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1

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains articles on Economic Affairs from China. The Topics include National affairs and Policy, Provincial Affairs, Economic Statistics, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, Industry, Agriculture, Construction a...

1987-01-01

2

Statistical features of tropical cyclones affecting China and its key economic zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent trends and variability in tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and intensity are examined for TCs that affected China, with particular focus on those TCs that affected China's key economic zones (e.g., the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and the Beijing-Tianjin area). The results show that the frequency of TCs affecting China weakly declined during the 1980s and 2000s, followed by a slight increase. The time series of TC frequency shows insignificant variations at periods of 2-6 yr during the past 60 years; these variations are significantly correlated with ENSO activity. The frequency of TCs affecting the Pearl River Delta area is strongly correlated with the ENSO cycle while the frequency of TCs affecting the Yangtze River Delta is not. The TC frequency varies differently for TCs of different intensities. Tropical storms (TSs) affecting China were small in total number, but have clearly increased in frequency. The frequencies of severe tropical storm (STS), typhoon (TY), severe typhoon (STY), and super typhoon (super TY) affecting China declined significantly during the 1970s and 1980s, but the numbers of STY and super TY have increased over the 2000s. The typical intensity of TCs affecting China declined over the 60-yr timeframe, but increased over the most recent 10 years (2000-2010). This increase in the intensity of TCs has particularly impacted the Yangtze River Delta area, which has experienced increased numbers of STYs and super TYs. These tendencies are observed in changes of the maximum intensity of TCs affecting both China in general and the Yangtze River Delta in particular during both the full 60-yr analysis period and the latest 10-yr period; however, these tendencies are not observed in changes of the average intensity of TCs. By contrast, both the extreme intensity and the average intensity of TCs affecting the Pearl River Delta have decreased throughout the analysis period, including the most recent decade.

Chao, Qingchen; Chao, Jiping

2012-12-01

3

Exclusive Economic Zones and the Management of Fisheries in the South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC), with the provisions for defining an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), is the international agreement that has had the greatest influence on the structure of fisheries policies in national and international arenas. It had the profound effect of increasing the contribution of fisheries to the national gross domestic product

Ma. Ablan; Len R. Garces

4

[Ecosystem health assessment of economic zone on the west side of Taiwan Strait, China].  

PubMed

Based on the standards of regional ecosystem health, including vigor, organizational structure, resilience, ecological function, and public health, and in considering of anthropogenic pressure and response countermeasures, an index system for the ecosystem health assessment of the economic zone on the west side of the Taiwan Strait (Haixi Zone) was built, and, aiming at the characteristics of nature and humanity of regional ecosystem health, the weights of the indices were given by analytic hierarchy process and mean square difference method. Fuzzy comprehensive assessment was utilized to establish the ecosystem health assessment model of Haixi Zone. The assessment showed that in 2008, the ecosystem health state of Haixi Zone was superior, and the anthropogenic pressure was relatively gentle. Overall, the regional ecosystem health status was good, but had spatial difference. Owing to the restriction of response countermeasures such as fixed assets investment and education expenditure. The regional ecosystem health status of Longyan, Quanzhou, Wenzhou, Chaozhou and Jieyang was worse than the health state of these cities in 2008. The overall ecosystem health status of the Zone in 2000 and 2008 was better than that in 1992, and the main driving factors were mainly economic vigor, organizational structure, human health, population pressure, and investment. However, the overall ecosystem health status of Haixi Zone in 2008 was worse than that in 2000, due to the expansion of built-up land, the decrease in natural landscape, and the enhancement of human disturbances. PMID:22384597

Zhao, Wei; Shen, Wei-Shou

2011-12-01

5

The Empirical Analysis on the Economy Growth of the New Silk Road Transportation Economic Zone in China - A Panel Data Model on the Basis of Six Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis used empirical analysis methods of establishing panel-data model, Took the 17 most important cities along the East and West traffic artery Long Hai and Lan Xin railways on the New Silk Road in china as modeling samples, analyzed the different role of six factors to promote this Transportation Economic Zone's economic growth, which included human capital, transport capacity,

Yuhong Liu; Xin-an Wang

2011-01-01

6

China's Economic Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1979, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing economies. From 1979 to 2005, China's real GDP grew at an average annual rate of 9.7%; it grew by 9.9% in 2005. During the first quarter of 2006, China's...

W. M. Morrison

2006-01-01

7

China's Economic Fauna: Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief history of economic avifauna research in China, the economic significance, ecology, distribution, and classification of birds (with external features and measurements describing the body of the bird) are surveyed. The characteristics of each famil...

C. Tso-Hsin

1964-01-01

8

China's Economic Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the initiation of economic reforms 30 years ago, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing economies. From 1979 to 2007, China's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of 9.8%. Real GDP grew 11.4% in 2007. However...

W. M. Morrison

2008-01-01

9

Stressors of dual-qualification nursing teachers in the ChengDu-ChongQing economic zone of China-A qualitative study.  

PubMed

Nursing and teaching are considered risk professions with high levels of stress and burnout. Dual-qualification nursing teachers (DQNT) are nurses who both teach and practise. These nurses face additional stress. This study explored the stressors of DQNT in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. This qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended interviews. The interview responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The participants in this study included 21 DQNT from 5 teaching hospitals in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. The results indicated that heavy workload, personal safety, inadequate pay, role overload, and poor working environment are stressors of DQNT. Furthermore, Chinese DQNT face violence from patients and students. The study provides a theoretical basis to help DQNT to cope with stress. PMID:23702488

Wu, Youfeng; Liu, Hui; He, Hongyan

2013-05-21

10

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains information on issues related to National policies, economic growth and and financial management in China. Issues of development in Chinese mineral resources, machine tool Industry, construction and transportation are also highlighted ...

1984-01-01

11

China's economic recovery and the China model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting with the US subprime crisis, the world has fallen into the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression. Unlike other major nations, China was the first to recover from the economic downturn. Researchers and policymakers have begun to wonder if China could actually bring the world out of the financial crisis. This paper intends to contribute to the

Baocheng Ji

2010-01-01

12

Paradoxes of China's Economic Boom  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's stunning economic performance for the past three decades was not only unexpected but contradicts much received wisdom in the study of development. Four paradoxes posed by China's record are critically examined: (a) China's traditional culture and institutions as obstacles to development; (b) the necessity of big bang comprehensive reforms to transform a centrally planned economy into a market economy;

Martin King Whyte

2009-01-01

13

Spatio-temporal variation of flood vulnerability at the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, Jiangxi Province, China.  

PubMed

For a long time areas of Poyang Lake have been threatened by floods. It is therefore important to assess flood vulnerability in this area. A composite flood vulnerability index was developed using an indicator approach to detect spatial distribution and temporal variation of flood vulnerability in the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone (abbreviated to PLEEZ). Thematic maps of flood vulnerability showed a spatially ring-shaped distribution. The flood vulnerability ranking of one unit negatively correlated with the distance between the unit and the lake. Although flood vulnerability in PLEEZ declined significantly, the spatial distribution hardly changed from 1997 to 2006. The degree of flood vulnerability is highly related to exposure; variations in flood vulnerability are influenced by sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Based on correlation analysis, three proxies were identified as determinants of flood vulnerability variation over the past 10 years. This approach could provide policymakers with important flood risk information and entry points for flood management. PMID:22437034

Chen, Ping; Chen, Xiaoling

2012-01-01

14

China’s Economic Growth, Global Economic Crisis and China’s Policy Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of opening and reform, China has maintained an annual average growth rate of 9.8 percent for nearly three decades. China’s growth is based on high savings and high investment. Its export promotion policy has also played a very important role in promoting economic growth. However, as a result of China’s growth pattern characterised by investmentdriven and export

Yu Yongding

2008-01-01

15

Simulation and evaluation on the eco-industrial system of Changchun economic and technological development zone, China.  

PubMed

Reasonable structure, adaptive patterns and effective regulation of society, economy and environment subsystems should be taken into account in order to obtain harmonious development of urban eco-industrial system. We simulated and evaluated a redesigned eco-industrial system in Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone (CCETDZ) in the present work using system dynamics and grey cluster methods. Four typical development strategies were simulated during 2005-2020 via standard system dynamic models. Furthermore, analytic hierarchy process and grey cluster allowed for the eco-industrial system evaluation and scenarios optimizing. Our dynamic simulation and statistical analysis revealed that: (1) CCETDZ would have different development scenarios under different strategies. The total population in scenario 2 grew most rapidly and reached 3.28 x 10(5) in 2020, exceeding its long-term planning expected population. And the GDP differences among these four scenarios would amount to 6.41 x 10(10) RMB. On the other hand, environmental pollution would become serious along with economy increasing. As a restriction factor, positive or negative increment of water resource will occur according to the selected strategy. (2) The fourth strategy would have the best efficiency, which means that the most efficiently development of CCETDZ required to take science, technology, environment progress and economy increase into account at the same time. (3) Positive environment protection measures, such as cleaner production, green manufacture, production life cycle management and environment friendly industries, should be attached great importance the same as economy development during 2005-2020 in CCETDZ. PMID:17657575

Zhao, Yan; Shang, Jin-cheng; Chen, Chong; Wu, He-nan

2007-07-27

16

Understanding China's Economic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978:the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are said to be successful in (a) agri- culture where land is not owned by the farmers; (b)

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

1997-01-01

17

Understanding china's economic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are claimed to be successful in (a) agriculture where land is not owned by the fanners; (b)

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

2000-01-01

18

Understanding china's economic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are claimed to be successful in (a) agriculture where land is not owned by the fanners; (b)

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

2001-01-01

19

Occurrence, distribution, and source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and leaves from Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, China.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in soil and three plant species samples taken at different land use areas in Shenzhen China. The concentrations of ?(7)BDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, and BDE-183) and BDE-209 in the surface soils ranged from 0.23 to 271 and 8.9 to 5,956 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. These figures are comparable to that in the soils of electronic waste dismantling sites. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (contributes 85-99% of ?(8)PBDEs (?(7)PBDEs plus BDE-209)) in soils. The regression slopes of total organic carbon and individual BDE congeners were rather gentle, indicating that factors other than soil organic matter regulated the soil concentrations. Proximity to sources of deposition processes might be the major factors. In the plant leaves, ?(7)BDEs and BDE-209 concentrations ranged from 1.29 to 5.91 and 5.49 to 28.2 ng/g dw, respectively. BDE-209 is also the dominant component, but the contribution was much lower compared with that in soils. Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Michelia alba DC. show some similarities on the uptake of PBDEs, while Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia is different from them. The correlations between plant leaf concentrations and predicted gaseous concentrations were moderate, indicating that gaseous concentration did not influence the leaf concentration significantly. PMID:20437267

Qin, Pei-Heng; Ni, Hong-Gang; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Shi, Ye-Hong; Zeng, Hui

2010-05-02

20

Soil erosion, policy and management in China coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal zone is very important in the world. China coastal zone was granted the first priority of developing economy in the late 1980s. Since then, high population density and rapid economic development hace caused intensive changes of LUCC in this zone. Those changes have lead to land degradation. Besides, China governments launched series of projects and policy to improve such problems. Those will inevitably cause to diverse spatial dynamics of land degradtion. However, the state of land degradation in certain time is still unknown. Soil erosion is an important indicator of land degradation.Therefore, we use RS images?RUSLE model to anlyze the spatial pattern of soil erosion for 2000. By spatial analysis, we found that soil erosion in China coastal zone is not serious. Widespread soil erosion is only occurred on coastal zones in Shandong, Hainan and werstern Guangdong Province. Although rainfall eosivity factor(R) is higher in southern coastal zone, erosion tends to occur on the slopes with lower LS values in northern coastal zone than southern coastal zone. Goevernments have enforced some policy to reduce the extent of soil erosion by conversion of farmland to woodland and barren mountains to woodland. But the difference between southern and northern coastal zone is still not realized. To improve soil eorosion in those areas, we should let governments put more funds to increase vegetation cover in north. Such study will provide helpful suggestions for governments to prevent soil erosion in coastal zone.

Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Qiao; Ning, Jicai; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

2013-09-01

21

China's Economic Conditions. Updated December 11, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the initiation of economic reforms and trade liberalization 30 years ago, China has been one of the world's fastest-growing economies and has emerged as a major economic and trade power. China's rapid economic growth has sharply improved Chinese liv...

W. M. Morrison

2009-01-01

22

Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change that was previously unavailable for the Sanya Region. Data acquired from the IKONOS-2 satellite are analyzed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to identify urban greenspace in three subscenes extracted from the Sanya landscape. Results suggest that urban greenspace can be successfully characterized with enhanced detail using landscape pattern indices (LPIs) and a correlogram approach. Inclusion of a spatial approach to greenspace characterization and planning is argued to be an important and easily implemented method for enhanced evaluation of urban quality of life. The government of Hainan has stated that it wishes to employ additional and more refined means of guiding future development practices. This study is a landscape analysis involving change detection of land cover as well as the spatial analysis of urban morphological features. It develops methodologies that may be used to investigate and document past and current urban conditions; some of these could be used by the Hainan Government to further their future urban planning goals of economic growth and ecological sustainability.

Millward, Andrew Allan

23

China’s Economic and Trade Development: Imbalance to Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe rapid pace of China’s economic and trade development has been considered as a great success since the entry of WTO in 2001. Most recently, China has succeeded in coping with the global financial crisis and achieved a rapid V?shaped recovery which rebounded to two digit growth rate and lead to strengthening its international status. Nevertheless, China has exposed many

Xianguo Yao; Minghai Zhou

2011-01-01

24

Energy Efficiency and Economic Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is now the world's second largest economy, and it is expected to overtake the United States to become the largest by 2020. What are the implications for the global environment and climate change if China surpasses the United States? There are major concerns with China's rapid rise because its economic and industrial structure is increasingly dependent on the consumption

Shujie Yao; Dan Luo; Tyler Rooker

2012-01-01

25

China's Economic Growth: Extraordinary or Mundane?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an ongoing debate about performance of Chinese economy in the last quarter century. The purpose of our study is to evaluate China's economic growth in different stages from the global perspective. We use different indicators to measure China's economic growth rate. It is worth noting that evaluation results derived from different indicators are divergent, especially during the

Yun FENG; Chong-Feng WU

26

Polish special economic zones: idea versus practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994 special economic zones (SEZs) were introduced in Poland as an instrument supporting regional development. Initially, the idea was to open just a handful of zones located in single-function industrial regions affected by or exposed to structural unemployment. Investor benefits included a full income-tax holiday for a half of the special zone’s life (typically ten years) and exemption from

Krzysztof Gwosdz; Woyciech Jarczewski; Maciej Huculak; Krzysztof Wiederman

2008-01-01

27

Economic–social interaction in China 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper analyzes economic–social interaction in China in connection with the country's change of economic system. I define an economic system in terms of a multi-dimensional vector of broad institutional characteristics, and I emphasize that important features of the social development are closely related to specific changes in these various dimensions. I classify China's options for future social improvements into

Assar Lindbeck

2008-01-01

28

The Sources and Sustainability of China's Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s economic transformation is proceeding at different rates across different regions and sectors, and China’s most advanced regional sector, coastal industry, still lags well behind the world’s technology frontier. This paper explores the implications of these internal and international productivity disparities for China’s ability to sustain rapid economic growth. When China’s GDP catches up to U.S. GDP, Chinese living standards

Gary H. Jefferson; Albert G. Z. Hu; Jian. Su

2006-01-01

29

China's Economic Conditions, June 26, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior to the initiation of economic reforms and trade liberalization 33 years ago, China maintained policies that kept the economy very poor, stagnant, centrally controlled, vastly inefficient, and relatively isolated from the global economy. Since openin...

W. M. Morrison

2012-01-01

30

China's Economic Conditions. December 4, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior to the initiation of economic reforms and trade liberalization 33 years ago, China maintained policies that kept the economy very poor, stagnant, centrally controlled, vastly inefficient, and relatively isolated from the global economy. Since openin...

W. M. Morrison

2012-01-01

31

People's Republic of China's Economic Growth and Foreign Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis explores whether a causal relationship exists between the People's Republic of China's foreign policy and in its economic policy. Specifically, it explores how China's overall economic policy has led it to become involved in countries that are...

