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1

Culture and commerce in China's Special Economic Zone : an experiment in design and development  

E-print Network

Improvements in the real estate environment in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone have been conducive to development and foreign investment. Based on a projected market demand, a mixed-use development in the theme of a ...

Lee, Joyce See-yin

1989-01-01

2

Ecological risk assessment of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China.  

PubMed

Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long - 58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005 - respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation. PMID:23343986

Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

2013-01-01

3

Ecological Risk Assessment of Land Use Change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China  

PubMed Central

Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long—58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005—respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation. PMID:23343986

Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

2013-01-01

4

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents policy and oversight issues for Congress arising from (1) maritime territorial disputes involving China in the South China Sea (SCS) and East China Sea (ECS) and (2) an additional dispute over whether China has a right under internati...

R. O'Rourke

2012-01-01

5

China's Economic Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the initiation of economic reforms 30 years ago, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing economies. From 1979 to 2007, China's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of 9.8%. Real GDP grew 11.4% in 2007. However...

W. M. Morrison

2008-01-01

6

The transition of urban growth in China : a case study of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone  

E-print Network

The Chinese government announced new economic reform policies in December of 1978. The announcement included an urban distribution policy that emphasized small cities and towns for rural urbanization as a means to achieve ...

Gao, Mingzheng, 1965-

1995-01-01

7

Spatial distribution of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1817) in the South China Sea Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rastrelliger kanagurta inhabits the South China Sea, where it is the most abundant commercial fish. Understanding distribution of this species is important. Objective of this study is to describe the relationship between spatial distribution of R. kanagurta and its local environmental factors. Chlorophyll-a distribution and sea surface temperature was obtained from Aqua MODIS satellite image. Fisheries data of 2007 to 2010 were obtained from the Southeast Asean Fisheries Department Center (SEAFDEC). These data were analyzed in relation to physical and environmental factors to establish the spatial-temporal distribution of the species. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was calculated from the fisheries data and used as abundance index. Kernel Density maps of the abundance were created. The result showed that the abundance generated by Kernel Density analysis at 10.0 to 12.0 were associated with chlorophyll-a concentration of 0.4 ± 0.1 mg/m3 and sea surface temperature of 27.0 ± 1.0 °C at offshore of Pahang coast. The density maps showed that the increase of R. kanagurta abundance was occurred in October. The environmental factors in South China Sea played an important role on R. kanagurta's density patterns. This study indicated the capability of GIS and satellite image to indicate aggregation area of R. kanagurta.

Razib, N. A.; Mustapha, M. A.

2013-11-01

8

Stressors of dual-qualification nursing teachers in the ChengDu-ChongQing economic zone of China--a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Nursing and teaching are considered risk professions with high levels of stress and burnout. Dual-qualification nursing teachers (DQNT) are nurses who both teach and practise. These nurses face additional stress. This study explored the stressors of DQNT in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. This qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended interviews. The interview responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The participants in this study included 21 DQNT from 5 teaching hospitals in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. The results indicated that heavy workload, personal safety, inadequate pay, role overload, and poor working environment are stressors of DQNT. Furthermore, Chinese DQNT face violence from patients and students. The study provides a theoretical basis to help DQNT to cope with stress. PMID:23702488

Wu, Youfeng; Liu, Hui; He, Hongyan

2013-12-01

9

Understanding china's economic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are claimed to be successful in (a) agriculture where land is not owned by the fanners; (b)

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

2001-01-01

10

China's Way of Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

China started economic transition in 1978 to implement a Chinese type of socialist market economy system, i.e., a market-oriented economy consisting of collectively community-owned enterprises (CCOE) and state-owned enterprises (SOE) in a totalitarian political system with the Communist Party of China as the ruling power. The main contents of the economic transition can be briefly described as follows: (1) gradual

John-ren Chen

2005-01-01

11

Exploring the mechanisms of ecological land change based on the spatial autoregressive model: a case study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China.  

PubMed

Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran's I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated signi?cant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05). The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model. PMID:24384778

Xie, Hualin; Liu, Zhifei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guiying; Lu, Fucai

2014-01-01

12

The Shenzhen Special Economic Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat Thematic Mapper views Shenzhen, China, located on the Pearl River, in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 432. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1396, 1397, and 1398.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

13

Blueschists in major suture zones of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blueschist facies rocks and C-type eclogites occur as allochthonous terranes or as small tectonic blocks in almost all the accretionary fold belts and major suture zones within the interior of China and along the Circum-Pacific and Tethys-Himalayan belts. At least forty blueschist localities have been described. Blueschists around the Pacific margins and the Himalaya-Alpine belts are mostly Mesozoic in age; only those in Taiwan and New Caledonia are Cenozoic. Intracratonal blueschists of China are older than Late Permian, when the collision-amalgamation presumably occurred. Several alleged Precambrian blueschist localities [Ye, 1987] are shown in the recently published Metamorphic Map of China. A Precambrian(?) blueschist belt in Anhui-Hubei (central China) extends for about 2300 km. However, except for the pre-Sinian blueschist terrane in Aksu, the age determination for Precambrian blueschist metamorphism elsewhere has not been confirmed. Characteristic features of Chinese blueschists include the following: (1) blueschist facies metamorphism predates the continental collision-amalgamation, (2) most blueschists have undergone multistage metamorphism, commonly with increasing temperature and/or decreasing pressure for later events, (3) assemblages include sodic amphibole + epidote + albite + quartz + phengite + chlorite + sphene; lawsonite, jadeitic pyroxene, and aragonite are not common, and (4) protoliths are mainly mafic, pelagic, and clastic rocks. Blueschist facies metamorphism in China may be divided into two types on the basis of the imposed geothermal gradient, hence the progressive change in mineral assemblage. The rare lawsonite-bearing blueschists produced at lower temperatures and higher pressures are confined to the Inner Mongolia and Yarlung Zangbo suture zones where aragonite and possibly jadeitic pyroxene + quartz occur, and the blueschists are associated with subgreenschist facies rocks. Most other blueschists of China formed at higher temperatures along the transitional blueschist-greenschist facies boundary where epidote, sodic, and calcic amphiboles are ubiquitous, and the blueschists are interlayered with greenschist facies rocks. The common occurrence of intracratonal blueschists in major suture zones of China and elsewhere in Eurasia indicates pre-Mesozoic subduction-accretion of oceanic crust and flysch sediments. These zones of accretion represent growth around the periphery of major Precambrian cratons. This fact, together with the distribution of ophiolite belts and available paleomagnetic data, provides evidence for an extremely mobile history of plate movement in Eurasia. However, the Paleozoic intracontinental blueschists and ophiolites of China have formed before, rather than during, final closure between cratons. They do not usually mark the location of terminal sutures but are the result of earlier accretion and continental growth by subduction, underplating, and imbrication of oceanic materials similar to the accretion history of westernmost North America.

Liou, J. G.; Wang, Xiaomin; Coleman, R. G.; Zhang, Zh. M.; Maruyama, S.

1989-06-01

14

China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure  

SciTech Connect

Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

1994-09-01

15

Three essays on development economics in China  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three independent essays in empirical development economics using data from China. In the first two chapters, I examine the determinants of choices within the household. In the first ...

Qian, Nancy

2005-01-01

16

China, Southeast Asia and Economic  

E-print Network

twenty years; but also the political changes that have made the independent nation-state a world-wide also be seen in two dimensions: the economic changes that have dominated the discourse of the past norm, very different though such states may be. The two sets of changes cannot be considered entirely

Sun, Jing

17

Applications of ground source heat pump systems in different temperature zones in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the application of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems to different temperature zones in China is presented in this paper. According to the climate characteristics, China is divided into six different temperature zones: the tropical zone, the subtropical zone, the warm temperate zone, the mid temperate zone, the cold temperate zone, and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau vertical temperature zone.

Y. Bi; X. Wang; Y. Liu; R. Tian; L. Chen; C. Wu

2009-01-01

18

Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China  

E-print Network

Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China Sylvie Démurger, Jeffrey D. Sachs Development Working Papers #12;Forthcoming in Asian Economic Papers Vol. 1 No. 1 Geography, Economic Policy;1 October 14, 2001 Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China Sylvie Démurger, Jeffrey D

19

Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and  

E-print Network

Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China* Sylvie Démurger Jeffrey D the location dummies in provincial growth regressions to obtain estimates of the effects of geography

20

China and India: economic performance, competition and cooperation: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and India chose similar economic development strategies in 1950 of near autarky, industrialization, and the dominance of the state in the economy. China came out of insulation and began reforming its economy in 1978. India’s hesitant and piecemeal reforms, initiated in the 1980s, became systemic and broader in 1991. Since 1980, China has grown at an average rate of

T. N. Srinivasan

2004-01-01

21

China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

2011-01-01

22

China, India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and  

E-print Network

China, India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and Environmental Implications for Low of Life Sciences and 2 La Trobe University 1. INTRODUCTION THE emergence of China and India as major and regional economic integration (Tongzon, 2005; Haddad, 2007; Athukorala, 2009). India's rapid growth

Coxhead, Ian

23

Economic Development, Population Ageing and Sustainability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most populous country in the world, China is enjoying unprecedented economic growth. However this growth is accompanied with population ageing and serious environmental degradation which has attracted global attention. The impact of China's environmental problems on the rest of world in the future will be as important as that of the country's rapid economic growth. Without a balanced development

Xiumei Guo; Dora Marinova

24

The Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement between China and Taiwan: Understanding Its Economics and Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

World trade has become increasingly regionalized in the past decade as a result of preferential arrangements. Due to Taiwan's unique international political status, its present government believes that closer economic integration with China would enhance Taiwan's economic prosperity and prevent Taiwan from being marginalized in East Asia. Taiwan hence signed the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) with China in 2010.

Tsai-Lung Hong; Chih-Hai Yang

2011-01-01

25

Window on the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat Thematic Mapper views Shenzhen, China, located on the Pearl River, in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 432. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1396, 1397, and 1399.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

26

[Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].  

PubMed

This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests. PMID:19459385

Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

2009-02-01

27

Innovation capacity and economic development: China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposing the GDP growth from 1981 to 2004, this paper finds that innovation capacity has contributed significantly to the\\u000a economic growth of China and India, especially in the 1990 s. Outputs of the national innovation system, measured by patents\\u000a and high-tech\\/service exports, demonstrate the considerable progress China and India have made in innovation capacity. The\\u000a enhanced innovation capacity of China and

Peilei Fan

2011-01-01

28

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China  

PubMed Central

Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

2014-01-01

29

Economic Aspects of Civilian Reprocessing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, China is pursuing a long-term expansion of its nuclear power program and plans to reprocess the resulting civilian spent fuel, recycling the plutonium in MOX fuel for LWRs and in fast breeder reactors. China presently operates three civilian nuclear power reactors, but it plans to build about 20 reactors by 2020. A pilot civilian reprocessing plant has been built

Hui Zhang

30

Fiscal decentralization, public spending, and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of China demonstrates how the allocation of fiscal resources between the central and local governments has affected economic growth since reforms began in the late 1970s. We find that a higher degree of fiscal decentralization of government spending is associated with lower provincial economic growth over the past fifteen years. This consistently significant and robust result in our

Tao Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

1998-01-01

31

Economic growth and food policy in urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influence that economic growth gives to the food consumption in urban China by taking income gap into consideration. It also proposes an appropriate food policy corresponding to the consumers’ diversified needs for food under the process of economic growth. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Various kinds of methodologies are employed such as

Lily Kiminami; Akira Kiminami

2009-01-01

32

Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

2014-10-01

33

Student Responses to Economic Reform in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes research suggesting diverse trends in the behavior and attitudes of Chinese students, which often conflict with Chinese tradition and customs, and official Chinese government ideology. Addresses the decline of personal sacrifice for the social cause, and changes in courtship and sexual attitudes. Relates most of these changes to China's…

Chunhou, Zhang; Vaughan, C. Edwin

1996-01-01

34

Forthcoming in the inaugural issue of Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies China's Economic Growth After WTO Membership  

E-print Network

Forthcoming in the inaugural issue of Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies China Abstract We assess the prospects of China's future growth performance in two steps. The first step membership would harmonise China's economic institutions with those of capitalist economies and reduce

35

Capital Formation and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, production functions are estimated for China's aggregate economy and for the five sectors--agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, and commerce--using annual data (some constructed by the author) from 1952 to 1980. Then, this paper measures the contribution of capital formation to the growth of these sectors, the effects of the Great Leap Forward of 1958-62 and of the Cultural Revolution of

Gregory C. Chow

1993-01-01

36

Economic reforms and health insurance in China.  

PubMed

During the 1990s, Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and collective enterprises continually decreased coverage of public health insurance to their employees. This paper investigates this changing pattern of health insurance coverage in China using panel data from the China Nutrition and Health Survey (1991-2000). It is the first attempt in this literature that tries to identify precisely the effects of specific policies and reforms on health insurance coverage in the transitional period of China. The fixed effects linear model clustering at the province level is used for estimation, and results are compared to alternative models, including pooled OLS, random effects GLS model and fixed effects logit model. Strong empirical evidence is found that unemployment as a side effect of the Open Door Policy, and the deregulation of SOE and collective enterprises were the main causes for the decreasing trend. For example, urban areas that were highly affected by the Open Door Policy were associated with 17 percentage points decrease in the insurance coverage. Moreover, I found evidence that the gaps between SOE and non-SOE employees, collective and non-collective employees, urban and rural employees have considerably decreased during the ten years. PMID:19520475

Du, Juan

2009-08-01

37

Economic Status and Social Attitudes of Migrant Workers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractMigrant workers, meaning those who used to be farmers but have left rural areas and found jobs in cities as a result of economic reform and rapid development in China, have made a significant contribution to the burgeoning labor market and played an important role in speeding up the transition from a planned to a market economy. This present paper

Peilin Li; Wei Li

2007-01-01

38

CHINA'S ECONOMIC AND EDUCATION REFORM: A ROLE FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The People's Republic of China has undertaken two profound initiatives in the past 20 years. First, the central government announced that it is going to shift from a centrally planned model of economics to one that will be based on the attributes of a free market. Second, the government called for a reform of the education system, which had become

David P. McBreen; Edna L. McBreen; Zhiming Wu

1996-01-01

39

Economic Liberalization with Rising Segmentation in China's Urban Labor Market*  

E-print Network

segmentation arises when labor market is made up of several segments with distinct rules for wage determination-tiered labor market in which wages are not only determined by skill differentials, but also by differentEconomic Liberalization with Rising Segmentation in China's Urban Labor Market* Sylvie Démurger

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, 2004. One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session, June 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report sets forth the Commission's analysis of the U.S.- China relationship in the designated areas of investigation in our Congressional mandate: China's proliferation practices, China's economic reforms and U.S. economic transfers to China, China's...

2004-01-01

41

Economic Impact ofEconomic Impact of the Coca-Cola System on Chinathe Coca-Cola System on China  

E-print Network

findings of an in-depth eco- nomic impact study of The Coca-Cola Company and its bottling partners in China has had on the Chi- nese economy. This study is timely because China is currently preparing for entry economic linkages throughout China. The study describes the ways in which Coca-Cola's international

Almor, Amit

42

Analysis of an oasis microclimate in China's hyperarid zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microclimate of a desert oasis in China’s hyperarid zone was monitored, analysed and compared to that of nearby forested lands. Factors associated with differences in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) between clear, cloudy and dust storm days are discussed. Desert oases were shown to fulfill ecological functions such as altering solar radiation, adjusting near-ground and land surface temperatures, reducing temperature differences, lowering wind velocity, and increasing soil and atmospheric humidity. Total solar radiation within the oasis was roughly half that above the forest canopy. During the growing season, air temperatures in Populus euphratica Olivier and Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. woodlands were, on average, 1.62 and 0.83°C lower, respectively, than that in surrounding woodlands. The greater the forest cover, the greater was the difference in temperature. Air temperature was higher at the upper storey than that at the lower storey of the community, i.e., air temperature increased with increasing height above the soil surface. During the growing season, relative humidity was higher in woodlands than in surrounding areas: relative humidity in P. euphratica and T. ramosissima woodlands were, on average, 8.5 and 4.2% higher, respectively, than that in the surrounding area. Mean wind velocity in the P. euphratica forest land was 0.33 m/s, 2.31 m/s lower than that in the surrounding area. On dust storm days PAR and total radiation, Q, were significantly lower than that on cloudy or clear days. Their ratio, ? Q = PAR/ Q, was larger and much more variable on dust storm days than that on clear or cloudy days.

Feng, Qi; Macuo, Zhuo; Haiyang, Xi

2009-09-01

43

Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.  

PubMed

Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan?=?1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary. PMID:23604726

Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

2013-10-01

44

Techno-economic potential of bioethanol from bamboo in China  

PubMed Central

Background Bamboo is potentially an interesting feedstock for advanced bioethanol production in China due to its natural abundance, rapid growth, perennial nature and low management requirements. Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was selected as a promising technology to enhance sugar release from bamboo lignocellulose whilst keeping economic and environmental costs to a minimum. The present research was conducted to assess: 1) by how much LHW pretreatment can enhance sugar yields in bamboo, and 2) whether this process has the potential to be economically feasible for biofuel use at the commercial scale. Pretreatments were performed at temperatures of 170-190°C for 10–30 minutes, followed by enzymatic saccharification with a commercial enzyme cocktail at various loadings. These data were then used as inputs to a techno-economic model using AspenPlus™ to determine the production cost of bioethanol from bamboo in China. Results At the selected LHW pretreatment of 190°C for 10 minutes, 69% of the initial sugars were released under a standardised enzyme loading; this varied between 59-76% when 10–140 FPU/g glucan of commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2 was applied. Although the lowest enzyme loading yielded the least amount of bioethanol, the techno-economic evaluation revealed it to be the most economically viable scenario with a production cost of $0.484 per litre (with tax exemption and a $0.16/litre subsidy). The supply-chain analysis demonstrated that bioethanol could be economically competitive with petrol at the pump at enzyme loadings up to 60 FPU/g glucan. However, in a prospective scenario with reduced government support, this enzyme loading threshold would be reduced to 30 FPU/g glucan. Conclusions Bioethanol from bamboo is shown to be both technically and economically feasible, as well as competitive with petrol in China. Alternative approaches to reduce bioethanol production costs are still needed however, to ensure its competitiveness in a possible future scenario where neither tax exemptions nor subsidies are granted to producers. These measures may include improving sugar release with more effective pretreatments and reduced enzyme usage, accessing low cost bamboo feedstock or selecting feedstocks with higher/more accessible cellulose. PMID:24286490

2013-01-01

45

Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

2013-03-01

46

Corruption in China’s economic reform: a review of recent observations and explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corruption is a universal phenomenon of public institutions. It is markedly more pervasive in developing and transitional\\u000a societies. China, with rapid economic growth for two decades, has been deeply troubled by the problem of official corruption\\u000a at all levels in the public sector. The paper reviews the literature in the last 15 years which examines Chinese corruption\\u000a from either a theoretical

Olivia Yu

2008-01-01

47

Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China*  

PubMed Central

Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants’ accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general. PMID:24376290

Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

2013-01-01

48

Seismic investigation of an ocean-continent transition zone in the northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rifted continental margins and basins are mainly formed by the lithospheric extension. Thined lithosphere of passive continental margins results in decompression melt of magma and created oceanic crust and thined ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone. Two refraction profiles used ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the broad continental shelf and three multi-channel seismic reflection lines in the northern South China Sea, acquired by the ship "Shiyan 2" of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010, are processed and interpreted in this study. Seismic reflection lines cut through the Dongsha rise, Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression within a Tertiary basin, Pear River Mouth basin (called as Zhujiangkou basin). These tectonic features are clear imaged in the seismic reflection records. Numerous normal faults, cutted through the basement and related to the stretch of the northern South China Sea margin, are imaged and interpreted. Reflection characteristics of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone are summaried and outlined. The COT zone is mainly divided into the northern syn-rift subsidence zone, central volcano or buried volcano uplift zone and tilt faulted block near the South Chia Sea basin. Compared to the previous seismic reflection data and refraction velocity models, the segmentation range of the OCT zone is outlined, from width of about 225 km in the northeastern South China Sea , of 160 km in the central to of 110 km in the north-central South China Sea. Based on the epicenter distribution of sporadic and large than 6 magnitude earthquakes, it suggests the OCT zone in the northern South China Sea at present is still an active seismic zone.

Zhu, J.; Qiu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhan, W.; Sun, Z.

2011-12-01

49

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

SciTech Connect

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

Lindhjem, Henrik [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)]. E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy of the State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1 Yuhuinanlu, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu [College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

2007-01-15

50

Economic Transition and New Patterns of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence in Urban China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses national data from the 1996 Life History and Social Change in Contemporary China survey (N= 3,087) to gauge the effect of the economic transition on parent-adult child coresidence in urban China. Previous studies find that, thanks to state actions, traditional patterns in co-residence persisted in post-Mao urban China. This study…

Forrest Zhang, Qian

2004-01-01

51

Income per capita inequality in China: The Role of Economic Geography and Spatial Interactions  

E-print Network

Income per capita inequality in China: The Role of Economic Geography and Spatial Interactions inequality in China. We apply a structural model of economic geography to data on per capita income over 190 dependence can explain the growing income inequality between Chinese cities. The econometric specification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…

Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

2011-01-01

53

Sustaining Economic Growth in China under Energy and Climate Security Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

After over a quarter of a century of high economic growth, there is no sign that China will slow its pace of economic development. In the meantime, domestic energy security and international climate security have become of increasing concern given China's growth patterns. In this paper, the authors look at the future prospects of growth of the economy, energy demand

Xuedu Lu; Jiahua Pan; Ying Chen

2006-01-01

54

77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BA80 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch...Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY...pertaining to Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook [[Page...

2012-03-09

55

Aqaba's Old Town : proposed model for community development within the Aqaba Special Economic Zone  

E-print Network

As a recently designated Special Economic Zone in 2001 and Jordan's only port, Aqaba has been experiencing a major economic boom and rapid development at a scale previously unprecedented in Jordan. Under the governance of ...

Al-Husseini, Dalia Z. (Dalia Zuehir)

2007-01-01

56

Geology, fluid inclusions, isotope geochemistry, and geochronology of the Paishanlou shear zone-hosted Gold Deposit, North China Craton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paishanlou gold deposit lies along the northern margin of North China Craton gold province, the third largest Au province in China. The deposit is mainly hosted in Archean metamorphic rocks of the Jianping Group and is structurally controlled by two sets of ductile shear zones. Gold mineralization is closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration along the ductile shear zones,

Xiao-Hui Zhang; Qing Liu; Ying-Jun Ma; Hui Wang

2005-01-01

57

China-asena Financial Integration on Free Trade Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article focuses on the regional financial integration and research dynamic, connotation and theory, this is primarily based on CAFTA economies and its regional cooperation's background and current situation, and the comprehensive analysis of China-ASEAN financial integration. The analysis focuses on the integrated use of optimal currency area indicator and external dynamic shock with a data panel empirical method, and

Wenli Ding; Yanwen Wu

2011-01-01

58

Identifying high amenity zones in the U.S. and China with advanced GIS techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a variety of GIS techniques to examine the spatial pattern and extent of high amenity zones (HAZ) in selected cities of the U.S. and Guangzhou, China. HAZs are adjacent to downtowns and represent high density upscale residential areas whose residents support neighborhood retailing and service employment that can often result in the misclassification of the areas as

Richard P. Greene; Siqin Wang

2010-01-01

59

The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

1995-01-01

60

Economic transition and maternal health care for internal migrants in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic migration and growth in informal employment in many of the major cities of developing countries, combined with health sector reforms that are increasingly relying on insurance and out-of-pocket payment, are raising concerns about equity and sustainability of economic and social development. In China, the number of internal migrants has dramatically grown since economic transition started in 1980, and maternal

ZHAN SHAOKANG; SUN ZHENWEI; ERIK BLAS

2002-01-01

61

A Comparative Study of the Economic Reforms in China and India: What Can We Learn?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last quarter of the twentieth century was characterized by economic reforms in many formerly state-dominated economies. Among them, the reform attempts by China and India have attracted increasing attention in the popular media and academic research. This paper contribute to this research by using institutional theory to analyse the reforms in China and India and develop a framework to

Shaomin Li; Anil Nair

2007-01-01

62

Economic environment, technology diffusion, and growth of regional total factor productivity in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of the regional economic environment and technology diffusion on China's regional total factor productivity (TFP) growth. We build a model of TFP growth in which Chinese regions achieve growth in TFP by making use of technology spillovers from the world technology frontier. We hypothesize that given the world frontier level of TFP, China's regional TFP

Yanqing Jiang

2011-01-01

63

ECONOMIC COSTS OF VEHICULAR POLLUTION IN CHINA - WITH A CASE STUDY OF BEIJING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses Beijing as a case study to examine the economic costs of vehicular pollution in China. It mainly covers air and noise pollution. It starts with an overview of air and noise pollution generated by motor vehicles in China. Following that, a discussion of the methodologies used for estimation is then presented. Willingness to pay and human capital

Xin Deng

64

The place of FDI in China's regional economic development: Emergence of the globalized delta economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's remarkable economic development and sustainable high growth rates since the 1980s have stimulated much discussion in recent literatures. Among the augments of China's rapid growth, voluminous recent literatures have emphasized that foreign direct investment (FDI) may best explain its recent growth record at both national and regional level. To understand how such sustained rapid regional growth happened in a

Chyau Tuan; Linda Fung-Yee Ng

2007-01-01

65

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-print Network

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01

66

On the Road: Access to Transportation Infrastructure and Economic Growth in China  

E-print Network

This paper estimates the effect of access to transportation networks on regional economic outcomes in China over a twenty-period of rapid income growth. It addresses the problem of the endogenous placement of networks by ...

Banerjee, Abhijit

2012-02-29

67

Evaluating the Consistency of Remote Sensing Based Snow Depth Products in Arid Zone of Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover is a sensitive indicator of global climate change. Among various snow cover parameters, snow depth which can indicate snow accumulation is essential for retrieving snow water equivalent. In arid zone of western China, based on different inversion models, snow depth products retrieved from passive microwave remote sensing sensors have been issued. However, none of them can promise a high accuracy due to the spatial heterogeneity of snow cover especially in mountain areas with complex terrain. This study aims to analyse the reliability of existing long-term snow depth products in arid zone of western China. Two datasets are compared including GlobSnow snow water equivalent (SWE) product and snow depth dataset provided by Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China. Statistical techniques like regression and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) models are employed to examine the consistency of these two remote sensing based snow depth products in a selected sampling site. More than 260 samples during three years are tested covering from snow falling to snow melting periods. Result shows that there is a discrepancy between the two datasets. Accordingly, remote sensing based snow depth measurement is not reliable in mountain areas in arid zone of western China. This study gives an awareness of the stabilities of current snow depth detection models. A further study is expected to calibrate snow depth products based on in-situ observation and measurements from ground monitoring stations.

Zhou, Q.; Sun, B.

2012-08-01

68

The social cost of China's economic growth: messages from China's 2012 parliamentary session.  

PubMed

The fifth and final session of China's Eleventh National People's Congress (NPC), or parliament, was held in Beijing from March 5 to March 14, 2012. Several episodes stand out in this year's session. One is the abrupt dismissal immediately after the session of Bo Xilai, party chief of a major Chinese municipality and Politburo member. That has been arguably linked to the political and economic model he championed, which incorporated redistributive social policies and proactive government intervention. Also worthy of note is that nearly all NPC delegate seats are occupied by the country's elites, while working people are overwhelmingly under-represented, if not unrepresented. Last but not least, although neoliberalism has been widely discredited since the global economic crisis, the government work report delivered at this year's NPC session signals further embracement of private investment--not only domestic, but also foreign--in key industries and social services controlled by the state. These episodes merit reflection as they send important messages about the challenges facing the country's political economy now and in the future. PMID:23367803

Zhang, Wei

2012-01-01

69

Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

2014-11-01

70

The Rise of China as an Economic Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the twenty years since the Cultural Revolution, China has maintained fast real growth. This occurred despite China having similar problems to other transitional economies, eg loss-making State Owned Enterprises (SOEs), eroding fiscal revenues and inflation, (Section 3). Although China initially adopted the Soviet central planning model, after the 1950s break Chinese planning changed towards a regionally-based system with local

C. Goodhart; Chenggang Xu

1996-01-01

71

Will China's nutrition overwhelm its health care system and sloe economic growth?  

PubMed Central

Rapid social and economic change is transforming China with enormous implications for its population and economy. China is a huge transition toward a country with over a fifth of adults being overweight with related dietary and physical activity patterns. Overweight and poor diets are shifting to be a greater burden for the poor with subsequent large increases in hypertension, stroke and adult onset diabetes. The related economic costs represent 4–8% of the economy. Public investments in China are needed to head off a huge increase in the morbidity, disability, absenteeism and medical care costs linked with this nutritional shift. PMID:18607042

Popkin, Barry M.

2008-01-01

72

Revitalize the lost enclave : establishing guidelines for the Free Economic Zone in Shanghai  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on an emerging urban form: Free Economic Zone. As a special enclave with tax incentives and policy experimentation, the FEZ undertakes the mission to grow the economy and test new rules in developing ...

Huang, Xing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

73

75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection; Workshop...for evaluating the Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch management program that...plans and operations for avoiding Chinook salmon bycatch. DATES: The public...

2010-06-08

74

75 FR 53873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels Participating in the...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch for vessels participating in the...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch allocated to vessels...

2010-09-02

75

A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P 2O 5 (?0.06 wt.%), Na 2O > K 2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, ?14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (La CN/Lu CN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu * = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and ? 18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma. The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al 2O 3 and Na 2O, and decreasing SiO 2, (Fe 2O 3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K 2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y decrease, while F, Li, Rb, Hf, Ta, Sn, Sc, Ga and Zn increase. (6) K/Rb, Al/Ga, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho decrease, and K/Cs, Th/U (La/Lu) CN and TE 1,3 (quantification factor of REE tetrad effect) increase. (7) There is a general decrease in whole-rock ? 18O from 9.25‰ to 9.75‰ in zone-a to 7.32‰ in zone-e. (8) Homogenization temperatures of melt inclusions in quartz decrease from about 860 °C for zone-a to about 660 °C for zone-e. It is interpreted that crystallisation of the magma started from zone-a and proceeded upwards to zone-e, and the vertical zoning is produced by fractional crystallisation accompanied by fluid-melt interaction. Some of the distinctive features of zone-e were caused by influx and reaction of meteoric fluid at the post-magmatic stage. Turbulent structures and co-magmatic deformation textures are well recorded in the rocks, and are ascribed to reduced viscosity and enhanced flow rate of the F- and H 2O-rich magma.

Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Wu, Chang-zhi; Gou, Xiao-qin; Liao, Jing-juan; Yang, Hao

2011-10-01

76

The dynamic response of geomagnetic sudden commencement to tectonic zone and large earthquakes in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the skin effect of EM waves, geomagnetic storm variations can be used to study the subsurface tectonic structure and faulting to have information of penetration view of the earth’s interior. We collected geomagnetic storm report data for 8 years 2000-2007 from 35 geomagnetic stations in China and calculated the amplitude of the vertical component of geomagnetic storm sudden commencement (?Zssc) to study the correlations between ?Zssc and the occurrence of Ms=6.0-8.1 earthquakes in China and its vicinity (70-140°E, 15-55°N) in the period of Year 2000 to 2008. We found that there were significant correlations between the spatial distribution of amplitude changes of ?Zssc, fault activity and occurrence of large earthquakes. Our study provides a method to monitor possibility of medium-to-short term (0.5-12 months) earthquake. There are 5 ?Zssc zero isoporic lines delineating 5 areas normally distributed in China where we called Zero Isoporic Zone (ZIZ) as following, and apparently they coincide with several tectonic zones and seismic gaps from the past 60 years. 1.?Zssc zero isoporic line in eastern China, extending along the rivers of Heilongjiang and Yalu - Eastern Coastal Area - Taiwan Strait - the South China Sea. 2. ZIZ in Luliang Mountain area, where is east to the Great Bend of the Yellow River; 3. ZIZ in Wuling Mountain area is in south of Yangtze River; 4. ZIZ in Longmenshan Fault Zone in central China. This is one area to note in particular. 5. ZIZ in Middle and South Yunnan region. Longmenshan fault zone located at the geographic center of China, where is a seismic sensitive band to correspond to great earthquakes of around Ms8.0. On May 12, 2008, Wenchuan Earthquake of Ms 8.0 occurred in this area. We noticed that, over the period of January 2000 to May 2008, in 5 great earthquakes of Ms=7.8-8.1 in China and its vicinity, 2 to 5 months before the earthquakes, the ZIZ in Longmenshan Fault Zone showed the translation and deformation changes. It moved to NNW or NNE, rotated and even turned up sudden disappearance. The ZIZ in middle and south Yunnan was characterized by its disappearance and formation of a new isoporic line in western area of the original ZIZ. When ZIZ changes came about, within 0.5-12 months, there were 9 middle-strong earthquakes took place, which made up 64% in total 14 earthquakes that we studied in this area. An exceptional case, which had 3 earthquakes of Ms=6.2,6.4,6.6 in a row, occurred in compactly surrounding regions to ZIZ in Yunnan. In eastern China, ?Zssc zero isoporic line behaved changes of bending,tearing,elongation. It also formed a new ZIZ to connect with other 4 ZIZs. That indicated a great earthquake would occur within next 12 months. The ZIZ change in Wuling Mountain area was in the form of its disappearance, enlargement, connecting to eastern ZIZ or ?Zssc zero isoporic line. They foreshadowed the other 9 earthquakes as well. They are one of the biggest earthquakes in Wuling local history; earthquakes of Ms?6.5 in the East China Sea and Taiwan; earthquakes of Ryukyu Islands of Ms?7.0, and earthquakes in the South China Sea. The corresponding rate is 90%.

Zeng, X.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Z.; Lin, Y.

2009-12-01

77

Political Incentive and Economic Feedback - Understanding China's Inequality in Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to market economy in China has already been about 30 years. Regional disparities of China are becoming more serious. The inequality has become a drawback to Chinese economy. What matter and how can we resolve it? The paper argues that the game behavior between local government and local enterprise lead to the local institutional performance and it is

Chen Tao; Shen Yang

2010-01-01

78

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

2003-01-01

79

76 FR 65973 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Crab Prohibited Species...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Crab Prohibited Species Catch Allowances in...the projected unused amounts of the 2011 crab prohibited species catch (PSC) allowances...NMFS, has also determined that 259,000 crabs of Zone 1 C. bairdi tanner crab...

2011-10-25

80

Structural analysis of the coseismic shear zone of the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field investigations reveal that the surface rupture of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China, occurred along a pre-existing shear zone in the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt. Structural analyses of the coseismic fault zone and fault rocks show that i) the main coseismic shear zone consists of a fault core that includes a narrow fault gouge zone of 5 m in

Aiming Lin; Zhikun Ren; Yasuhiro Kumahara

2010-01-01

81

China.  

PubMed

This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

1983-12-01

82

Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period\\u000a 1986–2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the\\u000a optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end

Xiaoqiu Chen; Lin Xu

2011-01-01

83

Perceptions of Subjective Economic Well-Being and Support for Market Reform among China's Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether subjective economic assessments have any impact on support for further market reforms among China's urban population, utilising a large survey of 10,716 people across 32 cities. The effect of subjective economic well-being on support for market reforms is an important issue for the Chinese government as it seeks to sell the benefits of increased globalisation and

Ingrid Nielsen; Chris Nyland; Russell Smyth; Cherrie Jiuhua Zhu

2005-01-01

84

Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic…

Chang, Ho-Jun

2009-01-01

85

The Natural Capital of the Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Zone: First Steps Towards an Economic Valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a review of existing documentation of the physical properties, features, and natural and ecosystem processes relevant to the identification of natural capital of the Southern Lake Michigan Coastal Zone (SLMCZ). This is followed by a description of the concept of natural capital accounting. An overview is provided of the existing environmental economic research that measures the economic

Anna Cooper; Daniel T. McGrath

86

After Neoliberalism? Brazil, India, and China in the Global Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of debates about ‘post-neoliberalism’, we examine the implications of the global economic crisis for three important semi-peripheral states: Brazil, India, and China. Deploying a framework which combines neo-Gramscian theory, radical economic geography, and materialist state theory, we find that all their political-economic models have undergone processes of substantial neoliberalisation, albeit to varying degrees and partly giving way

Stefan Schmalz; Matthias Ebenau

2012-01-01

87

Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.  

PubMed

The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments. PMID:21147494

Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

2011-02-01

88

The Community Features and Factors Influencing Surface Runoff of Restoration Vegetation in Xinfeng National Demonstration Zone, SE China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xinfeng, is the typical region of the vegetation restoration of serious soil and water loss zone and a typical national demonstration zone for biological measures to control soil erosion in Jiangxi Province, SE China, in which the relationship between surface runoff and environmental factors, soil features and community features of restoration vegetation were analyzed using Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and

Dai-hua Qi; Zhi-yong Xia; Lin Huang

2010-01-01

89

Soil moisture potential and water content in the unsaturated zone within the arid Ejina Oasis in Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three soil profiles were selected in the Ejina Oasis, northwest China, to determine water content profiles and evolution of soil moisture potentials in the unsaturated zone within the arid area. The total soil moisture potentials have been monitored for about 3 months in 2001 at different depths in the soil profiles. The occurrence and movement of water in the unsaturated zone

X. Zhou; L. Wan; B. Fang; W. B. Cao; S. J. Wu; F. S. Hu; W. D. Feng

2004-01-01

90

The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India  

PubMed Central

We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980. PMID:20419074

Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

2010-01-01

91

Institutional innovations, asymmetric decentralization, and local economic development: a case study of Kunshan, in post-Mao China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides an understanding of the concept of institutional innovations for local economic development in post-Mao China. With Kunshan, one of the most dramatically developed regions in Yangtze Delta, used as a case study, the aim is to understand how, under what circumstances, and by whom, locally initiated projects can be institutionalized and evolved in the context of China’s

Shiuh-Shen Chien

2007-01-01

92

Regional Income Inequality and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an augmented Solow growth model with cross section and panel data, we find evidence of conditional convergence of per capita production across China's provinces from 1978 to 1993. Convergence is conditional on physical investment share, employment growth, human-capital investment, foreign direct investment, and coastal location. We project that, in the near term, overall regional inequality as measured by the

Jian Chen; Belton M. Fleisher

1996-01-01

93

Determination of mineral elements in Gentiana rigescens from different zones of Yunnan, China.  

PubMed

The concentrations of nine mineral elements were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in Gentiana rigescens from three zones (middle, southeast, and northwest zones) of Yunnan province in China. The average concentrations of mineral elements were found in the order K>Ca>Mg>Fe>Na>Zn>Cu>Cr>Se. Samples collected from the middle zone of Yunnan were enriched in Na (242.24 ± 50.80 mg/kg) and Mg (959.78 ± 54.60 mg/kg). However, materials from the southeast zone were particularly enriched in Ca (3,448.70 ± 749.82 mg/kg), but depleted in Se. Whereas those from the northwest zone were plentiful of K (2,746.89 ± 84.84 mg/kg), Fe (923.06 ± 127.52 mg/kg), Zn (261.38 ± 53.05 mg/kg), Cu (110.08 ± 46.23 mg/kg), and Se (53.99 ± 22.38 mg/kg). PMID:22161316

Zhang, Jinyu; Yuan, Tianjun; Wang, Yuanzhong; Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang

2012-06-01

94

A correlation analysis between the foreign trade of non-governmental enterprises and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the sustainable development of Chinese foreign trade has been playing a very important role in boosting China's economic growth, and the non-governmental enterprises (NGEs) have been making great contribution to the development of Chinese foreign trade. By conducting an empirical study, this paper analyzes the relationship between the foreign trade of Chinese NGEs and China's economic growth.

Wang Fei

2007-01-01

95

Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model  

PubMed Central

Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

96

Alternative zoning scenarios for regional sustainable land use controls in China: a knowledge-based multiobjective optimisation model.  

PubMed

Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

2014-09-01

97

The Effects of Democratization on Economic Policy: Evidence from China  

E-print Network

University PSTC, Stanford GSB Center for Global Business and the Economy, Harvard Academy Scholars Research affects economic policies such as taxation and public goods provision is a central question for policy makers as well as researchers in political economy, development economics and political science. Recently

Contractor, Anis

98

To return or not to return? Politics vs. economics in China’s brain drain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, based on 273 face-to-face interviews with students, scholars, and former residents of China in the United States\\u000a in 1993, uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to explain people's views about returning to China. Although less\\u000a than 9 percent of interviewees had concrete plans to return, over 32 percent were positively disposed to returning in the\\u000a future. Key background

David Zweig

1997-01-01

99

SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

1975-01-01

100

Privately owned public space attached to office buildings in Manhattan : economic and urban perspectives of incentive zoning  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the Incentive Zoning Policy of New York City from economic and urban perspectives. In the first part, it evaluates empirically the economic contribution of privately owned public space to the value of ...

Cai, Hongyu.

2003-01-01

101

Democratization, human rights and economic reform: The case of China and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the dramatic contrast in outcomes from the reform process in China and Russia. This experience sheds new light on the old debate about the relationship between political institutions, economic progress and human rights. It explores the arguments of principle involved in the debate about democratization in the communist countries. It examines the political setting within which the

Peter Nolan

1994-01-01

102

Research on Development Model and Countermeasure of Bamboo Industry in China on International Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global economy is facing economic crisis at present. And all the industries are face to serious problem relative to their fates. In addition, the bamboo industry in China is not relating to ecological environment construction for low utilization rate of raw materials, high energy consumption and low products extra value. therefore, the development model and countermeasure is urgent to

Peng Wan-xi; Zhang Xu; Zhang Zhong-feng; Wu Yi-qiang; Deng He-ping; Qi Hong-chen

2009-01-01

103

Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years, it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy. This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy, educational investment and educational finance, educational cost and…

Guirong, Li

2006-01-01

104

The Nature of China's Economic Growth in the Past Two Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese economy has grown at record rates since the start of the market-oriented reforms in 1978. Motivated by the Asian productivity debate, this article provides an assessment of the role of total factor productivity in China's economic growth in the past two decades. We identify four main factors in the productivity growth: efficiency gain at the micro level; improvement

Zhiqiang Liu

2000-01-01

105

The economics of sustainable energy for rural development: A study of renewable energy in rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines recent modeling efforts and case studies to evaluate the economic viability of off-grid renewable energy technologies for rural application in developing countries. Case studies have been conducted for a representative sample of 41 households from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, who have operating experience of at least one year with small, off-grid wind (less than

John Byrne; Bo Shen; William Wallace

1998-01-01

106

Economic Markets and Higher Education: Ethical Issues in the United States and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational values in both the United States and in China have suffered from the social and political reach of economic markets in each society. The models for counteracting the marketization of values in higher education can however be found in each country's past educational traditions. Surprisingly, the developmental values inherent in…

Keenan, Barry C.

2014-01-01

107

Introduction Since the launch of economic reforms in the late 1970s, China has experienced  

E-print Network

economic growth and spatial restructuring. Coastal provinces, especially Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang provinces and traditional industrial bases has declined. Development is also uneven within China's provinces inadequate to account for the recent development and restructuring in Sunan. I argue that spatial development

Wei, Yehua Dennis

108

Economic Reform and State-Owned Enterprises in China 1979-87  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is an investigation into China's reform process during the period 1979 to 1987, with especial reference to the effect of the process on the industries (mostly manufacturing) that are still owned by the state. The data on which this book is based results from a large-scale study in which the authors collaborated with the Institute of Economics of

Donald Hay; Derek Morris; Guy Liu; Shujie Yao

109

Balanced or Unbalanced Development: Special Economic Zones as Catalysts for Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a theory for a transition economy under which an unbalanced development strategy that favors special economic zones emerges as a response to two critical problems: (1) political pressure to satisfy certain social expenditure requirements and (2) the lack of institutions to constrain the state from expropriation. By promoting the concentration of resources in some areas, a low equilibrium

John M. Litwack; Yingyi Qian

1998-01-01

110

Mantle transition zone structure beneath India and Western China from migration of PP and SS precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the seismic structure of the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone beneath India and Western China using PP and SS underside reflections off seismic discontinuities, which arrive as precursors to the PP and SS arrival. We use high-resolution array seismic techniques to identify precursory energy and to map lateral variations of discontinuity depths. We find deep reflections off the 410 km discontinuity (P410P and S410S) beneath Tibet, Western China and India at depths of 410-440 km and elevated underside reflections of the 410 km discontinuity at 370-390 km depth beneath the Tien Shan region and Eastern Himalayas. These reflections likely correspond to the olivine to wadsleyite phase transition. The 410 km discontinuity appears to deepen in Central and Northern Tibet. We also find reflections off the 660 km discontinuity beneath Northern China at depths between 660 and 700 km (P660P and S660S) which could be attributed to the mineral transformation of ringwoodite to magnesiowuestite and perovskite. These observations could be consistent with the presence of cold material in the middle and lower part of the mantle transition zone in this region. We also find a deeper reflector between 700 and 740 km depth beneath Tibet which cannot be explained by a depressed 660 km discontinuity. This structure could, however, be explained by the segregation of oceanic crust and the formation of a neutrally buoyant garnet-rich layer beneath the mantle transition zone, due to subduction of oceanic crust of the Tethys Ocean. For several combinations of sources and receivers we do not detect arrivals of P660P and S660S although similar combinations of sources and receivers give well-developed P660P and S660S arrivals. Our thermodynamic modelling of seismic structure for a range of compositions and mantle geotherms shows that non-observations of P660P and S660S arrivals could be caused by the dependence of underside reflection coefficients on the incidence angle of the incoming seismic waves. Apart from reflections off the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, we observe intermittent reflectors at 300 and 520 km depth. The discontinuity structure of the study region likely reflects lateral thermal and chemical variations in the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone connected to past and present subduction and mantle convection processes.

Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Rost, Sebastian; Cobden, Laura; Dobson, David P.

2014-04-01

111

Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China  

SciTech Connect

The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: > National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. > We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. > The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

Song Guojun, E-mail: Songguojun@vip.sohu.com; Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

2011-11-15

112

Triassic sedimentation and postaccretionary crustal evolution along the Solonker suture zone in Inner Mongolia, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

zircon U-Pb dating of the Xingfuzhilu Formation in southern Inner Mongolia yields a maximum depositional age of around 220 Ma. The predominantly Permian and Triassic zircons are characterized by oscillatory zoning and euhedral shapes, with mostly positive zircon ?Hf(t) values (+2.0 to +16.4), indicating that they were derived from a proximal magmatic source. Early-Middle Paleozoic zircons have variable zircon ?Hf(t) values from -6.2 to +11.2 and are characterized by weak oscillatory zoning and subhedral-subrounded shapes, suggesting that the sources are a proximal magmatic arc, possibly mixed with components of the Ondor Sum magmatic arc and the magmatic arc at the northern margin of the North China Craton. The remnants of Precambrian blocks in the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and the North China Craton may also have been a minor source region for the Xingfuzhilu succession. These results, combined with regional data, indicate that a closing remnant ocean basin or narrow seaway possibly existed in the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) immediately prior to final collision of the CAOB and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Subsequent collision resulted in the crustal uplift and thickening along the Solonker suture zone, accompanied by possible slab break-off and lithospheric delamination during the Latest Permian to Middle Triassic. The resultant orogen in the Late Triassic underwent exhumation and denudation of rocks in response to the postorogenic collapse and regional extension. Vertical crustal growth in the Triassic is documented by detrital zircons from the Xingfuzhilu Formation and appears to have been widespread across entire eastern CAOB.

Li, Shan; Wilde, Simon A.; He, Zhengjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Liu, Renyan; Zhao, Lei

2014-06-01

113

Plant Invasions in China: What Is to Be Expected in the Wake of Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing and transitional countries undergoing rapid economic development will face growing problems with biological invasions because international commerce will bring new invaders. We assessed the potential for plant invasions in China by comparing the country's current invasive flora with that of the United States, a nation of similar size and latitudinal span but with a different history of plant introductions. Invasive plant species richness in the United States is about twice as high as it is in China. The remarkably lower fraction of invasive woody plants in China suggests that more alien trees and shrubs could invade Chinese habitats. Road density correlated with invasive plant species density among geographical units, with numbers for China lower than those for the United States. The data suggest that China has been invaded less than the United States has, and that the potential for new plant invasions in China is high. Measures toward preventing biological invasions are needed and timelysteps taken now can prevent adverse impacts from future invasions.

Ewald Weber (University of Zurich;); Bo Li (Fudan University - Shanghai, China;)

2008-05-01

114

China's state-owned enterprises: economic reform and organizational restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the Chinese economic reform process has engendered significant changes in the structure and management of work organizations. Central to this process has been the “marketization” of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The paper reviews the attempts to reform SOEs as conducted, primarily, under the modern enterprise system (MES) and group company

John Hassard; Jonathan Morris; Jackie Sheehan; Xiao Yuxin

2010-01-01

115

Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China.  

PubMed

Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions. PMID:21805230

Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

2012-07-01

116

Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions.

Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

2012-07-01

117

Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the coastal zone: The LOICZ approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focused on quantifying the role of the global coastal zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for site-specific and global assessments of coastal processes and their drivers. Indicators used in coastal assessments include the contribution of population and economic activities to waste load generation, and the resulting coastal system states relative to net production and nitrogen cycling. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Talaue-McManus, L.; Smith, S. V.; Buddemeier, R. W.

2003-01-01

118

Social, economic, and ecological impacts of the "Grain for Green" project in China: a preliminary case in Zhangye, Northwest China.  

PubMed

This paper provides applications of the integrated assessment (IA) approach in a case study in the Heihe River Basin of Northwest China. Some socio-economic and ecological impact results of forestry land use scenarios are presented in the paper. While seven types of land use scenarios for carbon sequestration purposes were considered for the IA applications, this paper mainly presents impacts of land use scenarios within the Grain for Green (GFG) category [see Yin et al., this volume]. China's national Grain for Green Project was implemented in order to protect and improve ecosystems, while allowing an evolution of agricultural management practices compatible with raising peasants' incomes. Zhangye Prefecture, located in the Heihe River Basin of an arid area in Northwest China, was chosen as the investigation site of the IA case study. Based on fundamental orientation theory, the social sustainability impacts of GFG land use options were assessed. Between 2002 and 2004, the GFG project brought US$23.56 million yuan in net income to the prefecture's peasants. Project implementation resulted in a 1.71 Gg increase in net primary productivity (NPP), as well as a 44.36 Gg rise in net ecosystem productivity (NEP). This suggested that, in Zhangye Prefecture, the Grain for Green Project could enhance the sustainability and stability of the local society, increase peasants' net income, as well as protect and remediate local ecosystems. PMID:17123699

Peng, H; Cheng, G; Xu, Z; Yin, Y; Xu, W

2007-11-01

119

Analysis and comparison of Radix Glycyrrhizae (licorice) from Europe and China by capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the analysis of plant specimens, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., G. uralensisFisch. and G. inflata Bat. (Leguminosae) as well as commercial licorices from Europe and China was developed. Contents of glycyrrhizin (GL), glycyrrhetic acid (GA), glabridin (GLAB), liquiritin (LQ) and licochalcone A (LCA) in ethanolic extracts were investigated. Optimum separation was achieved with sodium tetraborate

Florian Rauchensteiner; Yuki Matsumura; Yutaka Yamamoto; Seiichi Yamaji; Tadato Tani

2005-01-01

120

Technical and economic assessments commercial success for IGCC technology in China  

SciTech Connect

The experiences gained from several Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration plants operating in the US and Europe facilitate commercial success of this advanced coal-based power generation technology. However, commercialization of coal-based IGCC technology in the West, particularly in the US, is restricted due to the low price of natural gas. On the contrary, in China--the largest coal producer and consumer in the world--a lack of natural gas supply, strong demand for air pollution control and relatively low costs of manufacturing and construction provide tremendous opportunities for IGCC applications. The first Chinese IGCC demonstration project was initiated in 1994, and other potential IGCC projects are in planning. IGCC applications in re-powering, fuel switching and multi-generation also show a great market potential in China. However, questions for IGCC development in China remain; where are realistic opportunities for IGCC projects and how can these opportunities be converted into commercial success? The answers to these questions should focus on the Chinese market needs and emphasize economic benefits, not just clean, or power. High price of imported equipment, high financing costs, and the technical risk of first-of-a-kind installation barricade IGCC development in China. This paper presents preliminary technical and economic assessments for four typical IGCC applications in the Chinese marketplace: central power station, fuel switching, re-powering, and multi-generation. The major factors affecting project economics--such as plant cost, financing, prices of fuel and electricity and operating capacity factor--are analyzed. The results indicate that well-proven technology for versatile applications, preferred financing, reduction of the plant cost, environmental superiority and appropriate project structure are the key for commercial success of IGCC in China.

Xiong, T.

1998-07-01

121

Geographic Patterns of Air Passenger Transport in China 1980–1998: Imprints of Economic Growth, Regional Inequality, and Network Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes the geographic patterns of domestic air passenger transport in China from 1980 to 1998, with three foci: (1) impacts of economic reforms, (2) regional inequality in air transport development, and (3) network development. Accessibility to air transport improved significantly as China expanded its air transport system, 1980–1998. The dominance of major airports declined as the air transport

Fengjun Jin; Fahui Wang; Yu Liu

2004-01-01

122

Environmental and economic challenges to coal`s future in China  

SciTech Connect

Coal accounts for approximately 75% of China`s total primary energy consumption, and is by far the largest contributor to air pollution. The highest growth sector for coal consumption is the power sector, accounting for about 36 percent of total coal consumption in 1993. Over the 1994--2010 period most new, large power plants are expected to be coal-fired. Therefore, the availability and price of coal, as well as environmental constraints will be critical to foreign investors evaluating coal and power projects in China. The purpose of this paper is to provide useful technical, economic and environmental information and analysis on coal and the power sectors of China. The target audiences are potential investors and government energy and environmental policy people. This paper suggests a number of important energy and environmental policy issues that need to be addressed in a timely fashion in order to promote adequate levels of investment in coal and power developments in China. Although this paper highlights problems faced by foreign investors in coal and power, it is important to balance these problems against the large investment opportunities developing in these sectors.

Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

1994-11-01

123

Grey relation analysis of economics, energy consumption and environment in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of the economy has brought great benefits to Chinese socio-economic levels during the past several decades. However, it also increases the risk of energy security and environmental problems. This paper explores the inter-relationships among economy, energy consumption and CO2 emission in China in order to provide sustainable development policy making. Grey relation analysis was used to analyze

Feng Yan-ping; Liu Chang-bin

2008-01-01

124

The Impact of Bank and NonBank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides evidence on the relationship between finance and growth in a fast growing country, such as China. Employing\\u000a data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995–2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types\\u000a of financial institutions — banks and non-banks — have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth. Our findings\\u000a indicate that

Xiaoqiang Cheng; Hans Degryse

2010-01-01

125

Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been unable to find any global or regional datasets of groundwater.. Combining Surface and Groundwater Supply Functions Water Demand Curves. Water Use data is reported on political regions. Water Supply is reported and modeled on river basin regions. It is necessary to allocate water demands to river basins. To accomplish this China's 9 major river basins were divided into 36 hydroeconomic regions. The counties were then allocated to one of the 36-hydroeconomic zones. The county-level water use data was aggregated to 5 major water use sectors: 1)industry; 2)urban municipal and vegetable gardens: 3) major irrigation; 4) Energy and 5)Other agriculture (forestry, pasture; fishery). Sectoral Demand functions that include price and income elasticity were developed for the 5 sectors for each of the 9 major river basin. The supply and demand curves were aggregated at a variety of geographical scales as well as levels of economic sectoral aggregation. Implications for investment and sustainable development policies were examined for the various aggregation using partial and general equilibrium modeling of the Chinese economy. These results and policy implications for China as well as insights and recommendation for other developing countries will be presented.

Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

2001-05-01

126

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mariculture zones of China's northern Yellow Sea.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in water and sediment samples collected from three mariculture zones in China's northern Yellow Sea. In these samples, total PAH concentrations ranged from 110.8 ng/L to 997.2 ng/L and 142.2 ng/gdry weight (dw) to 750.2 ng/gdw, respectively. The log KOC values of the various PAH compounds examined in this study increased with the log KOW values, which is consistent with the prediction regarding PAH behavior in the environment. However, these KOC values were lower than the predicted values as a result of the effects of organic matters, which were abundant in the mariculture water. The isomeric ratios of the PAHs in sediment indicated that the source of the PAHs in the mariculture zones were mainly pyrolytic. The TEQ(carc) values of PAHs ranged from 7 ng TEQ/gdw to 92 ng TEQ/gdw, and only a few samples met the safe criterion with respect to individual PAH concentrations. PMID:24952456

Zong, Humin; Ma, Xindong; Na, Guangshui; Huo, Chuanlin; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Zhifeng

2014-08-15

127

75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 0810141351-9087-02] RIN 0648-XT86 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2010-01-20

128

75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY14 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2010-08-13

129

75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and ``Other Flatfish...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish...bycatch allowance specified for the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other...

2010-06-03

130

Enhancing forest carbon sequestration in China: toward an integration of scientific and socio-economic perspectives.  

PubMed

This article serves as an introduction to this special issue, "China's Forest Carbon Sequestration", representing major results of a project sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. China occupies a pivotal position globally as a principle emitter of carbon dioxide, as host to some of the world's largest reforestation efforts, and as a key player in international negotiations aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emission. The goals of this project are to develop remote sensing approaches for quantifying forest carbon balance in China in a transparent manner, and information and tools to support land-use decisions for enhanced carbon sequestration (CS) that are science based and economically and socially viable. The project consists of three components: (i) remote sensing and carbon modeling, (ii) forest and soil assessment, and (iii) integrated assessment of the socio-economic implications of CS via forest management. Articles included in this special issue are highlights of the results of each of these components. PMID:17182169

Chen, J M; Thomas, S C; Yin, Y; Maclaren, V; Liu, J; Pan, J; Liu, G; Tian, Q; Zhu, Q; Pan, J-J; Shi, X; Xue, J; Kang, E

2007-11-01

131

A Videotape Study of Science Teaching in Shenzhen, China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a videotape study of science teaching in Shenzhen, China. Shenzhen is one of China's first special economic zones adjacent to Hong Kong. Developed from a small fishing village in the late 1970s, Shenzhen experienced fast economic growth in the last two decades, which has steadily increased the diversity of the…

Wang, Jianjun; Zhu, Chunying

132

75 FR 56483 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Crab and Halibut Prohibited...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Crab and Halibut Prohibited Species Catch Allowances...the projected unused amounts of the 2010 crab and halibut prohibited species catch...NMFS, has also determined that 290,000 crabs of Zone 1 C. bairdi tanner crab...

2010-09-16

133

How can economic schemes curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth in China?  

PubMed

Fertility decline, driven by the one-child policy, and son preference have contributed to an alarming difference in the number of live male and female births in China. We present a quantitative model where people choose to sex-select because they perceive that married sons are more valuable than married daughters. Due to the predominant patrilocal kinship system in China, daughters-in-law provide valuable emotional and financial support, enhancing the perceived present value of married sons. We argue that inter-generational transfer data will help ascertain the extent to which economic schemes (such as pension plans for families with no sons) can curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth. PMID:21113272

Bhattacharjya, Debarun; Sudarshan, Anant; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Shachter, Ross; Feldman, Marcus

2008-10-14

134

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Amomum tsaoko (Zingiberaceae), an economically important plant in China.  

PubMed

Twenty-four microsatellite markers were isolated from the genomic DNA of Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire, an important economic plant in China, using the method fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Polymorphism within each locus was assessed in 60 individuals from three populations in Yunnan Province, China, and nine of them were polymorphic. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus was 2, and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.224 to 0.513, and from 0.050 to 0.600, respectively. Among nine microsatellite markers with polymorphism, five showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.01), probably due to anthropic selection and short-cloning history in cultivation. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between loci in our analysis. These polymorphic microsatellite markers will facilitate further studies of gene flow, population structure, identification of cultivated variety, and evaluation of germplasm resources. PMID:25299206

Yang, Y-W; Yang, Z-Y; Yan, M-R; Qian, Z-G; Guan, K-Y

2014-01-01

135

Element cycling in the dominant plant community in the Alpine tundra zone of Changbai Mountains, China.  

PubMed

Element cycling in the dominant plant communities including Rh. aureum, Rh. redowskianum and Vaccinium uliginosum in the Alpine tundra zone of Changbai Mountains in northeast China was studied. The results indicate that the amount of elements from litter decomposition was less than that of the plant uptake from soil, but that from plant uptake was higher than that in soil with mineralization process released. On the other hand, in the open system including precipitation input and soil leaching output, because of great number of elements from precipitation into the open system, the element cycling(except N, P) in the Alpine tundra ecosystem was in a dynamic balance. In this study, it was also found that different organ of plants had significant difference in accumulating elements. Ca, Mg, P and N were accumulated more obviously in leaves, while Fe was in roots. The degree of concentration of elements in different tissues of the same organ of the plants also was different, a higher concentration of Ca, Mg, P and N in mesophyll than in nerve but Fe was in a reversed order. The phenomenon indicates (1) a variety of biochemical functions of different elements, (2) the elements in mesophyll were with a shorter turnover period than those in nerve or fibre, but higher utilization rate for plant. Therefore, this study implies the significance of keeping element dynamic balance in the alpine tundra ecosystem of Changbai Mountains. PMID:16083139

Liu, Jing-Shuang; Yu, Jun-Bao

2005-01-01

136

A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.  

