is crucial for realizing the goals of building peace, expanding the circle of democracy, sustaining a growing global economy, and spreading US-endorsed values. The US is incorporating concerns relating to women into the mainstream of its foreign policy by supporting foreign aid programs that expand the political and economic participation of women, increase access for women to education and health care, and augment the ability of women to protect themselves from violence and disease. This integration process means that the US will be working with other governments as well as with nongovernmental organizations and other agents of progress. This gender perspective will affect every stage from policy-making to program implementation. The US will be seeking an end to the old era of injustice and repression to make way for a new era of opportunity and full participation. PMID:12321055
Reexamines the assumptions and conclusions of "The Velvet Ghetto" data and other gender-related research on public relations salaries, roles, and status, in an attempt to identify counter-arguments or attempts to change the issue with respect to gender. Suggests how to examine the counter-arguments qualitatively and quantitatively. (MS)
Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economicstatus when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.
Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.
In this paper we consider the effects of family migration on women's employment status, using census microdata from Great Britain and the United States. We test a simple hypothesis that families tend to move long distances in favor of the male's career and that this can have a detrimental effect on women's employment status. Unlike many previous studies of this question, our work emphasizes the importance of identifying couples that have migrated together, rather than simply comparing long-distance (fe)male migrants with nonmigrant (fe)males individually. We demonstrate that women's employment status is harmed by family migration; the results we present are surprisingly consistent for Great Britain and the United States, despite differing economic situations and cultural norms regarding gender and migration. We also demonstrate that studies that fail to identify linked migrant couples are likely to underestimate the negative effects of family migration on women's employment status. PMID:11392908
This background paper has been commissioned as a contribution to the preparation of the World Development Report 2012 which will focus on development and gender equality. It is a companion paper to two other papers which examine gender issues in relation to common property resources and economic dimensions of gender and energy. Gender, as a concept, refers to the socially
Joy Clancy; Tanja Winther; Magi Matinga; Sheila Oparaocha
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is currently in the process of revising the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community have expressed interest and concern regarding the future status of the diagnostic categories of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) of Adolescence and Adulthood and GID of Childhood (GIDC) in
In United States v. Morrison, the Supreme Court struck down the federal civil rights remedy for gender-based violence in the Violence Against Women Act. Notwithstanding evidence considered by Congress documenting the economic impact of domestic violence, and despite the inability of state and local systems to address gender-based violence claims, the Court determined that Congress lacked the necessary authority. The
F. Catherine Johnson affirms that gender-based violence undermines development efforts in such sectors as economic growth, HIV\\/AIDS, and child survival. Gender violence is an enormous cost to society. Johnson advocates for a comprehensive, multifaceted model to address the problem, including legal interventions, health approaches, public awareness and political will, illustrating this model with the interventions of USAID. Development (2001) 44,
Based on empirical research among women's antiwar organizations worldwide, the article derives a feminist oppositional standpoint on militarization and war. From this standpoint, patriarchal gender relations are seen to be intersectional with economic and ethno-national power relations in perpetuating a tendency to armed conflict in human societies. The feminism generated in antiwar activism tends to be holistic, and understands gender
Several EU policy papers have called for an improved dialogue between security policymakers, social science researchers and science and technology researchers working on security (Pullinger, 2006). To increase the understanding of gender dimensions in security, the traditional technological response can be complemented by socio-political knowledge. Gender inequities in the socio-economic and political spheres can be analysed by such a comprehensive