A. Platten

2006-01-01

32

North Korea's Policy of Sinuiju Special Economic Zone: Implications and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the establishment of the special administrative region at Sinuiju and the promotion of the second SEZ, following internal and external factors worked together: (1) serious economic stagnation, (2) a following step to the 7.1 measures for improving economic management, (3) the success of China's policy of Special Economic Zone, (4) the gesture of opening-door to the U.S. While the

Young Namkoong

2003-01-01

33

China and the World Trade Organization: An Economic Balance Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) would affect the fundamental economic interests of both the United States and China. American opportunities to export to and invest in China would increase significantly. The United States would continue to apply the same, normal tariffs it has applied to imports from China continuously since 1980, but on a permanent basis instead

Daniel H. Rosen

1999-01-01

34

Inequality and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the long-run relationship between economic growth and income inequality in China during the pre-reform (1952-1978) and post-reform (1979-2007) periods, this will be done via cointegration analysis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The aim of this paper is to offer a proper answer to the issue of the inequality-growth nexus by using a cointegrated

W. Adrián Risso; Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera

2012-01-01

35

The economics of population aging in China.  

PubMed

This article relies on a Marxist framework for discussing the relationship between economic development and population aging in China. China places value on correctly understanding the causes, processes, trends, and socioeconomic consequences of population aging during the development of its socialist market economy. Many policies have an impact on the aged. Marxist theories of economic operations identify four key features--production, distribution, exchange, and consumption--which are affected by human activity. The age structure of population affects socioeconomic operations. An increase in accumulated capital means a decrease in consumption capital. China must maintain its high level of annual economic growth (6.0%-6.5%). 30% of China's national income must be used for accumulation of capital and investment, but the increase in the aged has led to growth in consumption capital. By 2050, it is expected that there will be over 100 million retirees needing about 800 billion RMB in pensions (20 times the amount in 1993). As the number of elderly grows, savings decline. The growth of the elderly will place demands on social security funds, which will in turn rely on an increased proportion of consumption capital. The increased labor force and the increased number of aged will both vie for a share in the national economy until about 2020, and then the problem will be declines in productivity in some areas. It is generally believed that support of the elderly should not rise above 10% of national income. In 1993, the elderly's share was 3.7%, and at the present rate of growth, it is expected that the share will be above 10% by 2030. Working families will have to carry a heavy domestic burden of care for their aged. Productivity will have to increase in order to offset the decline in per capita consumption capital due to aging. The author offers countermeasures at the macro- and microlevel for dealing with the demographic changes. PMID:12291971

Yu, X

1996-01-01

36

Conceptualizing economic security and governance: China confronts globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the expansion and deepening of globalization, as well as China's entry into the World Trade Organization, the nexus between economic growth and national security has gained prominence in China since the mid-1990s. How to ensure socio-economic security while maintaining its robust economic growth is now the most serious concern of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Chinese government.

Wang Zhengyi

2004-01-01

37

Demographic Change and Economic Growth: Comparing China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can we explain the modest economic takeoffs in India and rapid takeoff in China after 1980? We investigate the determinants of economic growth in India and China by fitting a model of economic growth to a cross-country panel of data over the period 1960-2000. The model predicts the \\

David E. Bloom; David Canning; Linlin Wu; Yuanli Liu; Ajay Mahal; Winnie Yip

38

A Spatial Econometric Examination of China's Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is universally acknowledged that China's recent economic growth involves distinct spatial patterns across the 30 provinces. Despite this, most studies analyze provincial economic growth patterns using cross-sectional methods that average over all provinces. This study analyzes China's recent economic growth at a provincial level using non-parametric and Bayesian spatial econometric methods that allow for locally linear spatial variation in

James P. Lesage

1999-01-01

39

China report, economic affairs, energy: Status and development -- 55  

SciTech Connect

This document contains translated articles from foreign language periodicals concerning China, economic affairs, national policy, technology, hydropower, thermal power, coal, oil, gas, nuclear power, and conservation.

NONE

1987-02-04

40

[Economics of the family: patriarchy in China].  

PubMed

"The inward and outward directed behaviour of a patriarchal family is analyzed by assuming self-interested behaviour of the patriarch, subject to the constraints imposed by the members of the family and by the budget. Hypotheses are derived concerning (1) the allocation of labour within the family, (2) family size, (3) the length of time in office and (4) the consumption standard after retirement of the patriarch, and (5) the redistribution (taxation) among the family members. They are confronted with 'sociological' antitheses based on role and tradition. The evidence from the literature on China tends to support the economic hypotheses." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12269197

Krug, B; Frey, B S

1987-01-01

41

Market Orientation and Regional Economic Disparities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in China's regional output disparities can be attributed to the variation in market orientation in individual regions, and the change in China's livelihood disparities can be attributed to the weakening of government intervention in the form of regional income redistribution in the reform process. The study suggests that China should accelerate economic growth of backward interior regions by

Xiaowen Tian

1999-01-01

42

China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

2011-01-01

43

Innovation Capacity and Economic Development: China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both China and India, the emerging giants in Asia, have achieved significant economic development in recent years. China has enjoyed a high annual GDP growth rate of 10 per cent and India has achieved an annual GDP growth rate of 6 per cent since 1981. Decomposing China and India?s GDP growth from 1981 to 2004 into the three factors? contribution

Peilei Fan

2008-01-01

44

Economic Collision: Competition between the United States and China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As China continues to rise on the international scene, competition between the United States and China becomes increasingly intense. This is true not only from a military perspective, but also from an economic one as China strives to become a global econo...

R. A. Neugebauer

2009-01-01

45

Economics and National Security: The Case of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the conference was to explore the national security dimensions of the U.S. - China economic relationship and identify possible roles for the economic element of national power in formulating policy options. Specifically, senior military, ad...

E. L. Hughes K. H. Butts

2001-01-01

46

China’s higher education expansion and the task of economic revitalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China’s economic development.\\u000a These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China’s economy,\\u000a and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a description of key changes in the Chinese

Xiaoyan Wang; Jian Liu

2011-01-01

47

China as an economic powerhouse: Implications on its neighbors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of China as an economic powerhouse has caused concerns in its neighbors. Prevailing in the region is the fear that China is becoming a gigantic “regional factory” that will “hollow out” neighboring economies' industries. In this paper, we emphasize the economic benefits that a rising Chinese economy can bring into the region. A discussion on the country's growth

Tilak ABEYSINGHE; Ding LU

2003-01-01

48

US Economic Sanctions Against China: Who Gets Hurt?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States maintains a broad spectrum of economic sanctions against China ranging from export controls to prohibitions on certain imports. Our study finds that, although from a macroeconomic perspective, US sanctions have had no significant adverse effect on China's overall economic growth and trade between the two countries, they do have a negative impact on producers and consumers in

Jiawen Yang; Hossein Askari; John Forrer; Hildy Teegen

2004-01-01

49

Economic Development, Population Ageing and Sustainability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most populous country in the world, China is enjoying unprecedented economic growth. However this growth is accompanied with population ageing and serious environmental degradation which has attracted global attention. The impact of China's environmental problems on the rest of world in the future will be as important as that of the country's rapid economic growth. Without a balanced development

Xiumei Guo; Dora Marinova

50

Transport Infrastructure, Spatial Clusters and Regional Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's transport infrastructure distribution and its economic activities have largely the same pattern of spatial clusters. This paper aims to determine whether causal linkages exist between transport infrastructure investment and economic growth in China at national and regional levels. We examine causality in a panel cointegration and a Granger causality framework using time series data throughout the 1978–2008 period. The

Nannan Yu; Martin De Jong; Servaas Storm; Jianing Mi

2012-01-01

51

An Egalitarian's Market: The Economics of Inclusionary Zoning Reclaimed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the economic effects of residential zoning, and how zoning might be used to create more affordable housing for the poor in America. The author explains the three legal regimes of inclusionary zoning, namely, voluntary inclusion programs, mandatory set-asides with density bonuses, and mandatory set-asides without density bonuses. While he offers no advice on how to implement any

Andrew G. Dietderich

1996-01-01

52

China at the crossroads: the economics of tobacco and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyse economic aspects of tobacco control policy issues in China.Methods: Published and collected survey data were used to analyse economic consequences of smoking. Economic analysis was used to address the role of tobacco farmers and the cigarette industry in the Chinese economy.Results: In the agricultural sector, tobacco has the lowest economic rate of return of all cash crops.

T-W Hu; Z Mao; M Ong; E Tong; M Tao; H Jiang; K Hammond; K R Smith; J de Beyer; A Yurekli

2006-01-01

53

Development of passive design zones in China using bioclimatic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the work on development of passive design zones for different climates in China. A total of 18 cities representing the five major climatic types, namely severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter were selected for climatic analysis. Measured weather data were gathered and analysed. A bioclimatic approach was adopted

Joseph C. Lam; Liu Yang; Jiaping Liu

2006-01-01

54

Yellow sea economic zone: Vision or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief review of Sino-South Korean economic relations in the 1980s, and discusses domestic and international\\u000a factors that are likely to influence economic relations between the two countries in the 1990s. Two possible scenarios are\\u000a discussed for future Sino-South Korean economic relations: increasing trade and economic interaction within limited political\\u000a relations; active economic cooperation across the Yellow

Won Bae Kim

1991-01-01

55

China?s challenges to future sustainable economic growth and the implications for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?stunning comeback? of China after almost two centuries is one of the most significant trends affecting Western economies, particularly the United States (US). None of the key drives that have promoted China?s growth are really at risk if the Chinese government does not deviate from its present economic policy and keeps up gradual refinement of its unique and effective

Ronald Degen

2009-01-01

56

On the relative vertical movement between crust and sea level along the Chinese coastal zone: A national basic research project in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 18,000 km of coast lines in China, therefore the study of the relative vertical movement between crust and sea level along the Chinese coastal zone is one of the national basic research projects in China. This project is very important for the investigation of the effect of global change on the long?term economic development plans of towns,

Junyong Chen

1996-01-01

57

The Dragon in the Caribbean: China–CARICOM Economic Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the People's Republic of China (China) has expanded its economic relations with CARICOM (the member states of CARICOM are Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago). This is evident in the increase in trade and development

Richard L. Bernal

2010-01-01

58

China's Rising Power: Economic Growth vs. Freedom Deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our analysis sets out to explain the relationship between economic growth and political freedoms within the context of Chinese domestic politics and foreign policy. The images of China as a rising military power with a growing economy have drawn attention away from the degree to which democratic values and norms have been marginalized in China. The existing literature has typically

Mahmood Monshipouri; Claude E. Welch Jr; Sergio Brian Cruz Egoávil

2011-01-01

59

China’s house price: Affected by economic fundamentals or real estate policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many theory and empirical literature conclude that house price can reflect economic fundamentals in the long-term. However,\\u000a by using China’s panel data of 35 main cities stretching from 1998 to 2007, we find that there is no stable relationship between\\u000a house price and economic fundamentals. House price has deviated upward from the economic fundamentals since government started\\u000a macro-control of the

Huayi Yu

2010-01-01

60

33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the United States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone...rights and jurisdiction and all nations have the high seas freedoms...Article 55 of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and with respect to other nations, exclusive economic...

2013-07-01

61

Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

2008-11-01

62

Flow vorticity in Zhangbaling transpressional attachment zone, SE China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plagioclase porphyroclasts with well-preserved idiomorphic shapes and zoning, and showing limited clast interaction, are ubiquitous in the flat-lying Zhangbaling schist that is exposed east of the Tan-Lu fault in southeast China. Plagioclase porphyroclasts define rigid particles whose distribution be related to the kinematic vorticity of the schist using the methods of porphyroclast hyperbolic distribution (PHD) and modified Rf/? (Passchier/Wallis plot). The kinematic vorticity numbers calculated from this approach range from Wk = 0.72 to 0.82, increasing progressively from south to north along the Zhangbaling belt. Such a Wk distribution indicates that the Zhangbaling schist was deformed uniformly under simple-shear dominated general shear, and that the Zhangbaling ductile crust experienced relatively even crustal thinning deformation. The subhorizontal Zhangbaling schist is considered a mid-crustal attachment zone that coupled the rigid upper crust to a subvertical, wrench shear zone in the lower crust.

Zhang, Qing; Teyssier, Christian

2013-03-01

63

Multiple Forces Driving China's Economic Development: A New Analytic Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractBased on economic growth theory and the World Bank's analytical framework relating to the quality of growth, the present paper constructs a framework that encompasses physical, international, human, natural and knowledge capital to synthetically interpret economic development. After defining the five types of capital and total capital, we analyze the dynamic changes of these types of capital in China and

Yahua Wang; Angang Hu

2007-01-01

64

On economic growth, FDI and exports in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has achieved high economic growth for a prolonged period of time. Academic researchers have tried alternative explanations for this miraculous growth. This study focuses on the effect of exports and foreign direct investments (FDI) on economic performance, using a large panel data set encompassing 28 Chinese provinces over the period 1978–2000. Adopting Pedroni's panel unit root test and Arellano

Shujie Yao

2006-01-01

65

Fiscal decentralization, public spending, and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of China demonstrates how the allocation of fiscal resources between the central and local governments has affected economic growth since reforms began in the late 1970s. We find that a higher degree of fiscal decentralization of government spending is associated with lower provincial economic growth over the past fifteen years. This consistently significant and robust result in our

Tao Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

1998-01-01

66

Technical-Economic Analysis of Wind Energy Projects in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renewable energy consumption has been increased rapidly with high economic growth in China. As one of the most promising renewable energy resource, wind energy has become a major part of the plans for sustainable development. The technical-economic analysis of the project reveals that the revenue from certified emission reductions (CERs) of clean development mechanism (CDM) project can increase the

Guangjie Wang

2008-01-01

67

Sustaining China's Economic Growth after the Global Financial Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global financial crisis and ensuing economic downturn has raised many questions concerning the future of global economic growth. Prior to the financial crisis, global growth was characterized by growing imbalances, reflected primarily in large trade surpluses in China, Japan, Germany, and the oil exporting countries and rapidly growing deficits, primarily in the United States. The global crisis raises the

Nicholas R. Lardy

68

How Important is Agriculture in China's Economic Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has achieved spectacular growth since 1949. Rapid growth in the nonagricultural sectors has been assisted by massive resource transfers out of agriculture. Prior to economic reforms before 1978, agriculture was heavily taxed by the state to subsidize urban and industrial development. Economic reforms since 1978 have reduced the burden on agriculture, but lack of state investments still remains a

Shujie Yao

2000-01-01

69

Poverty and the economic effects of TB in rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY and Control, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China OBJECTIVE: To investigate the economic effects of illness on individual tuberculosis (TB) cases in rural China and to use a case-control study to show a strong TB-poverty link. SETTING: In 2002-2004 we studied 160 new smear- positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and 320 age- and sex-matched controls living in neighbouring houses in four

S. Jackson; A. C. Sleigh; G. J. Wang; X. L. Liu

70

EU-China relations: balancing political challenges with economic opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2005, the European Union and China marked 30 years of diplomatic relations with much fanfare. Celebrations surrounding\\u000a the anniversary however belied the fact that throughout most of this period the European Union and China remained largely\\u000a aloof from one another. The strengthening of EU foreign policy over time, as well as the economic reforms and new outward\\u000a orientation exhibited by

Carol M. Glen; Richard C. Murgo

2007-01-01

71

Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.  

PubMed

The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth. PMID:21094300

Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

2010-08-21

72

Export Rebate and Export Performance: From the Respect of China's Economic Growth Relying on Export  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the yearly increase of export proportion in China's economy, China's economic growth is relying more and more on export. In the current case of weak external demand, Exports plays an important role in the stability of China's future economic development. Through the State Space Model, the paper has tested the variation tendency of how much China's economy rely on

Chen Xie; Zhuowan Liu; Lili Liu; Lin Zhang; Yuan Fang; Lanxiang Zhao

2010-01-01

73

The Experimentalist-Convergence Debate on Interpreting China's Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two schools of thoughts in explaining China's rapid economic growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms that have allowed the emergence of new dynamic non-capitalist economic growth mechanisms. The convergence school, on the other hand, holds that China's successes

Wing Thye Woo

74

Economic reform and interprovincial inequalities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note is an attempt to explore two issues: (1) the trend of interprovincial inequality in the post-1978 reform era in China; and (2) the factors behind the dynamics of interprovincial inequality. Using recently released provincial gross domestic product (GDP) data, we have shown that interprovincial inequality decreased in the fast half of the 1980s, but started to increase in

Kai-yuen Tsui

1996-01-01

75

Employment Restructuring during China's Economic Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As in developed countries, China's service sector has become the main job creator, the country's labor force is better educated, and the average age of the employed is rising. Driving those phenomena are a fast-paced employment restructuring and a growing private enterprise at the expense of state and collective ownership. (Author)|

Lu, Ming; Fan, Jianyong; Liu, Shejian; Yan, Yan

2002-01-01

76

China's economic growth in an international context  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is widely regarded as the most rapidly growing economy in the world over the past two decades. A growing number of studies, however, suggest that the official growth rate of 9.4 per cent for the years from 1978 through 1995 is biased upwards. No consensus has yet emerged on the degree of overstatement. Estimates range from as little as

Nicholas R. Lardy

1999-01-01

77

The Estimation of China's Economic Growth Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars of the Chinese economy have concluded that official estimates of China's GDP growth rate are too high. Journalists have popularized this view, but we disagree. We use a method that examines several strategic indicators that are suggested by basic social accounting principles and conclude that principal components of these indicators reflect the movement of official estimates of the

Lawrence R. Klein; Süleyman Özmucur

2002-01-01

78

Socio-economic differentials in birth masculinity in China.  