PubMed

Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated water that is ineligible for any uses. PMID:17719717

Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

2008-09-01

137

New attempts on increasing economic gains in the development of geothermal resources in Beijing, China  

SciTech Connect

The development of geothermal resources in the city of Beijing and its surrounding suburbs has been made possible by investments from companies in the surrounding Provinces of China. The development of these geothermal deposits has created a market for hot spring real estate. The real estate has been developed into comprehensive projects for recreation and vacation resorts, in addition to, heath care centers and greenhouse farming. This new attempt to develop these geothermal resources has increased the economic growth of the area and interest in geothermal expansion.

Zheng, K.

1997-12-31

138

Economic Freedom and Political Control in Post-Mao China: A Perspective of Upward Accountability and Asymmetric Decentralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With post-Mao China as a case study, this article aims to examine the political economy of asymmetric decentralization in relation to development at the national, regional (inter-local) and local levels. Economically, sub-national governments have been granted greater autonomy with huge decentralized fiscal and administrative powers and competencies. Politically, however, China is still a state under Communist Party domination. Local officials

Shiuh-Shen Chien

2010-01-01

139

Socio-economic disparities in mortality among the elderly in China.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study of mortality among the elderly (65 and over) in China used a large representative sample to examine the association between mortality and three different socio-economic status (SES) indicators-education, economic independence, and household income per head. The results, while varying depending on the measures used, show that there is strong evidence of a negative association between SES and overall mortality. A cause-specific analysis shows that SES is more strongly related to the reduction of mortality from more preventable causes, such as circulatory disease and respiratory disease, than from less preventable causes such as cancer. We also investigated the effects of three sets of factors that may mediate the observed SES-mortality relationship: support networks, health-related behaviours, and access to health care. The results show that for both overall and cause-specific mortality, access to health care is the most important of the three. PMID:25098961

Luo, Weixiang; Xie, Yu

2014-11-01

140

Malaria surveillance-response strategies in different transmission zones of the People's Republic of China: preparing for climate change  

PubMed Central

Background A sound understanding of malaria transmission patterns in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China) is crucial for designing effective surveillance-response strategies that can guide the national malaria elimination programme (NMEP). Using an established biology-driven model, it is expected that one may design and refine appropriate surveillance-response strategies for different transmission zones, which, in turn, assist the NMEP in the ongoing implementation period (2010–2020) and, potentially, in the post-elimination stage (2020–2050). Methods Environmental data obtained from 676 locations across P.R. China, such as monthly temperature and yearly relative humidity (YRH), for the period 1961–2000 were prepared. Smoothed surface maps of the number of months suitable for parasite survival derived from monthly mean temperature and YRH were generated. For each decade, the final malaria prediction map was overlaid by two masked maps, one showing the number of months suitable for parasite survival and the other the length of YRH map in excess of 60%. Results Considering multiple environmental factors simultaneously, the environmental variables suitable for malaria transmission were found to have shifted northwards, which was especially pronounced in northern P.R. China. The unstable suitable regions (transmission periods between five and six months) showed increased transmission intensity due to prolonged suitable periods, especially in the central part of the country. Conclusion Adequate and effective surveillance-response strategies for NMEP should be designed to achieve the goal of malaria elimination in P.R. China by 2020, especially in the zones predicted to be the most vulnerable for climate change. PMID:23256579

2012-01-01

141

Inputs of antifouling paint-derived dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) to a typical mariculture zone (South China): potential impact on aquafarming environment.  

PubMed

Existing evidence indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paints were an important source of DDT residues to mariculture zones. However, the magnitude of the impact on aquafarming environment has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (designated as DDXs) were determined in harbor sediment and antifouling paint samples collected from a typical mariculture zone in South China. Compositional and concentration correlation analyses implicated the DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing boat maintenance as an important source of DDT in the mariculture zone. The annual emission of DDXs to the study region was estimated at 0.58 tons/yr. Furthermore, a comparison of the expected DDT loadings in pelagic fish and field measurements indicated that fish feed especially trash fish was a major source of DDTs in the fish body. Nevertheless, the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints should be limited to prevent further deterioration in aquafarming environment. PMID:21835519

Yu, Huan-Yun; Shen, Ru-Lang; Liang, Yan; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y

2011-12-01

142

The role of taxation in tobacco control and its potential economic impact in China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify key economic issues involved in raising the tobacco tax and to recommend possible options for tobacco tax reform in China. Methods Estimated price elasticities of the demand for cigarettes, prevalence data and epidemiology are used to estimate the impact of a tobacco tax increase on cigarette consumption, government tax revenue, lives saved, employment and revenue loss in the cigarette industry and tobacco farming. Results The recent Chinese tax adjustment, if passed along to the retail price, would reduce the number of smokers by 630?000 saving 210?000 lives, at a price elasticity of ?0.15. A tax increase of 1 RMB (or US$0.13) per pack of cigarettes would increase the Chinese government's tax revenue by 129 billion RMB (US 17.2 billion), decrease consumption by 3.0 billion packs of cigarettes, reduce the number of smokers by 3.42 million and save 1.14 million lives. Conclusion The empirical economic analysis and tax simulation results clearly indicate that increasing the tobacco tax in China is the most cost-effective instrument for tobacco control. PMID:20008158

Mao, Zhengzhong; Shi, Jian; Chen, Wendong

2010-01-01

143

To Appear in Middle East Economic Survey (MEES)-Op-Ed http://www.mees.com/cms/ China's Angst over Iran Sanctions  

E-print Network

"targeted" sanctions on Iran's nuclear program. This is a significant change. For many years, China hasTo Appear in Middle East Economic Survey (MEES)- Op-Ed http://www.mees.com/cms/ China's Angst over a humiliating failure for the go-it-alone energy geostrategy that China has followed for almost two decades

O'Donnell, Tom

144

The shadow price of labour in export processing zones. A discussion of the social value of employing women in export processing in Mexico and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have recently begun to address methods of doing social cost-benefit analyses of export processing zones. This paper examines the issue of the appropriate shadow price of labour to apply in making a social evaluation of a zone. Conditions in Mexico and China are contrasted to illustrate the problem in current methods, which would lower the social benefits of the

Gale Summerfield

1995-01-01

145

The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002, documents and reports from various power industry actors, and available academic literature analyzing current developments in the industry, I analyze the process of making deregulatory policies in electric power. Specifically, I ask whether or not the developments described above resulted in a shift in the relative power of contending actors in the industry, and consequently influenced policy outcomes.

Dodge, Laura Washington

146

Economically Feasible Potentials for Wind Power in China and the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is intended to explore the economic feasible potentials for wind energy in China and the U.S. subject to their policy systems for renewable energy. These two countries were chosen as subject locales for three reasons: first, they are the two largest countries responsible for energy consumption and CO2 emissions; second, these two countries have the largest installed capacities and the fastest annual growth of wind power in the world; third, China and the U.S. have adopted two distinct but representative incentive policies to accelerate exploitation of the renewable energy source from wind. Investments in large-scale wind farms in China gain privileges from the concession policy established under China's Renewable Energy Law. The electricity generated from wind can be sold at a guaranteed price for a concession period (typically the first ten operational years of a wind farm) to ensure the profitability of the wind farm development. The effectiveness of this policy has been evidenced by the swift growth of total installed capacities for wind power over the past five years in China. A spatial financial model was developed to evaluate the bus-bar prices of wind-generated electricity in China following this wind concession policy. The results indicated that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030 assuming a guaranteed bus-bar price of 7.6 U.S. Cents per kWh over the concession period. It is noteworthy that the prices of wind-generated electricity could be as cheap as conventional power generation in the years following the concession period. The power market in the U.S. is more deregulated and electricity is normally traded in a bidding process an hour to a day ahead of real time. Accordingly, the market-oriented policy instrument of PTC subsidies was instituted in the U.S. to ensure the competitiveness of wind power compared to the conventional power generation in the regional power markets. The spatial financial model developed for previous analysis of wind energy in China was tailored to simulate the relevant investment environments for U.S. wind projects. A particular problem was investigated as to how the profitability and competitiveness of onshore wind power in the U.S. would be influenced by PTC subsidy levels varying from 0 to 4 cents per kWh. The results suggested that the current PTC level (2.1 cent per kWh) is at a critical point in determining the competitiveness of wind-generated electricity under normal costs. Setting system integration challenges aside, the potential for profitable wind-generated electricity could accommodate more than seven times U.S. electricity demand at the current PTC subsidy. Similar to the concession policy adopted in China, PTC subsidies are only available for the first ten years following the initiation of wind farms; wind power would still offer a renewable energy source for profitable electricity generation during the post-PTC period.

Lu, X.; McElroy, M. B.; Chris, N. P.; Tchou, J.

2011-12-01

147

PERMANENT MIGRANTS TO CITIES IN CHINA: HUKOU ORIGIN AND EARNINGS AMONG MEN IN AN ERA OF ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION*  

PubMed Central

The massive volume of internal migration in China since the late 1970s has attracted considerable research attention. However, the integration of permanent migrants in cities during a time of economic transformation is understudied. Using information on earnings from the 2003 General Social Survey of China, this research examines whether permanent migrants are economically advantaged or disadvantaged in comparison to non-migrants in cities. We find that permanent migrants in cities tend to be economically advantaged and that their advantage depends more on human capital than on political capital. Nevertheless, this does not mean that political capital can be ignored. A nuanced view requires attention to how political and human capital jointly affect earnings in specific economic sectors. PMID:25133084

Wang, Xiaozhou; Oropesa, R.S.; Firebaugh, Glenn

2014-01-01

148

Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

2011-03-01

149

Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years. PMID:24468441

Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

2014-03-01

150

The Challenge of Teaching Human Resource Management in China: Enabling Effective Management Education in the Context of Economic Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of management education in the context of the continuing economic reforms occurring in the People's Republic of China, particularly its importance for state-owned and foreign-invested enterprises. Uses a multiple perspectives model to draw some conclusions for management teaching priorities. (EV)

Zhang, Shiquan; Wood, Elliot; Whiteley, Alma

2001-01-01

151

Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and

K. M. Strzepek; P. Kirshen; G. Yohe

2001-01-01

152

An Economic Analysis of the External Constraints on Reform of the Higher Education Admissions System in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of an economic analysis of the intertwined role of the educational opportunities market and the educational products market, I believe that the unified entrance exam system currently in effect in China has, in reality, assumed the role of maintaining a price ceiling for opportunities in higher education. If we abolish the…

Pu, Jinfeng

2013-01-01

153

Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China  

EPA Science Inventory

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

154

Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?  

E-print Network

We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

Qi, Tianyu

155

Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is very complex. This paper focus on the development of a methodology to target the ESZ based on currently available tools (Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrologic Model). According to the features of the TGRR, a spatially explicit and process-based method was introduced to help plan the placement of the ESZ in the TGRR for water quality benefits. The methods presented here were based on the integration of grid-based terrain analysis and nonpoint source pollution estimates. Firstly, the contribution of nonpoint source pollution from upslope farmland and urban to the TGRR was determined by grid-based terrain analysis. The upslope contributing area beyond the ESZ was defined as a "source". The SWAT model was used to analyze the characteristics of the pollution load. Secondly, the ESZ was defined as a "sink" and the reducing pollution loads in each grid cell of the ESZ was calculated by the REMM model. Finally, the key areas in the TGRA where the ESZ have the greatest potential to improve water quality were identified and the formula of the width of the ESZ was determined. However, the method in this article considers only the function of pollutants reduction in the ESZ, the next stage of the study will involve detailed modeling for the function of ecological corridor in the ESZ.

Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

2011-12-01

156

Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China  

SciTech Connect

The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs). The results of these efforts contributed, in part, to the implementation of the objectives of Annex II-A to the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Fossil Energy Technology Development and Utilization. The Annex II-A objectives are defined so as “to jointly investigate and discuss key factors, analyses, data, processes, and technologies leading to the preparation and utilization of coal and mixed feedstock that includes coal as” environmentally and economically viable for alternative transportations fuels, additives, chemicals, as feedstock for the production of power and a source of energy to the industrial sector. Specific areas of cooperation addressed under this project include: 1. Coal Conversion (including use of feedstock mixtures such as coal/biomass) 2. Advanced Separation Processes (i.e., innovative coal preparation technologies) 3. Co-Production of Alternative Fuels, Chemicals and/or Power 4. Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels, to Include Hydrogen, and Carbon Recycle for Integrated Fuels and Chemical Production 5. Carbon Sequestration Technology Related to Coal Use 6. Technical Training, Workshops, and Meetings Of equal importance to the successful completion of the tasks of the project is the impact these results have had individually and collectively in the increased level of cooperation between, and participation of, US-China entities. The growing regional impact of these efforts are evident in: ? The growing interest in and applications of environmental technology by the Chinese industrial sector in reducing the environmental footprint of their facilities (e.g., carbon capture, utilization and storage); ? The expansion in the number of cooperative activities enabled by the use of established long-term relationships and developed common frames of reference (e.g., technology exchange cooperative contracts); ? The growth of interest in and use of U.S. technology by the Chinese coal conversion industry (e.g., the market for U.S. components of gasification systems); ? Confirmation of the potential, recently established, of the merits of exchange programs for US-Chinese professionals and administrators (e.g., the Global Knowledge Network Program).

Fletcher, Jerald

2013-12-31

157

78 FR 68374 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Yellowfin Sole for Vessels Participating in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Yellowfin Sole for Vessels Participating in the BSAI Trawl...participating in the BSAI trawl yellowfin sole fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...exceeding the 2013 allocation of yellowfin sole total allowable catch for vessels...

2013-11-14

158

75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...the projected unused amount of the 2010 rock sole total allowable catch (TAC) specified...allow the 2010 total allowable catch of rock sole to be fully harvested. DATES:...

2010-08-19

159

76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

2011-09-28

160

78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

2013-09-17

161

76 FR 3044 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...directed fishing for sculpins, sharks, squid, and octopus in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA...allowable catch (TAC) of sculpins, sharks, squid, and octopus in the GOA. DATES:...

2011-01-19

162

77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...to the initial total allowable catch of squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of squid in the BSAI was established as 361...

2012-07-27

163

Mantle Transition Zone Structure Beneath Southeastern China and its Implications for Stagnant Slab and Water Transportation in the Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined depth variation of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities beneath southeastern China by common-converted-point stacking of -wave receiver functions of 121 permanent Chinese seismic stations. We then combined the results with seismic velocity variation to estimate temperature and water content variations in the mantle transition zone of the region. Previous tomographic studies have shown a stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone in eastern Asia that is connected to subduction of the western Pacific. Temperature variations obtained clearly outline the shape of the stagnant slab, with its western edge at 113.5E and the southern edge at 28.5N. The correlation between the location of the stagnant slab and surface tectonics suggests that the Cenozoic extension in eastern China is closely associated with the subduction of the western Pacific and its eastward migration. The water content of the stagnant slab is lower than in surrounding slabs, suggesting that the water has already been released from the subducting slab into the upper mantle.

Huang, Rong; Xu, Yixian; Luo, Yinhe; Jiang, Xiaohuan

2014-09-01

164

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

165

Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.  

PubMed

A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy. PMID:12288639

Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

1994-01-01

166

Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.  

PubMed

Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies. PMID:25023655

Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

2014-12-01

167

The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China's Economic and Social Transformation*  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the consequences of China’s dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change. PMID:24288434

Steele, Liza G.; Lynch, Scott M.

2013-01-01

168

The effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality: an epidemiologic study in four climatic zones in China  

PubMed Central

Background Little evidence is available about the association between temperature and cerebrovascular mortality in China. This study aims to examine the effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality in different climatic zones in China. Method We obtained daily data on weather conditions, air pollution and cerebrovascular deaths from five cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou) in China during 2004-2008. We examined city-specific associations between ambient temperature and the cerebrovascular mortality, while adjusting for season, long-term trends, day of the week, relative humidity and air pollution. We examined cold effects using a 1°C decrease in temperature below a city-specific threshold, and hot effects using a 1°C increase in temperature above a city-specific threshold. We used a meta-analysis to summarize the cold and hot effects across the five cities. Results Beijing and Tianjin (with low mean temperature) had lower thresholds than Shanghai, Wuhan and Guangzhou (with high mean temperature). In Beijing, Tianjin, Wuhan and Guangzhou cold effects were delayed, while in Shanghai there was no or short induction. Hot effects were acute in all five cities. The cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. The hot effects were followed by mortality displacement. The pooled relative risk associated with a 1°C decrease in temperature below thresholds (cold effect) was 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.020, 1.053). The pooled relative risk associated with a 1°C increase in temperature above thresholds (hot effect) was 1.014 (95% CI: 0.979, 1.050). Conclusion Cold temperatures are significantly associated with cerebrovascular mortality in China, while hot effect is not significant. People in colder climate cities were sensitive to hot temperatures, while people in warmer climate cities were vulnerable to cold temperature. PMID:24690204

2014-01-01

169

Economic Impact of Maternal Death on Households in Rural China: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. Methods A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1–3 months after maternal death or childbirth) and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID), linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. Findings The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported “household economy became worse” during the follow-up period (adjusted OR?=?6.04, p<0.001). During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001). Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p?=?0.024). Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p?=?0.037), clothes and commodity (p?=?0.003), traffic and communication (p?=?0.022) and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p?=?0.014). Conclusion Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported “household economy became worse”, decreased income and expenditure, increased debts and changed expenditure pattern. PMID:24204648

Wang, Yan; Huntington, Dale

2013-01-01

170

What's Law Got to Do with It? Legal Institutions and Economic Reform in China  

E-print Network

China on Industrial Enterprises Owned by the Whole People], 1988 SC BULLETIN 363 [hereinafter State-Owned EnterpriseChina specialist. It introduces the planning system, eco- nomic reform, the state-owned industrial enterprise,

Clarke, Donald C.

1991-01-01

171

An investigation of economic costs of schizophrenia in two areas of China  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder characterized by significant disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions and behavior. Even if it is not a very frequent disorder, but it is the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. The total population was approximate 1.3 billion and there are approximate 8 million schizophrenic patients in China. Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, but there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in China. Objective To evaluate the economic cost of schizophrenic patients in China. Methodology 356 schizophrenic patients who met with DSM-IV criteria were enrolled and investigated with the Economic Burden Questionnaire(EBQ), 299 schizophrenic patients completed the study for 12 months. All the data were combined and classified by researcher. EBQ include all kinds of cost such as direct cost, indirect cost and total cost as well. It was filled in by patients and their close caregivers. Comparison of cost was made between not only out-patients and in-patients but also urban patients and rural patients. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was made to identify the main influence factors of total cost. Results (i) The per case per annum total costs, direct costs and indirect costs of schizophrenia amounted to US$2586.21, US$862.81(33.4%) and US$1723.40(66.6%) respectively. The per case total cost, direct cost and direct medical cost of in-patients were more higher than out-patients (P?Economic cost of schizophrenia were serious, we must pay close attention to it. (ii) The indirect cost are the majority of the total cost. The cost of urban patients are more higher than the cost of rural patients, the cost of in-patients are more higher than the cost of out-patients. PMID:24237846

2013-01-01

172

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-10-01

173

An Analytical Solution of Groundwater Evapotranspiration in Arid Riparian Zone: A Case Study for the Tarim River in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET) constitutes a major component of the water balance in arid riparian zone. Most of groundwater ET studies depend on numerical models but it is not easy to discuss the controling factors of groundwater ET in riparian zone. A two-dimension conceptal framework was set up to understand the groundwater ET in arid riparian zone. We deduced an analytical solution and its simplification of riparian ET based on a negative exponential relation between groundwater ET and groundwater depth. The groundwaer ET is controlled by soil type (soil hydraulic condontivity and parameter in the negative exponential relation), aquifer thickness, potential ET and river water table. Three soil types (sand, sandy loam and loam) with different soil texture were selected to discuss the riparian ET and it was found that the riaprian ET is similar for different soil type. The framework and analytical solution are applied in Tarim River in China where a river restoration project had been put into practice. The discussions are helpful to design water supply pattern of river restoration.

Cong, Z.; Dang, Q.; Wang, L.

2012-12-01

174

Late Paleozoic sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Shangdan suture zone, Eastern Qinling, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Qinling orogen separating the North China plate from the Yangtze plate is a key area for exploring the timing and process of integration between the two plates. A number of models have been developed for this orogen in terms of plate tectonics, but none of them can satisfactorily reconcile the contradictions of data from sedimentary records, ages of ophiolitic

Yu Zaiping; Meng Qingren

1995-01-01

175

Adjustment of State Owned and Foreign-Funded Enterprises in China to Economic Reforms,1980s-2007: a logistic smooth transition regression (LSTR) approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a logistic smooth transition regression approach to the estimation of a homogenous aggregate value added production function of the State Owned (SOE) and Foreign-Funded Enterprises (FFE) in China, 1980s-2007. The transition associated with the economic reforms in China is estimated applying a curvilinear logistic function, where the speed and the timing of the transition are endogenously determined

Joshua Aizenman; Nan Geng

2009-01-01

176

Humidity Control Systems for Civil Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China  

E-print Network

In the hot summer and cold winter zone, moisture-laden outside air poses real problems for proper ventilation, air-conditioner sizing, and strategies to overcome the reduced dehumidification capacity of more energy-efficient air-conditioning (AC...

Yu, X.

2006-01-01

177

Improved understanding of petroleum migration history in the Hongche fault zone, northwestern Junggar Basin (northwest China): Constrained by vein-calcite fluid inclusions and trace elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcite veins and cements occur widely in Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs of the Hongche fault zone, northwestern Junggar Basin in northwest China. The calcites were investigated by fluid inclusion and trace-element analyses, providing an improved understanding of the petroleum migration history. It is indicated that the Hongche fault behaved as a migration pathway before the Early Cretaceous, allowing two oil charges

Jian Cao; Zhijun Jin; Wenxuan Hu; Yijie Zhang; Suping Yao; Xulong Wang; Yueqian Zhang; Yong Tang

2010-01-01

178

Energy savings potential of a desiccant assisted hybrid air source heat pump system for residential building in hot summer and cold winter zone in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hot summer and cold winter zone in China, air conditioning system has four running modes yearly including cooling with dehumidification, cooling, dehumidification and heating in residential buildings. The conventional air source heat pump (ASHP) system is not designed to independently control temperature and humidity, and is not very suitable for the dehumidification mode in the view of building energy

Fenghua Ge; Xinglong Guo; Zicheng Hu; Yi Chu

2011-01-01

179

Land use zoning at the county level based on a multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm: a case study from Yicheng, China.  

PubMed

Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can generate a corresponding optimal solution, with a different quantity structure and spatial pattern to satisfy the preference of the different decision makers; (7) the model proposed in this paper is capable of handling the land-use zoning problem, and the crossover and mutation operator can improve the performance of the model, but, nevertheless, leads to increased time consumption. PMID:23066398

Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

2012-08-01

180

Sedimentary loadings and ecological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a typical mariculture zone of South China.  

PubMed

Two sediment cores were collected from Hailing Bay located in a typical mariculture zone of Guangdong Province, South China, and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of the sum of 27 PAHs ranged from 62 to 1200 ng g(-1) dry wt, and sediment in the study area was considered to be moderately polluted by PAHs. Source diagnostics based on PAH composition and principal component analysis suggested that PAHs in the study area were mainly derived from petroleum combustion, with discharge of PAHs from fishing boats as an important source. Ecological risk assessment results indicate that PAHs in sediment of the present study currently have minimal adverse effect on the mariculture environment. Comparison of sedimentary inventory of PAHs in the fish harbor of the study area with those in the Pearl River Estuary and the coastal Bohai Bay indicate that the sediment has become an important reservoir of PAHs. PMID:22898895

Yu, Huan-Yun; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wong, Charles S; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-10-26

181

Ecological and economic dynamics of the Shunde agricultural system under China's small city development strategy.  

PubMed

The agricultural and industrial development of small cities is the primary environmental management strategy employed to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development strategy will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of the Chinese landscape. In this study, we examined the agricultural development of Shunde, a small city in Guangdong Province, over the period 1978 until 2000. Our analysis of the ecological and economic dynamics of the agricultural system revealed the dominant role of labor in the intensification of agricultural production, even though the use of fuels, fertilizers and machines also increased during this time. The Shunde agricultural system was examined from both biophysical or donor-based and human utility or receiver-based perspectives, using emergy and economic methods, respectively. After 22 years of urbanization, the Shunde agricultural system was still able to fill 96% of the local demand for agricultural products using only 6% of its total yield compared to using 14% of the total yield in 1978. Aquaculture developed quickly during the study period as grain production decreased. In 2000, the production of fish, pork, and vegetables accounted for 92% of the total emergy output of the system; however, the emergy buying power of the money received in exchange was lower than the emergy contained in the products exported. The excess emergy exported is the basis for a high quality diet delivered to city dwellers at a relatively low price. In the 1980s, the productivity of both land and labor increased; but after 1992 the productivity of labor decreased, causing the efficiency of the whole agricultural system to decrease. We recommend that processing plants be established for the main agricultural products of Shunde to decrease the emergy loss in trading and to increase employment. The effect of including monetized ecosystem services in the balance between the emergy delivered to the markets in agricultural products and the emergy buying power of the money received was to decrease the emergy gained by the Shunde agricultural system. PMID:19246149

Lu, Hongfang; Campbell, Daniel E

2009-06-01

182

76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule...2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI. (a) Locations. The following areas, from the surface...

2011-10-06

183

75 FR 79330 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...together with social and economic factors, in determining TACs...not have a significant economic impact on a substantial...total time required for a firm to prepare and file both...Further analysis of the economic impact is found in...

2010-12-20

184

Cold adaptive thermogenesis in small mammals from different geographical zones of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of thermogenesis and thermoregulation were studied in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) and greater vole (Eothenomys miletus) of the subtropical region, and Brandt's vole (Microtus brandti), Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) of the northern temperate zone. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) increased significantly in T. belangeri,

Qingfen Li; Ruyong Sun; Chenxi Huang; Zhengkun Wang; Xiaotuan Liu; Jianjum Hou; Jinsong Liu; Liquan Cai; Ning Li; Shuzhen Zhang; Yu Wang

2001-01-01

185

Economic costs of motor vehicle emissions in China: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of motor vehicles in China. Motor vehicles have become an increasingly important contributor to air pollution in major Chinese cities. While research interest in vehicular pollution in China has increased in recent years, there is little research on evaluating monetary costs of this pollution. This paper uses Beijing as

Xin Deng

2006-01-01

186

Urban Transport Trends and Policies in China and India: Impacts of Rapid Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative overview of urban transport in the world’s two most populous countries: China and India. Cities in both countries are suffering from severe and worsening transport problems: air pollution, noise, traffic injuries and fatalities, congestion, parking shortages, energy use, and a lack of mobility for the poor. The urban transport crisis in China and India results

John Pucher; Neha Mittal; Yi Zhu; Nisha Korattyswaroopam

2007-01-01

187

Evaluation and zoning of groundwater hazards in Pingshuo No. 1 underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal mining safety has been compromised with water inrushes from aquifers either overlying or underlying the coal seams. Detailed studies of the associated hydrogeological conditions in China have led to different approaches to mitigate the water inrush risks from these two types of aquifers—the `three diagram method' for overlying-aquifer water inrushes and the `vulnerability index method' for underlying-aquifer water inrushes. The `three diagram method' consists of: (1) aquifer water-abundance distribution charts derived from a geographic information system and analytic hierarchy process based water-abundance index model; (2) a fracture height map showing mining-induced fractures above the coal seam, established with stratified numerical simulations; and (3) a comprehensive partition map identifying the overlying-aquifer water inrush risk. The `vulnerability index method' uses site-specific data to establish thematic maps for major factors that affect the underlying-aquifer water inrushes, whereas the weight of each control factor is determined by the analytic hierarchy process. The calculated vulnerability index is indicative of water inrush risks. The effectiveness of these methods is illustrated with a case study at the Pingshuo No. 1 underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China.

Wu, Qiang; Fan, Zhenli; Zhang, Zhongwen; Zhou, Wanfang

2014-05-01

188

Molecular data and ecological niche modeling reveal population dynamics of widespread shrub Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae) in China’s warm-temperate zone in response to climate change during the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Background Despite its high number of endemic deciduous broad-leaved species in China’s warm-temperate zone, far less attention has been paid to phylogeographic studies in this region. In this work, the phylogeographic history of Forsythia suspensa endemic to China’s warm-temperate zone was investigated to explore the effect of climate change during the Pleistocene on the distribution of this deciduous broad-leaved species in China. Results The cpDNA data revealed seven phylogeographical groups corresponding to geographical regions. By contrast, the nrDNA data supported the samples clustered into three groups, which was inconsistent with separate geographical regions supported by cpDNA data. Ecological niche modeling showed that the climatically suitable area during the cold period was larger than that during the warm period. Conclusions Both molecular data and ecological niche modeling indicated that F. suspensa expanded to nearby low-elevation plains in the glacial periods, and retreated to mountaintops during interglacial warmer stages. This study thus supported that F. suspensa persisted in situ during the glacial of the Pleistocene with enlarged distribution area, contrary to the hypothesis of long distance southward migration or large-scale range contraction. PMID:24885704

2014-01-01

189

Relationship between Air Pollutants and Economic Development of the Provincial Capital Cities in China during the Past Decade  

PubMed Central

With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictorssuch as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provinical cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

2014-01-01

190

Regional economic function analysis of U.S. foreign-trade zones  

E-print Network

Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZs) are defined as designated areas in the United States where foreign merchandise is considered to be international commerce and not subject to U.S. customs duties unless or until it enters into the ...

Otsubo, Hirotoshi

2005-01-01

191

Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD/VCD players and copiers in China  

SciTech Connect

With the popularization of household electrical appliances and the rapid development of office automation and networking, a huge number of consumer electronic devices, computers, copiers, and fax machines have been put into use in China over the last two decades. These products almost all use a certain amount of standby power--the power that is consumed when a device is connected but not performing its primary function. The rapid growth of standby energy consumption due to these products--and the consequent environmental problems--has attracted more and more attentions from researchers and from many government and international agencies. Numerous countries have developed policies and measures to restrict and reduce standby energy consumption (US EPA, 2004, IEA, 2001, and GEEA, 2004). However, standby energy consumption is still a new concept for Chinese consumers and the phenomenon of ''unconscious waste of energy'' is still very common in the people's daily life and work. With the goal of reducing China's standby energy consumption, China Certification Center for Energy Conservation Products (CECP) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have, under the sponsorship of the Energy Foundation (EF), entered into a collaboration to develop technical requirements for CECP's labeling program for consumer electronics and office equipment. These technical requirements will be used to qualify products for CECP's energy efficiency endorsement label in China. In the phase I of this collaborative project, CECP and LBNL conducted technical and economic research on televisions and printers in China. Based on the results of this research, CECP developed specifications for, and carried out corresponding energy conservation certifications for these two products. CECP's standby power certification program has made impressive gains in China. Leading manufacturers, such as Haier, Hesons, TCL, Chuangwei, Lenovo, EPSON, Fujitsu, and Brother have participated in CECP's certification activities. Media events organized by CECP have greatly improved the country's awareness of standby power loss. Reducing standby power loss has been formally incorporated into China's energy efficiency policy portfolio and in China's collaboration with the international community on the subject of energy efficiency (IEA, 2001). In phase II of the program, CECP's main task was to assess the market for DVD/VCD (Digital Versatile/Video Disc and Video Compact Disc) players and copiers to analyze the economic and technical benefits of energy conservation potential, and to develop technical specifications for DVD/VCD players and copiers, with technical assistance from LBNL. Having built on the success of Phase I, CECP paid great attention to the appraisal of market conditions and the economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power loss in DVD/VCD players and copiers, and solicited inputs from stakeholders before finalizing the product certification requirements. This paper summarizes the expected energy conservation and environmental benefits due to the implementation of certification programs for DVD/VCD players and copiers in China.