This article attempts to summarize the situations of gender-based violence, a major public health issue. Due to the unequal power relations between men and women, women are violated either in family, in the community or in the State. Gender-based violence takes different forms like physical, sexual or psychological/ emotional violence. The causes of gender-based violence are multidimensional including social, economic, cultural, political and religious. The literatures written in relation to the gender-based violence are accessed using electronic databases as PubMed, Medline and Google scholar, Google and other Internet Websites between 1994 and first quarter of 2013 using an internet search from the keywords such as gender-based violence, women violence, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence during pregnancy, women sexual abuse, political gender based violence, cultural gender-based violence, economicalgender-based violence, child sexual abuse and special forms of gender-based violence in Nepal. As GBVs remain one of the most rigorous challenges of women's health and well-being, it is one of the indispensable issues of equity and social justice. To create a gender-based violence free environment, a lot works has to be done. Hence, it is suggested to provide assistance to the victims of violence developing the mechanism to support them. PMID:24096231
For women to develop competence at all, but especially in high-status technologies, is to violate the unwritten law of gender. Positivist, constructivist, and critical theory accounts of gender and equity leave the status quo intact. Postmodern theorizing allows a different blueprint for change. (SK)
Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of eighth-grade single-gender classes with coed classes across subject area, gender, at-risk status, and socioeconomic status (SES). The sample was drawn from one school, DeSoto West Junior High School, where enrollment averages 80% African American,…
Objective:To determine to what extent self-reported and objective data on socio-economicstatus (SES) are associated with overweight\\/obesity among 15 to 16-year-old ethnic Norwegians.Design:A cross-sectional questionnaire study on health and health-related behaviors.Subjects:All school children aged 15–16 years old in 2000 and 2001 in Oslo, Norway. Response rate 88% (n=7343). This article is based on the data from the 5498 ethnic Norwegians.Measurements:Self-reported
N Lien; B N Kumar; G Holmboe-Ottesen; K-I Klepp; M Wandel
The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economicstatus, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. PMID:24864001
A critic of Deborah Tannen's book "Gender and Discourse" responds to comments made about her critique, arguing that the book's analysis of the relationship of gender and discourse tends to seek, and perhaps force, explanations only in those terms. Another linguist's analysis of similar phenomena is found to be more rigorous. (MSE)
Discusses the relationship between bilingualism and gender within a feminist poststructuralist framework. Suggests that all language contact phenomena, including bilingualism, acquire different meanings in different contexts and can be linked to gender only indirectly. (Author/VWL)
In this study, we examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning making devices than previous research, we found that 13- to 16-year old racially and economically diverse females
Robyn Fivush; Jennifer G. Bohanek; Widaad Zaman; Sally Grapin
Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…
The Somali Women's Democratic Organization (SWDO) asked USAID/Somalia to provide a team to initiate a project directed at improving its management capabilities and improving social and economic conditions of rural women in the Lower Shabelle Region of Som...
This article is intended to identify research opportunities for gender scholars in all disciplines. The authors explain why a truly interdisciplinary approach is necessary to study gender and offer their current thinking about how to pursue this goal. They first provide a description of gender as it plays out at the individual, interpersonal, and…
This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…
This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…
This issue of "ETS Policy Notes" discusses gender differences in educational achievement. The first article--"The Gender Gap in Education: How Early and How Large?"--discusses the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which first measures achievement at age 9 years. Gender differences at that age are generally small, but significant…
More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…
The literature on how parent gender influences responses to children has grown enormously in the past decade; mothers and fathers have been found to differ on many dimensions and to be similar on just as many. Conflicting evidence also exists on how a child's gender affects parenting style. This paper reports some important gender differences in…
In three experiments we explored the mental representation of morphologically complex words in French. Subjects were asked to perform a gender decision task on morphologically complex words that were of the same gender as their base or not. We found that gender decisions were made more slowly for morphologically complex words made from a base with…
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth, reduced fertility, child
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduce fertility,
At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduce fertility,
Background Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Methods Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Results Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary “evil” for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Conclusions Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk.