PubMed

This article examines the relationship between birth masculinity and socio-economic levels in China. Both 2000 and 2005 data suggest the presence of a non-linear relationship between the sex ratio at birth and socio-economic status, with a lower sex ratio at birth observed among both the poorest and the richest households. This inverted-U pattern is significantly different from what is observed in India and what has been assumed previously for China. Multivariate analyses indicate that this pattern persists after the introduction of several other covariates of birth masculinity such as ethnicity, fertility, migration status, age or parity. These results suggest that further economic advances and socio-economic mobility could contribute to the return to normalcy of the sex ratio at birth. PMID:22175086

Guilmoto, Christophe Z; Ren, Qiang

2011-01-01

79

Economic growth, income inequality and poverty in china under economic reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's gross domestic product (GDP) more than quadrupled between 1978 and 1996 under economic reforms. Per capita disposable incomes more than tripled in the cities and almost quadrupled in the rural areas. However, rapid economic growth brought about large income inequality which slowed down poverty reduction. In 1995, there were still 70–170 million people living in poverty. This article aims

Shujie Yao

1999-01-01

80

Economic Development, Rural livelihoods, and Ecological Restoration: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a case study in Southeast China to demonstrate how the substantial changes in rural livelihoods have been\\u000a driven by a combination of “pull” forces from external economic development, and “push” forces from local areas, leading to\\u000a a shift in rural household economic activities: household outmigration and de-population of the countryside, changes in energy\\u000a consumption, and most importantly,

Chengchao Wang; Yusheng Yang; Yaoqi Zhang

2011-01-01

81

Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions.

Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

2007-01-01

82

How Economic Superpower China Could Transform Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the conventional wisdom that Chinese involvement cannot transform Africa’s economy for the better so as to end much\\u000a of the poverty and also to spark high speed growth, this paper finds that China is already in the process of transforming\\u000a Africa. While the conventional wisdom sees corrupt regimes and weak state capacity in Africa frittering away Africa’s opportunity\\u000a to

Edward Friedman

2009-01-01

83

Capital Formation and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, production functions are estimated for China's aggregate economy and for the five sectors--agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, and commerce--using annual data (some constructed by the author) from 1952 to 1980. Then, this paper measures the contribution of capital formation to the growth of these sectors, the effects of the Great Leap Forward of 1958-62 and of the Cultural Revolution of

Gregory C. Chow

1993-01-01

84

Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…

Ng, Ying Chu

2004-01-01

85

China as an Economic and Military Superpower: A Dangerous Combination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China's economic and military power make it one of the most important nations to the United States as well as other Pacific Rim nations in 1995. It has one of the fastest growing economies in the world as well as one of the largest military machines. Toge...

M. B. Uckert

1995-01-01

86

Economic diversity, development capacity and sustainable development of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's economic growth over the past several decades has been among the highest in the world. It has been fueled by cheap fossil fuel energy so energy consumption has risen rapidly, but there are signs that negative feedbacks in the form of waste and inefficiency may affect future development. If energy throughput exceeds the capacity of the environment to process

Zhongmin Xu; Guodong Cheng; Dongjin Chen; Paul H. Templet

2002-01-01

87

Institutional development, financial deepening and economic growth: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been profound changes in both political and economic institutions in China over the last 20 years. Moreover, the pace of transition has led to variation across the country in the level of development. In this paper, we use panel data for the Chinese provinces to study the role of legal institutions, financial deepening and political pluralism on growth

Iftekhar Hasan; Paul Wachtel; Mingming Zhou

2009-01-01

88

Foreign Direct Investment, Domestic Investment, and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the causal link between foreign direct investment (FDI), domestic investment and economic growth in China for the period 1988-2003. Towards this purpose, a multivariate VAR system with error correction model (ECM) and the innovation accounting (variance decomposition and impulse response function analysis) techniques are used. The results show that while there is a bi-directional causality

Sumei Tang; E. A. Selvanathan; S. Selvanathan

2008-01-01

89

Economic Stress, Quality of Life, and Mortality for the Oldest-Old in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|China's oldest old population is estimated to quadruple by 2050. Yet, poverty rate for the oldest old has been the highest among all age groups in China. This paper investigates the relationship between economic stress, quality of life, and mortality among the oldest-old in China. Both objective economic hardships and perceived economic strain…

Yeung, W. Jean; Xu, Zhenhua

2012-01-01

90

The recent economic development of China’s ‘million’ cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980’s, two new trends have been emerging in the economic development of the Chinese ‘million’ cities. One is the\\u000a development disparity, and the other is the industrial restructuring. Firstly, in terms of per capita GDP (Gross Domestic\\u000a Product), 32 ‘million’ cities are classified into 4 types. The paper thinks there are 3 main causes which bring about the

Yuemin Ning

1995-01-01

91

100a climate change and its impact on vegetation ecological zoning in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal and spatial characteristics of climate change in China during the recent 100 years were analyzed using CRU05 climate data. We studied the impacts of climate change during the recent 100 years on vegetation ecological zones in China by using Holdridge Life Zone Classification Model and Center-of-Gravity Model. It is concluded that the precipitation and temperature increased and climate became wetter and warmer in most areas of China during the study period with an exception in the subtropical area to the south of Qinhuai River where climate changed toward more precipitation and lower temperature (wetter and colder). The climate change during recent 100 years had strong impacts on vegetation ecological zones in China. It was shown by the variations of spatial distributions of vegetation ecological zoning in three time periods in China and the space displacements of the centers of the gravity that the boreal type and cool temperate zone type in the vegetation ecological zone in China had expanded toward south; wet, moist, and rain forest types had moved forward to the west; the climate change in China during the recent 100 years had improved environmental quality and made the environment in China more suitable for plants to live and grow.

Gao, Zhiqiang; Ran, Meng; Gao, Wei

2009-08-01

92

Economic Stress, Quality of Life, and Mortality for the Oldest-Old in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s oldest old population is estimated to quadruple by 2050. Yet, poverty rate for the oldest old has been the highest\\u000a among all age groups in China. This paper investigates the relationship between economic stress, quality of life, and mortality\\u000a among the oldest-old in China. Both objective economic hardships and perceived economic strain are examined. We base our investigation\\u000a on

W. Jean Yeung; Zhenhua Xu

2012-01-01

93

Education and Economic Development: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from thirty Chinese provinces indicates that education is crucial for economic development. Provinces with the higher average years of schooling in the intial year have higher growth rates of real per capita GDP in the subsequent year. Provinces with higher literacy rates and higher average years of schooling in the initial year experienced a faster decline of the employment

Shuanglin Lin

1997-01-01

94

Education and Economic Development: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from thirty Chinese provinces indicates that education is crucial for economic development. Provinces with the higher average years of schooling in the intial year have higher growth rates of real per capita GDP in the subsequent year. Provinces with higher literacy rates and higher average years of schooling in the initial year experienced a faster decline of the employment

Shuanglin Lin

95

Exhumation of the Ailao Shan shear zone recorded by Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, Yunnan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of strike-slip faults, such as the Ailao Shan shear zone in southwestern China, in accommodating the India-Eurasia collision remains controversial. Cenozoic sedimentary rocks preserved along the northeast side of the Ailao Shan shear zone, however, record the nature and timing of exhumation of shear zone rocks. Field mapping shows that the lower strata consist of early Oligocene lacustrine

Lindsay M. Schoenbohm; B. Clark Burchfiel; Chen Liangzhong; Yin Jiyun

2005-01-01

96

Research on Effect of Beijing Post-Olympic Sports Industry to China's Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Methods: Using the literature information, discuss research on effect of Beijing post -Olympic sports industry to China's economic development on basis of analyzing the impacts of Olympic Games on host countrys economic development, from the angle of the theory of Olympic economic development. Purpose of research: Hope to offer theoretical basis for reference to China's post-Olympic economic development through

Liuqian Huang

2011-01-01

97

The Decline of Township-and-Village Enterprises in China’s Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — A paradoxical phenomenon in China's transitional economy is that markets devel- oped under predominant public ownership, which nevertheless has declined with the development of markets. Previous studies reveal that initial political and economic conditions of reform and fis- cal decentralization gave rise to local public enterprises' leading role in early marketization. This paper explains the subsequent fall of

James Kai-sing Kung; Yi-min Lin

2007-01-01

98

Analysis of an oasis microclimate in China's hyperarid zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microclimate of a desert oasis in China’s hyperarid zone was monitored, analysed and compared to that of nearby forested lands. Factors associated with differences in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) between clear, cloudy and dust storm days are discussed. Desert oases were shown to fulfill ecological functions such as altering solar radiation, adjusting near-ground and land surface temperatures, reducing temperature differences, lowering wind velocity, and increasing soil and atmospheric humidity. Total solar radiation within the oasis was roughly half that above the forest canopy. During the growing season, air temperatures in Populus euphratica Olivier and Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. woodlands were, on average, 1.62 and 0.83°C lower, respectively, than that in surrounding woodlands. The greater the forest cover, the greater was the difference in temperature. Air temperature was higher at the upper storey than that at the lower storey of the community, i.e., air temperature increased with increasing height above the soil surface. During the growing season, relative humidity was higher in woodlands than in surrounding areas: relative humidity in P. euphratica and T. ramosissima woodlands were, on average, 8.5 and 4.2% higher, respectively, than that in the surrounding area. Mean wind velocity in the P. euphratica forest land was 0.33 m/s, 2.31 m/s lower than that in the surrounding area. On dust storm days PAR and total radiation, Q, were significantly lower than that on cloudy or clear days. Their ratio, ? Q = PAR/ Q, was larger and much more variable on dust storm days than that on clear or cloudy days.

Feng, Qi; Macuo, Zhuo; Haiyang, Xi

2009-09-01

99

A 'third culture' in economics? An essay on Smith, Confucius and the rise of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rise drives a growing impact of China on economics. So far, this mainly works via the force of example, but there is also an emerging role of Chinese thinking in economics. This paper raises the question how far Chinese perspectives can affect certain foundational principles in economics, such as the assumptions on individualism and self-interest allegedly originating in Adam

Carsten Herrmann-Pillath

2011-01-01

100

Recent Claims of China's Economic Exceptionalism: Reflections Inspired by WTO Accession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desirability of WTO membership for China depends on whether its economic successes have been the result of its discovery of new institutional forms (e.g. dual track pricing, SOE contracts, and fiscal contracts) that are optimal for China's particular economic circumstances, or have been the result of the convergence of its economic institutions to those of a typical advanced member

Wing Thye Woo

2001-01-01

101

Temporal change of climate zones in China in the context of climate warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China, ten climate types were classified using the K-means cluster analysis based on monthly temperature and precipitation data from 753 national meteorological stations for the period 1966-2005. However, 11 mountain climate stations, which are located in southeast China, were classified as one type due to their distinct climate characteristic that differentiated them from other stations. This type could not represent the climate characteristic of this region because all climate stations in this type were located at high-elevation mountains. Thus, it was eliminated when defining climate zones based on climate types. Therefore, nine climate zones were defined in China. Moreover, the temporal change of climate zones was detected in 20-year intervals (1966-1985 and 1986-2005). Although 48 stations changed their climate zones between these two periods, the whole pattern of all climate zones remained stable in these two periods. However, the boundaries between some climate zones changed slightly due to inconsistent variation of regional temperature and precipitation. The most obvious change was the eastern movement of the boundary between an arid temperate zone and a sub-humid temperate zone. There was also a northern shift of the boundary between a tropic zone and a southern subtropic zone. All these changes were probably connected with the climate change in recent 40 years.

Zhang, Xianliang; Yan, Xiaodong

2013-04-01

102

Economic Transition and New Patterns of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence in Urban China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study uses national data from the 1996 Life History and Social Change in Contemporary China survey (N= 3,087) to gauge the effect of the economic transition on parent-adult child coresidence in urban China. Previous studies find that, thanks to state actions, traditional patterns in co-residence persisted in post-Mao urban China. This study…

Forrest Zhang, Qian

2004-01-01

103

CONTRASTING GIANTS: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN CHINA AND INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The timing of China‘s and India‘s demographic transitions and the implications of alternative fertility scenarios are here explored using a global economic model incorporating full demographic behavior and measures of dependency that include the working aged and those of working age who do not work. The results show that, while the path of total dependency in China will be comparatively

Jane Golley; Rod Tyers

2011-01-01

104

Contrasting Giants: Demographic Change and Economic Performance in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The timing of China’s and India’s demographic transitions and the implications of alternative fertility scenarios are here explored using a global economic model incorporating full demographic behavior and measures of dependency that include the working aged and those of working age who do not work. The results show that, while the path of total dependency in China will be comparatively

Jane Golley; Rod Tyers

2011-01-01

105

Economic Transition and New Patterns of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence in Urban China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses national data from the 1996 Life History and Social Change in Contemporary China survey (N= 3,087) to gauge the effect of the economic transition on parent-adult child coresidence in urban China. Previous studies find that, thanks to state actions, traditional patterns in co-residence persisted in post-Mao urban China. This study…

Forrest Zhang, Qian

2004-01-01

106

77 FR 70150 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Public...State fisheries off Alaska, and 2013 recordkeeping and reporting requirements for the...discussion of [[Page 70151

2012-11-23

107

Investigating economic growth, energy consumption and their impact on CO2 emissions targets in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to analyse economic growth, energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions data in China comparing with the US and Japanese data. Then, we try to evaluate the Chinese government's targets in reducing energy use and carbon intensity. Economic growth is a key factor that determines the Chinese's ability to meet these targets. If we suppose that China's

Maxensius Tri Sambodo; Tatsuo Oyama

2011-01-01

108

Macrostructure of Consumption and Economic Growth: Empirical Analysis on China (1952-2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper makes an empirical research on the relationship between rural household consumption, urban household consumption, government consumption and economic growth using time series data of China from 1952 to 2004. Results show that: (1) China's economic growth mainly depends on domestic demand, which includes consumption and investment. Consumption demand has the most effective influence on economy among the three

Xie Rui-ping; Fang Jing; Song Wen-bo

2007-01-01

109

Sustaining Economic Growth in China under Energy and Climate Security Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

After over a quarter of a century of high economic growth, there is no sign that China will slow its pace of economic development. In the meantime, domestic energy security and international climate security have become of increasing concern given China's growth patterns. In this paper, the authors look at the future prospects of growth of the economy, energy demand

Xuedu Lu; Jiahua Pan; Ying Chen

2006-01-01

110

Socio?economic impacts of domestic tourism in China: Case studies in Guilin, Suzhou and Beidaihe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, China has witnessed a rapid growth in both international and domestic mass tourism. An analysis of the socio?economic impact of this recent tourism boom in three tourism areas reveals that domestic tourism is more important to local economic development than is international tourism in China. Local communities were better able to respond promptly to the new

Gang Xu

1999-01-01

111

Cultivating eco-sustainability: Social–economic–natural complex ecosystem case studies in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses ecological development in China based on the theory and methodology of SENCE (social–economic–natural complex ecosystem), and two typical case studies of Yangzhou city and Dafeng city.Ecological development in China refers to the integrative learning process, integrative design process, interactive adaptation process resulting in ecologically sound, economically productive and behaviorally feasible development. Ecological development in China includes the

Rusong Wang; Tao Zhou; Dan Hu; Feng Li; Jingru Liu

2011-01-01

112

Statistical and econometric analysis of the impact of China's energy, environment on the economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through statistical description and analysis of econometric models of energy consumption, environmental conditions, and their impact on economic development, we draw conclusions that present China's economic growth is at the cost of the huge energy consumption and environmental pollution. To maintain long-term sustainable economic development, and achieve intensive economic growth, it is necessary to take industrial ecology and green GDP

NAN Yingzi; GAO Yuying

2011-01-01

113

Economic statecraft in China’s New Overseas Special Economic Zones: Soft power, business, or resource security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s growing economic engagement with other developing countries has aroused heated debates. Yet there has been relatively little research on when, how, and why the Chinese state intervenes in the overseas economic activities of its firms. We examine China’s program to establish overseas special economic zones as one tool of Beijing’s economic statecraft. We trace the process by which they

Tang Xiaoyang

2012-01-01

114

The investigation on the construction of HRMIS in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the investigation of HRMIS in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, this paper analyses the principle of designing, the path of development, the functional structure, the implementing measures, and its application prospect, and then put forward the suggestion about the outline of the construction of HRMIS in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone.