Lin, Jiang; Li, Tienan; Li, Aizhen; Zhang, Guoqing

2004-06-01

192

Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in municipal wastewater treatment plants in economically developed areas of China.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a significant source for poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) entering the environment. The presence of PFASs in twenty-eight municipal WWTPs from eleven cites in economically developed areas of China were screened. Overall, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge, and were not effectively removed during wastewater treatment. Elevated influent concentration ratios of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) to PFOA and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) to PFOS in some WWTPs suggested that short chains substitution were adopted in these cities. Cluster analysis showed treatment processes had important impacts on PFASs profiles in effluent and sludge. Average concentration of total PFCAs in influent from each city and its gross domestic product (GDP) had significant positive correlation. This study provides a snapshot of both domestic and industrial discharges of PFAS to WWTPs as well as PFAS discharge from WWTPs to the aquatic environment in China. PMID:23410673

Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yating; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yeung, Leo W Y; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Jianshe; Li, Xinhai; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

2013-05-01

193

A comparison of the sustainability of original and constructed wetlands in Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China: implications from emergy evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yancheng Biosphere Reserve (YBR) is located along the coastal zone of the Yellow China Sea with 900km long in Jiangsu Province. Human activities have greatly interfered the original wetlands in YBR for migratory birds using this region as the Flyway with rapidly economic development since 1980. Much of the experimental zones and buffer zones are transferred to agriculture, aquaculture, transportation

Ping Zuo; Shu Wen Wan; Pei Qin; Jinjin Du; Hui Wang

2004-01-01

194

China's policy toward the Korean Peninsula from 1978 to 2000.  

E-print Network

??The Korean peninsula is crucial to China's political, economic and security interests because of a combination of geographic, historical, and political circumstances. China’s economic reforms… (more)

Park, Hun Bong

2003-01-01

195

China's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that China may be on the verge of a “Green Leap Forward” that could make it a global environmental leader. This article argues that two principal forces have contributed to this development. First, Chinese officials now realize that a global shift away from fossil fuels will create enormous business opportunities on a global scale. Chinese companies are

Robert V. Percival

2011-01-01

196

A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

197

Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.  

PubMed

Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

2013-08-01

198

How can economic schemes curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth in China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility decline, driven by the one-child policy, and son preference have contributed to an alarming difference in the number of live male and female births in China. We present a quantitative model where people choose to sex-select because they perceive that married sons are more valuable than married daughters. Due to the predominant patrilocal kinship system in China, daughters-in-law provide

Debarun Bhattacharjya; Anant Sudarshan; Shripad Tuljapurkar; Ross Shachter; Marcus Feldman

2008-01-01

199

Trade and Management: Exclusive Economic Zones and the Changing Japanese Surimi Market  

E-print Network

competitive advantage in international seafood trade in Alaska walleye pollock. Theragra chalcogramma, has Or nations (which had not formerly and ganization data, nearly one-fourth of unilaterally extended management national commerce in which Japan reg Zones (EEZ). These regulatory changes istered a "trade deficit." have

200

Changes in plant species diversity along a chronosequence of vegetation restoration in the humid evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Rainy Zone of West China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species diversity has been recognized as one of the vital attributes for assessing vegetation restoration. Changes in\\u000a the diversity may be related to different stages of succession. In this study, 54 sites of humid, evergreen, broad-leaved\\u000a forest were selected in the Rainy Zone of West China. A chronosequence of the sites was used to study the successive patterns\\u000a of

Wanze Zhu; Song Cheng; Xiaohu Cai; Fei He; Jinxi Wang

2009-01-01

201

Origin of illites at dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province, East China: Implications for alteration zoning and ore-forming fluid evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to differences in features of illites including spatial distribution, crystallinity index, volume of swelling layer,\\u000a polytype and relationship between its index and copper grade, two typical kinds of illite can be classified within the Tongchang\\u000a porphyry copper deposit, Dexing County, East China. One is a kind of hydrothermally altered minerals within the hydrothermal\\u000a alteration zone, including altered granodiorite-porphyry and

Zhangdong Jin; Jinchu Zhu; Junfeng Ji; Xinwei Lu; Fuchun Li

2001-01-01

202

Eclogite and carpholite-bearing metasedimentary rocks in the North Qilian suture zone, NW China: implications for Early Palaeozoic cold oceanic subduction and water transport into mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature eclogite and eclogite facies metapelite together with serpentinite and marble occur as blocks within foliated blueschist that was originated from greywacke matrix; they formed a high- pressure low-temperature (HPLT) subduction complex (melange) in the North Qilian oceanic-type suture zone, NW China. Phengite-eclogite (type I) and epidote-eclogite (type II) were recognized on the basis of mineral assemblage. Relic lawsonite and

S. G. SONG; L. F. ZHANG; Y. NIU; C. J. WEI; J. G. LIOU; G. M. SHU

2007-01-01

203

Perspectives on Economic Development in Indian Country. A Report of the National Symposium on Native American Enterprise Zone Development (Washington, D.C., April 22-24, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade, tribal economic independence has come to be viewed as central to tribal survival as well as to self-determination and self-sufficiency. The Native American Enterprise Zone Symposium provided an opportunity for economic development practitioners and experts to share experiences and develop recommendations for reshaping federal…

Herzberg, Nancy; And Others

204

f max and fault zone property of Lushan earthquake of 20 April 2013, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we determined f max from near-field accelerograms of the Lushan earthquake of April 20, 2013 through spectra analysis. The result shows that the values of f max derived from five different seismography stations are very close though these stations roughly span about 100 km along the strike. This implies that the cause of f max is mainly the seismic source process rather than the site effect. Moreover, according to the source-cause model of Papageorgiou and Aki (Bull Seism Soc Am 73:693-722, 1983), we infer that the cohesive zone width of the rupture of the Lushan earthquake is about 204 with an uncertainty of 13 m. We also find that there is a significant bulge between 30 and 45 Hz in the amplitude spectra of accelerograms of stations 51YAL and 51QLY, and we confirm that it is due to seismic waves' reverberation of the sedimentary soil layer beneath these stations.

Wen, Jian; Chen, Xiaofei

2013-08-01

205

Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal the phylogeographic pattern of Cotinus coggygria (Anacardiaceae) in China's warm-temperate zone.  

PubMed

The phylogeography of common and widespread species helps to elucidate the history of local flora and vegetation. In this study, we selected Cotinus coggygria, a species widely distributed in China's warm-temperate zone. One chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region and ecological niche modelling were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern of C. coggygria. The cpDNA data revealed two phylogeographic groups (Southern and Northern) corresponding to the geographic regions. Divergence time analyses revealed that divergence of the two groups occurred at approximately 147,000 years before the present (BP), which coincided with the formation of the downstream area of the Yellow River, indicating that the Yellow River was a weak phylogeographic divide for C. coggygria. The molecular data and ecological niche modelling also indicated that C. coggyria did not experience population expansion after glaciations. This study thus supports the fact that Pleistocene glacial cycles only slightly affected C. coggygria, which survived in situ and occupied multiple localised glacial refugia during glaciations. This finding is contrary to the hypothesis of large-scale range habitat contraction and retreat into a few main refugia. PMID:24494998

Wang, W; Tian, C Y; Li, Y H; Li, Y

2014-11-01

206

Biogenic nitric oxide emission of mountain soils sampled from different vertical landscape zones in the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important component in nitrogen biogeochemical cycling produced through biological processes of nitrification and denitrification in soils, but the production and the consumption processes of NO in temperate mountain soil are less understood. Through laboratory experiments focusing on NO biogenic emissions from six kinds of mountain soils sampled from different vertical landscape zones, that is, coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest (CBF), fir forest (FF), spruce forest (SF), Erman's birch forest (EBF), alpine tundra (AT), and volcanic ash (VA), in the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China, we found that the optimum water-filled pore space (WFPS) for NO production varies between 22.5% and 35% for a range of mountain soils. The optimum soil moisture for the maximum NO emission for a certain soil type, however, was constant and independent of soil temperature. The NO emission potential for forest soils was about 7-50-fold higher than tundra soil and volcanic ash, indicating that it is strongly influenced by nutrient contents in soils. On the basis of laboratory results and field monitoring data, the average NO fluxes from these mountain soils were estimated to be 0.14-29.56 ng N m(-2) s(-1) for an entire plant growth period. NO emissions mainly occur in wet season for CBF and FF, but in dry season for other soil types. PMID:20450189

Yu, Junbao; Meixner, Franz X; Sun, Weidong; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Xia, Chuanhai; Xie, Wenjun

2010-06-01

207

Spatial variations of pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence co-impacted by socio-economic and geographic factors in People's Republic of China, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background The report of the fifth national tuberculosis (TB) epidemiological survey in P. R. China, 2010, roughly showed that pulmonary TB (PTB) prevalence was higher in western China than in central and eastern China. However, accurately estimating the continuous spatial variations of PTB prevalence and clearly understanding factors impacting on spatial variations of PTB prevalence are important for allocating limited resources of national TB programme (NTP) in P. R. China. Methods Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Wizard (ESRI, Redlands, CA), an evaluation was performed to decide that which kriging and cokriging methods along with different combinations of types of detrending, semivariogram models, anisotropy and covariables (socio-economic and geographic factors) can accurately construct spatial distribution surface of PTB prevalence using statistic data sampled from the fifth national TB epidemiological survey in P. R. China, 2010, and then the evaluation results were used to explore factors of spatial variations. Results The global cokriging with socio-economic and geographic factors as covariables proved to be the best geostatistical methods for accurately estimating spatial distribution surface of PTB prevalence. The final continuous surfaces of PTB prevalence distribution demonstrated that PTB prevalence were lower in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and southeastern coast China, higher in western and southwestern China, and crossed between low and high in central China. Conclusions The predicted continuous surface perspicuously illustrated the spatial variations of PTB prevalence that were co-impacted by socio-economic and geographic factors, which can be used to better allocate the always limited resources of NTP in P. R. China. PMID:24629032

2014-01-01

208

Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or "Community Learning Centers" (CLCs). Second, we describe extensive site visits to CLCs in impoverished portions of China and Mexico, the centers operated by premier universities in each respective country. These CLCs constitute the core of new emerging systems of distance education, and their newness poses challenges and opportunities, which are discussed. Finally, we offer 12 points to develop further the concept and reality of distance learning in support of economic development.

Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

2008-04-01

209

Demarcation of seabuckthorn plantations in three northern areas of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) planting areas in the three northern areas (north, northeast and northwest) of China are divided into five planting zones:\\u000a the semi-humid forest prairie climate zone for ecological and economic types of seabuckthorn plantations in the southern part\\u000a of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid steppe climate zone for similar types of plantations in the central part of the

Jian-zhong Hu

2005-01-01

210

Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

2014-07-01

211

Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

2014-02-01

212

Economic statecraft with Chinese characteristics : the use of commercial actors in China's grand strategy  

E-print Network

This study is about Chinese economic statecraft: what it is, how it works and why it is more or less effective. The study builds a theory of economic statecraft that provides an explanation of how states use firms to pursue ...

Norris, William J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

213

A stagnant slab in a water-bearing mantle transition zone beneath northeast China: Implications from regional SH waveform modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) nearby the subducting slabs is fundamentally important for understanding scales of mantle circulation as well as composition of the upper mantle. Partly due to a poor sampling of the MTZ for the first-arrivals at regional distances, tomographic images obtained are typically complicated for regions around the subduction zones in the northwestern Pacific (e.g. van der Hilst et al, 1991; Fukao et al, 1992; Gorbatov and Kennett, 2003; Huang and Zhao et al, 2006). Alternatively, modeling of regional P or S waveforms is an effective approach to constrain transition zone velocity structure as triplicated phases sample various depths in the mantle. The travel time, especially the relative time between the first and later arrivals, and the amplitude of different phases are sensitive to the velocities around the mantle discontinuities. However, studies based on this method proposed correspondingly different velocity structures in the MTZ behind the Japan arc (e.g. Tajima et al, 1998; Wang, et al., 2006; Tajima and Grand, 2009; Wang et al., 2009; Wang and Niu, 2010), yielding ambiguous interpretations about the thermal and composition structure in the deep upper mantle. In this study, we modeled the triplicate SH waveforms for a dense regional seismic array to constrain the detailed shear velocity structure of the MTZ beneath northeast China. A total of 43 transverse waveforms in a very narrow range of 257-270° in back-azimuth are investigated. Our results indicate that a layer of seemingly high SH velocity anomalous lies just above the bottom of the MTZ, which might be associated with the flattening part of the stagnant Pacific slab extending further west from the Japan Sea subduction zone. The lack of obvious depression of the 660 implies a limited temperature deficit (~143-166 K) around the westward-extended flattened Pacific slab. The transition zone, as a whole, is featured by low SH velocity (0.08-0.12 km/s variation) and high Vp/Vs ratio (~1.84-1.87) relative to the iasp91 model, indicating ~0.2-0.3 wt.% H2O ((3.0-4.5)×104 ppm H/Si ) content in the MTZ. The integrated picture of the slab and the morphology of the 660-km discontinuity from previous tomography images, receiver function analysis, S-to-P converted wave studies (e.g. Fukao et al., 2001; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Li and Yuan, 2003; Li et al., 2008) and our results, supports a scenario that, the fast eastward retreat of the Japan trench result in the horizontally deflected slab when the downgoing part of the subducting oceanic lithosphere hits the bottom of the upper mantle.

Ye, L.; Li, J.; Tseng, T.; Yao, Z.

2010-12-01

214

Analysing spatio-temporal pattern of changing farmland in China's arid zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-temporal imagery has been used for landuse and land cover change detection since the very early stage of remote sensing technology. As large amount of remotely sensed data have been collected, historical land cover changes and change patterns can be reconstructed by a time series recorded by images. This paper reports a study on the methodology for quantifying spatial pattern of land cover changes in an arid zone during a 13-year period and the attempts to identify the key factors for these changes. The approach is based on the post-classification method. Multi-temporal images were independently classified to establish change trajectories for the farmland land cover type. A set of class-level metrics is then calculated on the trajectory classes, including Percentage of Landscape (PLAND), Normalized Landscape Shape Index (NLSI), Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI) and Area Weighted Fractal Dimension Index (FRAC_AM). These metrics and their relationship were shown as good indicators on the environmental impact in the fragile ecosystem due to the rapid expansion of farmland accompanied with the limited water resources. The results show that spatial pattern metrics of land cover change trajectories provide an effective measurement on landscape changes, which can further be interpreted for agriculture planning and management.

Zhou, Qiming; Sun, Bo

2008-10-01

215

Convergence tests on tax burden and economic growth among China, Taiwan and the OECD countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unfolding globalization has profound impact on a wide range of nations’ policies including tax and economy policies. This study adopts the time series and cluster analyses to examine the convergence property of tax burden and per capita gross domestic product among Taiwan, China and the OECD countries. The empirical results show that there is no significant relationship between the integration process and fiscal convergence among countries. However, the cluster analyses identify that the group of China, Taiwan, and Korea was stably moving toward one model during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. And, the convergence of tax burden is found in the group, but no pairwise convergence exists.

Wang, David Han-Min

2007-07-01

216

Religious zones, economic development and modern value orientations: Individual versus contextual effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the debate concerning the influence of cultural and economic contexts on the adoption of modern values by individual members of society. We have applied for this purpose a multilevel analysis (HLM), using the World Value Survey (WVS) and European Value Survey (EVS) data bank for 36 of the countries included in the 2000 wave. The cultural and

Ephraim Yuchtman-Yaar; Yasmin Alkalay

2007-01-01

217

Economic relations with regions neighbouring the euro area in the ‘euro time zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economic, monetary and financial relations between the EU and the euro area and a set of countries in a broad set of neighbouring regions. The 80 or so countries are mostly classified as transition, emerging or developing economies and belong to four main regions: the Western Balkans; the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States;

Francesco Mazzaferro; Arnaud Mehl; Michael Sturm; Christian Thimann; Adalbert Winkler

2002-01-01

218

An innovative approach to determine economically optimal coastal setback lines for risk informed coastal zone management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods used to determine Coastal setback lines have several limitations. Furthermore, the historical practice of defining setback lines based on a single deterministic estimate is also proving inadequate with the emergence of risk management style coastal planning frameworks which require probabilistic estimates of coastal recession. This paper describes an innovative approach for the determination of the economically optimal coastal

R. Ranasinghe; R. B. Jongejan; D. Callaghan; J. K. Vrijling

2012-01-01

219

A risk explicit interval linear programming model for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization in the Lake Fuxian watershed, China.  

PubMed

The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP) method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP) and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers' preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of "low risk and high return efficiency" in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management. PMID:24191144

Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Kai; Zou, Rui; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yajuan

2013-01-01

220

‘Mobile men with money’: the socio-cultural and politico-economic context of ‘high-risk’ behaviour among wealthy businessmen and government officials in urban China  

PubMed Central

China’s transition from an injection drug-driven HIV epidemic to one primarily transmitted through sexual contact has triggered concern over the potential for HIV to move into the non-drug-injecting population. Much discussion has focused on the migrant men of China’s vast ‘floating population’ who are considered a high-risk group. As a result, many men who frequently engage in high-risk behaviour but are not included in this especially vulnerable group are evading HIV prevention messages. This paper highlights the socio-cultural and politico-economic factors that motivate many of China’s wealthy businessmen and government officials, sometimes referred to as ‘mobile men with money’, to engage in such behaviour. Examination of the activities related to the work of these men reveals a situation where the confluence of a market-oriented economy operating within a socialist-style political system under the influence of traditional networking practices has engendered a unique mode of patron-clientelism that brings them together over shared social rituals including feasting, drinking and female-centered entertainment that is often coupled with sexual services. As a result, consideration of the socio-cultural factors influencing these men’s sexual practices is important for responding to the newly emerging stage of China’s HIV epidemic. PMID:18975228

URETSKY, ELANAH

2014-01-01

221

From property rights to urban institutions: an economic analysis of China's emerging urban institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an integrated analysis of China's emerging urban institutions, and especially of how they respond to the fundamental change in property rights regime. In the last decade, homeowners' associations have been booming in Chinese cities, while the Ministry of Civil Affairs has been promoting ‘communities’. The traditional hierarchy of district, street office and residents' committee is also undergoing

Feng Deng

2008-01-01

222

Agroecological and economic approach of prevention and curing of sandstorms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the warming and drying of climate and desertification, sandstorms are occurring on a more frequent basis. In China, high-frequency regions of sandstorms tend to correspond with the spring wheat regions between the end of February and the end of March. During March to May each year, when sandstorms frequently occur, the seedlings of spring wheat are young and susceptible

Sui Yu-Zhu; Yuan Han-Min

2007-01-01

223

Motor Vehicles in China: The Impact of Demographic and Economic Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While China's transportation sector is relatively small compared to other nations—both in absolute terms and relative to the size of the population—the nation is currently experiencing one of the highest annual motorization growth rates in the world. This rapid growth has raised both excitement among business leaders over the potentially enormous market for automobiles and concern among environmentalists over their

Kevin Riley

2002-01-01

224

DYNAMICS IN THE ONLINE GAME INDUSTRY OF CHINA: A POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ITS COMPETITIVENESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese online game industry is one of the fastest growing interactive entertainment industries in the world. The industry now launches more than 200 game titles to the market annually. Some popular game characters have become cultural icons in China. As the market landscape expands, the industry continues to attract new ventures. The Chinese online game industry is a fast

PEICHI CHUNG; JIANGPING YUAN

2009-01-01

225

CHINA, INDIA AND RUSSIA: ECONOMIC REFORMS, STRUCTURAL CHANGE AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the different patterns of growth of China, India and Russia by exploring and comparing the processes of reforms that have generated and accompanied their high and sustained rates of growth. Focusing on the sector transformations involved into the three economies, we show that the growth strategies implemented present specific characteristics in terms of gradualism and policy choices.

Michele Alessandrini; Tullio Buccellato

226

RELATIVE ECONOMIC VALUE OF MAIZE - OKRA INTERCROPS IN RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the relative economic value of maize- okra intercrops in Edo State, Nigeria. The results of analysis show Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of 0.82, Relative Value Total (RVT) of 0.99 and Relative Value of Intercropping (RVI) of 1.10. Although LER and RVT show that monocrops of maize and okra have advantage over intercrops, RVI shows that the profi

R. A Alabi

227

Implications of subduction and subduction zone migration of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath eastern North China, based on distribution, geochronology, and geochemistry of Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several major volcanic zones are distributed across the eastern North China Craton, from northwest to southeast: the Greater Xing'an Range, Jibei-Liaoxi, Xishan, and Songliao Basins, and the Yanji, Huanghua, and Ludong volcanic zones. The Huanghua depression within the Bohai Bay Basin was filled by middle Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks and abundant Cenozoic alkaline basalts. Zircon LA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP U-Pb dating show that basic -intermediate volcanic rocks were extruded in the Early Cretaceous of 118.8 ± 1.0 Ma (weighted mean 206Pb/238U age), before Late Cretaceous acid lavas at 71.5 ± 2.6 Ma. An inherited zircon from andesite has a Paleoprotoerozoic core crystallization age of 2,424 ± 22 Ma (206Pb/207Pb age) indicating that the basement of the Bohai Bay Basin is part of the North China Craton. Early Cretaceous basic and intermediate lavas are characterized by strong enrichments in LREE and LILE and depletions in HREE and HFSE, indicating a volcanic arc origin related to oceanic subduction. Depletion in Zr only occurs in basic and intermediate volcanic rocks, while depletions in Sr and Ti exist only in acid samples, indicating that the acid series is not genetically related to the basic-intermediate series. Formation ages and geochemical features indicate that the Late Cretaceous acid lavas are products of crustal remelting in an extensional regime. Combined information from all these volcanic zones shows that subduction-related volcanic rocks were generated in the Jibei-Liaoxi and Xishan volcanic zones during the Early Jurassic, about 60 Ma earlier than their analogues extruded in the Huanghua and Ludong volcanic zones during the Early Cretaceous. This younging trend also exists in the youngest extension-related volcanism in each of these zones: Early Cretaceous asthenosphere-derived alkaline basalts in the northwest and Late Cretaceous in the southeast. A tectonic model of northwestward subduction and continuous oceanward retreat of the Paleo-Pacific Plate is proposed to explain the migration pattern of both arc-related and post-subduction extension-related volcanic rocks. As the subduction zone continuously migrated, active continental margin and backarc regimes successively played their roles in different parts of North China during the Late Mesozoic (J1-K2).

Zhang, Chao; Ma, Chang-Qian; Liao, Qun-An; Zhang, Jin-Yang; She, Zhen-Bing

2011-10-01

228

Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced technologies and more efficient industries. On the other hand, institutional change (i.e., marketization) and innovation (i.e., technological progress) exerted positive impacts on AVEC improvement, as always expected in this and other studies. Finally, the model comparison indicated that SEM was capable of separating spatial effect from the error term of OLS, so as to improve goodness-of-fit and the significance level of individual determinants.

Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

2014-09-01

229

China.  

PubMed

China's census, scheduled for July 1, 1981, will be preceded by a pilot census at the end of the next month. According to Mr. Y.C. Yu, Statistician in the Demographic and Social Statistics Branch of the UN, the pretest will be held in Wu Xi, a resort area of about 1.6 million persons about a 2-hour train ride west of Shanghai. Mr. Yu and Mr. Varon Kannisto will be UN observers of the pilot census. The method of enumeration will be similar to that used in the 1953 and 1964 censuses, said Mr. Yu. Each head of household will report to an enumeration station to provide information on the characteristics of household members. The questionnaire will contain about 13 items, which will be asked of 100% of the population. The 5 million enumerators will be teachers, accountants, and others, generally residents of the local area in which they will act as enumerators. Census data will be processed by computers in each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions. The UNFPA is providing computers, data entry and ancillary equipment, software and supplies, advisory services, and training in census methods and data processing. The computers supplied by IBM will be the 4300 series; a model 4341 will be installed at the State Statistical Bureau in Beijing and 15 model 4331s will go to individual provinces. Results of earlier censuses were processed manually and with the abacus. UNFPA also plans to provide support for the analysis of census data and for their dissemination to appropriate organizations and departments in China. PMID:12278426

1980-05-01

230

Defensive medicine or economically motivated corruption? A confucian reflection on physician care in China today.  

PubMed

In contemporary China, physicians tend to require more diagnostic work-ups and prescribe more expensive medications than are clearly medically indicated. These practices have been interpreted as defensive medicine in response to a rising threat of potential medical malpractice lawsuits. After outlining recent changes in Chinese malpractice law, this essay contends that the overuse of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions cannot be attributed to malpractice concerns alone. These practice patterns are due as well, if not primarily, to the corruption of medical decision-making by physicians being motivated to earn supplementary income, given the constraints of an ill-structured governmental policy by the over-use of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. To respond to these difficulties of Chinese health care policy, China will need not only to reform the particular policies that encourage these behaviors, but also to nurture a moral understanding that can place the pursuit of profit within the pursuit of virtue. This can be done by drawing on Confucian moral resources that integrate the pursuit of profit within an appreciation of benevolence. It is this Confucian moral account that can formulate a medical care policy suitable to China's contemporary market economy. PMID:18027252

Chen, Xiao-Yang

2007-01-01

231

Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China.  

PubMed

Reducing the use of non-renewable fossil energy reserves together with improving the environment are two important reasons that drive interest in the use of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial scale in Brazil and the United States, respectively, and this alcohol has been able to compete with conventional gasoline due to various incentives. In this paper, we examined making ethanol from the sugar extracted from the juice of sweet sorghum and/or from the hemicellulose and cellulose in the residual sorghum bagasse versus selling the sugar from the juice or burning the bagasse to make electricity in four scenarios in the context of North China. In general terms, the production of ethanol from the hemicellulose and cellulose in bagasse was more favorable than burning it to make power, but the relative merits of making ethanol or sugar from the juice was very sensitive to the price of sugar in China. This result was confirmed by both process economics and analysis of opportunity costs. Thus, a flexible plant capable of making both sugar and fuel-ethanol from the juice is recommended. Overall, ethanol production from sorghum bagasse appears very favorable, but other agricultural residues such as corn stover and rice hulls would likely provide a more attractive feedstock for making ethanol in the medium and long term due to their extensive availability in North China and their independence from other markets. Furthermore, the process for residue conversion was based on particular design assumptions, and other technologies could enhance competitiveness while considerations such as perceived risk could impede applications. PMID:15668196

Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Wyman, C E

2005-06-01

232

Green Governance - One Solution for two problems? Climate change and economic shocks: risk perceptions and coping strategies in China, India and Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This collection of papers is based on an international workshop held in the summer of 2009 at the University of Duisburg-Essen. It brings together different perceptions regarding China, India and Bangladesh as they face the risks and crises of climate change and economic shocks like the recent global financial crisis. The papers reflect assumptions concerning the concept of Risk Society

Anja Senz; Dieter Reinhardt

2010-01-01

233

Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic

Andrew J. Challinor; Elisabeth S. Simelton; Evan D. G. Fraser; Debbie Hemming; Mathew Collins

2010-01-01

234

Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

2010-09-01

235

Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

2009-07-01

236

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China.  

PubMed

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases. PMID:16876953

Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

2006-11-30

237

Age, Growth and Population Structure of Jumbo Flying Squid, Dosidicus Gigas, Based on Statolith Microstructure Off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, support an important squid fishery off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean waters. However, we only have limited information about their biology. In this study, age, growth and population structure of D. gigas were studied using statoliths from 333 specimens (386 females and 147 males) randomly sampled in the Chinese squid jigging surveys from

X. J. Chen; H. J. Lu; B. L. Liu; Yong Chen

2011-01-01

238

Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

2013-01-01

239

Transnational corporations and ocean technology transfer: New economic zones are being developed by public\\/private partnerships but deep sea miners balk on royalties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal state jurisdiction at 200 nautical miles is today a fact of international law. This has led to a unique situation in the ownership and control of ocean resources; thus 15 coastal states have received among them approximately 41 percent of the world's 200-mile economic zone area. At least half of these are less-developed coastal states (LDCS) which lack the

Chennat Gopalakrishnan

1989-01-01

240

Structure and geochronological constraints on the ductile deformation observed along the Gaoligong Shan and Chong Shan Shear Zones, Yunnan (China)  

E-print Network

The mechanism by which the Cenozoic post-collisional northward motion of India relative to Eurasia and South China was accommodated along its eastern boundary is still a poorly understood aspect of the tectonic evolution ...

Akciz, Sinan Osman, 1974-

2004-01-01

241

Public Health Workers and Vaccination Coverage in Eastern China: A Health Economic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than one million deaths among children under 5 years of age every year. Public Health Workers (PHWs) are needed to provide immunization services, but the role of human resources for public health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been assessed in China. The objective of this study was to test whether PHW density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China. Methods: The vaccination coverage rates of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV), Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis combined vaccine (DTP), and Poliomyelitis Vaccine (PV) were chosen as the dependent variables. Vaccination coverage data of children aged 13–24 months for each county in Zhejiang Province were taken from the Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS). Aggregate PHW density was an independent variable in one set of regressions, and Vaccine Personnel (VP) and other PHW densities were used separately in another set. Data on densities of PHW and VP were taken from a national investigation on EPI launched by Ministry of Health of China in 2013. We controlled other determinants that may influence the vaccination coverage like Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person, proportion of migrant children aged <7 years, and land area. These data were taken from Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Statistics and ZJIIS. Results: PHW density was significantly influence the coverage rates of MCV [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR) = 4.29], DTP3(AOR = 2.16), and PV3 (AOR = 3.30). However, when the effects of VPs and other PHWs were assessed separately, we found that VP density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV AOR = 7.05; DTP3 AOR = 1.82; PV3 AOR = 4.83), while other PHW density was not. Proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant determinants for vaccination coverage, while GDP per person had no effect on vaccination coverage. Conclusions: A higher density of PHWs (VP) would improve the availability of immunization services over time and space, which may increase the possibility of achieving a higher childhood vaccination coverage rate. It was indicated that the level of GDP per person had no association with the improved vaccination coverage after controlling for other potential factors. Our findings implicated that PHW density was a major constraint on immunization coverage in Zhejiang Province. PMID:24859680

Hu, Yu; Shen, Lingzhi; Guo, Jing; Xie, Shuyun

2014-01-01

242

Water quality in the upper Han River basin, China: the impacts of land use/land cover in riparian buffer zone.  