Background Khat consumption is widespread in Yemeni society and causes problems both in economic development and public health. Preventive measures have been largely unsuccessful and the cultivation continues to proliferate. The gender-specific motives for khat use and abstinence were studied to create a toe-hold for more specific interventions. Methods In a quota sample with equal numbers of males, females, abstainers and consumers, 320 subjects were interviewed on their specific opinions about khat and its impact on subjective and public health, and on social and community functioning. Strata were compared in their acceptance and denial of opinions. Notions that could predict abstinence status or gender were identified with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Male khat users had a strong identification with khat use, while females were more ambivalent. The notion that khat consumption is a bad habit (odds ratio (OR) 3.4; p < 0.001) and consumers are malnuorished (OR 2.2; p = 0.046) were associated with female gender among khat users. Among the females worries about health impact (OR 3.2; p = 0.040) and loss of esteem in the family (OR 3.1; p = 0.048) when using khat predicted abstinence. Male abstainers opposed khat users in the belief that khat is the cause of social problems (OR 5.1, p < 0.001). Logistic regression reached an accuracy of 75 and 73% for the prediction of abstinence and 71% for gender among consumers. (All models p < 0.001.) Conclusions Distinct beliefs allow a differentiation between males, females, khat users and abstainers when targeting preventive measures. In accordance to their specific values female khat users are most ambivalent towards their habit. Positive opinions scored lower than expected in the consumers. This finding creates a strong toe-hold for gender-specific public health interventions.
Variables expected to be associated with academic achievement were examined in a sample (generally exceeding 2500) from eight secondary schools in Baymon Norte, Puerto Rico. Concern was whether variables associated with academic achievement differed by sex or by socioeconomic status (SES). Multivariate analyses of variance with three factors of…
An investigation was made of the relationship of achievement marks assigned by teachers to elementary grade, lower socioeconomic status boys and girls to pupils' (1) racial background, (2) sex, (3) intelligence quotient, and (4) tested achievement. Teacher marking procedures were studied. The rationale was to inquire whether or not characteristics…
Based on 1970s data, the "Heyneman-Loxley (HL) effect" proposed that in developing nations, school variables were more important than family socioeconomic status in determining academic achievement. A reassessment of the HL effect using 1990s TIMSS data found the relationship between family background and student achievement to be similar across…
Baker, David P.; Goesling, Brian; Letendre, Gerald K.
The purpose of this 1971 study was to see if there was sufficient evidence at South High School of the Omaha Public School District to support any of the following hypotheses: (1) controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ) and socioeconomic status (SES), Spanish American children have a significantly lower self-concept than Anglo children; (2)…
Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.
McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
True gender self child therapy is based on the premise of gender as a web that weaves together nature, nurture, and culture and allows for a myriad of healthy gender outcomes. This article presents concepts of true gender self, false gender self, and gender creativity as they operationalize in clinical work with children who need therapeutic supports to establish an
The purpose of the present study is to compare the sociometric status of low socioeconomic status elementary school students with and without special needs and investigate the effects of different variables (gender, age, physical appearance, social skills, behavior problems, and academic competence) on students' sociometric status. Elementary…
Examines school enrollment and educational attainment in Kinshasa, Congo, focusing on how poverty, household structure, gender, and economic well-being affect investments in children's education. Increased economic well-being translates into greater attainment for both females and males, but does not necessarily reduce gender differences in school…
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare Long Island special education directors' early assessments of the implementation of Response to intervention (RTI) in high, average, and low economic resource-need Long Island school districts in an attempt to provide the field feedback to better guide and operationalize the Individuals with…
The present study has as its objective a determination, based on the state of technical knowledge attained in the concept phase of the PNP project, as to whether the potential usage and the economic prospects of nuclear coal gasification will justify the ...
This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for executive function tasks in children of varying levels of language dominance, and examines the contributions of general cognitive knowledge, linguistic abilities, language use and socio-economic level to performance. Welsh-English bilingual and English monolingual…
Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Thomas, Enlli Mon; Jones, Leah; Guasch, Nestor Vinas; Young, Nia; Hughes, Emma K.