Jiawen Huang; Wenfang Nie; Tianyuan Zhan

2011-01-01

115

76 FR 43934 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pelagic Shelf Rockfish for Catcher...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA588 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pelagic Shelf Rockfish...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2011-07-22

116

78 FR 51675 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Thornyhead Rockfish in the Western...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC818 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Thornyhead Rockfish...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay prohibiting the...

2013-08-21

117

Geology, fluid inclusions, isotope geochemistry, and geochronology of the Paishanlou shear zone-hosted Gold Deposit, North China Craton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paishanlou gold deposit lies along the northern margin of North China Craton gold province, the third largest Au province in China. The deposit is mainly hosted in Archean metamorphic rocks of the Jianping Group and is structurally controlled by two sets of ductile shear zones. Gold mineralization is closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration along the ductile shear zones,

Xiao-Hui Zhang; Qing Liu; Ying-Jun Ma; Hui Wang

2005-01-01

118

Geochemistry of main types of gold deposits in shear zones, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear zone-hosted gold deposits in China can be divided into four types: ductile, brittle-ductile, ductile-brittle and brittle,\\u000a of which the ductile and brittle types are the basic ones. All these types of gold deposits have their own geochemical characteristics.\\u000a The Hetai gold deposit in Guangdong Province, for example, is a mylonite-type gold deposit in a ductile shear zone. With increasing

Wu Xueyi; Yang Yuangen; Xiao Huayun; Wu Huiming

1999-01-01

119

Segmentation and inversion of the Hangjinqi fault zone, the northern Ordos basin (North China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A right-lateral transtentional fault zone of the northern Ordos basin is described.The segments of HFZ separated by relay ramps are established.Two distinct tectonic phases of the HFZ in the negative inversion is identified.Inversion is related to activity of South China and paleo-Pacific plates, respectively.

Yang, Minghui; Li, Liang; Zhou, Jin; Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Duo

2013-07-01

120

The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

1995-01-01

121

76 FR 44699 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 83; Proposed Rule Federal Register...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

2011-07-26

122

Acid Deposition and Integrated Zoning Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rapidly growing economy is coupled with the consumption of large amounts of coal. An energy mix dominated by coal\\u000a and inefficient energy utilization processes have led to increasingly serious problems of acid rain and sulfur dioxide pollution.\\u000a Moreover, trends in the emissions of acidifying air pollutants lead to predictions of a very serious acid deposition problem\\u000a in the future.

WEI LI; JIXI GAO

2002-01-01

123

[Strategies and approaches of ecological and economical construction in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of north China].  

PubMed

After a century's exploitation on agriculture, the agroecosystem in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China has gone on a close and consumptive state, and the soil resources has suffered from desertization, alkalization and degradation. The deterioration of soil resources and eco-environment has threatened the ecological security of the regions in Beijing, Tianjin and North China. The strategies of promoting the ecological and economical development in the ecotone should include building up an opening production structure of agriculture and animal husbandry to input artificial energy from the social system, and organizing a cooperative production on agriculture and animal husbandry by exchanging products between the close regions to gain their profits. Based on the various objectives of the local farmers and the nation in the ecological rehabilitation, and the adverse succession of the ecosystem and economics, some technological approaches for making a breakthrough of economic and ecological construction were put forward, e.g., building up a suitable pattern of arbor or shrub intercropped with artificial pasture to protect soil against wind erosion, developing vegetable production adapted to the cold climate, and raising live stocks with corn residues from agricultural zone of North China, etc.. PMID:14997676

Zhang, Lifeng

2003-11-01

124

China’s economic reform : Success, problems and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of China is a major episode in world economic history. From the late 1970s, China pursued market-oriented reforms and open policy. During the past two decades, China experienced extraordinary growth. Since 1978, GDP growth rates have averaged 10 per cent a year, and 10.7 per cent in the 1990s, rivaling the record achieved by Japan and the Four

He Fancass

2007-01-01

125

A Thousand Points of Conflict: The Dark Side of China's Economic Miracle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1980, China's economy has grown by almost 10% a year–doubling an astonishing three times. During its ascent, China has far outperformed Japan's 1980s “economic miracle.” It has also significantly outperformed the vaunted “Four Dragons”–Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore–during a similar time frame.While China's rapid growth has helped to lift the country into a budding prosperity and provided numerous

Peter Navarro

2007-01-01

126

China's military posture and the new economic geopolitics  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's increasing energy needs have underscored four questions concerning Beijing's military posture and strategic intentions. How will China guarantee its most vital sources of energy supply, especially those that depend on the free flow of goods through international shipping routes? Does China possess the naval capability to secure sea-lines of communication? Is such a capability at the centre of its

E. Feigenbaum

1999-01-01

127

Will China's Rise Remain Peaceful. (Military Threat or Economic Competitor).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China has begun a single-minded mission to become the supreme military power in the Asian-Pacific rim while the United States is unwittingly strengthening China's economy, ultimately leading to a credible military threat. China has become the world's 2nd ...

J. A. Benson

2008-01-01

128

Impacts of Internal Migration on Economic Growth and Urban Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive population flow from rural to urban areas in post-reform China is the result of both institutional and structural changes caused by economic growth. In the planned economy, China had a household registration system (hukou system) which was designed to control population migration and labor mobility between rural and urban areas as well as across regions. The issuing of

Cai Fang Wang Dewen

129

A Comparative Study of the Economic Reforms in China and India: What Can We Learn?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last quarter of the twentieth century was characterized by economic reforms in many formerly state-dominated economies. Among them, the reform attempts by China and India have attracted increasing attention in the popular media and academic research. This paper contribute to this research by using institutional theory to analyse the reforms in China and India and develop a framework to

Shaomin Li; Anil Nair

2007-01-01

130

China's recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postreform landscape is characterised by the formation of a more market-oriented system and the ‘open-door’ policy. Economic globalisation and marketisation, especially in the arena of urban land and housing, are becoming the key variables determining the postreform urban development in China. Since China opened its door in 1978, foreign investment has continued to flow into the cities and played

Fulong Wu

2001-01-01

131

China's Construction Land Expansion and Economic Growth: A Capital-output Ratio Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractSince 2003, the Chinese Government has been using land policy as an important macroeconomic policy. The present paper analyzes the impact of the expansion of construction land on economic growth in terms of the capital-output ratio. Using provincial panel data for China from 1999 to 2005, we conclude that the excess expansion of China's construction land led to an increase

Huizhong Li; Feng Yin; Jialun Li

2008-01-01

132

A comparative analysis on the factors promoting China's economic growth based on demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying co-integration test and variance decomposition to the quarterly data from Q1 2000 to Q3 2010, this paper conducts an empirical study on the demand factors that promote the economic growth of China. The conclusions are as follows: consumption, investment and net exports all have influence on China's actual output, among which, consumption makes a greater contribution to the

Tang Anbao; Zhao Danhua

2011-01-01

133

Thirty years of legal and economic reform in China: growth, institutions, and laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's impressive economic growth over three decades has seemingly occurred in the absence of a strong legal system. This paper views China's reform process over the past three decades as one that has entailed a gradual introduction of market forces into areas of the economy, which requires both dismantling the structure of the centrally planned economy and developing market-oriented institutions.

Linda Yueh

2010-01-01

134

Economic responses to the closure of small-scale coal mines in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, China launched a programme to close tens of thousands of small-scale coal mines within just three years. Few measures were put in place to mitigate the negative impacts. This paper reports on a study in the Chongqing Municipality of south-west China, with the aims of identifying the economic impacts of the mine closure campaign and examining what factors

Philip Andrews-Speed; Guo Ma; Bingjia Shao; Chenglin Liao

2005-01-01

135

75 FR 68325 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Public...State fisheries off Alaska, and 2011 recordkeeping and reporting requirements for the...workshop will include a discussion of 2011 recordkeeping and reporting requirements for...

2010-11-05

136

77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program...govern fisheries managed under the Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program...www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska Region Web site at...

2012-02-08

137

77 FR 35925 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements...operating in either the BSAI or Gulf of Alaska groundfish fisheries when directed fishing...fishing for groundfish under the Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ)...

2012-06-15

138

75 FR 39892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program...govern fisheries managed under the Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program...Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region, NMFS, Attn: Ellen...

2010-07-13

139

77 FR 15019 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...Shoreside processors and stationary floating processors would be in the full coverage...All shoreside processors and stationary floating processors would be in the partial...

2012-03-14

140

Economic aspects of global change impacts and response strategies in the coastal zone of The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic aspects of possible land use strategies and protection measures in coastal zones as a response to global environmental\\u000a change are examined. First, some key elements are mentioned that are of critical importance for water and land management\\u000a in coastal zones. Next, various socio-economic repercussions are discussed. In this context, research needs will be addressed.\\u000a Subsequently, these issues are considered

Jeroen van den Bergh; Peter Nijkamp

1998-01-01

141

A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P2O5 (?0.06 wt.%), Na2O > K2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, ?14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (LaCN/LuCN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu\\midast = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and ?18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma.The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al2O3 and Na2O, and decreasing SiO2, (Fe2O3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y decrease, while F, Li, Rb, Hf, Ta, Sn, Sc, Ga and Zn increase. (6) K/Rb, Al/Ga, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho decrease, and K/Cs, Th/U (La/Lu)CN and TE1,3 (quantification factor of REE tetrad effect) increase. (7) There is a general decrease in whole-rock ?18O from 9.25‰ to 9.75‰ in zone-a to 7.32‰ in zone-e. (8) Homogenization temperatures of melt inclusions in quartz decrease from about 860 °C for zone-a to about 660 °C for zone-e. It is interpreted that crystallisation of the magma started from zone-a and proceeded upwards to zone-e, and the vertical zoning is produced by fractional crystallisation accompanied by fluid-melt interaction. Some of the distinctive features of zone-e were caused by influx and reaction of meteoric fluid at the post-magmatic stage. Turbulent structures and co-magmatic deformation textures are well recorded in the rocks, and are ascribed to reduced viscosity and enhanced flow rate of the F- and H2O-rich magma.

Gu, Lian-Xing; Zhang, Zun-Zhong; Wu, Chang-Zhi; Gou, Xiao-Qin; Liao, Jing-Juan; Yang, Hao

2011-10-01

142

Technology and oil and gas development in the exclusive economic zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of subsea oil and gas currently recovered from U.S. waters approaches $33 billion annually. In terms of value and strategic importance, petroleum resources will likely continue to dominate the economic activities in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. However, the future prospects for offshore oil and gas development are changing. New emphasis is being placed on exploration in deepwater

J. Curlin

1984-01-01

143

China's economic growth, policy reforms and WTO accession: implications for agriculture in China and elsewhere by 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Accompanying,rapid economic,growth in China since it began opening up two decades ago have been major changes to the structure of its production and trade. Most notable has been the decline in the relative importance of agriculture. In this paper we project the Chinese economy forward under various growth and policy scenarios, including WTO accession. Among other things, we draw

Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt

144

Changes of Holdridge life zone diversity in all of China over half a century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research results show that diversity at the scale of Holdridge life zone observation has had a decreasing trend since the 1950s, and the ecological environment has become considerably unstable in China. The phenomena of unstable environment include continuous expansion of calamity areas since the 1950s, the seldom-seen flood that occurred in the summer of 1998 and the seldom-seen sand

Tianxiang Yue; Jiyuan Liu; Sven Erik Jørgensen; Zhiqiang Gao; Shihuang Zhang; Xiangzheng Deng

2001-01-01

145

Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic

Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

2010-01-01

146

India's economic growth and market potential: benchmarked against China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In the context of India's growth and development benchmarked against China, this paper aims to address two important research questions: How do the growth models and market potential of China and India compare? What are some policy lessons to be learned? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper presents a critical analysis and review of the empirical results. Findings – While

G. K. Kalyanaram

2009-01-01

147

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

2003-01-01

148

Political Incentive and Economic Feedback - Understanding China's Inequality in Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to market economy in China has already been about 30 years. Regional disparities of China are becoming more serious. The inequality has become a drawback to Chinese economy. What matter and how can we resolve it? The paper argues that the game behavior between local government and local enterprise lead to the local institutional performance and it is

Chen Tao; Shen Yang

2010-01-01

149

China's economic reform : from rural focus to international market  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a large country, and in fact one of the oldest civilisations in the world. Its population is 25 percent of the world population, but it has only 7 percent of the world's arable land. China's 5000 years of history show a country moving from slavery to feudalism, with a strongly oppressive authority. An old saying found in western

T. M. Siregar

2000-01-01

150

Landscape Urbanization and Economic Growth in China: Positive Feedbacks and Sustainability Dilemmas  

PubMed Central

Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China’s policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.

2011-01-01

151

Perceptions of Subjective Economic Well-Being and Support for Market Reform among China's Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether subjective economic assessments have any impact on support for further market reforms among China's urban population, utilising a large survey of 10,716 people across 32 cities. The effect of subjective economic well-being on support for market reforms is an important issue for the Chinese government as it seeks to sell the benefits of increased globalisation and

Ingrid Nielsen; Chris Nyland; Russell Smyth; Cherrie Jiuhua Zhu

2005-01-01

152

Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic

Chang, Ho-Jun

2009-01-01

153

Rapid Economic Growth & Industrialization in India, China & Brazil: At What Cost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the decline in environmental quality in India, China and Brazil is due to release of toxic gases which is an effect of high energy consumption? If so, the increase in energy consumption is due to rapid economic growth led by industrialization? Also examined is what effect does excessive economic growth rates

KRISHNA CHAITANYA V

2007-01-01

154

Patterns of economic development and patterns of rural-urban migration in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines three distinctive patterns of economic development in terms of their economic and migration outcomes in Zhejiang province, China. At the prefecture level, “trickle down” development works best in promoting rural development while reducing out-migration; but it requires a strong urban economy and sufficient investment. Rural household enterprise requires little government investment while boosting rural development; but it

Xiushi Yang

1996-01-01

155

Innovation or Rent-seeking: The Entrepreneurial Behavior during China's Economic Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractAlthough achieving impressive economic growth during the economic reform period, China has been plagued by rampant corruption and a widening income gap. How can the coexistence these two phenomena be explained? In this paper, we argue that before 1994, the coexistence was induced by a series of expediential institutional arrangements to stimulate entrepreneurial activities and after 1994, it was entrenched

Jinglian Wu; Shaoqing Huang

2008-01-01

156

Shallow anatomy of a continent-ocean transition zone in the northern South China Sea from multichannel seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea is reflected in diverse tectonic processes including continental rifting, seafloor spreading, subduction, terrane collision and strike-slip fault movement. A continent-ocean transition zone in the northern South China Sea caused by the lithospheric extension when the continent underwent break-up, rifting and later seafloor spreading, is clearly imaged in the multi-channel seismic data presented in this study. The morphological units of the continent-ocean transition zone are the rift-depression, the volcanic zone and tilted fault blocks. The volcanic zone represents a highest extension zone within the continent-ocean transition zone and is mainly distributed in the southern slope uplift zone along the northern passive margin of the South China Sea. The large listric-normal faults bounding the Dongsha Rise and Baiyun Sag are evidenced in the seismic image. The passive margin in the northern South China Sea underwent the wide-rift to narrow-rift process in the transition zone as inferred from the relation between the surface heat flow and initial rifted crustal thickness. The continent-ocean transition zone in the continental margin of the South China Sea is consistent with high heat flow zone (average 90 mW.m- 2) observed in the previous heat flow measurements and at ODP Site 1148, and is manifested in a sharp change of the P-wave velocity. The rifted margin of the South China Sea is a non-typical magma poor passive margin or an intermediary form between the Iberian-type non-volcanic and the Greenland-type volcanic margin compared to the world's typical passive margins.

Zhu, Junjiang; Qiu, Xuelin; Kopp, Heidrun; Xu, Huilong; Sun, Zongxun; Ruan, Aiguo; Sun, Jinlong; Wei, Xiaodong

2012-07-01

157

Monitoring land use dynamics for ecological degradation assessment in the rim zone of North China using MODIS and Land TM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within North China there is a special rim zone characterized with a mixture of crop farming and herd grazing. Due to intensive land use for cropping and grazing, natural ecosystems in this semi-arid zone have been seriously destroyed in the past decades. Several strong sandstorms in recent years swept through the zone to invade into Beijing the capital of China

Zhihao Qin; Bin Xu; Jia Liu; Wenjuan Li; Wanchang Zhang; Hong'ou Zhang

2004-01-01

158

Changes in Holdridge Life Zone diversity in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) of China over the past 40 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Holdridge Life Zone model, Shannon's Entropy Index and Simpson's Diversity Index were used to study the dynamics of vegetation distribution over the past 40 years in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), China. The results indicated that Holdridge Life Zone diversity was highest in the 1960s, dramatically decreased in the 1970s, and then gradually increased in the 1980s and

Y. Zheng; Z. Xie; L. Jiang; H. Shimizu; S. Drake

2006-01-01

159

75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel...fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery...of harvest and, (2) the economic impacts on fishing businesses...fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the...