PubMed

Vegetated riparian zones adjacent to rivers and streams, can greatly mitigate nutrients, sediment from surface through deposition, absorption and denitrification, yet, human activities primarily land use practices have dramatically reduced the capacity. In this study, 42 sampling sites were selected in the riverine network throughout the upper Han River basin (approximately 95,200 km(2)) of China. A total of 252 water samples were collected during the time period of 2005-2006 and analyzed for physico-chemical variables and major ions. Correlation analysis, principal components analysis and stepwise least squares multiple regression were used to determine the spatio-temporal variability of water quality variables and in particular their correlations with land use/land cover in the 100 m riparian zone along the stream network. The basin in general has a better water quality in the dry season than the rainy season, indicated by the primary pollutants including COD(Mn) and nitrogen. Major ion compositions display large spatial and seasonal differences and are significantly related to land use and land cover in the riparian zone, while riparian landscape could not explain most of the water quality variability in T, pH, turbidity, SPM and COD(Mn). The research could provide help develop sustainable land use practice of the riparian zone for water conservation in the basin. PMID:19019532

Li, Siyue; Gu, Sheng; Tan, Xiang; Zhang, Quanfa

2009-06-15

243

Economic Globalization, Politico-Cultural Identity and University Autonomy: The Struggle of Tsinghua University in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great deal of research has addressed the tension between economic globalization and local cultural identity, and the tension between convergence in global policy objectives and divergence in local practices, but research has not explored the impact of the complex interactions between these tensions on an individual university, especially in…

Pan, Su-Yan

2006-01-01

244

Economic Analysis of Photovoltaic Electricity Supply for an Electric Vehicle Fleet in Shenzhen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility analysis on photovoltaic (PV) electricity-powered electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of both technological and economic considerations. The analysis is based on the fact that EVs can provide energy storage capacity for intermittent PV output low carbon electricity, thus reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption of EVs. Four models of power supply systems are

Jie Tang; Bin Ye; Qiang Lu; Dong Wang; Ji Li

2012-01-01

245

Technical and economic evaluation of solar hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel thermochemical method for solar hydrogen production was proposed by state key laboratory of multiphase flow in power engineering (SKLMFPE) of Xi’an Jiaotong University. In this paper, a technical and economic evaluation of the new solar hydrogen production technology was conducted. Firstly, the advantages of this new solar hydrogen production process, compared with other processes, were assessed and thermodynamic

Youjun Lu; Liang Zhao; Liejin Guo

2011-01-01

246

Economic Analyses of Rubber and Tea Plantations and Rubber-tea Intercropping in Hainan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses land expectation value (LEV) as a criterion to conduct economic analyses of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) and tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) monoculture, and rubber-tea intercropping. We calculated LEV by using the Faustmann model that combines annual revenue flow\\u000a from latex production with final timber harvest of rubber trees. Production and cost data were collected from Xinwei

Zhimei Guo; Yaoqi Zhang; Peter Deegen; Holm Uibrig

2006-01-01

247

Inputs of antifouling paint-derived dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) to a typical mariculture zone (South China): Potential impact on aquafarming environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing evidence indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paints were an important source of DDT residues to mariculture zones. However, the magnitude of the impact on aquafarming environment has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (designated as DDXs) were determined in harbor sediment and antifouling paint samples collected from a typical mariculture zone

Huan-Yun Yu; Ru-Lang Shen; Yan Liang; Hefa Cheng; Eddy Y. Zeng

2011-01-01

248

Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: Environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.  

PubMed

Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern. Moreover, according to the spatial clustering index, the urban growth pattern predicted through MOP is more reasonable. In summary, the proposed model provides a set of Pareto urban growth solutions, which compromise environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed. PMID:24994100

Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song

2014-11-01

249

Energy consumption patterns by local residents in four nature reserves in the subtropical broadleaved forest zone of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection of fuelwood by local residents in or around nature reserves of China has caused problems such as disturbance of habitat for wildlife and deforestation. Thus, it is important to study the energy consumption patterns by those local residents live in or around nature reserves to find solutions to reduce the amount of fuelwood consumption. We chose four nature reserves:

Jing Cai; Zhigang Jiang

2010-01-01

250

A root zone model for estimating soil water balance and crop yield responses to deficit irrigation in the North China Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposed a new soil water balance model by quantifying drainage out of the root zone with the simplification of the Darcy's law, which combined the advantages of conceptual and physically based models. This model was connected with the Jensen crop water production function to simulate soil water components and relative crop yield. Field experiments with the winter wheat-summer corn cropping system were conducted in Beijing area in the North China Plain (2007-2009) to evaluate the model. The model could give quite reasonable predictions of soil water content in the root zone with the average root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (RE) and model efficiency (EF) of 0.02 cm3/cm3, 6.69% and 0.78, respectively. Furthermore, the predicted soil water flux through the bottom of root zone agreed well with the measured ones supported by the values of RMSE (0.10 mm/d) and EF (0.92). The Jensen crop water production function with the calculated actual evapotranspitation from the soil water balance model could satisfactorily evaluate crop yield response to deficit irrigation with the EF values greater than 0.95 and the RE values lower than 6%. As an application, the model was used to obtain the optimal irrigation management schedules for the hydrologic years of 75%, 50% and 25% in the study area. The average amount of irrigation saving and reduction of water losses through drainage under optimal irrigation alternative were about 175 mm and 101.9 mm, respectively. This study indicates that the developed root zone model is more available for agricultural water management as it has minimal input requirement, robust physical meaning and satisfactory simulation performance.

Ma, Y.; Song, X.; Feng, S.

2012-12-01

251

Common Pb isotope mapping of UHP metamorphic zones in Dabie orogen, Central China: Implication for Pb isotopic structure of subducted continental crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Pb isotopic compositions for feldspars separated from 57 orthogneisses and 2 paragneisses from three exhumed UHPM slices representing the North Dabie zone, the Central Dabie zone and the South Dabie zone of the Dabie orogen, central-east China. The feldspars from the gneisses were recrystallized during Triassic continental subduction and UHP metamorphism. Precursors of the orthogneisses are products of Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatic events, those in north Dabie zone emplaced into the lower crust and those in central and south Dabie zones into middle or upper crust, respectively. On a 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram, almost all orthogneisses data lie to the left of the 0.23 Ga paleogeochron and plot along the model mantle evolution curve with the major portion of the data plotting below it. On a 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram the most of data of north Dabie zone extend in elongate arrays along the lower crustal curve and others extend between the lower crustal curve to near the mantle evolution curve for the plumbotectonics model. This pattern demonstrates that the Pb isotopic evolution of the feldspars essentially ended at 0.23 Ga and the orthogneiss protoliths were principally dominated by reworking of ancient lower crust with some addition of juvenile mantle in the Neoproterozoic rifting tectonic zone. According to geological evolution history of the locally Dabie orogen, a four-stage Pb isotope evolution model including a long time evolution between 2.0 and 0.8 Ga with a lower crust type U/Pb ratio (? = 5-6) suggests that magmatic emplacement levels of the protoliths of the orthogneisses in the Dabie orogen at 0.8 Ga also play an important role in the Pb evolution of the exhumed UHPM slices, corresponding to their respective Pb characters at ca. 0.8-0.23 Ga. For example, north Dabie zone requires low ? values (3.4-9.6), while central and south Dabie zones require high ? values (10.9-17.2). On the other hand, Pb isotopic mixing between north and central or south Dabie zones during retro-grade metamorphism enhanced by the extensive magmatism in the Cretaceous has also been observed in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagrams. A combined study of common Pb isotopic compositions of Dabie orthogneisses and Sulu UHPM rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project demonstrates that a slab marked by extremely unradiogenic Pb observed in the main hole was absent in the Dabie orogen. However, occurrence of some Mesozoic granitoids with such unradiogenic character in the Dabie orogen suggests that their source may be a buried unradiogenic unit underlying below north Dabie zone. This case study clearly shows that whether the position of the Dabie data relative to the orogen curve of the plumbotectonic model is helpful in understanding the Pb isotopic structure and evolution of subducted continental crust.

Shen, Ji; Wang, Ying; Li, Shu-Guang

2014-10-01

252

Tectonics of the Middle Triassic intracontinental Xuefengshan Belt, South China: new insights from structural and chronological constraints on the basal décollement zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In orogenic belts, a basal décollement zone often develops at depth to accommodate the shortening due to folding and thrusting of the sedimentary cover. In the Early Mesozoic intracontinental Xuefengshan Belt of South China, such a décollement zone is exposed in the core of anticlines formed by the emplacement of the late-orogenic granitic plutons. Our detailed, multi-scale structural analysis documents a synmetamorphic ductile deformation. In the basal décollement, the Neoproterozoic pelite and sandstone, and the intruding Early Paleozoic granites were deformed and metamorphosed into mylonites and orthogneiss, respectively. The metamorphic foliation contains a NW-SE stretching lineation associated with top-to-the-NW kinematic indicators. The ductile shearing of these high-strained rocks can be correlated with NW-verging folds and thrusts recognized in the Neoproterozoic to Early Triassic sedimentary cover. Monazite U-Th-Pbtot chemical dating, and zircon SIMS U-Pb dating provide age constraints of the ductile shearing between 243 and 226 Ma, and late-orogenic granite emplacement around 235-215 Ma. In agreement with recent geochronological data, these new results show that the Xuefengshan Belt is an Early Mesozoic orogen dominated by the NW-directed shearing and thrusting. At the southeastern boundary of the Xuefengshan Belt, the Chenzhou-Linwu fault separates the Early Mesozoic domain to the NW from the Early Paleozoic domain to the SE. The tectonic architecture of this belt was possibly originated from the continental underthrusting to the SE of the South China block in response to northwest-directed subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

Chu, Yang; Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Wang, Qingchen; Ji, Wenbin

2012-11-01

253

Effects of deep soil desiccation on artificial forestlands in different vegetation zones on the Loess Plateau of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep soil desiccations are increasingly threatening artificial forests on the Loess Plateau of China. Soil moisture in 0–1000 cm soil layers of 23 kinds of tree and shrub forestlands was measured. Average soil moisture in 0–1000 cm soil profile of the forestlands was 10.84%, obviously lower than soil moisture in local natural grasslands and soil stable moisture. Average soil desic-cation

Li Jun; Chen Bing; Li Xiaofang; Zhao Yujuan; Ciren Yangjing; Jiang Bin; Hu Wei; Cheng Jimin; Shao Ming'an

2008-01-01

254

China Energy Primer  

E-print Network

7 Energy and Environment Generally, acid rain has mainlyand Environment Two Control Zones for Sulphur Pollution in 1998, targeting SO2 emissions in Northern China and acid rainAcid Rain in China in Average Precipitation PH Source: Ministry of Environmental Protection, China. Chapter 7 Energy and Environment

Ni, Chun Chun

2010-01-01

255

77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Workshop for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports (EDR) currently...shoreside processors, and stationary floating crab processors participating in the BSAI...

2012-07-09

256

Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China  

PubMed Central

The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the magnitudes of the He and H2 anomalies of three surveys declined significantly with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found in three replicates at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity. PMID:21134257

2010-01-01

257

Truth concealed behind "Zero Increase of Total Water Use" and coordination approach of socio-economic and eco-environmental water uses in the Weihe River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources situation in the water-stressed Weihe River Basin, China, is more serious now than ever before because of a decrease in water resources and socio-economic development. A "Zero increase of socio-economic water use" in recent years gives people a wrong understanding and conceals the water crisis in the basin because the socio-economic water consumption has actually increased. Water use for the hydro-ecological system has been greatly reduced by a decrease in water resources and socio-economic water consumption increase. New concepts of hierarchical water uses for every sector and water consumption control are suggested for coordinating water uses of the socio-economy and ecosystems in the water-stressed basin. The traditional water resources allocation and regulation in China usually set up a priority sequence for water use sectors. Generally speaking, domestic water use has the highest priority and a highest guarantee rate, followed by industrial water use, irrigation and lastly ecological water use. The concept of hierarchical water use for every sector is to distinguish the water use of every sector into minimum part, appropriate part, and expected extra part with different guarantee rates, and the minimum parts of all sectors should be first guaranteed. By applying a water allocation model, we compared the water allocation results of the traditional approach and the newly suggested approach. Although further study is desired, the results are believed to be of an important referential value to sustainable development in the basin.

Jia, Y.; Wei, N.; Hao, C.; You, J.; Niu, C.; Qiu, Y.

2014-09-01

258

75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Islands Trawl Limited Access Fishery in the C. opilio Bycatch Limitation Zone of the Bering...pelagic trawl gear for walleye pollock, in the C. opilio bycatch limitation zone (COBLZ...exceeding the 2010 COBLZ bycatch allowance of C. opilio specified for the BSAI trawl...

2010-02-19

259

Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponin

McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

2011-08-18

260

The rapid economic and industrial growth of China, exemplified by a 10-fold increase in its gross domestic  

E-print Network

's soil, air, and water are polluted by xenobiotic contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic simultaneously led to severe pollution of the soil, air, and water. The World Health Organization esti- mated.4 million deaths in China per year could be attributed to degraded environmental quality. Much of China

Zhang, Minghua

261

Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China  

E-print Network

and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types Ecotourism Á Giant panda Á Wolong Nature Reserve Introduction Worldwide, many countries and regions rich 17701, USA S. Zhou Á H. Zhang China's Center for Giant Panda Research and Conservation, Wolong Nature

262

Future cereal production in China: The interaction of climate change, water availability and socio-economic scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food production in China is a fundamental component of the national economy and driver of agricultural policy. Sustaining and increasing output to meet growing demand faces significant challenges including climate change, increasing population, agricultural land loss and competing demands for water. Recent warming in China is projected to accelerate by climate models with associated changes in precipitation and frequency of

Xiong Wei; Conway Declan; Lin Erda; Xu Yinlong; Ju Hui; Jiang Jinhe; Holman Ian; Li Yan

2009-01-01

263

Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families. Methods A hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The incidence of outpatient influenza cases in Zhuhai was estimated on the basis of the number of influenza patients detected by the sentinel sites. A telephone survey on the direct costs associated with illness was conducted as a follow-up. Results The incidence of influenza was estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 19.2 per 1,000 population in 2009. Children aged <5 years were the most-affected population, suffering from influenza at the highest rates (34.3 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 95.3 per 1,000 population in 2009). A high incidence of 29.2–40.9 per 1000 population was also seen in young people aged 5–24 years in 2009. ILI activity and influenza virus isolations adopted a consistent seasonal pattern, with a summer peak in July 2008 and the longest epidemic period lasting from July–December 2009. The medical costs per episode of influenza among urban patients were higher than those for rural patients. A total of $1.1 million in direct economic losses were estimated to be associated with outpatient influenza during 2008–2009 in Zhuhai community. Conclusions Influenza attacks children aged <5 years in greater proportions than children in other age groups. Seasonal influenza 2008 and Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 had different epidemiological and etiological characteristics. Direct costs (mostly medical costs) impose an enormous burden on the patient family. Vaccination strategies for high-risk groups need to be further strengthened. PMID:22911789

Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Chan-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; He, Jian-feng; Zhang, Jin-qing

2012-01-01

264

Assessment of rock mass characteristics and the excavation disturbed zone in the Lingxin Coal Mine beneath the Xitian river, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe production and induced hazard prevention in coal mines mainly concern problems in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ), but coal mining can also make a significant impact on the environment. Comprehensive techniques using a borehole TV viewer system, electrical logging, and monitoring of drilling fluid leakage offer the ability to identify changing geological conditions and the location of any nearby

Xingping Lai; Meifeng Cai; Fenhua Ren; Mowen Xie; Tetsuro Esaki

2006-01-01

265

Dynamics of Species Diversity and Achievement of Restoration Vegetation in Xinfeng Typical National Demonstration Zone, SE China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xinfeng, is the typical region of the vegetation restoration of serious soil and water loss zone in Jiangxi Province, in which dynamics of species diversity and achievement of 6 restoration communities were analyzed using three diversity indices, Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA). Investigations were carried out in 2004yr and 2008yr. The results were as follows:

Zhi-yong Xia; Dai-hua Qi; Lin Huang

2010-01-01

266

Urban heat island effect in preserved zones of history and culture in old city of Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban heat island (UHI) refers to the phenomenon of the higher atmospheric temperature in the central urban area than the surrounding rural area, which makes the urban like a warmer island compared with the rural area. The vector data of 25 preserved zones and second ring road were overlain to the land surface temperature image. The UHI intensity in each

Mingyi Du; Yanyan Kang; Liang Huo; Guoyin Cai

2010-01-01

267

Rn and CO2 geochemistry of soil gas across the active fault zones in the capital area of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is proposed to investigate the spatiotemporal variations in soil gas Rn and CO2 across the active faults in the capital area of China in order to understand fault activities and assess seismic hazard. A total of 342 soil gas sampling sites were measured twice in 2011 and 2012 along seven profiles and across four faults. The results of soil gas surveys show that, in each profile, due to the variation in gas emission rate, the concentrations of Rn and CO2 changed in the vicinity of faults. Spatial distributions of Rn and CO2 in the study areas were different from each other, which was attributed to soil types affecting the existence of Rn and CO2. Compared with the measurement result of 2011, the increasing amplitude of average concentration value of Rn and CO2 in profiles in 2012 ranged from 30.2 to 123.4% and 66.3 to 131.7%, respectively, which were coincident with the enhancement of seismic activities in the capital area of China. Our results indicate that special attention with regard to seismic monitoring should be paid to the Xinbaoan-Shacheng Fault and the northeastern segment of the Tangshan Fault in the future.

Han, X.; Li, Y.; Du, J.; Zhou, X.; Xie, C.; Zhang, W.

2014-10-01

268

Paleotemperature variation in the South China Sea and the displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during the last 30 kyrs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have generated paleotemperature records from Cores MD97-2146 and MD 97-2151 during the last 30 kyrs to understand the latitudinal displacement of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the western Pacific warm pool region. The paleotemperatures were estimated by TEX86 paleothermometry. The age depth models were created by calendar ages converted from AMS C-14 ages of planktonic foraminifera. At MD97-2146

M. Yamamoto; T. Shintani; H. Sai; M. Chen

2009-01-01

269

Spatial distribution characteristics of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in unsaturated zone of Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan, China.  

PubMed

Sewage irrigation is one of the best options to reduce the stress on limited fresh water and to meet the nutrient requirement of crops. Environment pollution caused by volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (VHCs) associated with sewage irrigation has received increasing attention due to the toxicological importance in ecosystem. The aim of this study was to discuss the spatial distribution characteristics of VHCs in unsaturated zone under sewage irrigation and their migration in the environment. Soil samples were collected from XiaoDian district of TaiYuan city and measured for the major VHCs including of chloroform (CHCl3), tetrachloromethane (CCl4), trichloroethylene (C2HCl3), tetrachloroethylene(C2Cl4), pentachlorobenzene (C6HCl5), hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6). Results showed that VHCs were accumulated in the unsaturated zone with long-term sewage irrigation. The contents of VHCs in the unsaturated zone of the study area were 34, 2, 3, 1.5, 8.3, 4.8 times higher than the background value respectively. Soils with long-term irrigation of sewage showed higher contents of VHCs than that with short-term irrigation of sewage. Not only the irrigation time, soil physical properties (e.g. soil texture) also played an important role on VHCs accumulation in soil. PMID:25193606

Liao, Yuan; Ma, Teng; Cui, Yahui; Qi, Zhichong

2014-12-01

270

Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China  

E-print Network

scale in Brazil and the United States, respectively, and this alcohol has been able to compete to their extensive availability in North China and their independence from other markets. Furthermore, the process

California at Riverside, University of

271

Micro-Institution : design and craft in education for socio-economic change for urban China migrant workers' children  

E-print Network

The socioeconomic condition of the urban migrant worker remains one of the most substantial manifestations of inequality in China. The ever-growing wealth and human rights disparity between urban citizens and rural farmers ...

Gao, Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

272

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

273

The adoption of “Western” management accounting\\/controls in China's state-owned enterprises during economic transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the influences on the adoption of “Western” management accounting\\/control practices by China's state-owned enterprises (SOEs). This topic is important given the potential for such practices to affect SOE operations in the midst of China's continued privatization programme, and the continued opening of its markets to competition. In-depth interviews were conducted with managers at four SOEs and two

Neale G. O'Connor; Chee W. Chow; Anne Wu

2004-01-01

274

Aging in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of facts and impressions gathered during 1984, in the course of an 18-day visit to the Peoples Republic of China by a team of epidemiologists and gerontologists from the United States. The major portion of the paper presents demographic, economic, and social perspectives on aging in China. It is noted that China remains a…

Sheppard, Harold L.; Streib, Gordon F.

275

Distribution, Abundance and Biological Studies of Economically Important Fishes in the South China Sea, Area II: Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei Darussalam Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies were carried out between 9th July and 3rd August 1996 (3rd cruise) and 30th April and 30th May, 1997 (4th cruise) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Sarawak and the western part of Sabah. The species distribution, abundance, composition and length-weight relationships of some commer- cially important fish were investigated and compared for both cruises. The results indicates

Richard Rumpet; Daud Awang; Jamil Musel; Rooney Biusing

276

Research on the Innovative Service Platform of Agricultural Economic Development - A Case Study on New Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Development Model of Yunnan Province in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations (ACEO) is an important service platform to promote the industrialization of agriculture, increase farmers' income, and solve the \\

Yingmei Gong; Youjin Gu; Yougang Wang

2010-01-01

277

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of an industrial area of China: multivariate analyses and geostatistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tianjin Bin Hai New Area (BHNA) is the third largest economic zone in China. This is an older industrial area that has been developing rapidly but with many historic sources of contamination. The concentrations of 16 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed for priority control by the US EPA were quantified in 105 surface soil samples by the use of

Jing Li; Yonglong Lu; Wentao Jiao; Tieyu Wang; Wei Luo; John P. Giesy

2010-01-01

278

78 FR 40638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for dusky rockfish in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of dusky rockfish in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES:...

2013-07-08

279

78 FR 69591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Halibut and Crab Prohibited...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Off Alaska; Reallocation of Halibut and Crab Prohibited Species Catch Allowances in...unused amounts of the 2013 halibut and crab prohibited species catch (PSC) allowances...140 metric tons of halibut PSC, 20,000 crabs of Zone 1 red king crab PSC,...

2013-11-20

280

75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using Jig or Hook-and-Line Gear...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) length overall (LOA) using jig or...

2010-02-26

281

76 FR 12606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using Jig or Hook-and-Line Gear...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 m) length overall (LOA) using jig or...

2011-03-08

282

78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-24

283

77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-24

284

75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-25

285

75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-21

286

77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-03-23

287

78 FR 63899 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-25

288

77 FR 65330 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-26

289

78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2013-0032 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-02-12

290

77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-02-17

291

75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-09-22

292

76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-10

293

75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-19

294

77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-03

295

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-03

296

76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-02-28

297

75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...total allowable catch limit in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-06

298

76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-02

299

78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-03-25

300

76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-09-08

301

U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: Implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction-zone UHP metamorphism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the Zhimafang ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) peridotite from pre-pilot drill hole PP-1 of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. The peridotite occurs as lens within quartofeldspathic gneiss, and has an assemblage of Ol + Opx + Cpx + Phl + Ti-clinohumite (Ti-Chu) + Grt (or chromite) ?? magnesite (Mgs). Zircons were separated from cores at depths of 152 m (C24, garnet lhezolite), 160 m (C27, strongly retrograded phlogopite-rich peridotite) and 225 m (C50, banded peridotite), and were dated by SHRIMP mass spectrometer. Isometric zircons without inherited cores contain inclusions of olivine (Fo91-92), enstatite (En91-92), Ti-clinohumite, diopside, phlogopite and apatite. The enstatite inclusions have low Al2O3 contents of only 0.04-0.13 wt.%, indicating a UHP metamorphic origin. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age for garnet lherzolite (C24) is 221 ?? 3 Ma, and a discordia lower intercept age for peridotite (C50) is 220 ?? 2 Ma. These ages are within error and represent the time of subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. A younger lower intercept age of 212 ?? 3 Ma for a foliated wehrlite (C27) was probably caused by Pb loss during retrograde metamorphism. The source of zirconium may be partially attributed to melt/fluid metasomatism within the mantle wedge. Geochronological and geochemical data confirm that the mantle-derived Zhimafang garnet peridotites (probably the most representative type of Sulu garnet peridotites) were tectonically inserted into a subducting crustal slab and subjected to in situ Triassic subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang, R.Y.; Yang, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Li, T.F.

2005-01-01

302

Effects of storm runoff on the thermal regime and water quality of a deep, stratified reservoir in a temperate monsoon zone, in Northwest China.  

PubMed

Jinpen Reservoir is a deep, stratified reservoir in Shaanxi province, located in a warm temperate zone of Northwest China. Influenced by a temperate monsoon climate, more than 60% of the annual precipitation is concentrated from late summer to autumn (July-September). In recent years, extreme rainfall events occurred more frequently and strongly affected the thermal structure, mixing layer depth and evolution of stratification of Jinpen Reservoir. The reservoir's inflow volume increased sharply after heavy rainfall during the flooding season. Large volumes of inflow induced mixing of stratified water zones in early autumn and disturbed the stratification significantly. A temporary positive effect of such disturbance was the oxygenation of the water close to the bottom of the reservoir, leading to inhibition of the release of nutrients from sediments, especially phosphate. However, the massive inflow induced by storm runoff with increased oxygen-consuming substances led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate. After the bottom water became anaerobic again, the bottom water quality would deteriorate due to the release of pollutants from sediments. Heavy rainfall events could lead to very high nutrient input into the reservoir due to massive erosion from the surrounding uninhabited steep mountains, and the particulate matter contributed to most nutrient inputs. Reasonably releasing density flow is an effective way to reduce the amounts of particulate associated pollutants entering the reservoir. Significant turbid density flow always followed high rainfall events in Jinpen Reservoir, which not only affected the reservoir water quality but also increased costs of the drinking water treatment plant. Understanding the effects of the storm runoff on the vertical distributions of water quality indicators could help water managers to select the proper position of the intake for the water plant in order to avoid high turbidity outflow. PMID:24485908

Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim; Ma, Weixing; Sun, Xin; Xu, Jinlan

2014-07-01

303

Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

2013-08-01

304

Japan eyes China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research trip to Tokyo found contrasts between Japanese policies of engaging China economically and the U.S. emphasis on\\u000a human rights. It also found distinct differences between Washington and Tokyo in assessing the present and future security\\u000a threat of China in Asia. While the United States is apprehensive about increasing military power, Japan is more concerned\\u000a with China’s political and

Harvey W. Nelsen

1995-01-01

305

Entrepreneurship in China International  

E-print Network

World Heritage listed West Lake An opportunity to be areal "entrepreneur" in China Language and cultural sessions and Finance, Tourism Management, and Agricultural Economics and Management. The missionof the school", the University ismaking substantial contributions to China's economic, social and technological development. .3

Haviland, David

306

Evolutionary characteristics of the sags to the east of Tan-Lu Fault Zone, Bohai Bay Basin (China): Implications for hydrocarbon exploration and regional tectonic evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some Cenozoic half-grabens (sags) have been found to the east of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone in the Bohai Bay Basin, east China. The evolutionary history of these sags is consistent with the entire Bohai Bay Basin; besides, some remarkable characteristics which had not been mentioned in previous studies of the Bohai Bay Basin are presented, and they are the keys to understand the regional tectonic evolution. Among them, two characteristics are emphasized: (1) the structural and evolutionary features of the sags were markedly changed at about 38 Ma; (2) the Paleogene basin underwent several times of uplifts and denudations during Paleogene. The first characteristic shows that the normal faulting was the dominant structural deformation before 38 Ma, and after then, the strike-slip movement might initiate to influence the basin. The second characteristic indicates remarkable reducing of the present-day residual basin relative to the original basin and, implies the episodic uplifting of the Jiaoliao massif. Besides, our estimation on the hydrocarbon exploration potential of these sags shows that part of them can sustain the formation of medium-large oilfield independently, while, part can contribute to the formation of large oilfield.

Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang

2014-01-01

307

Decadal to millennial deformation in the Pamir - Tian Shan collision zone, NW China and surface expression of active tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision between the Pamir and the Tian Shan is a type example of intracontinental collision. GPS studies show that in Northwest China, at the junction between the Tarim basin, the Pamir and the Tian Shan, 7-9 mm/y of north-south shortening are presently accommodated across the boundary between the two orogens. Here, the deformation has mostly stepped out from the high mountain front into the foreland and has formed a complex array of compressional structures. We compare rates of decadal deformation in the area with 104- to 106-year estimates and investigate the extent to which stream profiles and topography reflect the active tectonics in this setting. A dataset of decadal deformation rates around the Tarim-Tian Shan-Pamir junction in Northwest China is obtained from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time-series analysis. We use the StaMPS/MTI package to combine small-baseline and persistent-scatterer techniques and obtain results that show no significant residual topographic phase correlation. Our data show that deformation has stepped away from the high mountain front and is concentrated on a few structures in the foreland of the Pamir and Tian Shan. Line-of-sight deformation of up to 2-4 mm/y on the Pamir Frontal Thrust (PFT) and the Kashi detachment anticline are observed. No significant displacement of the Main Pamir Thrust can be detected. Within error, the modern deformation rates agree with previously published millennial to million-year estimates along the PFT. However, decadal deformation rates deviate from million-year shortening and rock-uplift rates of anticlines in the foreland of the Tian Shan. It remains unclear whether the discrepancy arises from a recent change to a new persistent uplift rate, or merely from short timescale fluctuation of uplift rate, for example within an earthquake cycle. In an additional step, we extract stream profiles and normalized steepness index (ksn) values for rivers with drainage areas larger than 9 km2 using an SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Stream profiles of large catchments (drainage area of > 1000 km2) draining the Pamir and the Tian Shan are straight or slightly convex across the entire foreland with consequent downstream increases in ksn values. However, no significant changes in stream profiles or ksn values are observed where channels cross presently active structures in the foreland. We note exceptions from this observation at locations of strong litholgic contrasts. The analysis of many small streams with headwaters in the active structures is limited by the resolution of the DEM. A few channels that are large enough to be resolved do not consistently have higher ksn values than equivalently sized streams on presently inactive structures. Our observations, therefore, show that the stream profiles and steepness indices of streams with drainage areas > 9 km2 do not clearly indicate the locus of active deformation in this area despite rock-uplift rates of 1-4 mm/y. Possible reasons for this result include the dry climate of the Tarim basin leading to an overestimation of contributing drainage area in the foreland, the rapid erosion of weak lithologies exposed in many of the active structures, and the possible role of sediment load in rivers and aggradation in the foreland in smoothing of any steepening that was due to uplift.