This is the fifth in a series of statistical reports about the social and economic conditions of the black population in the United States. Included here are the most current data available on selected areas of major interest. The majority of the statistics in this report are from the Bureau of the Census, but some are from other government and…
The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors. PMID:19727878
Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917
This study explores socio-economic gradients in height (stature-for-age) among a nationally representative sample of 2–6 year old children in the United States. We use NHANES III (1988–1994) Youth data linked with a special Natality Data supplement which contains information from birth certificates among sampled NHANES III Youth who are less than 7 years of age. Our results indicate significant socioeconomic gradients for both maternal education and family income, net of controls for confounders, including: birth weight, gestational age, family size, and parental heights. These results are in stark contrast to those from other developed countries that seem to indicate diminished or eliminated socioeconomic disparities, net of known confounders. In the United States, it appears that socio-economic gradients have an effect on birth outcomes, and continue to have an additional direct and independent effect on height, even in early childhood.
In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753
Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT) recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economicstatus of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females). Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place of residence, ownership of a personal transportation device, duration and frequency of pre-transplant dialysis, family history of CRF (Chronic renal failure), and etiology of renal disease were obtained. There were 50 (50%) patients aged between 16 and 35 years, 55 had a family history of CRF, 60 had been on dialysis for more than a year, 61 were married, 47 did not have any children, 41 had more than 3 children, and 65 were unemployed due to physical and emotional impairment as a result of their disease. The majority (73%) did not have a high school diploma, 15% were illiterate, 85% were below the poverty line, 52% were from rural areas, and 98% were covered by insurance. We conclude that patients with CKD in our study had acquired this condition possibly due to negligence and lack of basic health care in the lower socioeconomic class. In addition, KT is an available therapeutic modality to lower socio-economic level in Iran. PMID:18310885
Roozbeh, Jamshid; Jalaeian, Hamed; Banihashemi, Mohammad Amin; Rais-Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Sagheb, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehipour, Mehdi; Faghihi, Hajar; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed Ali
The 1986 status report presents tactical objectives, goals, accomplishments, strategies, and contract status of ongoing projects in GRI's Natural Gas Supply R&D Subprogram that mainly address unconventional supply sources which cannot be economically expl...
True gender self child therapy is based on the premise of gender as a web that weaves together nature, nurture, and culture and allows for a myriad of healthy gender outcomes. This article presents concepts of true gender self, false gender self, and gender creativity as they operationalize in clinical work with children who need therapeutic supports to establish an authentic gender self while developing strategies for negotiating an environment resistant to that self. Categories of gender nonconforming children are outlined and excerpts of a treatment of a young transgender child are presented to illustrate true gender self child therapy. PMID:22455324
The development of an analysis of gender which avoids conflations with sex, but which also acknowledges the powerful role of embodiment in gender production, has tantalised gender theorists for some time. Many writers have critiqued the slippage back to sexed bodies underlying various apparently social constructionist analyses of gendered behaviour. Conversely, some poststructuralist and ‘Third Wave’ accounts of gender have
Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.
Summary Height is regarded as one of the indicators of environmental stress at population level, being an excellent barometer of standard of living. The aim of this study was to describe diversity in height among populations living in different regions of the Kingdom of Poland in terms of the economic factors in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. This study examines the height of adult inhabitants from five guberniyas (provinces) of the Kingdom of Poland (?om?a, Warsaw, Radom, Kalisz and P?ock) collected in the years 1897-1914 (N=732 men, N=569 women). Differences in average height of male and female inhabitants across the five guberniyas were examined using ANOVA and the Fisher's LSD (Least Significant Difference) test of multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences in the height between the guberniyas were observed. Diversity in the economic development in the studied guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland translated into differences in the height of their inhabitants. Moreover, an increase in mean height over time was noted. PMID:24041152
The construction of gender is a systematic process that begins at birth and is continually shaped, molded, and reshaped throughout life. This book examines practices with young children with respect to the construction of gender and the expectations of society, schools, and families. The book is organized into two parts. The first part considers…
Includes "Introduction to Gender in Distance Education" (Spronk); "From the Local to the Global" (Taylor, Kirkup); "Addressing Some Gender Issues in Distance Education at the University of the South Pacific" (Tuimaleili'fano); "Women and Science at a Distance" (Va'a); "Women as Distance Learners in Israel" (Enoch); "Women Friendly Programming in…
Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would