2010-10-21

160

78 FR 12627 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BA93 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian...fisheries of the BSAI in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the Fishery Management...has taken to minimize the significant economic impact on small entities...

2013-02-25

161

76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BA11 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian...Tanner crab fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...has taken to minimize the significant economic impact on small entities,...

2011-06-20

162

Emerging China's Economic Visions during the Five Year Plans and the Evolution of the Doctrine of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article let us examine emerging Chinas economic visions during the Five Year Plans and the evolution of the various political doctrines that epitomizes inthe Scienti?c Concept of Development? proposed in the 11 th Five Year Plan. Since China started its 1st Five?Year Guidelines more than 50 years ago and its opening?up more than 20 years ago the country

John Joseph Puthenkalam

163

Rural household energy consumption with the economic development in China: stages and characteristic indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses history variance and general features on rural household energy consumption with the economic development in China. Energy shortage has been a long-standing problem in rural areas of China. The average effective energy consumption was 0.46–0.54kgce per day per household in the 1960s and 1970s. The reason for this is that the rural household energy supply mainly relies

Wang Xiaohua; Feng Zhenmin

2001-01-01

164

Neither a borrower nor a lender: Does China's zero net foreign asset position make economic sense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China in the past few years has emerged as a net foreign creditor on the international scene with net foreign assets (NFAs) slightly greater than 0% of wealth. This is surprising given that China is a relatively poor country with a capital–labor ratio about one-fifth the world average and one-tenth the US level. We ask whether it makes economic sense

David Dollar; Aart Kraay

2006-01-01

165

The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s,

Laura Washington Dodge

2003-01-01

166

World marine fish catch in the age of exclusive economic zones and exclusive fishery zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international legal system that governs ocean space and its uses has undergone substantial changes in recent years. Such changes may have significant implications for a variety of states and their nationals. This study seeks to contribute to an evaluation of the possible consequences of the revised legal system. The establishment of extended zones of national jurisdiction, such as the

Lawrence Juda

1991-01-01

167

The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India  

PubMed Central

We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980.

Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

2010-01-01

168

China’s one-child policy: the economic choices and consequences faced by pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the important issue of the effect of China’s one-child policy on prenatal and obstetric care utilization. The paper provides the first detailed empirical approach to this question, exploiting a unique high quality household survey. China officially codified a set of rules and regulations in 1979 governing the approved size of Chinese families, commonly known as the one-child

Jim P. Doherty; Edward C. Norton; James E. Veney

2001-01-01

169

China's Economic and Political Rise: Implications for Global Terrorism and U.S.–China Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a rising power in the international system, China is discovering that, like many states before it, the ascendancy to great power status sometimes entails significant terrorism risks. Recent attacks against Chinese nationals (or commercial interests) in Africa, Central Asia, and South Asia appear to reflect this trend. In addition, since the early 1990s, China has endured a series of

Paul J. Smith

2009-01-01

170

SH Velocity Structures in the Transition Zone Beneath South America and Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable phase assemblages in the transition zone region are sensitive to mantle composition, temperature and chemical interactions between the olivine- and pyroxene-normative components. With the accumulation of in-situ measurements of elastic properties and accurate determination of phase equilibria data, we can now explore various chemical interactions and quantitatively calculate seismic velocity profiles for various mineralogical models. Mantle composition and thermal models, and their regional variations, can thus be quantitatively constrained by jointly modeling mineral physics data and seismic observations sampling different regions. In this study, we constrain fine seismic structures in the transition zone beneath South America and northeast China, and explore compositional and thermal models in these two regions based on mineral physics modeling. We use the triplicated phases recorded in the epicentral distance range of 10o~- 30o~ for a deep event occurring in South America subduction zone and two deep events occurring in northeast Asia. The triplication phases near a discontinuity place tight constraints on the velocity gradients above and below the discontinuity and the velocity jump across the discontinuity. The termination distance of the AB phases (the branch turning above the discontinuity) is sensitive to the velocity gradient above the discontinuity and the move-out of the CD phases (the branch traveling below the discontinuity) is controlled by the velocity gradient below the discontinuity. Seismic observations indicate that the SH velocity gradients above the 660 km discontinuity are larger than the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) beneath both South America and northeast China, But model differences exist for the two regions. The gradient above the 660 km discontinuity is larger for South America than for northeast China; while the model for South American has a shear velocity jump across the discontinuity and a velocity gradient below this discontinuity similar to PREM, the model for northeast China has a velocity jump larger than PREM and a velocity gradient smaller than PREM below the discontinuity. The observed triplications near the 410-km discontinuity beneath northeast China also indicate that the region has, compared to PREM, a larger velocity gradient above the 410 km discontinuity, a larger velocity jump across the 410 km discontinuity and a smaller velocity gradient below the discontinuity. In joint modeling of the mineral physics and seismic data, we calculate seismic velocity profiles for a variety of compositional and thermal models using the Tr660 program developed by Weidner and Wang (1998). We then obtain the most appropriate compositional and thermal models based on the criterion that their predicted seismic profiles best match those inferred from the seismic data and the synthetics of those predicted seismic profiles best fit the seismic data.

Wang, Y.; Wen, L.; Weidner, D.

2004-12-01

171

Economic Costs Attributable to Smoking in China: Update and an 8-year Comparison, 2000-2008  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the health-related economic costs attributable to smoking in China for persons aged 35 and older in 2003 and in 2008 and to compare these costs with the respective results from 2000. Methods A prevalence-based, disease-specific approach was used to estimate smoking-attributable direct and indirect economic costs. The primary data source was the 2003 and 2008 China National Health Services Survey, which contains individual participant’s smoking status, healthcare utilization, and expenditures. Results The total economic cost of smoking in China amounted to $17.1 billion in 2003 and $28.9 billion in 2008 (both measured in 2008 constant US dollars). Direct smoking-attributable healthcare costs in 2003 and 2008 were $4.2 billion and $6.2 billion, respectively. Indirect economic costs in 2003 and 2008 were $12.9 billion and $22.7 billion, respectively. Compared to 2000, the direct costs of smoking rose by 72% in 2003 and 154% in 2008, while the indirect costs of smoking rose by 170% in 2003 and 376% in 2008. Conclusion The economic burden of cigarette smoking has increased substantially in China during the past decade and is expected to continue to increase as the national economy and the price of healthcare services grow. Stronger intervention measures against smoking should be taken without delay to reduce the health and financial losses caused by smoking.

Yang, Lian; Sung, Hai-Yen; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-wei; Rao, Keqin

2013-01-01

172

The state and economic involution: Russia through a China lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why has the Russian economy declined at the rate the Chinese economy has grown? In China the party-state has made possible the decentralization of property relations and the hardening of budget constraints whereas in Russia the disintegration of the party-state has led to privatization and soft budget constraints. Whereas the former combination entailed accumulation, the latter combination entailed “involution,” that

Michael Burawoy

1996-01-01

173

Regional Income Inequality and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an augmented Solow growth model with cross section and panel data, we find evidence of conditional convergence of per capita production across China's provinces from 1978 to 1993. Convergence is conditional on physical investment share, employment growth, human-capital investment, foreign direct investment, and coastal location. We project that, in the near term, overall regional inequality as measured by the

Jian Chen; Belton M. Fleisher

1996-01-01

174

China's Economic Growth, Structural Change and Lewisian Turning Point (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a country such as China, which maintains strict controls on foreign exchange and frequently intervenes in the currency market, it is not surprising that the local currency is persistently undervalued in nominal terms. Normally, one would expect such a policy of deliberate currency undervaluation to result in a sharp rise in domestic prices, with abnormally low prices reversed not

FUKAO Kyoji; Tangjun YUAN

2012-01-01

175

POPULATION AGEING, HUMAN CAPITAL ACCUMULATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a Computable General Equilibrium model to explore the macroeconomic impact of growth in the human capital stock for a given ageing profile of the population in China, during the first half of this century. It examines whether the projected reduction in the total dependency ratio for the period 2000 to the 2030s can be exploited for energetic

Xiujian Peng

2005-01-01

176

Economic Reforms and Gender Inequality in Urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study jointly examines the gender earnings gap and employment rate in urban China using a longitudinal data set that covers the period of 1989–2004. Consistent with previous studies, we find that gender earnings gap increased by 5 percentage points between 1989 and 1997. Since then, its changes have become much more moderate. Actually, after controlling for observed characteristics, the

Haoming Liu

2011-01-01

177

An economic analysis of China's credit information monopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese government is building the largest public credit information database on earth. The Credit Registry Center of the People's Bank of China registers more than 600 million consumers of which 110 million have a credit relationship with a financial institution. The Center is a public utility monopoly which collects information from banks and non-bank institutions — a unique approach developed in

Nicola JENTZSCH

2008-01-01

178

Financial Resources Liberalization in China's Economic Growth: Provincial Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a capital flow concept and based on provincial data, this paper examines theproductivity performance of the four sources of total investment in fixed assets in China for theperiod 1985-1998: state budget appropriation, national bank loans, self-raised funds, and foreigninvestment. The result of the panel data study shows that the growth of provincial output ispositively related to the growth

Tung Liu; Kui-Wai Li

179

China's economic growth and its real exchange rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shocks that underlie China's comparatively rapid growth include gains in productivity, factor accumulation and policy reforms that increase allocative efficiency. The well-known Balassa–Samuelson hypothesis links productivity growth in tradable industries with real appreciations. Yet it relies heavily on the law of one price applying for tradable goods, against which there is now considerable evidence. In its absence, other growth

Rod Tyers; Jane Golley; Bu Yongxiang; Iain Bain

2008-01-01

180

Fertility Trends, Economic Growth, and Policy Reform in China The International Conference on Governing Rapid Growth in China: Efficiency, Equity and Institutions July 2-4, 2006. Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research used spatial and comparative approaches to examine China's fertility trends, their positive and negative impacts on economic growth, and possible policy remedies to effectively deal with the challenges. The data were derived from the China 2000 County Population Census, China Statistical Yearbook, the United Nations Population Database, World Population Data Sheet of the Population Reference Bureau, and the

Lee Liu

181

77 FR 29556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...Halibut and Sablefish in Waters in and off Alaska (IFQ Program) by revoking quota share...yield from the sablefish fisheries in Alaska in accordance with National Standard...

2012-05-18

182

77 FR 65843 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to IFQ Program Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to IFQ Program Regulations...and sablefish fisheries in and off of Alaska. The IFQ Program requires that initial...Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska, and other applicable laws....

2012-10-31

183

75 FR 51741 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...Halibut and Sablefish in waters in and off Alaska (IFQ Program) by revoking quota share...yield from the sablefish fisheries in Alaska in accordance with National Standard...

2010-08-23

184

The Maghreb Maquiladora: Gender, Labor, and SocioEconomic Power in a Tunisian Export Processing Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is about Tunisian women's work and lives in the present era of economic neoliberalism. The focus is women in the city of Bizerte, Tunisia, both those who work in Bizerte's export processing zone (EPZ), as well as those who work outside it. This study is a qualitative examination of formal and informal employment, set inside and outside of

Claire Therese Oueslati-Porter

2011-01-01

185

Fuzzy Model of Regional Economic Competitiveness in GIS Spatial Analysis: Case Study of Gansu, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After more than 20 years of impressive development since the economic reforms in 1978, today western China is facing an increasing\\u000a development gap between its regions, particularly between urban and rural areas. Using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation\\u000a model, this paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of the economic competitiveness levels base on two categories of geographical\\u000a unity in the province of

Shengquan Ma; Jing Feng; Huhua Cao

2006-01-01

186

Environmental Policy Issues for Sustainable Economic Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central pillar of the sustainability movement is the call to include environmental accounting in standard measures of economic performance. This increased transparency would, in principle, mitigate the temptation of economic managers and policy makers to increase growth in material consumption at the expense of the environment. Moreover, as Repetto (1989) and others have argued, deducting depreciation of produced capital

Kimberly M. Burnett; James A. Roumasset

2006-01-01

187

Is China's economic growth sustainable? A productivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the initiative of economic reform in the late 1970s, the Chinese economy has sustained a continuously high rate of annual growth. This seemingly miraculous growth has attracted the attention of many economists in the world. In particular, major efforts have been made to examine the role of efficiency and productivity in economic growth in the postreform mainland Chinese economy

Yanrui Wu

2000-01-01

188

Economic Analysis of CO2 Emission Trends in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is one of hot spots all around the world. China, the second biggest CO2 emitter, is facing increasingly severe pressure to reduce CO2 emission. The article first describes Kaya Identity and its policy implications. Second, it uses the modified Kaya Identity and makes decomposition without residues on CO2 emission during the period 1971–2005. Taking into account the changes

Feng Xiangzhao; Zou Ji

2008-01-01

189

Ethnobotany and the economic role of the cucurbitaceae of china  

Microsoft Academic Search

China, as one of the ancient centers for diversity of domesticated plants, has a rich germplasm resource in vegetable and\\u000a fruit crops. The Cucurbitaceae is one of the three most important families in that country as sources of vegetables. In a\\u000a continuing effort to inform the West on Chinese uses of the Cucurbitaceae, we update a 1989 description of cucurbits

Si-Lin Yang; Terrence W. Walters

1992-01-01

190

A thinned lithospheric image of the Tanlu Fault Zone, eastern China: Constructed from wave equation based receiver function migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the newly proposed wave equation-based receiver function poststack migration method to the Northern China Interior Structure Project broadband data to image the lithospheric structure of the Tanlu Fault Zone area in eastern China. Our migration result reveals a 60- to 80-km-thick present-day lithosphere beneath the study region, significantly thinned from the Paleozoic lithosphere of >180 km. The lithosphere-asthenosphere

Ling Chen; Tianyu Zheng; Weiwei Xu

2006-01-01

191

Fine crustal structure and seismogenic tectonic system of Tanlu fault zone midpiece area in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, based on the studying related data involved in tectonic geology, earthquake geology, gravity and magnetism of Tanlu fault zone midpiece area of China, multi-scale wavelet method is used to separate gravity and magnetism field in different deeps, and crustal density and magnetic structure feature are understood. Moho topography of this area is inversed using 3D Parker density interface inversion method and variable density model, constrained by deep seismic data and others. And at last, three typical gravity profiles are modeled. Results indicate that rebuilt by multi-tectonic movement crustal structure of this area is very complicated, the faults appear in profiles, ones of which control hollow structure and another ones break lower crust, only Tanlu fault zone cut off earthcrust and upper mantle, and there is upwelling material had high density from upper mantle and asthenosphere along fault zone, which show a dense gravity stair zone in the Bouguer anomaly approximate image. Besides, relocation data of earthquakes in this area are used and 3D fine structure pattern near seismic resource area is rebuilt and 2 clear dominant earthquakes distributions are found in 10km and 16km deeps. The relationship between the tectonics and strong earthquake is studied and symbol and feature of strong earthquake in this area is found. Research conclude that the cause of 1668 Tancheng Ms8.5 earthquake is probably related to especialy fault morphology and upwelling material had high density from asthenosphere.

Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Hualin; Jiang, Wenliang; Wang, Xin; Tian, Tian

2013-04-01

192

Empirical research on the interrelation between US FDI in China and Sino-US economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, US foreign direct investment (FDI) has become not only one of material resources for Chinapsilas foreign capital introduction, but also important way to absorb advanced technology and management experience. This paper is an empirical research on the interrelation between the US FDI in China and Sino-US economic growth, adopting Johansen cointegration test, the Vector Error Correction Model and variance

Xiao Wei-guo; ZHUO Chao; Ding Ling

2008-01-01

193

ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONAL EVOLUTION AND FURTHER NEEDS FOR ADJUSTMENTS: TOWNSHIP VILLAGE ENTERPRISES IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Township Village Enterprises (TVEs) have essentially contributed to China's economic development and institutional transformation over the last twenty years. One of the explanations for the mechanism of TVEs' growth is the co-operative culture theory which claims that Chinese - compared with other nationalities - could better resolve \\

Qiuxia Zhu; Stefanie Elbern

2002-01-01

194

Economic Transition, Institutional Changes and the Health System: Some Lessons from Rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of China in its transition has received a great deal of attention from economists. At the same time, public health experts have accumulated evidence on setbacks within the Chinese health sector, particularly in rural areas. This paper puts these two bodies of knowledge together. It explores the links between the two phenomena. The review shows that economic transition,

Bruno Meessen; Gerald Bloom

2007-01-01

195

Identifying Snake Species Threatened by Economic Exploitation and International Trade in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to identify endangered species from thousands of species and take conservation measures in time. Many researchers have reported declines and overexploitation of snake species, but it is difficult to identify the species requiring emergency concern. We tried to identify the snake species threatened by economic exploitation in mainland China through the following procedure: First, we identified 16

Zhihua Zhou; Zhigang Jiang

2005-01-01

196

Research on Development Model and Countermeasure of Bamboo Industry in China on International Economic Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global economy is facing economic crisis at present. And all the industries are face to serious problem relative to their fates. In addition, the bamboo industry in China is not relating to ecological environment construction for low utilization rate of raw materials, high energy consumption and low products extra value. therefore, the development model and countermeasure is urgent to

Peng Wan-xi; Zhang Xu; Zhang Zhong-feng; Wu Yi-qiang; Deng He-ping; Qi Hong-chen

2009-01-01

197

The impact of the global economic slowdown on enterprises and employees in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the outbreak of the global economic slowdown, the export of products made in China, particularly the labour-intensive ones, has dramatically dropped. Drawing upon a questionnaire survey on 439 employees and 55 enterprises specialized in electronics, toys, furniture and textile and interviews with industrial associations and local governments in two coastal cities, Shenzhen and Wenzhou, we have a number of

Ming Tian; Xiulan Zhang

2011-01-01

198

Short and long-run effects between oil consumption and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines both the equilibrium relationship and the predictability between oil consumption and economic growth in China. Time series variables are employed in empirical tests. Cointegration tests suggest that these two variables tend to move together in the long run. In addition, Granger causality tests indicate that oil consumption could be a useful factor that forecasts changes in the

Gaolu Zou; K. W. Chau

2006-01-01

199

ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

200

Guanxi Economics: Confucius Meets Lenin, Keynes, and Schumpeter in Contemporary China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micro-foundations of the Chinese growth model are analysed within a comprehensive monetary theory of economic development, based on Schumpeter, Keynes, and the contemporary monetary Keynesians. The Confucian traditions and the Leninist party power structure are identified as the main specific traits of the social formation in contemporary China. In the capitalist mode of production, money sets the stage, and

Manfred Nitsch; Frank Diebel

2008-01-01

201

The Political Economy of Development in China: Political agendas and economic realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's fourth generation of leaders have re-focused the political agenda away from purely growth considerations to broadly defined developmental issues – primarily driven by concerns about the political implications of growing inequality. However, Shaun Breslin suggests that central leaders may not have the agency to direct economic activity in a way that will allow developmental promises to be achieved. Development

Shaun Breslin

2007-01-01

202

Foreign Economic Trends and Their Implications for the United States: People's Republic of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the current economic situation and trends in China and their implications for US business and government. Its primary objective is to provide up-to-date and forward-looking general information useful to US firms interested in exporting ...

1993-01-01

203

Impact of the WTO Membership, Regional Economic Integration, and Structural Change on China's Trade and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe growing economic and political importance of China in the global economy in recent years has been discussed by academic and business economists, trade and investment experts, transnational corporate planners, government advisers, and politicians worldwide. While the discussions have been useful for global knowledge enhancement, and regional and national strategic purposes, they have often been regarded as “hypothetical or with

Tran Van Hoa

2010-01-01

204

Estimation of the ecological-economic benefits of two Spartina alterniflora plantations in North Jiangsu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three levels of ecological-economic benefits of two Spartina alterniflora plantations in Jiangsu Province, China, with the practical values calculation. The first natural value, about 1500 yuan ha?1 year?1, which was the highest values of the plantation in natural situation came from the saved expense in sea shore bank protection. The second developed values, about 90 000 yuan

Pei Qin; Min Xie; Yunshen Jiang; Chung-Hsin Chung

1997-01-01

205

China's 2004 Economic Census and 2006 Benchmark Revision of GDP Statistics: More Questions than Answers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, China's National Bureau of Statistics undertook a benchmark revision of national income and product accounts statistics based on the findings of the 2004 economic census. The benchmark revision covers primarily the years 1993-2004 with revised economy-wide and sectoral output values. The new data have three implications. (i) Despite all the hype only a few years ago about data

Carsten A. Holz

2008-01-01

206

The Shock Effect of China's Economic Growth on Main Energy's Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the shock effect of China's economic growth on main energy's (consist of raw coal and crude oil in this paper) carbon dioxide emissions. The impulse response functions (IRF) derived from a factor-augmented vector autoregression (FAVAR) model are used in this paper. By intruducing model's operation steps and conducting 153 macroeconomic time series in quarterly frequency over

Shanshen Li; Yu Yao; Kuisheng Zhou

2011-01-01

207

The Nature of China's Economic Growth in the Past Two Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese economy has grown at record rates since the start of the market-oriented reforms in 1978. Motivated by the Asian productivity debate, this article provides an assessment of the role of total factor productivity in China's economic growth in the past two decades. We identify four main factors in the productivity growth: efficiency gain at the micro level; improvement

Zhiqiang Liu

2000-01-01

208

Factor Reallocation Effect and Productivity in China's Economic Growth, 1985-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to accurately calculate China's factor reallocation effect and objectively assess its impact on economic and productivity growth is an unsolved problem. This study has two objectives: to identify the trend of productivity growth and to quantify the contribution of sectoral factor reallocation to aggregate productivity growth rate since the 1980s. This is accomplished by estimating a Cobb-Douglas production function

Zhanqi Yao

2010-01-01

209

China report: Economic affairs. Energy: Status and development, 52, [September 5, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The report contains information on national development and status of energy production in China with particular attention to technological progress and economical effectiveness in coal and oil industries. The report highlights regulations on nuclear power plant safety issues. Power network, hydroelectricity and thermal power are altogether discussed in detail.

NONE

1986-09-05

210

77 FR 44501 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC129 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder...groundfish fishery in the (BSAI) exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the apportionment...

2012-07-30

211

78 FR 56837 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Rockfish” in the Aleutian Island...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC869 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Rockfish...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay prohibiting the...

2013-09-16

212

77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC064 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-06-12

213

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XU79 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-03-03

214

75 FR 52891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XY57 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-08-30

215

77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC083 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of the...

2012-07-03

216

75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XU37 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the sideboard...

2010-02-18

217

78 FR 42024 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish and Dusky Rockfish in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC756 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish and...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2013-07-15

218

77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XB028 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-02-23

219

77 FR 58505 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC207 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-09-21

220

75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XV51 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-03-26

221

77 FR 56564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC206 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-09-13

222

77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA954 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-01-25

223

75 FR 63104 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ61 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-10-14

224

75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0810141351-9087-02] RIN 0648-XT42 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of the...

2010-01-06

225

75 FR 11749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XV12 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-03-12

226

78 FR 54592 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC850 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the directed...

2013-09-05

227

78 FR 42022 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Rockfish” in the Western Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC753 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Rockfish...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay prohibiting the...

2013-07-15

228

76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA731 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Skates in the Bering...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay prohibiting the...

2011-09-28

229

77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC270 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2012-10-03

230

76 FR 59923 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Rockfish” in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA734 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Rockfish...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay prohibiting the...

2011-09-28

231

75 FR 42337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other rockfish” in the Western Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XX70 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other rockfish...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay prohibiting the...

2010-07-21

232

75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ81 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2010-10-19

233

75 FR 39638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XX48 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-07-12

234

76 FR 11394 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA257 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2011-03-02

235

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XU73 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2010-03-03

236

76 FR 44283 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish for Catcher/Processors...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA594 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish for...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2011-07-25

237

75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ05 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the directed...

2010-09-15

238

78 FR 14932 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC543 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of...

2013-03-08

239

76 FR 469 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2011 Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA119 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would allow for harvests that...

2011-01-05

240

75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XU20 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-02-03

241

76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA237 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of the...

2011-02-28

242

75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ13 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2010-09-22

243

78 FR 5143 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC441 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of...

2013-01-24

244

76 FR 14319 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA294 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2011-03-16

245

78 FR 40638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC741 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2013-07-08

246

78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC654 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the...groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the directed...

2013-05-03

247

76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA684 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2011-09-08

248

75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XZ84 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of...

2010-10-21

249

77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0624-XC301 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of the...

2012-10-24

250

75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XU89 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of...

2010-03-08

251

76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA258 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical...groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management...most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of the...

2011-03-02

252

76 FR 5556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BA11 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and...crab fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the BSAI are managed under the FMP...delivered their catch onshore or to stationary floating crab processors; catcher/processor...

2011-02-01

253

ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION AND ITS POLITICAL DISCONTENTS IN CHINA: Authoritarianism, Unequal Growth, and the Dilemmas of Political Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ke yW ords democratization, economic reforms, inequality, market-preserving federalism, political reforms ? Abstract China's economic growth and transition pose fascinating questions for social scientists. In the economic realm, proponents of the market-preserving feder- alism (MPF) model appear to have gone too far. In reality, China's central leadership has retained the prerogative to appoint top provincial officials as well as the

Dali L. Yang

2006-01-01

254

Yield and physiological responses of cotton to partial root-zone irrigation in the oasis field of northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of alternate partial root-zone irrigation on the yield and physiological responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and the soil moisture variations in an oasis of northwest China in 2004–2005. Plants with mulching and in furrows were applied with three partial root-zone irrigation methods, i.e. conventional furrow irrigation (CFI, all furrows watered), fixed

Taisheng Du; Shaozhong Kang; Jianhua Zhang; Fusheng Li; Xiaotao Hu

2006-01-01

255

Plant Invasions in China: What Is to Be Expected in the Wake of Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing and transitional countries undergoing rapid economic development will face growing problems with biological invasions because international commerce will bring new invaders. We assessed the potential for plant invasions in China by comparing the country's current invasive flora with that of the United States, a nation of similar size and latitudinal span but with a different history of plant introductions. Invasive plant species richness in the United States is about twice as high as it is in China. The remarkably lower fraction of invasive woody plants in China suggests that more alien trees and shrubs could invade Chinese habitats. Road density correlated with invasive plant species density among geographical units, with numbers for China lower than those for the United States. The data suggest that China has been invaded less than the United States has, and that the potential for new plant invasions in China is high. Measures toward preventing biological invasions are needed and timelysteps taken now can prevent adverse impacts from future invasions.

Ewald Weber (University of Zurich;); Bo Li (Fudan University - Shanghai, China;)

2008-05-01

256

Coal use in the People`s Republic of China, Volume 2: The economic effects of constraining coal utilization  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. The dominance of coal in China`s energy balance has come at a high price to the environment. With the recent attention given to global warming issues, China`s energy consumption and production practices have become the subject of much concern. Of particular concern is China`s ability to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by constraining coal use and the impact such policies will likely have on the Chinese economy. The study is divided into two reports. Volume 1 focuses on the full coal fuel cycle, emissions, and environmental effects. This report (Volume 2) analyzes various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies and determines their effect on economic growth. Contrary to what some analysts have claimed, the current work suggests that it would not be costly for the Chinese to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, some strategies were accompanied by increases in China`s energy and economic efficiency, which actually stimulated economic growth.

Rose, A.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.; Benavides, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics; Tompkins, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

257

Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China.  

PubMed

Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions. PMID:21805230

Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

2011-07-30

258

[Variability of vegetation growth season in different latitudinal zones of North China: a monitoring by NOAA NDVI and MSAVI].  

PubMed

In this study, North China was latitudinally divided into five zones, i.e., 32 degrees - 36 degrees N (Zone I), 36 degrees - 40 degrees N (Zone II), 40 degrees - 44 degrees N (Zone III), 44 degrees - 48 degrees N (Zone IV) and 48 degrees - 52 degrees N (Zone V), and the NOAA/ AVHRR NDVI and MSAVI time-series images from 1982 to 1999 were smoothed with Savitzky-Golay filter algorithm. Based on the EOF analysis, the principal components of NDVI and MSAVI for the vegetations in different latitudinal zones of North China were extracted, the annual beginning and ending dates and the length of growth season in 1982 - 1999 were estimated, and the related parameters were linearly fitted, aimed to analyze the variability of vegetation growth season. The results showed that the beginning date of the growth season in different zones tended to be advanced, while the ending date tended to be postponed with increasing latitude. The length of the growth season was also prolonged, with the prolonging time exceeded 10 days. PMID:17330457

Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaobing; Han, Ruibo; Ge, Yongqin

2006-12-01

259

Demographic Dividends, Dependencies and Economic Growth in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's two population giants have undergone significant, and significantly different, demographic transitions since the 1950s. The demographic dividends associated with these transitions during the first three decades of this century are examined using a global economic model that incorporates full demographic behavior and measures of dependency that reflect the actual number of workers to non-workers, rather than the number

Jane Golley; Rod Tyers

2012-01-01

260

China's state-owned enterprises: economic reform and organizational restructuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the Chinese economic reform process has engendered significant changes in the structure and management of work organizations. Central to this process has been the “marketization” of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The paper reviews the attempts to reform SOEs as conducted, primarily, under the modern enterprise system (MES) and group company

John Hassard; Jonathan Morris; Jackie Sheehan; Xiao Yuxin

2010-01-01

261

Analysis and comparison of Radix Glycyrrhizae (licorice) from Europe and China by capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the analysis of plant specimens, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., G. uralensisFisch. and G. inflata Bat. (Leguminosae) as well as commercial licorices from Europe and China was developed. Contents of glycyrrhizin (GL), glycyrrhetic acid (GA), glabridin (GLAB), liquiritin (LQ) and licochalcone A (LCA) in ethanolic extracts were investigated. Optimum separation was achieved with sodium tetraborate

Florian Rauchensteiner; Yuki Matsumura; Yutaka Yamamoto; Seiichi Yamaji; Tadato Tani

2005-01-01

262

Econometric Analysis on the Relationship Between Financial Development and Economic Growth in China Based on Var Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the financial crisis, the issue of relationship between financial development and economic growth has been the focus of macroeconomic theory. Based on VAR model, the relationship between financial development and economic growth in China was studied using the method such as Grange causality test, impulse response, and variance decomposition. It is shown that economic growth and financial scale are

Wang Jian; Jin Hao; Shen Hongli

2010-01-01

263

78 FR 15677 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BC25 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian...Amendment 42 would revise the annual economic data reports (EDRs) currently required...Council) and NMFS use to study the economic impacts of the CR Program on...

2013-03-12

264

Gender Inequality and Economic Growth in Rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article joins the debate over the effect of market-driven economic development on women's work opportunities and household gender inequalities. It assesses women's opportunities for off-farm employment, the relative contributions of female off-farm workers to household income, and the distribution of power in families whose male members have left for off-farm jobs, leaving women behind in agricultural work. We find

Rebecca Matthews; Victor Nee

2000-01-01

265

Demographic transition and economic growth in China, India and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper adopt a Solow–Swan model extended to include demographic variables to analyze the overall effect of demographic transition on economic growth. The results, based on data from seventy countries over the period 1961–2003, reveal that GDP per capita growth is positively related to the growth differential between the working-age population and the total population, and negatively

Misbah T. Choudhry; J. Paul Elhorst

2010-01-01

266

A Great Leap Forward, the Second Time Around: Thirty Years of Economic Reforms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

December of 2008 marks the 30th year of the beginning of China's economic opening.The country's rapid development since 1978 is without historical precedent.Yet this growth is even more impressive when one surveys the entire period from the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 to present. Although the years from1949 to 1978 were close to catastrophic, and the basis for

Alfred Steinherr

2009-01-01

267

Grey relation analysis of economics, energy consumption and environment in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of the economy has brought great benefits to Chinese socio-economic levels during the past several decades. However, it also increases the risk of energy security and environmental problems. This paper explores the inter-relationships among economy, energy consumption and CO2 emission in China in order to provide sustainable development policy making. Grey relation analysis was used to analyze

Feng Yan-ping; Liu Chang-bin

2008-01-01

268

The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher productivity industry

David E. Bloom; David Canning; Linlin Hu; Yuanli Liu; Ajay Mahal; Winnie Yip

2007-01-01

269

China report: Economic affairs. Energy -- status and development, 41, [August 22, 1985  

SciTech Connect

JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document contains articles on economic affairs in China. Topics include national policy, power network, hydropower, thermal power, supplemental sources and conservation.