Bufe, A.; Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Bekaert, D. P.; Hussain, E.

2013-12-01

308

75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...measures shall prevent overfishing while achieving...achieved over the long-run but not necessarily...around the Pribilof Islands, including studies...percent, Norton Sound Economic Development...and in the Puget Sound area of Washington...479 112 591 2.63 Island...

2010-08-30

309

Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.  

PubMed

China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. PMID:20702024

Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

2010-12-01

310

Economic Development and the Market Place for Education: Dynamics of the International Schools Sector in Shanghai, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To some extent, all schools operate in a market place; but the interaction with the market place may be particularly evident in the international schools sector, since many such schools are operated by foundations or private companies which charge fees. This article focuses on the distinctive market place of Shanghai, China, which has undergone…

Yamato, Yoko; Bray, Mark

2006-01-01

311

Three essays on monetary policy, the financial market, and economic growth in the U.S. and China  

E-print Network

the effect of the interest channel. Second, I adopt the recently developed time series technique to explore the puzzling negative correlation between output and stock returns in China currently, and posit that it is due to a negative link between monetary...

Yang, Juan

2009-05-15

312

Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

Liu, Ye

2013-01-01

313

Biogas programs in India and China, an ecologically appropriate technology in two highly contrasting socio-economic settings  

SciTech Connect

The biogas programs of India and the Peoples Republic of China are compared and contrasted. Cultural, geographic, religious and social factors are used to explain the degree of success of one program in relation to the other. General conclusions, based on the data of the study, are presented. (Refs. 33).

Thery, D.

1981-10-01

314

The Great Leap Forward, Economic Reforms, and the Unit Root Hypothesis: Testing for Breaking Trend Functions in China's GDP Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two related objectives. The first is to evaluate empirically whether annual data for China's GDP and its sectoral components from 1952 to 1998 can be modeled more accurately as a stationary process around a breaking trend function as opposed to a unit-root process. The second is to identify the long-run growth path of the Chinese economy and

Xiao-Ming Li

2000-01-01

315

Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.  

PubMed

Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

2014-02-01

316

Magnetic fingerprinting of hydrodynamic variations and channel erosion across the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic measurements were conducted on surface sediments and suspended particles collected across the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze Estuary, in order to examine the spatial distribution of magnetic mineral assemblages and the factors responsible for this distribution. The results indicate that magnetic properties are dominated by ferrimagnetic grains. Bulk magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values show positive correlations with the proportion of the > 63 ?m fraction in the North Channel, while anhysteretic remanent magnetization (?ARM) is significantly correlated with the proportion of the < 16 ?m fraction in both surface sediments and suspended particles. Such a bimodal distribution of ferrimagnetic minerals in the sand and finer fractions is confirmed by particle size-specific measurements. Sediments in the North Channel have the highest ? and SIRM values but lowest ?ARM/SIRM ratios, which is consistent with the coarsest particle size due to strong hydrodynamics, i.e. currents. Within each channel, ? and SIRM values are higher in sediments from shallower water depth due to energetic conditions resulting from waves. Compared with surface sediments, suspended particles have lower ? and SIRM values but higher ?ARM/SIRM ratios due to lower sand fractions. The increasing trend of ?ARM/SIRM of suspended particles along the pathway of sediment transport indicates weakening hydrodynamics from the inner estuary to the outer estuary. Diagenesis is another factor influencing magnetic properties in addition to particle size. Channel erosion leads to local exposure of buried sediments on the channel bed. As a result of a stronger diagenetic imprint, they show magnetic properties different from the recently deposited sediments. Our results indicate that magnetic properties cannot only indicate spatial variations in hydrodynamics, but also provide insight into sediment erosion/deposition processes. Combined granulometric and magnetic methods can therefore be used to interpret hydrodynamics and track changes in estuary morphology.

Dong, Chenyin; Zhang, Weiguo; He, Qing; Dong, Yan; Yu, Lizhong

2014-12-01

317

Response of the turbidity maximum zone to fluctuations in sediment discharge from river to estuary in the Changjiang Estuary (China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Changjiang Estuary, interactions between the sea and the river result in the development of a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Riverine sediments are an important source for TMZ formation. Since the 1960s, sediment discharge from the river basin to the estuary has decreased due to dam construction, water and soil conservation, and water diversion projects. Thirty-two Landsat images of the estuary, covering the period from 1979 to 2008, were collected to identify the TMZ response to sediment decline. A threshold value of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of 0.7 kg/m3, corresponding to a spectrum reflectance of 5% of Landsat MSS band 7 and 7% of Landsat TM/ETM band 4, was used to identify the Changjiang Estuary TMZ. The TMZ area was then extracted from each image to investigate its temporal and spatial variations during the past 30 years. The images were grouped into five time series; the average TMZ area of each series was estimated. The results show that the TMZ area declined 23% from series (a) to series (e), responding to a 77% reduction in riverine sediment discharge. In addition, the TMZ had strong seasonal and tidal variations; it was generally larger during flood seasons than during dry seasons and during spring tides compared to neap tides. The spring/neap tidal cycle played a more important role in TMZ change than did the seasonal cycle. Due to the continued reduction of sediment discharge to the estuary resulting from dams already constructed and to those that will be constructed upstream in the Changjiang River, it is predicted that the TMZ area will continue decreasing and that the re-suspension of local sediments will play a more important role in the formation of the TMZ.

Jiang, Xuezhong; Lu, Bing; He, Yuhong

2013-10-01

318

China and East Asian Regionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractEast Asia is steadfastly marching towards regional economic integration through a number of regional trade agreements (RTAs) and China is a major driving force behind this movement. This paper analyses China's RTAs and their impact on regionalism in Asia. It addresses the criticisms that China's RTAs are politically but not economically driven, that China's RTAs create the hub?and?spoke bilateralism and

Wang JiangYu

2011-01-01

319

The Post-seismic Slip of the 1973 M7.6 earthquake on the Luhuo Segment of the Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An M=7.6 earthquake ruptured the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone on Feb. 6, 1973. Since then, several across-fault (across the 1973 rupture) deformation observation systems have been set up one after another at the site of Xialatuo, Luhuo county, Sichuan province, China. Among them are a system of short baselines and short leveling, a set of creep-meters, an artificial construction, and some near-fault to far-fault GPS geodetic stations. By using data from the observation of these systems, this paper studies the characteristic of the post-seismic slip/deformation and their temporal-spatial variations for the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone, and builds a tectonic-dynamic model to explain the characteristic features. Our study mainly shows that, (1) in the first five years following the 1973 earthquake, the earthquake fault at Xialatuo behaved as an open one that the post-seismic slip showed mainly as aseismic left-lateral slip (creeping) at an average rate of 10.27mm/a along with slight tensional creeping. Since 1979, however, the rate of the post-seismic left-lateral creep has been slowing down gradually from 5.3mm/a to 2.27mm/a, and the process of the rate slowing down is the type of logarithmic function, suggesting that during the period since 1979 the fault plane, that ruptured in the 1973 earthquake, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock gradually with some strain having rebuilt-up. (2) Since 1999 the rate of relative left-lateral displacement/deformation at the fault far-fields on both sides of the fault segment is estimated to be 10mm/a, much greater than the near-fault (40m to 144m across the fault) left-lateral creep rates of 0.66 mm/a to 2.52mm/a in the same stage. Also, such significant differences of the near- to far-fault displacement/deformation rates occur along an about 2×30-km-wide zone centered along the fault segment of Luhuo, indicating the width of the seismogenic fault zone associated with the stress/strain build-up and release during major earthquake cycles here. (3) Combining with information of tectonic-dynamic background and deep crustal structure, the authors try to explain the mechanism of the post-seismic fault slip/deformation and its spatial-temporal variation for the studied fault segment. Key points of the explanation are as follows: Starting from the 5th year after the 1973 earthquake, the fault plane in the brittle upper crust, which was once used to be open in the earlier post-seismic stage, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock as a result of gradual increasing slip/friction resistance on the fault plane. In the deeper crust, however, the continuous ductile relative motion between the both sides of the fault keeps dragging the brittle upper crust to produce elastic displacement/deformation. (4) It can be estimated that the studied fault segment will entirely "re-lock", enter the stage of inter-seismic locking, and re-build up stress/strain for the next major event in the next 15 to 25 years.

Fang, D.; Xue-Ze, W.

2012-04-01

320

Vulnerability, beliefs, treatments and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural areas in China: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China is very high. This study aimed to assess the vulnerability of COPD patients in rural areas outside Xuzhou City, Jiangsu province, in order to provide helpful guidance for future research and public policies. Methods The vulnerability of 8,217 COPD patients was evaluated using a face-to-face questionnaire to obtain information on general characteristics, awareness, beliefs, medication usage, acute exacerbation of the disease, and economic burdens. Direct economic burdens were calculated based on the questionnaire, and indirect economic burdens were estimated using local per capita income and life expectancy in 2008. The years of potential life lost were calculated using loss of life years for each age group and multiplying by the number of deaths in a given age group. Results Of the 8,217 patients, 7,921 (96.4%) had not heard of COPD, and 2,638 (32.1%) did not understand that smoking was a risk factor for COPD. No patients had used inhalers, nebulizer drugs or oxygen therapy, either regularly or sporadically. No patients had undergone pulmonary rehabilitation or surgical treatment, while 4,215 (51.3%) took theophylline to relieve dyspnea, and 3,418 (41.6%) used antibiotics to treat exacerbations. A total of 2,925 (35.6%) patients had been admitted to hospital during the past year because of respiratory symptoms. The average direct and indirect economic burdens on COPD patients were 1,090 and 20,605 yuan, respectively. Conclusions The vulnerability of patients in rural Xuzhou to COPD was high. Their awareness of COPD was poor, their treatment during both the stable and acute exacerbation stages did not meet standards, and the economic burdens were large. Interventions are therefore needed to improve the prevention and management of COPD in this population. Further studies are required to verify these findings. PMID:22521113

2012-01-01

321

Transnational corporations and ocean technology transfer: New economic zones are being developed by public/private partnerships but deep sea miners balk on royalties  

SciTech Connect

Coastal state jurisdiction at 200 nautical miles is today a fact of international law. This has led to a unique situation in the ownership and control of ocean resources; thus 15 coastal states have received among them approximately 41 percent of the world's 200-mile economic zone area. At least half of these are less-developed coastal states (LDCS) which lack the key inputs, capital, technology, and managerial skill, essential to tap their ocean resources. A significant part of ocean technology in offshore oil, fisheries, aquaculture, and deep seabed mining exists in the private sector. Consequently, the transnational corporations (TNCs) are the major providers of ocean technology to the LDCS by a process of transfer through service contracts, turnkey operations, co-production agreements and, most importantly, joint ventures. All evidence points to a continued constructive partnership between the LDCS and the TNCs under the new regime of ocean resource management.

Gopalakrishnan, C. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA))

1989-07-01

322

Typologies of crop-drought vulnerability: an empirical analysis of the socio-economic factors that influence the sensitivity and resilience to drought of three major food crops in China (1961-2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is it that sometimes small droughts trigger serious crop losses while in other cases even large droughts do not have such a major effect? In this paper, we identify socio-economic indicators associated with sensitivity and resilience to drought for each of China's main grain crops (rice, wheat and corn). Provincial harvest and rainfall data (1961-2001) are used to calculate

Elisabeth Simelton; Evan D. G. Fraser; Mette Termansen; Piers M. Forster; Andrew J. Dougill

2009-01-01

323

Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

Samuel F. Law

2008-01-01

324

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China  

PubMed Central

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

325

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China.  

PubMed

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

326

Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.  

PubMed

In China, the continuously increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in an urgent need for changing the current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system based on mixed collection. A pilot program focusing on source-separated MSW collection was thus launched (2010) in Hangzhou, China, to lessen the related environmental loads. And greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kyoto Protocol) are singled out in particular. This paper uses life cycle assessment modeling to evaluate the potential environmental improvement with regard to GHG emissions. The pre-existing MSWM system is assessed as baseline, while the source separation scenario is compared internally. Results show that 23 % GHG emissions can be decreased by source-separated collection compared with the base scenario. In addition, the use of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) is suggested for further optimizing the management of food waste. 260.79, 82.21, and -86.21 thousand tonnes of GHG emissions are emitted from food waste landfill, composting, and AD, respectively, proving the emission reduction potential brought by advanced food waste treatment technologies. Realizing the fact, a modified MSWM system is proposed by taking AD as food waste substitution option, with additional 44 % GHG emissions saved than current source separation scenario. Moreover, a preliminary economic assessment is implemented. It is demonstrated that both source separation scenarios have a good cost reduction potential than mixed collection, with the proposed new system the most cost-effective one. PMID:23436063

Dong, Jun; Ni, Mingjiang; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao

2013-08-01

327

Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions. PMID:25023984

Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

2014-08-01

328

Can rising housing prices explain China’s high household saving rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s average household saving rate is one of the highest in the world. One popular view attributes the high saving rate to fast rising housing prices and other costs of living in China. This article uses simple economic logic to show that rising housing prices and living costs per se cannot explain China’s high household saving rate. Although borrowing constraints

Xin Wang; Yi Wen

2010-01-01

329

Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, an integrated damage from floods in Russia was about 1 billion euros, floods have caused the death of over 200 people. It is one of the most pressing scientific topics, but most of the works devoted to natural risks assessment. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the influence of dangerous hydrological phenomena (e.g. floods, underflooding and surges) on society, using vulnerability and damage assessment techniques. The objectives are to examine domestic and foreign methodologies, to integrate them and to test on specific Russian territory. Foreign training was organized at UNU-EHS (Bonn, Germany). Three different methods were used for each stage of research. The first part of the research was devoted to estimation of potential damage for population and economy of the Baltic Sea coastal zones. The authors used a model, which takes into account direct damage (loss of life, destruction of buildings, etc.) as well as indirect effects of the first, second, etc. orders (loss of profits, loss of the budget, etc.). A database, based on satellite images, maps, yearbooks of Russian Statistical Service and reports of entities, has been prepared. The database is a matrix, in which the rows are coastal zones, and the columns are given indicators: number of people in port areas (people), cost of fixed assets (million rubles), investment (million rubles.), revenue / profit (million rubles.), etc. The authors identified zones with different depth of flooding, using satellite images, and calculated the direct and indirect costs, using the methodology of EMERCOM. Maximum direct potential damage for the Baltic coast is about 15,7 billion euros, but indirect damage is more than 25,5 billion euros. The second part of research was devoted to vulnerability assessment of coastal municipalities of Krasnodar Region. A database, as a matrix of 252 parameters from 2007 to 2009 for 14 coastal municipalities, was developed. The parameters were divided into several blocks according to UNU-EHS methodology: 'exposure' and 'vulnerability', consisting of 'susceptibility', 'coping capacity' and 'adaptive capacity'. Relevant indicators for each block were selected and verified by statistical methods. The authors estimated the share of people potentially exposed to flooding with the help of geographic information system. The authors, using the technique of World Risk Index (2011), calculated sub-indices for each block, and made the maps. Areas with the highest socio-economic risks were identified on the Azov and the Black sea coast: Slavyansky, Krymsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Temryuksky and Primorsko-Akhtarsky municipal districts. On the third stage, the main purpose was to integrate and use both approaches in evaluation of socio-economic risks on micro-geographical level for different categories of the population and different industries (agriculture, utilities, etc.), using 'field' data. Field study was conducted in Slavyansky municipal district of Krasnodar region and included opinion polls, special interviews with businessmen and authorities, collection of municipal statistics and data from companies, etc. Vulnerability maps, speed evacuation maps, maps of possible locations of warning systems and maps of high insurance risks were developed. Proposals for improvement of legislation for coastal zones were prepared. The conducted research has shown the importance of both social ('vulnerability'), and economic ('damage') components of risk assessment. Using the previously discussed methods individually does not bring desired results because of deficiencies of Russian statistics. It is essential for accurate risk assessment to use an 'ensemble' of methods (statistical, field observations, etc.) on micro geographic level. The work has a practical importance for improving safety of local communities.

Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

2013-04-01

330

Rural Households' Attitude and Economic Strategies Toward the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFG): A Case Study in Qira, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFG), which was initiated by the Chinese government in 1999, is a cropland retirement program with integrated objectives for ecological preservation and local development. The purpose of this article was to study the influencing factors of attitude and economic strategies in rural households toward the CCFG. Rural households’ knowledge, attitude and economic strategies toward the CCFG were investigated through a questionnaire survey in Qira, China. Influencing factors of attitude and strategies of households were analyzed using a logit model technique. The analysis indicated that household’s income level, environmental knowledge of the program, and program implementation were significant influencing factors in a household’s attitude toward the CCFG, while major influencing factors of household strategies were their regional background and availability of income generation sources. Meaningful association was not found between attitude and strategy choices. Rich households had more strategy choices, while poor households were usually confined to low input strategies with uncertain income. To sustain their livelihood, the poor need extra assistances in marketing, loan granting, employment training, information, and technical services.

Ma, Hua; Lu, Yonglong; Xing, Ying; He, Guizhen; Sun, Yamei

2009-06-01

331

A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector.  

PubMed

China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments. PMID:24945700

Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark

2014-11-01

332

Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin  

E-print Network

Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin American Economic Development Kevin P relations at Boston University, faculty fellow at BU's Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Run Future-author of the new book, The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, Stanford

Tufts University

333

Impact of Increased Economic Burden Due to Human Echinococcosis in an Underdeveloped Rural Community of the People's Republic of China  

PubMed Central

Background Ningxia is located in western People's Republic of China, which is hyperendemic for human cystic echinococcosis (CE) throughout the entire area with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) hyperendemic in the south. This is in part due to its underdeveloped economy. Despite the recent rapid growth in P.R. China's economy, medical expenditure for hospitalization of echinococcosis cases has become one of the major poverty generators in rural Ningxia, resulting in a significant social problem. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed the 2000 inpatient records with liver CE in surgical departments of hospitals from north, central and south Ningxia for the period 1996–2002. We carried out an analysis of health care expenditure of inpatient treatment in public hospitals, and examined the financial inequalities relating to human echinococcosis and the variation in per capita income between various socioeconomic groups with different levels of gross domestic product for different years. Hospital charges for Yinchuan, NHAR's capital city in the north, increased approximately 35-fold more than the annual income of rural farmers with the result that they preferred to seek health care in local county hospitals, despite higher quality and more efficient treatment and diagnosis available in the city. Household income levels thus strongly influenced the choice of health care provider and the additional expense impeded access of poor people to better quality treatment. Conclusions/Significance Information on socioeconomic problems arising from echinococcosis, which adds considerably to the burden on patient families and communities, needs to be collected as a prerequisite for developing policies to tackle the disease in rural Ningxia. PMID:20856852

Yang, Yu Rong; Williams, Gail M.; Craig, Philip S.; McManus, Donald P.

2010-01-01

334

China's nuclear programs and policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics and the futility of arms competition with the US and USSR has forced China to shift its nuclear effort to peaceful uses, although its current nuclear-deterrent warrants including China in arms negotiations. China's nuclear program began during the 1950s with an emphasis on weaponry and some development in space technology. Proponents of nuclear power now appear to have refuted

1983-01-01

335

China's Entrepreneurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the traits of the self-employed entrepreneurs in urban China, an economy rife with informational and institutional imperfections, under-developed financial markets, but a growing and important non-state sector. The self-employed make on average 20% more than non-entrepreneurs, but are similar in their age, marital status, educational attainment, and socio-economic background. Fewer are Communist Party members and more have

Linda Yueh

2007-01-01

336

China Briefing, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight essays on Chinese affairs comprise this document. Compiled in response to the China Council's objective of making available to the public materials which meet the steadily rising demand for information about contemporary China, the document focuses on Chinese art, literature, politics, foreign policy, literature, society, and economic…

Oxnam, Robert B., Ed.; Bush, Richard C., Ed.

337

China Since Mao.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major changes in China since Mao Tse-tung's death in 1976 include development of a more aggressive foreign policy, easing of political and social controls, and educational expansion. Specifically, China is providing economic aid to other developing nations, permitting debate on political issues, allowing modification of government directives at…

Parker, Franklin

338

Multi-agent Behavior Evolutionary Analysis on Building Energy Efficiency Economic Incentive System in China Based on Cellular Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building energy efficiency (BEE) economic incentive system is an enormous system of multi-agent, which includes government departments, design institutes, construction units, real estate development enterprises, purchasers and energy service companies etc. It has a widely internal relationship and a character of multi-layer, multi-function, dynamic, open and mutually learning, so it is conformed that this system has the basic character of

Sun Jin-ying; Liu Chang-bin; Xi Bao; Xiao Gang

2006-01-01

339

Coal Liquefaction, Shenhua Group, and China’s Energy Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security requires the affordable, reliable and sustainable supply of energy, for commercial and household use. A low-cost and uninterrupted energy supply is fundamental for economic development and political stability. China’s emergence as a major world industrial producer means that its energy security is now of international concern. This paper presents the first in-depth case study of China’s pioneering coal

Peter Nolan; Alan Shipman; Huaichuan Rui

2004-01-01

340

The evolution of China's satellite policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years have passed since China started its satellite program. Due to differences in political environment, economic situation and social context, China's satellite policies were quite different from other countries'. This article examines why and how China's satellite technology was adopted, developed and applied. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of China's satellite policies, and historical and socio-contextual interpretations are

Junhao Hong

1995-01-01

341

Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

2004-01-01

342

Hongshan chiefly communities in Neolithic northeastern China  

PubMed Central

The Hongshan societies of northeastern China are among East Asia’s earliest complex societies. They have been known largely from elaborate burials with carved jades in ceremonial platforms. The most monumental remains are concentrated in a “core zone” in western Liaoning province. Residential remains are less well known and most investigations of them have been in peripheral regions outside the core zone. Recent regional settlement pattern research around the well known ceremonial site of Dongshanzui has begun to document the communities that built and used Hongshan core zone monuments and to assess their developmental dynamics. The core zone, like the Hongshan periphery, appears to have been organized into a series of small chiefly districts within which ceremonial activities were important integrative forces. Their estimated populations of less than 1,000 are not much larger than those of districts in the periphery, and the evidence does not suggest that these districts were integrated into any larger political entity. The greater elaboration of core zone monumental architecture is thus not attributable to demographically larger communities or to larger-scale political integration. Future research should focus on documenting the organization of statuses and economic activities within these core zone communities to assess potential differences from peripheral communities in these regards. PMID:20224038

Peterson, Christian E.; Lu, Xueming; Drennan, Robert D.; Zhu, Da

2010-01-01

343

Localized strong syn-rifting magmatism that might caused localized multi-oriented folding in the continent-ocean transition zone of northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advance of petroleum exploration to the deepwater northern South China Sea, a small region with strong multiple-directional folding was found within the Liwan Sag (LWS) near the continent-ocean boundary. It is puzzling as how such folds can be formed in the generally extensional passive margin. Based on a study of newly collected long-cable and 3D seismic data and previous potential field data, this paper proposes that together with other factors such as gravity sliding and syn-rifting tectonics, a strong but localized syn-rifting magmatism might be the key. The LWS has special structures inconsonant to any other sag in the SCS margins. This small sag (~128 k km2 in area) is characterized by domes and folds of multiple orientations (NS-, EW, NE, NW). The deformations are most strong in the Paleogene strata limited from north and south by large listric faults and blanket by less deformed Neogene. The Paleogene strata are of relatively constant total thickness of 1~1.5s and 2.5~4.0 interval velocity. As indicated by generally low-amplitude and high frequency reflections and smoothly curved short-wavelength folds, these strata are made of very soft materials, perhaps fine lacustrine or lagoonal mud. Magmatic activities identified in seismic sections include intrusions, sills, and fuzzy zones. The intrusions that hogged and broke the basement are seen underneath most domes. Sills are widely seen but most abundant within Paleogene. Fuzzy and chaotic reflections appear above faults, but mostly above magmatic intrusions or forming segments of stratigraphic layers. These may indicate the presence of various percentages of volcanic materials (pyroclasts, fluid, or gas) within the Paleogene sediments. By rough estimation along a NS-running seismic line, the fuzzy reflectors occupies >50% of the total area of Paleogene between the two boundary faults. If in average 50% of the fuzzy materials are of volcanic origin, the volcanic addition would reach 25%. There were multiple episodes of magmatic activities, strong in the course of rifting, most strong during in Late Oligocene forming the breakup unconformity, and continued in Neogene as local breakup. We suggest that the intensive syn-rifting magmatism not only have generated domes, but also provide significant quantity of additional materials and heat to ambient strata. The doming redirected gravity sliding; the addition of heat and volcanic ash further softened the strata; and the additional materials need more space that was compensated by folding. Thus the Paleocene strata were preferentially deformed as multi-oriented folds. Attempt is being made to explain the origin of this localized strong syn-rifting magmatism and its implications on the breakup process of the SCS. This study is funded by CNSF #40976033.

Zhou, D.; Sun, Z.; Pang, X.; Shen, J.; Li, Y.; Qiu, N.

2012-12-01

344

Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21??21???N, 111??11???E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982-2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas. The correlation coefficients among the metals and climatic and economic factors indicate that the metals Ni, Zn, and Cd behave similarly. Copper and Mn are positively correlated, and cobalt is negatively correlated with Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd. Lead is not correlated with any other metals but is correlated with sea surface water temperature, air temperature, GDP and industrial-agricultural production in Dianbai County. Lead in corals is related to the enhanced pollution level of ocean waters as a result of increased industrial activities.

Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

2006-01-01

345

Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to be reversed. At least two factors contribute to the dichotomy between huge investment and limited results. First, the majority of the efforts have been limited to engineering approaches to water pollution control, ignoring the important roles of non-engineering approaches and stakeholder participation. Second, the complex hydrological regime of the basin may aggravate the impacts of various pollutant sources. Using the Yincungang canal, one major tributary to the Lake Tai, as an example, we discuss our work on both hydrological and socio-economic factors affecting the water quality of the canal, as well as the grand challenges of coupling hydrological systems and socio-economic systems in the region. Keywords non-point source pollution, rural sewage, agricultural pollution, spatio-temporal pattern, stakeholder participation

Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

2012-04-01

346

Assessment of population exposure to PM10 for respiratory disease in Lanzhou (China) and its health-related economic costs based on GIS  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter) is very important for protecting human health and establishing pollution control policy. Population exposure estimation is the first step in formulating exposure data for quantitative assessment of harmful PM10 pollution. Methods In this paper, we estimate PM10 concentration using a spatial interpolation method on a grid with a spatial resolution 0.01° × 0.01°. PM10 concentration data from monitoring stations are spatially interpolated, based on accurate population data in 2000 using a geographic information system. Then, an interpolated population layer is overlaid with an interpolated PM10 concentration layer, and population exposure levels are calculated. Combined with the exposure-response function between PM10 and health endpoints, economic costs of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution are analyzed. Results The results indicate that the population in Lanzhou urban areas is distributed in a narrow and long belt, and there are relatively large population spatial gradients in the XiGu, ChengGuan and QiLiHe districts. We select threshold concentration C0 at: 0 ?g m-3 (no harmful health effects), 20 ?g m-3 (recommended by the World Health Organization), and 50 ?g m-3 (national first class standard in China) to calculate excess morbidity cases. For these three scenarios, proportions of the economic cost of PM10 pollution-related adverse health effects relative to GDP are 0.206%, 0.194% and 0.175%, respectively. The impact of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations in 2000 is also analyzed. Sandstorm weather in spring, inversion layers in winter, and precipitation in summer are important factors associated with change in PM10 concentration. Conclusions The population distribution by exposure level shows that the majority of people live in polluted areas. With the improvement of evaluation criteria, economic damage of respiratory disease caused by PM10 is much bigger. The health effects of Lanzhou urban residents should not be ignored. The government needs to find a better way to balance the health of residents and economy development. And balance the pros and cons before making a final policy. PMID:24069906

2013-01-01

347

LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from the Permian sandstones in Da Xing'an Mountains, NE China: New evidence for the eastern extension of the Erenhot-Hegenshan suture zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Erenhot-Hegenshan suture zone is located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) cutting obliquely through the Da Xing'an Mountains in NE China, and represents the hotly debated boundary of the Xing'an and Songliao blocks. In this study, we present new U-Pb zircon ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from Permian sandstones in the Da Xing'an Mountains (DXAM) of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Based on the genetic relation of the suggested "Hegenshan Ocean" and the Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot magmatic arc, we seek the eastern extension of the Erenhot-Hegenshan suture zone by tracing the provenance information of the magmatic arc from our Permian sandstones. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons of the Permian sandstones yield evidence for two age groups of ˜280 and ˜320 Ma, which represent the Late Paleozoic magmatic arcs. Zircons of the older cluster are considered to derive from the Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot magmatic arc with its age cluster of 310-320 Ma and similar ?Hf(t) values of 3.46-10.41. Further Paleozoic age groups of ˜380 Ma, ˜430 Ma and ˜500 Ma indicate a mixture of age groups of variable origin. The samples from the central-southern DXAM comprise a mixture of Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot and Ondon Sum-Xar Moron magmatic arcs, and even include a contribution from the magmatic arc in the northern margin of the North China craton. The samples from the central and northern DXAM contain a mixture of Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot magmatic arc and post-orogenic magmatic rocks from the Erguna block, respectively. Synthesizing this unique information on a magmatic arc with an approximate age of 320 Ma, we define a distribution of the Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot magmatic arc as follows: the arc extends from north of Solon Obo, via Sonidzuoqi, Xilinhot through Ulanhot to Qiqihar, and then it is cut by the sinistral Nenjiang-Balihan strike-slip fault (western boundary fault of Songliao basin), and ultimately extends to Longzhen. The Erenhot-Hegenshan suture zone is located north of this magmatic arc.

Han, Guoqing; Liu, Yongjiang; Neubauer, Franz; Jin, Wei; Genser, Johann; Ren, Shoumai; Li, Wei; Wen, Quanbo; Zhao, Yingli; Liang, Chenyue

2012-04-01

348

The China Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the cooperative economic development program developed between the Maricopa Community Colleges, Arizona, and Chengdu, China. The colleges are assisting Chinese policy leaders in restructuring needed training for newer, modern, and usually western economic approaches, aided by U.S. community college training program models. Reports on…

Elsner, Paul A.