The role of gender in shaping achievement motivation has a long history in psychological and educational research. In this review, gender differences in motivation are examined using four contemporary theories of achievement motivation, including attribution, expectancy-value, self-efficacy, and achievement goal perspectives. Across all theories,…
These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…
We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…
According to data from the Newly Entitled Beneficiary Survey and the 1979 and 1988 Current Population Survey, much of the gender gap in pensions is caused by gender differences in such labor market characteristics as experience, tenure, and income. Children and marriage have a negative effect on females' pensions, although not for more recent…
This newsletter contains six articles on issues of gender equity for Chicanas and other women. "Recognizing Chicana Contributions: Cultural History & Gender Equity on the Line" (Mikki Symonds) discusses the invisibility of Mexican Americans in general and of Chicanas in particular in U.S. history books, school curricula, and pop culture, and…
The authors, who have worked with more than 2,000 schools across the United States in efforts to close gender gaps, describe how gender-related issues consistently intersect and interfere with school improvement efforts. They present statistics showing that schools are now failing boys in more areas than girls, and describe how "the structures,…
This is the entry page for participation in the gender perception experiment. Participants view photographs of faces and only the mouth and chin regions are visible. Participants are asked to identify the gender of each stimulus and to indicate their confidence in their judgment.
Collins considers the paradox that masculine domination of the arts has not altered popular identification of art as a "feminine" and therefore low-status activity. She reviews writings on gender identification in art and examines approaches for increasing women's participation in art and art education without further lowering art's status. (SJL)
Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = -.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d =?.22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = -.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede's cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated. PMID:22808072
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement.
An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.
As conflict and cooperation among states turn to an ever greater extent on economic issues, this fully updated and expanded second edition presents a comprehensive exploration of the legal foundations of the international economy. It not only examines the current status of the law, but also explores the origins, political tensions and development of outcomes that are often difficult to
The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social EconomicStatus (SES), gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.
This paper focuses mainly on a the author's current experience of Higher Education and of a module concerned with gender, difference, sport and leisure made available to students studying for sport and leisure management degrees. It reviews the changed nature of the curriculum in the shifting socio-economic climate, suggesting that the neo-liberal11I refer here to neo-liberalism as, ‘associated with the
This article reviews the major theories on identity and economic outcomes to reiterate that identity affects the material well-being of individuals. Based on two rounds of data from the National Family and Health Survey, this article attempts to examine changes in two of the several identities in India, namely, the gender-caste overlap. The Gender-Caste Development Index (GCDI) from an earlier
We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…
This paper discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's porous pavement research program along with the economics, advantages, potential applications, and status and future research needs of porous pavements. Porous pavements are an available stormwater management techniq...
Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to Europe and medically highly significant. This study, focused on Poland, investigated individual risk factors for TBE symptomatic infection. Methods and Findings In a nation-wide population-based case-control study, of the 351 TBE cases reported to local health departments in Poland in 2009, 178 were included in the analysis. For controls, of 2704 subjects (matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence) selected at random from the national population register, two were interviewed for each case and a total of 327 were suitable for the analysis. Questionnaires yielded information on potential exposure to ticks during the six weeks (maximum incubation period) preceding disease onset in each case. Independent associations between disease and socio-economic factors and occupational or recreational exposure were assessed by conditional logistic regression, stratified according to residence in known endemic and non-endemic areas. Adjusted population attributable fractions (PAF) were computed for significant variables. In endemic areas, highest TBE risk was associated with spending ?10 hours/week in mixed forests and harvesting forest foods (adjusted odds ratio 19.19 [95% CI: 1.72–214.32]; PAF 0.127 [0.064–0.193]), being unemployed (11.51 [2.84–46.59]; 0.109 [0.046–0.174]), or employed as a forester (8.96 [1.58–50.77]; 0.053 [0.011–0.100]) or non-specialized worker (5.39 [2.21–13.16]; 0.202 [0.090–0.282]). Other activities (swimming, camping and travel to non-endemic regions) reduced risk. Outside TBE endemic areas, risk was greater for those who spent ?10 hours/week on recreation in mixed forests (7.18 [1.90–27.08]; 0.191 [0.065–0.304]) and visited known TBE endemic areas (4.65 [0.59–36.50]; 0.058 [?0.007–0.144]), while travel to other non-endemic areas reduced risk. Conclusions These socio-economic factors and associated human activities identified as risk factors for symptomatic TBE in Poland are consistent with results from previous correlational studies across eastern Europe, and allow public health interventions to be targeted at particularly vulnerable sections of the population.