NONE

1985-08-22

270

China report: Economic affairs. Energy -- Status and development, Number 316, [March 1, 1983  

SciTech Connect

JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This report contains articles on economic affairs in China, which include the status and development of energy. Topics include national policy, power network, hydropower, thermal power, coal, oil and gas, nuclear power, and conservation.

NONE

1983-03-01

271

CHINA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH: WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM MULTIPLE-BREAK UNIT ROOT TESTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper investigates China's economic growth by performing multiple-break unit root tests on the data of national and sectoral output and output per worker to identify their steady-state and transitional growth paths. The evidence generated suggests that the growth behaviour of the Chinese economy is consistent with endogenous growth theory. The results of multiple-break unit root tests are then explained

Xiao-Ming Li

2005-01-01

272

China report: Economic affairs. Energy: Status and development, 53, [October 9, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The report contains information on national development and status of energy production in China with particular attention to technological progress and economical effectiveness in coal and oil industries. The report highlights and covers research and development in nuclear fission reactors with a focus on nuclear safety engineering and progress of construction of nuclear power plants. The issues of power network, hydroelectricity and thermal power are altogether discussed in detail.

NONE

1986-10-09

273

Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been unable to find any global or regional datasets of groundwater.. Combining Surface and Groundwater Supply Functions Water Demand Curves. Water Use data is reported on political regions. Water Supply is reported and modeled on river basin regions. It is necessary to allocate water demands to river basins. To accomplish this China's 9 major river basins were divided into 36 hydroeconomic regions. The counties were then allocated to one of the 36-hydroeconomic zones. The county-level water use data was aggregated to 5 major water use sectors: 1)industry; 2)urban municipal and vegetable gardens: 3) major irrigation; 4) Energy and 5)Other agriculture (forestry, pasture; fishery). Sectoral Demand functions that include price and income elasticity were developed for the 5 sectors for each of the 9 major river basin. The supply and demand curves were aggregated at a variety of geographical scales as well as levels of economic sectoral aggregation. Implications for investment and sustainable development policies were examined for the various aggregation using partial and general equilibrium modeling of the Chinese economy. These results and policy implications for China as well as insights and recommendation for other developing countries will be presented.

Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

2001-05-01

274

Transition zone origin of potassic basalts from Wudalianchi volcano, northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of historic potassic basalts (from the 1719 to 1721 AD eruption) from the Wudalianchi volcanic field, northeast China, is investigated. The samples examined in this study are aphyric, and contain ~ 5 vol.% olivine microphenocrysts. Geochemical analyses of the samples, along with published data for material from the 1719 to 1721 AD eruption, show that the basalts exhibit linear compositional trends in whole-rock variation diagrams, and are characterized by K2O enrichment (> 4 wt.%) and an EM1-like isotopic signature. Using thermodynamic calculations and the observed petrological features of the basalts, the temperature of the magmas shortly before eruption is estimated to have been ~ 1250 °C, and the water content of the magma at depth is estimated to have been > ~ 1.1 wt.%. Because the estimated temperatures are significantly higher than the projected maximum temperature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Wudalianchi volcanic field, the magmas were likely derived from the asthenospheric mantle. We suggest that both the potassic- and EM1-like natures of the basalts originated from the mantle transition zone, metasomatized by K-rich sediment fluids ~ 1.5 Ga ago through a stagnation of an ancient slab. The linear whole-rock compositional trends of the basalts primarily reflect the geochemical heterogeneity in the mantle transition zone, with variable but coupled contributions of ~ 1.5 Ga sediments in the ancient stagnant slab, and recent sediments and peridotites in the stagnant Pacific slab. We infer that the Wudalianchi magmatism was caused by an upwelling of a hydrous mantle plume from the mantle transition zone, which was hydrated through the stagnation of the ancient subducted slab and the recent Pacific slab.

Kuritani, Takeshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Ohtani, Eiji; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Furuyama, Katsuhiko

2013-01-01

275

76 FR 45217 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program; Amendment...approved, Amendment 88 would establish the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish...Amendment 88 is necessary to replace Central Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Rockfish...

2011-07-28

276

78 FR 57106 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BC39 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 95 to the Fishery Management Plan...Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP). This proposed action would modify...

2013-09-17

277

77 FR 59852 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...participating in Federal groundfish fisheries off Alaska that are not Amendment 80 fisheries...www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska Region Web site at...

2012-10-01

278

76 FR 74670 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 83 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Amendment 83 allocates Western...

2011-12-01

279

77 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian...Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen...

2012-10-15

280

75 FR 38940 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Greenland turbot total allowable catch...

2010-07-07

281

78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total allowable...

2013-04-25

282

75 FR 38430 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...the initial total allowable catch of Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

2010-07-02

283

77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public...processors, and stationary floating crab processors participating...processors, and stationary floating crab processors participating...processors, and stationary floating crab processors can be...

2012-07-09

284

Evaluation on energy and thermal performance for residential envelopes in hot summer and cold winter zone of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of rapid economic growth in the last several decades, energy issue is becoming more and more important in today’s world because of a possible energy shortage in the future; the usage of residential electricity has increased rapidly in China and building energy efficiency is included as one of the 10 key programs targeting energy efficiency improvement in

Jinghua Yu; Changzhi Yang; Liwei Tian; Dan Liao

2009-01-01

285

A Videotape Study of Science Teaching in Shenzhen, China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the results of a videotape study of science teaching in Shenzhen, China. Shenzhen is one of China's first special economic zones adjacent to Hong Kong. Developed from a small fishing village in the late 1970s, Shenzhen experienced fast economic growth in the last two decades, which has steadily increased the diversity of the…

Wang, Jianjun; Zhu, Chunying

286

Impact of urban economic openness on real estate prices: Evidence from thirty-five cities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, China's major cities have experienced significant real estate price increase which has been fueled by the sustained growth of the economic fundamentals. It is well believed that deeper integration with the world market is one of the major reasons for such high speed macroeconomic growth. In this paper, we examined the linkage between urban economic openness,

Songtao Wang; Zan Yang; Hongyu Liu

2011-01-01

287

Do Tax Incentives Affect Local Economic Growth? What Mean Impacts Miss in the Analysis of Enterprise Zone Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographically-targeted tax incentives remain popular initiatives in response to deteriorating economic conditions of urban and industrial areas. This paper exploits the exogenous variations of the U.S. state Enterprise Zone programs to estimate the impact of various incentive features on a number of dimensions of local economic growth. The econometric analysis uses plant level data to sort out growth outcomes into

Daniele Bondonio

2003-01-01

288

Genotypic characteristics of the rrn operon and genome of indigenous soybean Bradyrhizobia in cropping zones of China.  

PubMed

Four genetic assays, 16S rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), 16S rRNA sequencing, 16S-23S rRNA intergenetic spacer (IGS) RFLP, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), were conducted to determine the genotypic characteristics of 44 indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium from soybean (Glycine max L.) cropping zones of China. The results generated from different assays showed that soybean bradyrhizobial isolates comprised four genomic groups. Group I was composed of strains mainly isolated from the North and Northeast plains of China. All four assays confirmed this group as phylogenetically divergent from all the reference strains. Strains of the group may represent a new species. Strains in Group II isolated from a variety of geographic regions were ascribed to B. liaoningense. Strains in Group III, mainly isolated from Central and East China, were closely related to the reference strains of B. japonicum. Strains in Group IV belonged to B. elkanii. PMID:17110965

Yang, Jiang Ke; Zhang, Wei Tao; Yuan, Tian Ying; Zhou, Jun Chu

2006-10-01

289

Direct economic burden of hepatitis B virus related diseases: evidence from Shandong, China  

PubMed Central

Background Although the expenses of liver cirrhosis are covered by a critical illness fund under the current health insurance program in China, the economic burden associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) related diseases is not well addressed. In order to provide evidence to address the economic disease burden of HBV, we conducted a survey to investigate the direct economic burden of acute and chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by HBV-related disease. Methods From April 2010 to November 2010, we conducted a survey of inpatients with HBV-related diseases and who were hospitalized for seven or more days in one of the seven tertiary and six secondary hospitals in Shandong, China. Patients were recorded consecutively within a three-to-five month time period from each sampled hospital; an in-person survey was conducted to collect demographic and socio-economic information, as well as direct medical and nonmedical expenses during the last month and last year prior to the current hospitalization. Direct medical costs included total outpatient, inpatient, and self-treatment expenditures; direct nonmedical costs included spending on nutritional supplements, transportation, and nursing. Direct medical costs during the current hospitalization were also obtained from the hospital financial database. The direct economic cost was calculated as the sum of direct medical and nonmedical costs. Our results call for the importance of implementing clinical guideline, improving system accountability, and helping secondary and smaller hospitals to improve efficiency. This has important policy implication for the on-going hospital reform in China. Results Our data based on inpatients with HBV-related diseases suggested that the direct cost in US dollars for acute hepatitis B, severe hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and primary liver cancer was $2954, $10834, $4552, $7400.28, $6936 and $10635, respectively. These costs ranged from 30.72% (for acute hepatitis B) to 297.85% (for primary liver cancer) of the average annual household income in our sample. Even for patients with health insurance, direct out-of-pocket cost of all HBV-related diseases except acute hepatitis B exceeded 40.00% of the patient’s disposable household income, making it a catastrophic expenditure for the household. Conclusion Hepatitis B imposes considerable economic burden on a family. Our findings will help health policy makers’ understanding of the magnitude of the economic burden of HBV-related diseases in China. Evidence from our study also contributes to our understanding of potential benefits to society from allocating more resources to preventing and treating HBV infection, as well as increasing insurance coverage in China. These findings have important policy implications for health care reform efforts currently underway in China focusing on how to reduce the burden of catastrophic disease for its citizens.

2013-01-01

290

Influence of seasons on hydrophobicity of silicone rubber insulators in semi-wet warm-temperature zone of china  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a dynamic change of hydrophobicity on the surface of silicone rubber (SIR) insulators with seasons in a semi-wet warm-temperature zone of China based on the data from the dynamic testing in an outdoor test field and the on-line dynamic testing in a 220 kV and three 110 kV transmission lines for over a year. It is found

Chengrong Li; Linjie Zhao; Jun Xiong; Shuqi Zhang; Jisha Yao

2008-01-01

291

Characterization of Fe-S minerals influenced by buried ancient woods in the intertidal zone, East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 cal. a BP by AMS14C dating was discovered in the intertidal zone, East China Sea. Samples affected by ancient woods, including fresh coast bedrock,\\u000a weathering bedrock, seepage water from coast, seepage water from ancient wood layer, intertidal seawater, fresh water, beach\\u000a mud, ancient wood barks and ancient peat, were collected for geochemical

LinXi Yuan; LiGuang Sun; Danielle Fortin; YuHong Wang; ZiJun Wu; XueBin Yin

2009-01-01

292

Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey\\u000a was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants\\u000a from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment\\u000a reveals that the

Wei Yang; Guoqiang Zhang

2008-01-01

293

A sustainable agricultural paradigm of mountain-basin systems in the northwestern arid zone of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mountain-Basin System(MBS) in the northwestern arid zone of China consists of mountain vegetation vertical belt system and concentric circular vegetation (geologic and geomorphic) system of desert basin. The MBS contains three "circles": mountain, pedimont fan and alluvial plain, including nine belts, they are alpine belt, montane forest-grassland belt, low-montane desert belt, gravel gobi desert belt, agricultural oasis, marginal belt of diluvial fan, alluvial desert plain, sandy desert belt, and lake. The above-mentioned zonation is the most essential existence and functional pattern of those precious natural resources. It is the presentation of an irresistible rule of the nature and, also, the guidance system of ecological conservation and land use. Basing on this foundation, a "mountain-oasis-ecotone-desert eco-productive paradigm"is proposed. The MBS is it"s basic frame. It"s driving forces are biogeochemical circulation, biogeophysic process, and biogeosocial interaction, which run through the whole system. Thus, the establishment of a sustainable agricultural system and an optimized land use and land cover structure and pattern, which aimed at ecological conservation may be possible.

Zhang, Xinshi

2003-07-01

294

A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.  

PubMed

Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated water that is ineligible for any uses. PMID:17719717

Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

2007-08-24

295

Health economic assessment for screening of gastric cancer in a high risk population in northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess economic cost-effects for the screening programs of gastric cancer in a high risk population in northeastern China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The data were collected from November 2001 to December 2003. The multi-stage sampling to define the screening group and the\\u000a control group was applied in this study. Two stage screening programs were used in the study. An epidemiological survey and\\u000a serum

Ling Zhou; Peng Guan; Li-ping Sun; Qin-cheng He; Yuan Yuan; Bao-sen Zhou

2011-01-01

296

Count on the Growth Pole Strategy for Regional Economic Growth? Spread–Backwash Effects in Greater Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ke S. and Feser E. Count on the growth-pole strategy for regional economic growth? Spread–backwash effects in Greater Central China. Regional Studies. This paper investigates spread–backwash effects associated with non-agricultural gross domestic product and employment growth across 922 cities and counties in Central China between 2000 and 2005. Simultaneous equation estimates find mixed spread–backwash effects from prefecture and higher-level cities

Shanzi Ke; Edward Feser

2010-01-01

297

Economic Freedom and Political Control in Post-Mao China: A Perspective of Upward Accountability and Asymmetric Decentralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With post-Mao China as a case study, this article aims to examine the political economy of asymmetric decentralization in relation to development at the national, regional (inter-local) and local levels. Economically, sub-national governments have been granted greater autonomy with huge decentralized fiscal and administrative powers and competencies. Politically, however, China is still a state under Communist Party domination. Local officials

Shiuh-Shen Chien

2010-01-01

298

Paradox in Political Participation and Economic Development—A Study of Congressional Voting in Urban China in 1993 and 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is interested in the decline of congressional voting in urban China. Classic studies in comparative politics long\\u000a argue that with economic development, countries would experience increased level of political participation. Employing the\\u000a 1993 Social Mobility and Social Change Survey and 2002 Asian Barometer Survey, I found congressional voting in urban China\\u000a declined substantially in the past decade. With

Diqing Lou

2009-01-01

299

Inputs of antifouling paint-derived dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) to a typical mariculture zone (South China): potential impact on aquafarming environment.  

PubMed

Existing evidence indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paints were an important source of DDT residues to mariculture zones. However, the magnitude of the impact on aquafarming environment has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (designated as DDXs) were determined in harbor sediment and antifouling paint samples collected from a typical mariculture zone in South China. Compositional and concentration correlation analyses implicated the DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing boat maintenance as an important source of DDT in the mariculture zone. The annual emission of DDXs to the study region was estimated at 0.58 tons/yr. Furthermore, a comparison of the expected DDT loadings in pelagic fish and field measurements indicated that fish feed especially trash fish was a major source of DDTs in the fish body. Nevertheless, the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints should be limited to prevent further deterioration in aquafarming environment. PMID:21835519

Yu, Huan-Yun; Shen, Ru-Lang; Liang, Yan; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y

2011-08-10

300

From economic development to public health improvement: China faces equity challenges.  

PubMed

In the past three decades China has been going through a period of rapid economic growth, which has had profound repercussions for the nation's public health system. Prior to the current health reforms much of the population was left uninsured and facing high financial risk from inadequate healthcare, with especially deep divisions between the urban and rural populations, which continues to pose a huge challenge to health equity and social justice. This paper explores the relationship between economic development and public health and discusses a series of health disparity issues that are emerging in China. These include: (1) health risk and access to care issues among unregistered urban populations (i.e. migrants); (2) low recognition of mental health, and the stigma associated with people with mental illness or communicable disease; and (3) challenges to the traditional system of family care for the elderly, as younger generations migrate to the cities and the remaining rural population ages. Implications for government policy and action to address these issues and improve public health as well as equity are discussed. PMID:21907369

Liu, S; Griffiths, S M

2011-09-09

301

[Land ecological safety in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone: an evaluation based on matter-element model].  