2003-01-01

349

Anonymous Banking and Financial Repression: How Does China's Reform Limit Government Predation without Reducing Its Revenue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's economic performance of the past two decades presents a puzzle for the economics of transition and development: Enormous private business incentives were unleashed that have fueled rapid economic growth despite the fact that China has had very weak \\

Chong-En Bai; David Daokui Li; Yingyi Qian; Yijiang Wang

1999-01-01

350

Timing of initiation of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: microstructural and geochronological constraints from high temperature mylonites in Diancang Shan, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high grade metamorphic massifs (e.g. Xuelong Shan, Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan in China and Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic massif in Vietnam) along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone in Southwestern China bear much information on the large-scale left-lateral strike-slip shearing in eastern Tibet during Indian-Eurasian plate collision and post-collisional accommodation process in late Oligocene-early Miocene. The metamorphic massifs are narrow zones bounded by brittle faults. Low-grade metamorphic rocks are lying on the west and sedimentary rocks to the east. Rocks in these massifs are partly sheared with widespread occurrence of high temperature mylonites that have subhorizontal stretching lineations. Left-lateral shearing is indicated by mesoscale and microscale shear indicators in the mylonites. Debates exist on the timing of initiation and duration of left-lateral shearing, and mechanism of exhumation of the high grade metamorphic rocks along Ailao Shan Red River shear zone. The Diancang Shan complex, a typical metamorphic massif, is constituted by three units, i.e. a central high strain shear zone, a western low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary sequence in the Lanping basin, and an eastern superimposed retrograde metamorphic belt. The central high grade metamorphic complex consists of metamorphic rocks of amphibolite facies conditions. High-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages and structural elements indicate a deep level crustal metamorphism and deformation of the rocks. L-tectonites are typical indicators of high-temperature deformation in the highly sheared granitic mylonites. Widespread occurrence of different shear criteria (e.g. sheared veins, sigmoid and delta -porphyroclasts) suggests that these gneisses experienced very intensive high-temperature progressive left-lateral strike-slip shearing. A large synkinematic augen monzogranitic intrusion is recognized in the central belt by the present work. The intrusion has an obvious porphyritic texture, in which very huge crystals (up to 3 cm in diameter) of feldspars occur as phenocrysts in a fine grained matrix of quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + mica. The monzogranites are sheared and form high temperature mylonites. Their well-developed lineation and inter-layering with paragneisses resulted from high-temperature shearing during or subsequent to emplacement. Macrostructural analysis revealed that the high temperature granitic mylonites are mainly confined to the shear zone, experienced shear deformation and extended along the shear zone. Feldspar phenocrysts in the monzogranite intrusions have different shapes like sigmoid, delta and S-C fabrics indicating left-lateral shearing. A sequential and progressive process from magmatic crystallization, through late-crystallization metasomatism, to crystalline plasticity is evidenced by rock microstructures. Early crystallization is characterized by porphyritic structures, especially by growth zoning in feldspar grains. Evidences for late magmatic metasomatism are widespread in the mylonitic rocks. An early phase of K-metasomatism is indicated by the replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar, which is best documented by plagioclase left-over grains in marginal zones of K-feldspar megacrysts. Patches of these left-over grains are often optically continuous and hence can be related to originally larger plagioclase grains. K-feldspar grains are further metasomatized by relatively potassium-rich plagioclase to form myrmekite structure. In some cases, myrmekites seem to be stress-induced because their distribution and orientation can be attributed to bulk left-lateral shearing. The granitic intrusion and its wall rocks are highly sheared by late- or post intrusive high temperature plastic deformation. Quartz grains often have irregular grain boundaries implying high temperature grain boundary migration. Rectangular quartz ribbons, augen-shaped grain aggregates, quartz sigmoid, and quartz grains with straight boundaries and triple junctions are also indicative of intensive high temperature deformation. Feld

Cao, S.; Liu, J.; Leiss, B.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2009-04-01

351

Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.  

PubMed

This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

2013-06-01

352

Determination of 16 Selected Trace Elements in Children Plasma from China Economical Developed Rural Areas Using High Resolution Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1?mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1??g/L, 0–10??g/L and 0–100??g/L. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02??g/L (Rb) to 1.89??g/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3–12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002. PMID:24701366

Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

353

Assessing metal toxicity in sediments using the equilibrium partitioning model and empirical sediment quality guidelines: a case study in the nearshore zone of the Bohai Sea, China.  

PubMed

Surface sediments were collected from five nearshore (wastewater discharges, aquaculture facilities and a seaport) sites in Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay, China. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) model and empirical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were applied to assess the potential metal toxicity in the collected sediments. The results show that, based on the EqP model, 35% of stations exhibited potential metal toxicity. Several metals (Cu, Ni and Cr) exceeded the empirical SQGs (9-93% of the time), however these guidelines may not be suitable for use in the Bohai Sea owing to the background concentrations. The EqP model is a more useful method for assessing potential metal toxicity in Bohai Sea sediment than the empirical SQGs. Additionally, we have provided new understanding about methods for assessing sediment metal toxicity in the Bohai Sea that may be useful in other coastal areas in China. PMID:24993730

Li, Li; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Jihua; Shi, Xuefa; Ma, Deyi

2014-08-15

354

Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Methods Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. Results The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900). The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8?%, 29/56) paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9?%, 5/56). The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200) per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8?% (43/56) victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9?% (29/56) patients. Moreover, only 21.4?% (12/56) patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4?% (26/56) and 28.6?% (16/56) felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2?=?16.916, P?=?0.028). Conclusions The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a close relationship with the injury severity. Formal legislation was urgently needed to compel the employer to purchase injury or medical insurance and provide more compulsory protection to the population working in high risk occupations. In addition, psychological counseling and instruction shouldn’t be neglected in the aid and treatment of victims. PMID:22672729

2012-01-01

355

Association between high temperature and mortality in metropolitan areas of four cities in various climatic zones in China: a time-series study  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have reported on the associations between ambient temperatures and mortality. However, few multi-city studies have been conducted in developing countries including China. This study aimed to examine the association between high temperature and mortality outcomes in four cities with different climatic characteristics in China to identify the most vulnerable population, detect the threshold temperatures, and provide scientific evidence for public health policy implementations to respond to challenges from extreme heat. Methods A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) with a Poisson distribution was used to analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature over the threshold on mortality after controlling for covariates including time trends, day of the week (DOW), humidity, daily temperature range, and outdoor air pollution. Results The temperature thresholds for all-cause mortality were 29°C, 35°C, 33°C and 34°C for Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders including air pollution, strong associations between daily maximum temperature and daily mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic outcomes, and particularly diabetes, were observed in different geographical cities, with increases of 3.2-5.5%, 4.6-7.5% and 12.5-31.9% (with 14.7-29.2% in diabetes), respectively, with each 1°C increment in the daily maximum temperature over the threshold. A stronger temperature-associated mortality was detected in females compared to males. Additionally, both the population over 55 years and younger adults aged 30 to 54 years reported significant heat-mortality associations. Conclusions Extreme heat is becoming a huge threat to public health and human welfare due to the strong temperature-mortality associations in China. Climate change with increasing temperatures may make the situation worse. Relevant public health strategies and an early extreme weather and health warning system should be developed and improved at an early stage to prevent and reduce the health risks due to extreme weather and climate change in China, given its huge population, diverse geographic distribution and unbalanced socioeconomic status with various climatic characteristics. PMID:25103276

2014-01-01

356

Can rising housing prices explain China’s high household saving rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s average household saving rate is one of the highest in the world. One popular view attributes the high saving rate to fast-rising housing prices and other living costs in China. This article uses simple economic logic to show that rising housing prices and living costs per se cannot explain China’s high household saving rate. Although borrowing constraints and demographic

Xin Wang; Yi Wen

2011-01-01

357

Origin of oscillatory zoned garnets from the Xieertala Fe-Zn skarn deposit, northern China: In situ LA-ICP-MS evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oscillatory zoned garnets are able to record numerous geological processes including variations of physicochemical conditions and hydrothermal fluid evolution. In this contribution, we present the mineralogy, petrography, and systematic major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations of zoned garnets from the Xieertala Fe-Zn skarn deposit. The in situ analytical results of oscillatory zoned garnets from core to rim demonstrate that garnet cores are remarkably HREE-rich, with relatively high ?REE and HREE/LREE ratios as well as negative Eu anomalies. REE patterns of garnet rims are typically LREE-rich, with relatively low ?REE and HREE/LREE ratios and positive Eu anomalies. Estimates of PT conditions suggest that the early fluid formed in relatively high temperature, pressure and salinity conditions, while the later fluid formed in relatively low temperature, pressure and salinity conditions. This transition in P, T and salinity conditions is interpreted to be caused by the dominance of magmatic and meteoric waters in early and late stages, respectively. Based on optical and textural characteristics, REE patterns, Eu anomalies and trace element variations in zoned garnets, it can be shown that during skarn formation, Xieertala hydrothermal fluids shifted from near neutral pH and oxidizing conditions with relatively high ?REE, low LREE/HREE ratios, and U-poor and Y-rich characteristics to acidic and reducing conditions with relatively low ?REE, high LREE/HREE ratios, and U-rich and Y-poor characteristics. We infer that variations of fluid compositions and physicochemical conditions may have a major control on incorporating trace elements and REEs into different sections of oscillatory zoned garnets.

Zhai, De-Gao; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Wang, Jian-Ping; Su, Li; Yang, Xi-An; Wu, Sheng-Hua

2014-03-01

358

Application of China–Brazil Earth resources satellite in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The launch and successful operation of Chinese–Brazil Earth resources satellite (CBERS-1) in China has accelerated the application of space technology in China. These applications include agriculture, forestry, water conservation, land resources, city planning, environment protection and natural hazards monitoring and so on. The result of these applications provides a scientific basis for government decision making and has created great economic

Yuliang Qiao; Shangmin Zhao; Liu Zhen; Jia Bei

2009-01-01

359

Economic design in a long-distance migrating molluscivore: how fast-fuelling red knots in Bohai Bay, China, get away with small gizzards.  

PubMed

We carried out an observational and experimental study to decipher how resource characteristics, in interaction with the predator's phenotype, constrain a fitness-determining performance measure, i.e. refuelling in a migrant bird. Two subspecies of red knot (Calidris canutus rogersi and C. c. piersmai) use northern Bohai Bay, Yellow Sea, China, for the final prebreeding stopover, during their 10,000-15,000 km long migrations between wintering and breeding areas. Here, they feed on small bivalves, especially 2-7 mm long Potamocorbula laevis. With an average stay of 29 days, and the need to store 80 g of fat for the onward flights to high-Arctic breeding grounds, red knots need to refuel fast. Using existing knowledge, we expected them to achieve this on the basis of (1) prey with high flesh to shell mass ratios, (2) large gizzards to crush the ingested molluscs, or (3) a combination of the two. Rejecting all three predictions, we found that red knots staging in Bohai Bay had the smallest gizzards on record (4.9 ± 0.8 g, mean ± s.e.m., N = 27), and also found that prey quality of P. laevis is much lower than predicted for the measured gizzard size (i.e. 1.3 rather than the predicted 4.5 kJ g(-1) dry shell mass, DM(shell)). The estimated handling time of P. laevis (0.2 s) is much shorter than the observed time between two prey ingestions (0.7 s), indicating that prey handling time is no constraint. Based on field observations of dropping rates and on indoor digestion trails, the shell processing rate was estimated at 3.9 mg DM(shell) s(-1), i.e. three times higher the rate previously predicted for red knots eating as fast as they can with the measured gizzard size. This is explained by the small and easily crushed P. laevis enabling high processing rates. As P. laevis also occurred in high densities, the metabolizable energy intake rate of red knots with small gizzards at 5 J s(-1) was as high as at northward staging sites elsewhere in the world. Currently, therefore, food characteristics in Bohai Bay are such that red knots can refuel fast whilst economizing on the size of their gizzard. These time-stressed migrants thus provide an elegant example of symmorphosis. PMID:24006345

Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Ma, Zhi-Jun; Hua, Ning; van Gils, Jan A; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Piersma, Theunis

2013-10-01

360

Relation between some variations of soil and surface vegetatio and desertization in agriculture-pasture interlacing zone an example from Kangbao County, North Hebei, China.  

PubMed

The studied agriculture-pasture interlacing zone has its specific natural conditions, at which the natural systems are unstable, their self-regulation capability is low and the equilibrium is easily broken, and hence the habitat is fairly vulnerable. During last 20 years the increasing population and livestock, over-reclamation, over-pasturing, over-deforesting, and other intensified negative human activities in the zone resulted in coarsening of surface soil, decrease of organic mater content in soil, reduction of vegetation coverage, variation and degradation of flora structure, and hence in desertization of the land, although average of gales and sandstorms some decreased and the climate tended to better in the region. However, the frequent sandstorms occurring in the springs of last and present years has attracted much attention. Investigations confirmed that the main cause for the phenomena is the unreasonable human activities rather than the natural factors. PMID:12602614

Sheng, Xue-Bing; Liu, Yun-Xia; Sun, Jian-Zhong

2003-01-01

361

Magnetostratigraphy and depositional history of the Miocene Wushan basin on the NE Tibetan plateau, China: Implications for middle Miocene tectonics of the West Qinling fault zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on field mapping, section measurement and magnetostratigraphy, ?1700m of sedimentary rocks have accumulated in the Wushan basin between ?16Ma and ?6Ma. Basin geometry, sedimentation characteristics and the early syn-depositional deformation along the northern margin of the basin indicate that formation of the Wushan basin was related to tectonic deformation along the West Qinling fault zone during the middle Miocene.

Zhicai Wang; Peizhen Zhang; Carmala N. Garzione; Richard O. Lease; Guangliang Zhang; Dewen Zheng; Brian Hough; Daoyang Yuan; Chuanyou Li; Jianhui Liu; Qinglong Wu

362

Cretaceous?Cenozoic history of the southern Tan-Lu fault zone: apatite fission-track and structural constraints from the Dabie Shan (eastern China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apatite fission-track (AFT) and structural data outline the Late Cretaceous?Cenozoic history of the southern Tan-Lu fault zone (TLFZ), one of Asia's major faults, the Triassic–Jurassic Dabie orogen, Earth's largest track of ultrahigh-pressure rock exposure, and its foreland, the Yangtze foreland fold-thrust belt. The fission-track analyses utilized the independent (?-), Z- and ?-methods for age determination, which yielded within error identical

J. C. Grimmer; R. Jonckheere; E. Enkelmann; L. Ratschbacher; B. R. Hacker; A. E. Blythe; G. A. Wagner; Q. Wue; S. Liu; S. Dong

2002-01-01

363

The Forces Shaping China's Outbound Tourism ???????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of outbound tourism in China has been dominated by the consumer approach, and individual travelers have been the focus of research. This article adopts an alternative approach to studying outbound tourism in China by analyzing the macro?environment. It is found that socio?economic and political factors play important parts in shaping the outbound international tourist flows from China. The

Tony S. M. Tse; J. S. Perry Hobson

2008-01-01

364

Pollution and Environmental Concern in Rural China  

E-print Network

In the last decades, China has become equally known for her high economic growth rates and the increased environmental pollution that came with the economic change. Although the central government has taken steps to mitigate ...

Brandes, Julia

2013-12-31

365

China's statistical system and resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the People's Republic of China plays an increasingly important role in international politics and trade, countries with economic interests there find they need to know more about this nation. Access to primary information sources, including official statistics from China, however, is very limited, as little exploration has been done into this closely controlled repository of information. This study explores

Susan Xue

2004-01-01

366

Globalization of Education in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under traditional Confucianism, China's school system became authoritarian, rigid, and undemocratic. In recent decades, China had one national curriculum and one unified set of textbooks. Now, text publication is more varied, curriculum planning and writing is becoming more democratic, and Western ideas are incorporated to spur economic…

An, Shuhua

2000-01-01

367

Study of impacts of floods on the water quality in an arid zone: the case of the Tarim River in Northwest China.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of the study undertaken at the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China to analyze impacts of flooding on water quality. It was shown that irregular rainfall was the cause of flash floods that affected many ecosystems and eroded soils. Simulation results and the existence of relationships between flood volume and flood peak allowed potential model application that included flood peak estimation. The analysis of water pollution through sample sediment was helped by spectroscopy techniques and it was found that the flood was the main cause of many chemical elements in water. The floods affected the quality of water in the Tarim River where it was slightly basic with pH = 8.1 before flooding and acidic with pH = 6.9 after flooding. PMID:22105117

Jean de la Paix, Mupenzi; Lanhai, Li; Xi, Chen; Varenyam, Achal; Anming, Bao

2011-01-01

368

Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone  

E-print Network

In northern China, there are a large number of space buildings divided in inner zone and exterior zone based on usage requirements. The exterior zone needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer, while the inner zone needs to be cooled both...

Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

2006-01-01

369

Searching for Oil China's Initiatives in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world in which the supply of oil is limited both by geology and politics, China’s determination to fuel its rapidly growing economy is seen by many as a looming source of conflict. It is not simply the geographic breadth of China’s initiatives that cause anxiety in western capitals, but also its willingness to enter into economic arrangements with

Henry Lee; Dan A. Shalmon

2007-01-01

370

China in South Africa: media responses to a developing relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formal invitation extended to South Africa by China late in 2010 to join the BRIC formation of emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) may be seen as a confirmation of the growing economic ties between China and South Africa. The expanded trade between these two countries allows South Africa an opportunity to meet its development needs. For China,

Herman Wasserman

2012-01-01

371

Trace element compositions of apatite from the middle zone of the Panzhihua layered intrusion, SW China: Insights into the differentiation of a P- and Si-rich melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panzhihua layered intrusion in the ~ 260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province is composed of melagabbro and Fe-Ti oxide ore bodies in the lower zone (LZ) and the lower part of the middle zone (MZa), and Fe-Ti oxide-poor leucogabbro in the upper part of the middle zone (MZb) and upper zone (UZ). Cumulus apatite grains occur in the ~ 500- to 600-m-thick MZb, which makes up 25-30% of the ~ 2-km-thick intrusion. Apatite grains from the MZb show two compositional reversals in the composition of Sr, which divide the MZb into three sub-units from the base upwards, MZb1, MZb2 and MZb3. There is 1-3 vol.% apatite in the MZb1 and MZb2 and 2-5 vol.% apatite in the MZb3. Both apatite and plagioclase have an overall trend of decreasing Sr in each sub-unit. Most apatite grains from the MZb1 and MZb2 have negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.70-0.98) on chondrite-normalized REE plots and some at the top of the MZb2 have positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.09-1.18), whereas all grains from the MZb3 have positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.11-1.25). We consider that the Panzhihua intrusion formed due to immiscibility of ferrobasaltic magmas in a large convection cell at high temperatures. The immiscible Fe-rich melt tended to move towards the base of the chamber, whereas the Si-rich melt moved upwards due to density differences. Crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides from the Fe-rich melt at high temperatures may result in the enrichment of P in the residual magmas. The upward moving residual P-rich magmas may have mixed with Si-rich melt to form a P- and Si-rich melt in the upper part of the chamber, from which the MZb formed. Double-diffusive convection circulated in the P- and Si-rich melt to form stratified magma layers. Magma mixing between the stratified magma layers resulted in the compositional reversals of apatite along the boundaries. Negative Eu anomaly of apatite in the MZb1 and MZb2 is attributed to prior crystallization of plagioclase, whereas replenishment of a syenitic magma to the MZb3 may result in the positive Eu anomaly of apatite in the MZb3. The immiscibility model can explain why the apatite-rich MZb is above the major Fe-Ti oxide layers in the Panzhihua intrusion.

Xing, Chang-Ming; Wang, Christina Yan; Li, Congying

2014-09-01

372

Automotive Transportation in China: Technology, Policy, Market Dynamics, and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, China has become a global economic force. However, this economic growth has led to significant increases in carbon-intense energy consumption, with potentially disastrous impacts on the global environment. Fueling this energy explosion is an increased demand for automobiles in China, which has been met by an expanding auto production industry. This paper reviews China's current

James Winebrake; Sandra Rothenberg; Jianxi Luo; Erin Green

2008-01-01

373

China-U.S. Trade Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. Total U.S.-China trade, which totaled only $5 billion in 1980, rose to $387 billion in 2007. China overtook Japan to become the third largest U.S. export market, and overtook Canada to become the largest source of U.S. imports.\\u000aWith a huge population and a rapidly expanding economy, China

Wayne M Morrison

2008-01-01

374

Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil characteristics in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

With the filling of the Three Gorges Reservoir, original vegetation in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) between the elevations of 145 and 175 m disappeared due to the reversal of submergence time (winter flooding) and prolonged inundation duration (nearly half a year). To better understand the relationships between the environmental factors and recovered plant communities for reconstructing floristically diverse riparian zone, we conducted a field survey in 11 sites in the WLFZ in June 2010, and vegetation composition, flooding characteristics, heavy metals, and soil major nutrients were determined. Consequently, the canonical correspondence analysis was used to investigate the relationships between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination, and soil nutrients. Results demonstrated that vegetation in the WLFZ was dominated by annuals, i.e., Echinochloa crusgalli and Bidens tripartita, and perennials including Cynodon dactylon, and plant species richness and diversity were negatively associated with flooding duration, heavy metal contamination, and nutrients including total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and nitrate. Our results suggest that plant species, recovering mainly through soil seed bank and regeneration of remnant individuals, have been influenced by the combined effects of environmental factors. PMID:22968672

Ye, Chen; Zhang, Kerong; Deng, Qi; Zhang, Quanfa

2013-03-01

375

[Soil seed bank and its correlations with aboveground vegetation and environmental factors in water level fluctuating zone of Danjiangkou Reservoir, Central China].  

PubMed

Taking the water level fluctuating zone of the Danjiangkou Reservoir as a case, and by the method of hierarchical cluster analysis, the soil seed banks at 37 sampling plots within the areas of 140-145 m elevation were divided into 6 groups, and the species composition, density, and diversity of the soil seed banks among the groups were compared. The differences between the soil seed banks and the aboveground vegetations were analyzed by S0rensen similarity coefficient, and the correlations among the soil seed banks, aboveground vegetations, and environmental factors were explored by principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariable regression analysis. At the same altitudes of the water level fluctuating zone, the species composition of the soil seed banks had obvious heterogeneity, and the density and diversity indices of the soil seed banks among different groups were great. The similarity coefficient between the soil seed banks and aboveground vegetations was low, and the species number in the soil seed banks was obviously lesser than that in the aboveground vegetations. The density of the soil seed banks was highly positively correlated with the aboveground vegetations coverage and species number and the soil texture, but highly negatively correlated with the soil water-holding capacity and soil porosity. PMID:23755498

Liu, Rui-Xue; Zhan, Juan; Shi, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Long-qing

2013-03-01

376

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS  

E-print Network

affected by the strong Chinese growth is the Australian economy, as China relies heavily on AustraliaDEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY OF CANTERBURY College of Business and Economics University of Canterbury Private Bag 4800, Christchurch New Zealand #12

Hickman, Mark

377

Comparative studies on species identification of Noctuoidea moths in two nature reserve conservation zones (Beijing, China) using DNA barcodes and thin-film biosensor chips.  

PubMed

Rapid and accurate identification of species is required for the biological control of pest Noctuoidea moths. DNA barcodes and thin-film biosensor chips are two molecular approaches that have gained wide attention. Here, we compare these two methods for the identification of a limited number of Noctuoidea moth species. Based on the commonly used mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (the standard DNA barcode for animal species), 14 probes were designed and synthesized for 14 species shared by two national nature reserves in Beijing and Hebei, China. Probes ranged in length from 18 to 27 bp and were designed as mismatch probes to guarantee that there were at least three base differences between the probe and nontarget sequences. The results on the chip could be detected by the naked eye without needing special equipment. No cross-hybridizations were detected although we tested all probes on the 14 target and 24 nontarget Noctuoidea species. The neighbour-joining tree of the 38 species based on COI sequences gave 38 highly supported independent groups. Both DNA barcoding and thin-film biosensor chips, based on the COI gene, are able to accurately identify and discriminate the 14 targeted moth species in this study. Because of its speed, high accuracy and low cost, the thin-film biosensor chip is a very practical means of species identification. Now, a more comprehensive chip will be developed for the identification of additional Noctuoidea moths for pest control and ecological protection. PMID:24103324

Yang, F; Shi, Z Y; Bai, S L; Ward, R D; Zhang, A B

2014-01-01

378

A Short Bibliographic Guide to Tibetan Dependent Socialism: The Economic Development of the Tibetan Minority of the People's Republic of China Under Mao.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's Tibet is a remote and impoverished region within the People's Republic of China. This bibliography is intended as a research guide for those interested in contemporary Tibet. The 49 entries include: atlases; historical books on Tibet prior to and after World War II; journal articles on traditional Tibet prior to Chinese control, after the…

Sanchez, James Joseph

379

Plant community characteristics and their responses to environmental factors in the water level fluctuation zone of the three gorges reservoir in China.  

PubMed

The annual water level regulating of the Three Gorges Reservoir prolonged the submerged duration (from 2 to 8 months) and resulted in the reversal of natural flood rhythms (winter submerged). These changes might alter plant community characteristics in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). The aim of this study was to determine the plant community characteristics in the WLFZ and their responses to the environmental factors (i.e., annual hydrological regulation, topographic characteristics, soil physical properties and soil nutrients). The height, coverage, frequency and biomass of each plant species and the soil properties at each elevation zone (150, 155, 160, 165 and 170 m) were measured from March to September in 2010. Univariate two-factor analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the community characteristics and identify the key environmental factors influencing vegetation. We found that 93.2 % of the species analysed were terrestrial vascular plants. Annual herbs made up the highest percentage of life forms at each altitude. The differences in the species number per square metre, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the biomass of vegetation demonstrated statistical significance with respect to sampling time but not elevation. The most dominant species at altitudes of 150, 155, 160, 165 and 170 m were Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria viridis and Daucus carota, respectively. The concentrations of soil nutrients appeared to be the lowest at an altitude of 150 m, although the differences with respect to elevation were not significant. The results of the RDA indicated that the key factors that influenced the species composition of vegetation were elevation, slope, pH and the concentration of soil available phosphorus. PMID:23589274

Zhang, Zhiyong; Wan, Chengyan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Hu, Lian; Feng, Kun; Chang, Jianbo; Xie, Ping

2013-10-01

380

Diamond Model of National Economic Competitive Advantage Based on National Economic Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper firstly analyzes China’s national economic competitive advantage (NECA) using method of principal components analysis.\\u000a The result presents that the level of Chinese economic competitive advantage is low but increases continuously. Based on empirical\\u000a study, it builds a Diamond Model of National Economic Competitive Advantage based on national economic security and regards\\u000a factors of external risk, economic performance, motivation

Siyi Qin; Genhua Hu

381

SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

), the largest hydroelectric project in the world, is one of the most significant recent construction projects in China. The three main functions of the TGP, namely, flood control, power generation and navigational assistance, have brought about remarkable economic, social and environmental benefits. With completion

Perissin, Daniele

382

Vietnam's Foreign Policy Toward China Since the 1970s.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is much debate about how Southeast Asia views China's ascendance on the world stage. Beijing's expanding economic, diplomatic, and military influence has countries in the region concerned about how China will use its new power and influence. Vietnam...

D. W. Lemon

2007-01-01

383

Logistics barriers for multinational corporations doing business in China  

E-print Network

With rapid economic growth, China attracts many multinational corporations (MNCs) as a manufacturing center with both its cheap labor cost and a huge consumer market. While doing business in China, most MNCs have faced ...

Luo, Manqin, 1976-

2004-01-01

384

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

385

China's (uneven) progress against poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the incidence of extreme poverty fell dramatically in China over 1980–2001, progress was uneven over time and across provinces. Rural areas accounted for the bulk of the gains to the poor, though migration to urban areas helped. Rural economic growth was far more important to national poverty reduction than urban economic growth; agriculture played a far more important role

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

2007-01-01

386

What keeps China's migrant workers going? Expectations and happiness among China's floating population  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rural-urban migrants have been the engine room that has driven China's high rate of economic growth; however, their living and working conditions are poor. This paper addresses the question: What keeps China's migrant workers going? We seek to answer this question through examining the determinants of the happiness of China's rural-urban migrants, drawing on a large-scale survey administered across

Wenshu Gao; Russell Smyth

2011-01-01

387

China urges rapid growth  

SciTech Connect

This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong.

Hendry, S.

1993-02-03

388

National Bureau of Statistics of China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, this Website provides economic, agricultural, and census data for China. Included here are versions of the China Statistical Yearbook for 1998 and 1999, a copy of the Statistics Law of the People's Republic of China, statistical abstracts and supplemental tables of the First National Agricultural Census in China conducted in 1997, monthly economic data for this year, currently covering January through September, and reports on national economic performance. In addition, an economic database is still under construction. The site is available in both Chinese and English. Some interactive features, including a forum, contact bar, cooperative program, and news updates, were not operational on our visit.

389

Reaction zone between pre-UHP titanite and host rock: insights into fluid-rock interaction and deformation mechanisms during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust (Dabie Shan UHP unit, China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhumed crustal UHP rocks may occur as relict blocks in strongly metasomatized matrix rocks. Due to variations in competence between the mm to km sized blocks and their ductile matrix, the largely undeformed blocks may preserve the pre-subduction and the prograde history, whereas the matrix rocks have been ductilely deformed to high magnitudes and record successive stages of deformation. The reaction zones between blocks and matrix, however, provide insights into the fluid-rock interaction, deformation and the deformation mechanisms active during the exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust in the subduction channel. We investigate a titanite megacryst (3 cm in diameter) in a calc-silicate marble from the UHP unit in the Dabie Shan, China. The core of the titanite megacryst grew prograde during subduction. Its U-Pb system remained closed and yields a maximum age for UHP metamorphism. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in the core demonstrate that the titanite megacryst precipitated from a homogeneous fluid source. During metamorphism in the subduction zone, infiltration of external fluids resulted first in Sr-loss from the marbles and then introduction of Sr with unusually low 87Sr/86S values (Romer et al., 2003), leading to the contrasting 87Sr/86Sr values in the titanite megacryst and the hosting UHP marbles (Wawrzenitz et al., 2006). Related to deformation in the calc-silicate marble matrix, the rim of the titanite megacryst has been replaced during the following dissolution-precipitation reactions: (i) Pseudomorphic replacement of the old titanite megacryst by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Fluid migrated into the old grain producing a sharp boundary of the replacement front. (ii) New small titanite grains grew with their long axes parallel to the foliation of the marble matrix, reflecting the activation of dissolution precipitation creep. In the matrix, the foliation is defined by the orientation of the basal planes of phengitic white mica. The new titanite grains are patchy zoned and replace, along with rutile, calcite, quartz, and apatite, the old titanite megacryst. This reaction reflects the changing CO2 versus fluorine activity in the available fluid phase, rather than changing P-T conditions. The Sr isotope composition of the phases formed by these fluid-mediated reactions is variable and depends on the reaction-history and origin of the fluids. (iii) Brittle deformation of the titanite megacryst induced the formation of fractures, enhancing fluid transport and precipitation of new titanite, allanite, calcite ± rutile, and albite (locally anorthite), as well as Zn(Fe) - and Cu - sulphides along the vein walls. Dislocation creep is indicated by subgrains in local zones of high differential stress within the rim of the titanite megacryst. However, dissolution precipitation creep has been much more effective in changing the (isotope)chemical composition of titanite compared to dislocation creep. Romer, R.L., Wawrzenitz, N., Oberhänsli, R., 2003. Terra Nova 15, 5, 330-336. Wawrzenitz, N., Romer, R.L., Oberhänsli, R., Dong, S., 2006. Lithos 89, 1-2, 174-201.