Stefanoff, Pawel; Rosinska, Magdalena; Samuels, Steven; White, Dennis J.; Morse, Dale L.; Randolph, Sarah E.
Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…
This article reports grammatical gender attribution scores in French Williams participants (N = 28, mean chronological age = 15.1) in an experiment similar to the classic one from Karmiloff-Smith (1979) where grammatical gender was pitted against natural gender. WS participants massively opted for the masculine gender as the default one, just as…
The potential uses of public resources and powers to improve the economicstatus of economic groups (such as industries and occupations) are analyzed to provide a scheme of the demand for regulation. The characteristics of the political process which allow relatively small groups to obtain such regulation is then sketched to provide elements of a theory of supply of regulation.
Presents a practical viewpoint of the economic necessities of funding education and a general model for restoring economic stability. This involves a fixed "Basic Education Budget" not subject to voter approval, an "Index for Fixed School Costs" based on socioeconomic status of the community, and increased community involvement. (TE)
This page provides information about the gender perception activity. Children and adults often report that they base their judgments of gender on features such as hair length or clothing. However, hair length can be long or short on a man or a woman, and men and women do wear similar types of clothing. Despite the potential for confusion, people reliably categorize individuals in the absence of information about hair or clothing. This study page explains the role of facial features in cueing gender classification.
The purpose of this investigation was to study the relationship between gender and delinquency among inner-city adolescents participating in a court diversion program. Official and self-report records of 64 adolescents were analyzed to determine the influence of gender on program referrals, arrest rates, drug use, delinquency, and gang involvement. Gender differences emerged in both the referral source and behavioral patterns of the adolescents. Overall, males were more likely to be referred to the program for violations of the law, to have been arrested, and to have engaged in aggressive offenses and selling drugs. Females were more likely to be referred because of status offenses. Gang membership had an intensifying effect on the delinquent behaviors of all youths. Male gang members were far more likely than nonmembers to have been arrested, and female gang members were more likely than nonmembers to carry weapons. PMID:8266841
Background The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary) and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children’s grade level and socioeconomic status (SES). This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade) in 394 French children from low SES families. Methodology/Principal findings Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency) always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. Conclusion/Significance These results challenge the ‘simple view of reading’. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French), which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them.
The Economic Commission for Africa is the arm of the United Nations devoted to making quality information on African development internationally available. ECA research focus areas include gender equality, agricultural productivity, information technology, social policy, and environmental concerns. The site features an extensive bibliography of articles on African socio-economic development entitled Africa Index as well as the comprehensive Africa Economic Report 1998. Current awareness is also facilitated by the long list of African Newspaper and Magazine links entitled News from Around Africa.
Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by "social ordering schemas" that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between "normals" and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma's impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of other more status-based bases of stratification such as SES, race and gender, whose health impacts have been firmly established. PMID:24507907
There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…
Gender justice includes three basic dimensions: gender equality, respect for difference, and free choice. In reality, schools construct and reproduce the gender injustice of the social culture through multiple dimensions that include the visible and the invisible curriculum, and the teacher's behaviour. In terms of gender justice, the social…
The purpose of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the differences in science, mathematics and engineering education among racial-ethnic and gender subgroups by exploring factors related to precollege science achievement growth rates. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and multi-wave, longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988--1994 (NELS:88/94), this study examined precollege science achievement growth rates during the 8th to 10th grade period and the 10th to 12th grade period for African American males, African American females, Latino males, Latina females, Asian American males, Asian American females, White males and White females. For the 8th--10th grade period, previous grades were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups; and socio-economicstatus and high school program were significantly and positively related to science achievement growth for all subgroups except one (Latino males, and Asian American males respectively). For the 10th--12th grade period, the quantity of science courses completed (science units) was the only variable that was statistically significant for more than one racial-ethnic by gender subgroup. Science units taken were significantly and positively related to 10 th--12th grade growth rates for all racial-ethnic by gender subgroups except Latino males. Locus-of-control was the only cognitive or psychosocial factor included from Eccles, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece and Midgley's (1983) theoretical framework for achievement behaviors that appeared to exhibit any pattern across race-ethnicities. Locus-of-control was positively related to 8th--10 th grade science achievement growth for females across all racial-ethnic subgroups, as well as for African American males. However, for both the 8 th--10th grade and 10th--12 th grade periods, there was no consistency across racial-ethnic or gender subgroups in effects of the remaining cognitive and psychosocial factors on science achievement growth rates. Cognitive and psychosocial variables were statistically significant only for specific subgroups, and did not generally exhibit any commonalities across gender, or by race. The findings accentuated the importance of disaggregating data and analyses by both race-ethnicity and gender.
Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechan...
Contents: Summary - Introduction; Teleworking and Gender--the Context; Survey Methodology; Characteristics of Teleworkers; Household Roles; Location; Employment History and Teleworking Experience; Working Conditions; Comparisons Between Teleworking and On...
U. Huws S. Podro E. Gunnarsson T. Weijers K. Arvanitaki V. Trova
This paper presents the socio-economic profile of households in the Family Dynamics Study (FDS) (1997-2001) and makes comparisons with the earlier Functional Groups Study (FGS) (1992-1996). For the current study, FGS villages with a high prevalence of child malnutrition were purposively selected. In each village selected, all households were included, and interviews with a structured questionnaire were conducted in April-May 1998. Incomes were generally low and incidence of poverty was high; 49.6% of the households were under the poverty line income, of which 37.2% were poor and 12.4% were hard core poor. Overall, only 23.2% of heads of households were in agricultural occupations, others being primarily waged workers and petty traders. Livestock rearing was widespread (57.8%), and most households (90.4%) owned at least one motorised vehicle, the most common being the motorcycle. The majority of households had refrigerators (73.6%), washing machines (58.8%), and televisions (91.1%); but telephones (42.2%), mobile phones (6.1%) and computers (2.3%) were less common. Although 99.7% of households had electricity supply and 95.1% had either a flush or pour flush latrine, only 57.4% had piped water supply. In comparison to the FGS, poverty in the current study is lower (49.6% of FDS households are poor compared to 55.2% of FGS households), the proportion of household heads in agricultural occupations is also lower (26.9% compared to 55.3%), while all other socioeconomic indicators were better, except for piped water supply, which remains inadequate for households in the current study. PMID:22692437
\\u000a Personality is the study of individual differences and thus holds promise for a better understanding of how our gendered society\\u000a shapes and reinforces differences in women’s and men’s attitudes, emotions, and behaviors. Two strengths of present-day personality\\u000a research are particularly relevant for the study of gender. First, personality researchers gather data from large samples\\u000a of normally functioning individuals and emphasize
The striving for status has long been recognized in sociology and economics. Extensive theoretical arguments and empirical evidence propose that people view status as a sign of competence and pursue it as a means to achieve power and resources. A small literature, however, based on arguments from biology and evolutionary psychology, proposes that…