Wawrzenitz, N.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Morales, L. F. G.

2012-04-01

390

Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas  

PubMed Central

China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by high productivity and represent spawning and nursery areas for several economically important species. In the long term, climate change is also a major threat. Finally, challenges in marine biodiversity studies are briefly discussed along with suggestions to strengthen the field. Since 2004, China has participated in the Census of Marine Life, through which advances in the study of zooplankton and zoobenthos biodiversity were finally summarized. PMID:23320065

2013-01-01

391

Tectonics of China: Continental scale cataclastic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic, structural, and earthquake evidence indicates that cataclastic flow, that is, flow by brittle mechanisms (e.g., fracture and slip), was dominant in China from late Paleozoic. This process has operated over a range of scales including the continental scale. China is made up of large brittle basement elements immersed in ductile zones which are analogous to porphyroclasts (large, often brittle fragments) surrounded by fluxion (foliation or flow) structures in cataclastic rocks, respectively. This basement fabric for China is seen on Landsat imagery and on tectonic maps and is comparable to cataclastic rock fabrics seen in fault zones, on outcrops, and in thin sections. Brittle basement elements are broken into two or more large rigid blocks, and the dimensions of elements and blocks are within 1 order of magnitude of each other. Ductile zones are made up of fragments which are many orders of magnitude smaller than the ductile zones. Rigid blocks and fragments are identified, and their dimensions are measured through earthquake, fault, and fracture patterns. Rigid basement blocks are surrounded by earthquakes. The sedimentary rocks over the basement faults at the block boundaries seem to be affected by fault movements because they are characterized by facies changes, thickness changes, high-angle faults, and forced folds. Ductile basement zones are earthquake prone, and deformation of the ductile basement affects the overlying sedimentary rocks, as is demonstrated by unconformities and by a wide variety of structures. Thrust faults, buckle folds, and strike slip faults are common in and adjacent to western ductile zones. Structures are most intensely developed where ductile zones abut brittle elements. Both brittle elements and ductile zones are rifted and cut by strike slip faults in eastern China. The mechanical fabric of China and the boundary conditions acting on China are now and always have been determined by its plate tectonic history. This inference is made from recently published plate tectonic interpretations. Geologic maps show that there are six elements and that each element has a Precambrian, crystalline core which is surrounded by upper Paleozoic continental margin suites of rocks, including subduction complexes, among others. Geologic data on ophiolites demonstrate that the brittle elements and their margins were juxtaposed and then welded together along suture zones during Permian and Triassic time to make China. Cenofcoic plate motions affecting China resulted in the collision with India where it converges with southwest China and the extension in eastern China where island arcs move away from the mainland and where grabens are actively forming. The juxtaposition to Siberia, which acts as a buttress against northern China, explains the compression of western China, and the absence of a buttress in the Pacific Ocean explains why eastern China can extend. Furthermore, laboratory data on the mechanical behavior of rock under conditions analogous to the shallow crustal conditions of interest in China show that all rocks are weaker in extension than they are in compression. Basement rock in western China is strong because it is compressed, but this same basement rock is weak in eastern China because it is in extension. The tectonics of China or, in mechanistic terms, the way in which the mechanical framework of China responds to Cenozoic boundary forces was a result of China's previous plate tectonic history. Crystalline cores are the rigid blocks that form brittle elements. Both the continental margin suites and the sutures are the ductile zones. The sutures and sediment patterns seen in the basins and ranges of China can be explained in terms of this tectonic scenario.

Gallagher, John J., Jr.

392

Hydraulic Resistance Characteristics of Riparian Reed Zone in River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riparian vegetation zone plays an important role in river ecosystems, flow resistance, water velocity distribution, and water level variation. In this paper, the impacts of riparian reed zones on river flow and water level were studied by comparing measurements in river reaches with or without riparian reed zones in the Chaodongweigang River of Taihu Lake Basin, China. The effects

Chao Wang; Peifang Wang

2007-01-01

393

15 CFR 400.24 - Application for zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...statement of the community's overall economic goals and strategies in relation...the zone project; (iii) An economic profile of the community including...or income, area resources and problems, economic imbalances, unemployment...

2011-01-01

394

15 CFR 400.24 - Application for zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...statement of the community's overall economic goals and strategies in relation...the zone project; (iii) An economic profile of the community including...or income, area resources and problems, economic imbalances, unemployment...

2012-01-01

395

Nationalities of China Province of China  

E-print Network

Outline Nationalities of China Province of China Language of China #12;Nationalities of China 56 of China A province is an administrative division of China. 33 province level divisions. 22 Provinces 4-level cities in China direct- controlled by the central government Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Chongqing #12

Li, Xiang

396

Ecological economic evaluation of the degraded natural vegetation restoration after water transfer to the lower Tarim River, Xinjiang region of northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergency ecological water transfer has been implemented for 12 years since 2000 in the lower Tarim River with the goal of restoring the impaired ecosystem and protected habitat environment. It is necessary to evaluate the ecological economic benefits of the vegetative system in order to measure the success of the rehabilitated ecosystem. Based on a hypothesis that the growth of the natural vegetation has a hysteresis with increased groundwater level, this paper suggests that the ecological economic value of the natural vegetation response to groundwater level elevation theoretically includes two parts: the direct value resulting from the increased aboveground biomass of the natural vegetation and the potential value resulting from the natural vegetative restoration in the future. The ecological economic analysis method is applied to calculate assess the ecological economic benefits of the natural vegetative restoration in Kaogan area. The total investment cost of increased groundwater level after seven years is 867 US Dollars in the 100-metre-wide, 2000-metre-long sample belt. The direct value is 1491 US Dollars and the direct input-output ratio is 1:1.7. While the potential value is 4989 US Dollars and the total input-output ratio is 1:7.5. The results indicate that the ecological economic benefits of natural vegetative response are significant after seven years of groundwater level elevation in the lower Tarim River. It also provides a theoretical reference for quantifying the benefits of the degraded ecosystem restoration. Keywords: The lower reaches of Tarim River; ecological water transfer project; ecological economic value; the potential value

Mao, Ye; Hailiang, Xu

2013-04-01

397

6. Business organizations in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two-and-a-half decades, China's transition to a market economy has produced remarkable growth rates and fundamental changes in the organization of economic action.1 Though lacking the fundamental institutional shifts that have defined many transforming socialist economies around the world, China's gradualist reforms have nevertheless been radical and deep (Naughton, 1995; Guthrie, 1999, 2003, 2005; Nolan, 2004). The emergence of business

Doug Guthrie; Junmin Wang

398

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 64, pp. 859 to 875, 2008 Yellow/East China  

E-print Network

in the South- ern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne Expendable Bathythermograph Measurements and their seasonality in frontal zones of the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Finestructure characteristics

Chu, Peter C.

399

The Discussion of Introduction Carbon Tax in China -- Based on the Perspective on the Environmental Taxation System Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental taxation system generally refers to all taxes imposed in order to achieve certain environmental objectives. To introduce a carbon tax is imperative in China because it will perfect China's environmental taxation system, mitigate China's pressure of CO2 emission, establish the image of China as a responsible power, change China's economic growth pattern, and respond to the international “Carbon Tariff”.

Zhang Xiaoying; Zhong Jinwen

2010-01-01

400

Impacts of uncertainty in AVOC emissions on the summer RO x budget and ozone production rate in the three most rapidly-developing economic growth regions of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High levels of uncertainty in non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions in China could lead to significant variation in the budget of the sum of hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy (HO2, RO2) radicals (RO x = OH + HO2 + RO2) and the ozone production rate [P(O3)], but few studies have investigated this possibility, particularly with three-dimensional air quality models. We added diagnostic variables into the WRF-Chem model to assess the impact of the uncertainty in anthropogenic NMVOC (AVOC) emissions on the RO x budget and P(O3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta of China. The WRF-Chem simulations were compared with satellite and ground observations, and previous observation-based model studies. Results indicated that 68% increases (decreases) in AVOC emissions produced 4%-280% increases (2%-80% decreases) in the concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 in the three regions, and resulted in 35%-48% enhancements (26%-39% reductions) in the primary RO x production and ˜ 65% decreases (68%-73% increases) of the P(O3) in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. For the three cities, the two largest contributors to the RO x production rate were the reaction of O1D + H2O and photolysis of HCHO, ALD2, and others; the reaction of OH + NO2 (71%-85%) was the major RO x sink; and the major contributor to P(O3) was the reaction of HO2 + NO (˜ 65%). Our results showed that AVOC emissions in 2006 from Zhang et al. (2009) have been underestimated by ˜ 68% in suburban areas and by > 68% in urban areas, implying that daily and hourly concentrations of secondary organic aerosols and inorganic aerosols could be substantially underestimated, and cloud condensation nuclei could be underestimated, whereas local and regional radiation was overestimated.

Wang, Feng; An, Junling; Li, Ying; Tang, Yujia; Lin, Jian; Qu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Jing

2014-11-01

401

Urbanization around the Pearl River Estuary in China from 1973 through 2001 (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The region around the Pearl River Estuary in southern China experienced rapid urban growth in the 1980s and 1990s. This growth was spurred by the establishment of special government economic zones, particularly in Shenzhen, just to the east of the estuary. Urban areas increased by more than 300% between 1988 and 1996. This growth can be directly assessed by remote sensing measurements from space, particularly by comparing images from the Landsat sensors for the last thirty years. This animation shows nine such images in sequence, from the years 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1988, 1992, 1995, 2000, and 2001.

Sokolowsky, Eric; Perkins, Lori; Newcombe, Marte; Mitchell, Horace; Seto, Karen; Williams, Darrel

2004-02-13

402

Dead Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth currently has more than 400 "dead zones"--marine expanses covering hundreds, or even thousands, of square miles that periodically become virtually lifeless. Explore the surprising causes of Oregon's dead zones, and the pioneering methods used to research them.

403

China's Energy Development Strategy Coping with Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is an important material basis in economic growth and social development. China's industrialization will consume inevitably lots of energy and resources. Energy supply and energy security have become major Constraints of China's industrialization. At the same time, the issue of China's energy security is more serious from the climate pressure of the international society. This paper studies the changes

Fengyun Wang

2010-01-01

404

China's health care sector in transition: resources, demand and reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development and reforms have had profound impacts on China's health care sector. As a resul, the health care sector in China is in transition. This report reviews the major changes, and the possible policy response to these changes in China's health care sector. It discusses resource availability in the Chinese health sector, and analyses the trend of household demand

Yanrui Wu

1997-01-01

405

‘Think globally, act locally’China's rendezvous with MTV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the case of MTV China, this article examines how transnational media corporations have been extending into China where ideological control and joint business cooperation remain barriers for foreign capital. Based on interviews with personnel of MTV, as well as observations of their programme productions, this article explores how MTV localizes in China under various economic and political constraints. It

Anthony Fung

2006-01-01

406

Piecing Together Family Social Work in Mainland China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As rapid economic and sociopolitical development brings about drastic changes in family structure and processes in China, many social concerns arise. Through a review of journal articles published over a period of 28 years (1979–2006) in social work and related disciplines in China, this article presents a glimpse of family social work using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database.

Timothy Sim

2008-01-01

407

Tectonics and distribution of gold deposits in China - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold exploration in China has expanded rapidly during the last two decades since a modern approach to economic development has become a national priority. China currently produces 180 tonnes (t) of gold annually, which is still significantly less than South Africa, USA, and Australia. However, China is now recognized as possessing significant gold resources in a wide range of mineral

Taihe Zhou; Richard J. Goldfarb; Neil G. Phillips

2002-01-01

408

China's Urban Transportation System: Issues and Policies Facing Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the most populous country in the world. With a population of 1.3 billion, meeting the housing and transportation needs of this vast country are on the forefront of the political and academic agenda in China and throughout the world. China has experienced phenomenal economic and social growth and as a result the Chinese have desired more mobility and

Chris Cherry

2005-01-01

409

China-U.S. Trade Issues (July 11, 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. Total U.S.-China trade, which totaled only $5 billion in 1980, rose to $343 billion in 2006. China is now the 2nd largest U.S. trading partner, its 2nd largest source of U.S...

W. M. Morrison

2007-01-01

410

Internet Development, Censorship, and Cyber Crimes in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its first Internet connection with the global computer network in 1994, China has witnessed explosive Internet development. By the end of 2008, China replaced the United States as the largest Internet user of the world. Although China enjoyed tremendous economic benefits from Internet development, the Chinese government has tried to maintain tight control over the telecommunications industry and the

Bin Liang; Hong Lu

2010-01-01

411

CHINA, GMOS AND WORLD TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL AND TEXTILE PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rapid industrialization and recent accession to the WTO makes it difficult for the country to maintain self-sufficiency in agricultural products. Genetic modification technology could ease the situation, but is not without controversy. This paper focuses on the implication of GMO controversy for China. It explores the potential economic effects of China's not adopting versus adopting GMOs when some of

Kym Anderson; Shunli Yao

2003-01-01

412

China-ASEAN Relations in Higher Education: An Analytical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China's dramatic economic rise has tended to overshadow other wider perspectives on the developing China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) relationship, including in higher education. The article examines contemporary relations between China and ASEAN, set against the longer term development of cultural and trade relations. It is…

Welch, Anthony

2012-01-01

413

Cogeneration development and market potential in China  

SciTech Connect

China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

1996-05-01

414

China's military reforms: International and domestic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's reform policies during the past decade have resulted in the reorganization of economic and political structures and have led to a dramatic reorientation of the nation's foreign policy. These reforms have especially influenced China's military establishment, which is now in a period of major transition. What new paradigm is replacing the old Maoist model of People's War, however, is

C. D. Jr. Lovejoy; B. W. Watson

1986-01-01

415

8?Organizations and Management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s economic transition and its integration into the global economy have been widely recognized as among the most important social changes in the past three decades. This transformation has attracted scholarly attention from multiple disciplines, and sociologists have made particularly important contributions to literature emphasizing theories of organizations, organizational change, and management practice. In this article, we present a critical

Lisa A. Keister; Yanlong Zhang

2009-01-01

416

User study on family communication in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family is a core element of society. The development of economics and the transformation of cultures in mainland China bring new challenges to family communications. To understand current practices and the needs of family communication in mainland China, we studied 27 rural and urban families with ethnographic methods. We summarized the main family structures for rural and urban families and

Jie Wang; Ying Liu; Huanglingzi Liu; Jyri Salomaa

2008-01-01

417

Regional inequality in China Yehua Dennis Wei  

E-print Network

with a particular focus on regional income/economic inequality. No attempt is made to review research on regionalRegional inequality in China Yehua Dennis Wei Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 523201, USA Abstract: Regional inequality is one of the major subjects of research on China

Wei, Yehua Dennis

418

Territorial Competition in China and the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chien S.-S. and Gordon I. Territorial competition in China and the West, Regional Studies. In modern western societies, and most other economies to which it has spread, territorial economic competition is associated with a combination of competitive electoral politics and private land-ownership. In mainland China, however, a very strong form of this competition has emerged without either of these supports.

Shiuh-Shen Chien; Ian Gordon

2008-01-01

419

China's Macroeconomic Performance and Management during Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since reforms started in 1978, China has combined rapid growth with moderate price stability. This paper analyzes China's macroeconomic performance over the past fifteen years with special attention to factors responsible both for the pace of economic expansion and the periodic fluctuations. Regarding the former, the author identifies four sources of stimuli: administrative decentralization, high levels of fixed capital investment,

Shahid Yusuf

1994-01-01

420

The Emergence of Continuing Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on continuing education in China. It discusses the emergence of the field in the 1980s, the Chinese characteristics of continuing education, recent developments, and limitations. Continuing education became available in China in the 1980s following a change in government policy and economic reform. It caters mainly for…

Chen, Xiao; Davey, Gareth

2008-01-01

421

China's reforms in Tibet: Issues and dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the visit of Hu Yaobang to Tibet in 1980, which precipitated a series of changes in China's policies toward Tibet, the following years have been marked by China's reforms in Tibet, considered by many highly controversial. In general terms, living standards rose, and economic reforms and political liberalization achieved what appeared to be a remarkable success. Yet, at the

Tseten Wangchuk Sharlho

1992-01-01

422

Rhizosphere dynamics of two riparian plant species from the water fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir, P.R. China - pH, oxygen and LMWOA monitoring during short flooding events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River in China, the reservoir management created a new 30m water fluctuation zone 45-75m above the original water level. Only species well adapted to long-time flooding (up to several months) will be able to vegetate the river banks and replace the original vegetation. To investigate how common species of the riverbanks cope with submergence, Alternanthera philoxeroides Mart. and Arundinella anomala Steud., two flooding resistant riparian species, have been examined in a rhizotron environment. Short-time (2 days waterlogging, 2 days flooding, 2 days recovery) flooding cycles in the original substrate and long time (14 days waterlogging, flooding, recovery) flooding cycles, in original substrate and sterile glass bead substrate, have been simulated in floodable two-way access rhizotrons. Oxygen- and pH-sensitive foils (planar optodes, PreSens) automatically monitored root reaction in a confined space (2cm2 each) on the backside of the rhizotron, while soil solution samples were taken 2 times a day from the other side of the rhizotron at the corresponding area through filter and steel capillaries. The samples were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis for low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA, i.e. oxalic, formic, succinic, malic, acetic, glyoxylic, lactic and citric acid). Results show diurnal rhythms of rhizospheric acidification for both species in high resolution, combined with oxygen entry into the root surrounding during waterlogged state. Flooding caused stronger acidification in the rhizosphere, that were however not accompanied by increased occurrence of LMWOA except for acetic and glyoxylic acid. First results from longer flooding periods show stable diurnal rhythms during waterlogging, but no strongly increased activity during the flooding event. Performance of the two species is not hampered by being waterlogged, and they follow a silencing strategy during a longer phase of anoxia without strong root turnover activity. A. anomala with its strong root system and ability to survive flooding is considered suitable for re-vegetating the riverbanks to help prevent further erosion, while A. philoxeroides, which discards its weaker roots during prolonged flooding and produces new roots afterwards, does not contribute much to soil stabilization.

Schreiber, Christina M.; Schurr, Ulrich; Zeng, Bo; Höltkemeier, Agnes; Kuhn, Arnd J.

2010-05-01

423

The education economics developing path in China: a study of mapping knowledge domains on the paper in Education and Economy from 1985 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a distinct trend in the development of education economics (EE) that accurate quantitative analyses are replacing vague literal description. In this paper, we studied 1,600 papers which were published on Education and Economy from 1985 to 2008, and analysed the 5,773 keywords of those papers based on multi-statistics. And the visible knowledge domain is first used to show

Huang Wei; Chen Yong

2010-01-01

424

Estimating the effects of China's Accession to the World Trade Organisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) marks a new era in China's economic reform. In this new era, state capital will lose its dominance of pillar industries such as iron and steel, automobile, petrochemicals, non-ferrous metal, insurance, telecommunication, banking, wholesale, and utilities. This study uses a computable general equilibrium model of China to estimate the economic benefits from China

Yin Hua Mai; Mark Horridge; Frances Perkins

2003-01-01

425

Lycos Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the tradition of Yahooligans (reviewed in the March 22, 1996 Scout Report) and other so-called "green spaces," Lycos has created a new online safe haven for young users which is fairly self-contained, with the exception of the advertisements. (In response to criticisms regarding aggressive marketing to children at similar sites, Lycos claims that the ads are clearly marked and will not collect any personal information.) The site is composed of four sections: the Fun and Games Zone, the Homework Zone, the New and Cool Zone, and an area for parents and teachers. The first two sections are fairly deep, with numerous resources and activities aimed at various age levels. Some links in the Homework Zone lead users outside the site, but they are first presented with a gateway page informing them that they are leaving and offering advice on not divulging personal information.

426

Hydrological Responses to Climate Change and to LUCC in Asian Arid Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arid Asian zone is one of the most sensitive areas to the global climate change. For instance, the temperature has been rising at a rate of 0.39K/10yrs in the arid northwestern China during the past an half of century, being 2.78 times of the global average. In the arid Asian zone, water resource is a key factor restricting the socio-economic development and threatening the ecological security. Under the global warming conditions, water resource systems of the arid Asian zone are most likely becoming increasingly vulnerable, especially under the projected increasing population and expanding economy in arid Asian zone. Hydrological data from glacier-supplied rivers in the Tian Shan Mountains for example show that the runoff has been increasing primarily as a result of rising temperature that caused increases in ice melting. But, the decreasing trend of surface runoff in low-elevation basins is undeniable and the decreasing trend is attributable to the increasingly intensified human activities. Specifically, increasingly intensified water consumption for irrigation and the associated massive constructions of water conservancy projects were responsible for the decreasing trend of runoff. And, the decreasing trend has been severely jeopardizing the ecological security in the lower reaches of the arid river basins. In arid northwestern China, about 85% of the water resources are formed in high elevations and the glacier-melting contribution to runoff has been doubled since 1980's. Approaching to the turning point of glacier-melting supplies to runoff will pose a great threat to socio-economic sustainability and to ecological security. The turning point refers to the transition from increasing runoff to decreasing runoff within glacier-melting supplied watersheds under warming climate.

Feng, Zhaodong

2013-04-01

427

Information Technology Brings Better Life to Western China  

E-print Network

dramatically. China's western regions have reported an annual average economic growth rate of 10.6% for six, China launched a national development strategy in its impov- erished western regions to boost economic that leverage information technology to enable local people in the west- ern regions to access information

Narasayya, Vivek

428

The political obstacles to greater exchange rate flexibility in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — An undervalued currency has arguably helped China pursue an East-Asian style ex- port-led model of development, spurring economic growth and job creation. Recently, however, the undervalued exchange rate has exposed China to a raft of growing major financial and economic vulnerabilities, including an overheating of the domestic economy and renewed financial sector dif- ficulties. Despite these risks, Chinese

Stephen B. Kaplan

2006-01-01

429

Situating Productive Play: Online Gaming Practices and Guanxi in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic activities in and around online gaming in China are often correlated in the West with practices of gold farming, or selling in-game currency to players for real money in online games. What can we learn about online gaming in China and about online gaming and online sociality more broadly when we look at economic and other \\

Silvia Lindtner; Scott D. Mainwaring; Paul Dourish; Yang Wang

2009-01-01

430

Change and Developments in Education and Training in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of economic reforms, membership of the WTO and globalisation, China needs a better-educated workforce. The aim of this paper is to describe the developments in education and training in China that are the consequences of these economic reforms by means of a short literature review.

van Zolingen, Simone J.

2006-01-01

431

Lifelong Learning in the People's Republic of China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the relative novelty of lifelong learning in the People's Republic of China (PRC), significant achievements have been made, and China's potential for economic development and personal enrichment remains undisputed. Economic and social change, as well as technological advancements, have profoundly influenced educational development and…

Wu, Huiping; Ye, Qilian

432

Impact of China on Economies in East Asian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines China's emergence as a global economic power over the last few decades. It provides an overview of China's economic growth and its impact on East Asian Region (South Korea and Japan). There exits both competitive and complementary linkages relationships among EAR economies. It also explains the flow of capital in the form of FDI.

Ji Hong

433

Development status of liquefied natural gas industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the significant economic growth in China, energy related environmental issues become more and more serious. Most of air pollutants are produced by burning coal. In order to achieve a sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental protection, China has been taking measures to expand the role played by natural gas, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. As

Guo-Hua Shi; You-Yin Jing; Song-Ling Wang; Xu-Tao Zhang

2010-01-01

434

Changes in the Potential Multiple Cropping System in Response to Climate Change in China from 1960-2010  

PubMed Central

The multiple cropping practice is essential to agriculture because it has been shown to significantly increase the grain yield and promote agricultural economic development. In this study, potential multiple cropping systems in China are calculated based on meteorological observation data by using the Agricultural Ecology Zone (AEZ) model. Following this, the changes in the potential cropping systems in response to climate change between the 1960s and the 2010s were subsequently analyzed. The results indicate that the changes of potential multiple cropping systems show tremendous heterogeneity in respect to the spatial pattern in China. A key finding is that the magnitude of change of the potential cropping systems showed a pattern of increase both from northern China to southern China and from western China to eastern China. Furthermore, the area found to be suitable only for single cropping decreased, while the area suitable for triple cropping increased significantly from the 1960s to the 2000s. During the studied period, the potential multiple cropping index (PMCI) gap between rain-fed and irrigated scenarios increased from 18% to 24%, which indicated noticeable growth of water supply limitations under the rain-fed scenario. The most significant finding of this research was that from the 1960s to the 2000s climate change had led to a significant increase of PMCI by 13% under irrigated scenario and 7% under rain-fed scenario across the whole of China. Furthermore, the growth of the annual mean temperature is identified as the main reason underlying the increase of PMCI. It has also been noticed that across China the changes of potential multiple cropping systems under climate change were different from region to region. PMID:24312511

Liu, Luo; Xu, Xinliang; Zhuang, Dafang; Chen, Xi; Li, Shuang

2013-01-01

435

Changes in the potential multiple cropping system in response to climate change in China from 1960-2010.  

PubMed

The multiple cropping practice is essential to agriculture because it has been shown to significantly increase the grain yield and promote agricultural economic development. In this study, potential multiple cropping systems in China are calculated based on meteorological observation data by using the Agricultural Ecology Zone (AEZ) model. Following this, the changes in the potential cropping systems in response to climate change between the 1960s and the 2010s were subsequently analyzed. The results indicate that the changes of potential multiple cropping systems show tremendous heterogeneity in respect to the spatial pattern in China. A key finding is that the magnitude of change of the potential cropping systems showed a pattern of increase both from northern China to southern China and from western China to eastern China. Furthermore, the area found to be suitable only for single cropping decreased, while the area suitable for triple cropping increased significantly from the 1960s to the 2000s. During the studied period, the potential multiple cropping index (PMCI) gap between rain-fed and irrigated scenarios increased from 18% to 24%, which indicated noticeable growth of water supply limitations under the rain-fed scenario. The most significant finding of this research was that from the 1960s to the 2000s climate change had led to a significant increase of PMCI by 13% under irrigated scenario and 7% under rain-fed scenario across the whole of China. Furthermore, the growth of the annual mean temperature is identified as the main reason underlying the increase of PMCI. It has also been noticed that across China the changes of potential multiple cropping systems under climate change were different from region to region. PMID:24312511

Liu, Luo; Xu, Xinliang; Zhuang, Dafang; Chen, Xi; Li, Shuang

2013-01-01

436

China's foreign trade policy and world trade organization membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of China's major economic reforms and how they impacted certain key domestic economic indicators\\u000a such as income, production, employment, and prices. More importantly, the paper concentrates on China's foreign trade focusing\\u000a on such issues as import and export policies, exchange rate controls, foreign investments, balance of payments, traded commodities,\\u000a and major trading partners. China's chance

F. Niroomand; I. Hamwi; T. Hudson

1996-01-01

437

China update: HIV increasing.  

PubMed

The HIV/AIDS case rate in China increased 117% over the period 1990-1992, from 446 to 957 HIV infections. While the majority of cases in 1990 were localized in Yunnan among minority farmers and manual laborers, infection is now found in 19 provinces, counties, and urban areas over a wider spectrum of society. The concentration of cases among IV-drug users has decreased from 83.4% to 72.6%. HIV monitoring and prevention stations have been in place in the country since 1986. The government also encouraged special zones and semiautonomous cities as well as the World Health Organization to take steps to monitor and prevent the spread of HIV. While these effort have served to augment the degree of sex education previously provided, low budgets, bureaucracy, and ambivalence have impeded control efforts. Only 1.25 million of the 1.16 billion population has been serosampled over 8 years and 100,000 fewer serosamples were taken in 1992 compared to in 1991. Neither the general population nor health workers have sufficient knowledge about HIV/AIDS to prevent its continued spread. While gay men sampled in Beijing were better informed about transmission means and risk groups, over two thirds believed they were not at risk if they avoided having sex with foreigners. Recent economic reform measures allowing large movements of population from rural to urban areas, increased disposable income available for prostitutes, and greater exposure to alternative sexual norms and behaviors through the media and music further increase the risk of HIV transmission, especially among the younger generation. To counter these risks, an AIDS hotline for information and referrals has been established in Beijing which openly reaches out to the homosexual community and fields 8-12 calls/day. Training programs for doctors, counselors, professors, and social workers have been attended by people from more than 30 provinces and regions. In addition, modest research into sexual behavior is also being conducted at universities. To really fight future HIV infections and AIDS illness, however, more funds must be brought to bear. PMID:12286358

Gil, V E

1993-01-01

438

The China She Knows, the China She Doesn't  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dandelion School educates children of migrant workers, refugees from peasant villages in central China who are vying for crumbs from Beijing's economic boom. Outside the school walls, they are heading to work as maids, laborers, and factory workers. For the children, this is a rare shot at upward mobility. Dandelion is among hundreds of…

Hvistendahl, Mara

2008-01-01

439

Banking on a Constructive China: Australia's China Debate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China is probably less controversial and provokes less heated discussion in Australia now than at any time since the Chinese Revolution in 1949. This is due to the establishment of a bilateral dialogue to handle diplomatic, military and economic issues, t...

A. L. Smith

2003-01-01

440

Ready for Takeoff: China's Advancing Aerospace Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China is growing on all fronts, and their economic explosion on the past few years has been nothing less than extraordinary. Published in March 2011, this 164-page report from the RAND Corporation was sponsored by the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission and was conducted within the RAND Corporation's International Security and Defense Policy Center. The report is divided into six chapters, including "China's Commercial Aircraft Market" and "China's Space Capabilities". Roger Cliff, Chad J.R. Ohlandt, and David Yang authored the work and it takes a close look at the role of China's government in supporting the aerospace industry and its ability to transform the world market for their products. The work will be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders, including international policy scholars and those with an interest in international business. The entire eBook can be read online and both the book and a summary can be downloaded as well.

441

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E-print Network

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Kainen, Paul C.

442

Crustal dynamics studies in China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geodynamics of Mainland China and Taiwan are discussed. The following research was performed: (1) the tectonics along the Tanlu fault in eastern China; (2) tectonics in the Taiwan Strait behind the collision zone in Taiwan; and (3) analysis of faulting in the vicinity of the Altyn Tagn fault. It is found that the existence of the fault is traced back to at least Jurassic with the deposition of conglomerate sandstones in the troungh along the present Tanlu fault branches in the Shantung Province. Taiwan is the product of collision between the Phillipine plate and the Asian plate and Taiwan came into being because of a former island arc.

Wu, F. T.

1985-01-01

443

China energy databook  

SciTech Connect

The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

1996-06-01

444

Evaluation of the PV technology for rural electrification improvement : China market focus  

E-print Network

Energy use, especially electricity, in China is rapidly growing, but China faced two challenges in developing new energy supply: global climate changes and unbalanced economic development between urban and rural regions. ...

Cho, Kyoung Suk

2011-01-01