Huberman, Bernardo A.; Loch, Christoph H.; Onculer, Ayse
This paper examines the present status of hydrogen energy and looks at different approaches for technological advances. Some of the new developments in the progress of the recent directions of world hydrogen production and utilization are reported.The aim of this article is to inform the reader of hydrogen technology, economics, environmental impact, special system applications, hydrogen energy status around the
Background In order to develop health promotion initiatives it is important to identify at what age gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviours emerge. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse how health-related behaviours and weight status differed by age-group, gender, family socio-economicstatus and over time in three cohorts of school children. Methods All children in grades 2, 4 and 7 in a Swedish semi-urban municipality were invited to participate (n?=?1,359) of which 813 (60%) consented. At baseline and after 2 years a health questionnaire was answered by all children. Height and weight was measured. Fourteen outcomes were analysed. The main and interaction effects of time, gender and parental educational level on the health-related behaviours, weight status and body mass index standard deviation score (BMIsds) were analysed by the Weighted Least Squares method for categorical repeated measures and Analysis of Variance. Results Nine of 12 health behaviours deteriorated over the two years: consumption of breakfast and lunch, vegetables and fruit, intake of sweetened drinks, TV viewing, club membership, being outdoors, and school recess activity; two behaviours were unchanged: intake of sweets, and active transport. Only sports participation increased with time. Girls consumed more vegetables, less sweetened drinks, performed less sports, were less physically active during recess, and had lower BMIsds, compared to boys. Those with more highly educated parents had more favourable or similar behaviours compared to those with less educated parents in 10 out of 12 health behaviours, the only exception being intake of sweets and being outdoors, and had lower BMIsds. Conclusions This study adds to our knowledge regarding the temporal development of health behaviours and weight status in school children. Differences with regard to gender and socioeconomic status were seen already at a young age. These results contribute to our understanding of several important determinants of obesity and chronic diseases and may inform future interventions regarding how to decrease gender and social inequalities in health.
The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school disciplinary data for an urban school district, we explored three of the most commonly offered hypotheses for disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions,
Russell J. Skiba; Robert S. Michael; AbraCarroll Nardo; Reece L. Peterson
Examines how pseudonymous identification in a computer-mediated communication (CMC) context might: (1) reflect a motivation for gender-based status parity and (2) mitigate supposed gender-based communication differences associated with social interdependence. Subjects were 114 undergraduate students who participated in computer-based…
Jaffe, J. Michael; Lee, Young-Eum; Huang, Li-Ning; Oshagan, Hayg
Examined middle school disciplinary data in one urban school regarding three common hypotheses about disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions were somewhat more robust than socioeconomic differences. Boys engaged more frequently in a…
Skiba, Russell J.; Michael, Robert S.; Nardo, Abra Carroll; Peterson, Reece L.
We investigated whether bilinguals recognizing or producing noun phrases in their second language Dutch are influenced by the grammatical gender in their mother tongue German. The Dutch nouns used in the experiments were either gender-"compatible" or - "incompatible" with their German translation. Furthermore, their cognate status (form similarity…
Lemhofer, Kristin; Spalek, Katharina; Schriefers, Herbert
In the contemporary standard Warsaw Polish of educated Poles, there is evidence of a system of gender-marking whereby masculine-gender nouns are being substituted for feminine professional names, working titles and surnames. The current usage is attributed to the change of status of the modern woman, or, more precisely, to her increased…
Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…
Understanding gender identity disorder first requires an explication of what is meant by gender identity. As a psychological construct, gender identity has been\\u000a conceptualized with respect to both cognitive and affective parameters. At the cognitive level, gender identity has been defined\\u000a as the child's ability to accurately discriminate females from males and then to identify her or his own gender
Recent examinations of gender differences in physical health suggest that women's disadvantage may be smaller than previously assumed, varying by health status measure and age. Using data from the 1997–2001 National Health Interview Surveys, we examine gender-by-age differences in life-threatening medical conditions, functional limitations, and self-rated health and consider whether potential mediating mechanisms (e.g., socioeconomic status, behavioral factors) operate uniformly
The National Research Council has recognized the challenge of assessing laboratory investigation and called for the investigation of assessments that are proven through sound research-based studies. The Vee map provides a framework that allows the learners to conceptualize their previous knowledge as they develop success in meaningful learning…