PubMed

Base on the 2001-2007 related statistical data, and by means of matter-element model, an evaluation was conducted on the land ecological safety in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone. The land safety in the Eco-economic Zone was relatively fine in 2001, decreased to critical level in 2002-2004, and degraded to unsafe in 2005. From 2006, the safety level returned to critical, indicating a better safety status. This study showed that matter-element model had the advantages of simple calculation, clear indication, and higher accuracy, being able to provide another approach for regional land ecological safety evaluation. PMID:22263474

Yu, Dun; Chen, Wen-bo

2011-10-01

302

OH in zoned amphiboles of eclogite from the western Tianshan, NW-China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically-zoned amphibole porphyroblast grains in an eclogite (sample ws24-7) from the western Tianshan (NW-China) have been analyzed by electron microprobe (EMP), micro Fourier-transform infrared (micro-FTIR) and micro-Raman spectroscopy in the OH-stretching region. The EMP data reveal zoned amphibole compositions clustering around two predominant compositions: a glaucophane end-member ( B Na{2/ C }M2+ 3 M3+ 2 T Si8(OH)2) in the cores, whereas the mantle to rim of the samples has an intermediate amphibole composition ( A 0.5 B Ca1.5Na0.5 C M 2+ 4.5 M {0.5/3+} T Si7.5Al0.5(OH)2) ( A = Na and/or K; M 2+ = Mg and Fe2+; M 3+ = Fe3+ and/or Al) between winchite (and ferro-winchite) and katophorite (and Mg-katophorite). Furthermore, we observed complicated FTIR and Raman spectra with OH-stretching absorption bands varying systematically from core to rim. The FTIR/Raman spectra of the core amphibole show three lower-frequency components (at 3,633, 3,649-3,651 and 3,660-3,663 cm-1) which can be attributed to a local O(3)-H dipole surrounded by M(1) M(3)Mg3, M(1) M(3)Mg2Fe2+ and M(1) M(3) Fe2+ 3, respectively, an empty A site and T Si8 environments. On the other hand, bands at higher frequencies (3,672-3,673, 3,691-3,697 and 3,708 cm-1) are observable in the rims of the amphiboles, and they indicate the presence of an occupied A site. The FTIR and Raman data from the OH-stretching region allow us to calculate the site occupancy of the A, M(1)- M(3), T sites with confidence when combined with EPM data. By contrast M(2)- and M(4) site occupancies are more difficult to evaluate. We use these samples to highlight on the opportunities and limitations of FTIR OH-stretching spectroscopy applied to natural high pressure amphibole phases. The much more detailed cation site occupancy of the zoned amphibole from the western Tianshan have been obtained by comparing data from micro-chemical and FTIR and/or Raman in the OH-stretching data. We find the following characteristic substitutions Si( T-site) (Mg, Fe)[ M(1)- M(3)-site] ? Al( T-site) Al[ M(1)- M(3)-site] (tschermakite), Ca( M4-site)? ( A-site) ? Na( M4-site) Na + K( A-site) (richterite), and Ca( M4-site) (Mg, Fe) [ M(1)- M(3)-site] ? Na( M4-site) Al[ M(1)- M(3)-site] (glaucophane) from the configurations observed during metamorphism.

Su, Wen; Zhang, Ming; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner

2009-09-01

303

Economically Feasible Potentials for Wind Power in China and the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is intended to explore the economic feasible potentials for wind energy in China and the U.S. subject to their policy systems for renewable energy. These two countries were chosen as subject locales for three reasons: first, they are the two largest countries responsible for energy consumption and CO2 emissions; second, these two countries have the largest installed capacities and the fastest annual growth of wind power in the world; third, China and the U.S. have adopted two distinct but representative incentive policies to accelerate exploitation of the renewable energy source from wind. Investments in large-scale wind farms in China gain privileges from the concession policy established under China's Renewable Energy Law. The electricity generated from wind can be sold at a guaranteed price for a concession period (typically the first ten operational years of a wind farm) to ensure the profitability of the wind farm development. The effectiveness of this policy has been evidenced by the swift growth of total installed capacities for wind power over the past five years in China. A spatial financial model was developed to evaluate the bus-bar prices of wind-generated electricity in China following this wind concession policy. The results indicated that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030 assuming a guaranteed bus-bar price of 7.6 U.S. Cents per kWh over the concession period. It is noteworthy that the prices of wind-generated electricity could be as cheap as conventional power generation in the years following the concession period. The power market in the U.S. is more deregulated and electricity is normally traded in a bidding process an hour to a day ahead of real time. Accordingly, the market-oriented policy instrument of PTC subsidies was instituted in the U.S. to ensure the competitiveness of wind power compared to the conventional power generation in the regional power markets. The spatial financial model developed for previous analysis of wind energy in China was tailored to simulate the relevant investment environments for U.S. wind projects. A particular problem was investigated as to how the profitability and competitiveness of onshore wind power in the U.S. would be influenced by PTC subsidy levels varying from 0 to 4 cents per kWh. The results suggested that the current PTC level (2.1 cent per kWh) is at a critical point in determining the competitiveness of wind-generated electricity under normal costs. Setting system integration challenges aside, the potential for profitable wind-generated electricity could accommodate more than seven times U.S. electricity demand at the current PTC subsidy. Similar to the concession policy adopted in China, PTC subsidies are only available for the first ten years following the initiation of wind farms; wind power would still offer a renewable energy source for profitable electricity generation during the post-PTC period.

Lu, X.; McElroy, M. B.; Chris, N. P.; Tchou, J.

2011-12-01

304

Normal mantle transition zone image of receiver functions CCP stacking form onshore broadband data in SE China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern margin of China continental is one of ideal area to study modern plate interaction. In the last decades the regional and local scale passive images proposed a fine geometry model in which the Eurasian plate slab underthrust beneath Taiwan and the crust of SE China presents gradually thinning from inland to offshore. But obviously the Model has been confined poorly in lateral before this study.We present preliminary results of analysis of teleseismic events recorded by 20 broadband temporary onshore stations deployed along southeastern margin of China continent in Fujian province from 2008 to 2010.Results from H-k auto-searching method, the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal VP/VS ratio beneath each station were estimated. Along coastal H varies in a range of 27.51 to 33.06 km with an average of 30.37 km and a little gentle southwest dipping, and the VP/VS ratios from 1.721 to 1.809 with a mean of 1.758. VP/VS ratios is slight higher than inland (1.73),it can be inferred more mafic mineral component and fluid or partial melting exist in the coastal crust. The CCP stack image from 16664 reliable receiver functions reveals Moho at the level of 30km with a feature of not too sharp and gentle lateral variation. The 410-km discontinuity appears in the depth of average level of global IASP and in a thin conversion zone without noticeable dipping and surge. 660-km discontinuities is quite sharp and flat, however, due to the coverage of the data we cannot confine the 660 discontinuity well in central part of our current section sharp and flat 410- and 660-km discontinuities, and the transition zone thickness between them, is cohere with ambient mantle beneath SE China and Taiwan Strait. These results support that Eurasian plate slab is confined to a depth above 410 km. in other words, mantle transition zone (410 to 660) was less affected in the SE margin of China continent. Our result hint the model of Eurasian lithosphere delimination or slab break-off is perhaps more recommendable then mantle plum to interpolate lower velocity anomaly imaged by previos P-wave tomography. This research was supported by Sinoprobe-02(SFSTRPWT No.201011042).

Li, Q.; Gao, R.; Liu, Q.; Guan, Y.; He, R.; Li, W.; Ye, Z.

2011-12-01

305

Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

2010-10-20

306

Heavy metal concentrations and their possible sources in paddy soils of a modern agricultural zone, southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a typical modern agricultural Zone of southeastern China, Haining City, 224 topsoil samples were collected from paddy fields\\u000a to measure the total concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic\\u000a (As) and cobalt (Co). The total concentrations ranged from 15.30 to 78.40 mg kg?1 for Cu, 20.10 to 41.40 mg kg?1 for Pb, 54.98 to 224.4 mg kg?1

Chunfa Wu; Limin Zhang

2010-01-01

307

Economics of Transition and China's Reforms Why is China di!erent from Eastern Europe? Perspectives from organization theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We draw from recent work in organization theory to explain the di!erences in reform strategies between China and Eastern Europe. An experimentation approach was ad- opted in China whereas a big bang approach was more favored in Eastern Europe. The explanation is based on di!erences in the organizational structure of central planning: U-form in Eastern Europe and M-form in China.

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

308

Sowing and Reaping a Revolution: Economic Change and Growth in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, intended for use with secondary students, presents background information on the Chinese economy. The subject warrants serious consideration because Sino-American trade has grown remarkable in the last decade and economic events occurring in China have the capacity to affect events in this country. The unit contains a six part narrative…

Taylor, Jeffrey R.

309

Assessment of environmental and economic costs of rural household energy consumption in Loess Hilly Region, Gansu Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to poverty, serious soil erosion and shortage of rural household energy in Loess Hilly Region, Gansu Province, China, excessive consumption of biofuel has become a critical factor underlying eco-environment degeneration. Data on rural household energy use was obtained by questionnaires, and based on substitutable analysis, environmental and economic costs under different energy consumption structures were estimated using a quantitative

Guozhu Li; Shuwen Niu; Libang Ma; Xin Zhang

2009-01-01

310

An Economic Analysis of the External Constraints on Reform of the Higher Education Admissions System in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of an economic analysis of the intertwined role of the educational opportunities market and the educational products market, I believe that the unified entrance exam system currently in effect in China has, in reality, assumed the role of maintaining a price ceiling for opportunities in higher education. If we abolish the…

Pu, Jinfeng

2013-01-01

311

SPOT NDVI Change and Its Correlation with Economic Factors in China-Russian Border Area of Heilongjiang River  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper researched the spatial pattern dynamic change of vegetation on China-Russian border area form 1998 to 2007 using NDVI data of 10-day synthesis. Then the analysis had been made on the relationship between vegetation coverage change and economic factors using data from local statistical yearbook. Results showed that that mostly research areas were well covered and vegetation coverage trend

Fan Xia

2011-01-01

312

Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China  

EPA Science Inventory

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

313

Economic development of local communities and biodiversity conservation: a case study from Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age structure, educational level and economic situation of farmers living in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Central China, were analyzed. Results showed that the population will increase steadily in the future and that the educational level is very low on the whole. Among people above the school entrance age (seven years old), only 36% had the opportunity to receive highschool education

Zhigang Chen; Jingyuan Yang; Zongqiang Xie

2005-01-01

314

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox ®, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox®, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox® vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines

X. Suo; J. X. Zhang; Z. G. Li; C. T. Yang; Q. R. Min; L. T. Xu; Q. Liu; X. Q. Zhu

2006-01-01

315

The Likely Hardware, Software and Power Supply Failures in China's Economic Growth Engine: Fiscal, Governance and Ecological Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 6th Plenum of the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) concluded on October 11, 2006, with the commitment to establish a harmonious society by 2020. The obvious implication from this commitment is that the present major social, economic and political trends are not leading to a harmonious society or, at least, not leading to a

Wing Thye Woo

316

76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...to the initial total allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus in the BSAI was [[Page 17361

2011-03-29

317

76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached....

2011-09-07

318

76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...necessary to limit incidental catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for...measures prevent overfishing. The 2011 octopus overfishing level in the BSAI is 528...

2011-10-27

319

76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

2011-09-28

320

78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

2013-09-17

321

78 FR 36122 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska Region Web site at http://alaskafisheries...CR Program are available from the NMFS Alaska Region Web site at...

2013-06-17

322

77 FR 69796 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing...excluder device for the Central Gulf of Alaska pollock trawl fishery. This activity...Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) by reducing salmon bycatch...

2012-11-21

323

An Economic Evaluation of Intercropping African Yam Bean, Kenaf and Maize in the Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic evaluation of intercropping maize, kenaf and African yambean was carried out based on agronomic data emanating from an intercrop trial conducted in the lowland rainforest agro ecological zone of Southwest Nigeria. The agronomic yield data indicated that maize yield was significantly higher under sole cropping for the two years. However, there was no significant difference in kenaf seed

J. O. Saka; O. N. Adeniyan; S. R. Akande; M. O. Balogun

324

76 FR 71269 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...the initial total allowable catch of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea...

2011-11-17

325

78 FR 24361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total allowable...

2013-04-25

326

78 FR 54591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...NMFS is opening directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of...

2013-09-05

327

The Kyonggi Shear Zone of the Central Korean Peninsula: Late Orogenic Imprint of the North and South China Collision.  

PubMed

The crustal-scale Kyonggi shear zone of central Korea has been identified as a major boundary between the Precambrian Kyonggi massif in the south and the Imjingang belt in the north. The latter is an eastward extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collisional belt of China. Field observations and microstructural analysis indicate that the extensional shear zone evolved from a deep crustal ductile regime to a shallow crustal brittle regime, associated with a rapid uplift of the Kyonggi massif following the Late Permian-Early Triassic collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. A Rb-Sr muscovite age (226+/-1.2 Ma) of the mylonite suggests that the extensional ductile shearing occurred during the Late Triassic. PMID:10856015

Kim; Ree; Kwon; Park; Choi; Cheong

2000-07-01

328

a Reflective Perspective Towards Agricultural Information-Based System Development in General Rural China and Farmers' Economic Association as the Entry Point of Icts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information-based agricultural system plays a profound role in agricultural economic and social development in long term. There are various practices worldwide, both successful and unsuccessful. In recent years new technologies blossomed, if those new technologies succeed in the developed world, does it hold true for China? The alternative choices in informationbased system development should be noticed in China. This article argues that China’s development policy should choose the way that adapts to China’s circumstances, not totally adopt the western way. In the current situation of general rural China, the theme of information-based agricultural system needs to be further addressed. It is suggested that the Farmers’ Economic Association can be considered as one of the most accessible entry-points for further development way.

Ji, Miao; Zuo, Ting; Leninhan, Eamon

329

Morphology of the Andaman outer shelf and upper slope of the Thai exclusive economic zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the devastating 2004 tsunami that hit the southwestern coast of Thailand, the need for detailed bathymetric data of the Andaman Sea outer shelf became evident in order to better predict tsunami wave propagation and coastal impact. Bathymetric data and subbottom profiler records covering the outer shelf and upper slope of the Thai exclusive economic zone (EEZ) were collected onboard Thai RV Chakratong Tongyai in 2006 and 2007. The data cover an area of approximately 3000 km2 between 500 and 1600 m water depth. The soundings allowed generating a final bathymetric grid with 50 m grid cell spacing. The outer shelf is rather smooth and slightly inclined southward, while the upper slope is strongly dissected by gullies. Several previously unknown features are identified including mud-domes, pockmarks, three large plateaus surrounded by moats, gas-charged sediment on subbottom profiler records, and only few indications for small submarine landslides on the upper slope. The largest of these possibly translational submarine landslides involved 2.2 × 107 m3 of sediment. This slide would have generated a tsunami wave of less than 0.12 m wave height. Considering the entire data, there is no evidence that landslides have been the source of tsunami waves in recent geological time.

Jintasaeranee, Pachoenchoke; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Klaucke, Ingo; Snidvongs, Anond; Flueh, Ernst R.

2012-03-01

330

Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from the Polish exclusive economic zone, southern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of 59 surface sediment samples from the Polish exclusive economic zone (EEZ) shows that Szczecin Lagoon sediments are the most polluted by heavy metals and that the degree of heavy-metal pollution decreases substantially on passing from the Szczecin Lagoon to the Pomeranian Bay and the inner shelf area and then on passing to the Bornholm Deep and S?upsk Furrow. Heavy-metal pollution in the sediments of the western part of the Polish EEZ therefore appears to follow the dispersion of the Oder River. Fluffy material from the Oder estuary appears to be the main source of heavy metals in the muddy sediments of the Bornholm Deep. The formation of sulphides is therefore not the principal factor controlling the enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments of this anoxic basin, although it may be responsible for the uptake of Mo, Sb and As. Two main factors control the distribution of the rare earth elements (REE) in sediments of the Polish EEZ: the input of Fe-organic colloids from rivers and the presence of detrital material in the sediments.

Szefer, P.; Glasby, G. P.; Geldon, J.; Renner, R. M.; Björn, E.; Snell, J.; Frech, W.; Warzocha, J.

2009-04-01

331

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

332

Psychological Traces of China's Socio-Economic Reforms in the Ultimatum and Dictator Games.  

PubMed

Can traces of rapid socio-economic changes within a society be reflected in experimental games? The post-Mao reforms in China provide a unique natural quasi-experiment to study people from the same society who were raised with radically different values about distribution of wealth and altruistic behavior. We tested whether the size of offers in the ultimatum and dictator games are an increasing function of the number of years Chinese citizens experienced of the Mao era ("planned economy"). For the cohort that lived throughout the entire Mao era, we found that mean offers in the two games were substantially higher than what is typically offered in laboratory studies. These offers were also higher than those of two younger Chinese cohorts. In general, the amount offered decreased with less time spent under Mao, while in the oldest group in which every member spent the same amount of time under Mao, the younger members tended to offer more, suggesting an additional effect of early education under Mao and contradicting the alternative hypothesis that generosity increases with age. These results suggest that some of the observed individual differences in the offers made in experimental games can be traced back to the values of the socio-economic era in which individuals grew up. PMID:23967102

Zhu, Liqi; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Huangfu, Gang

2013-08-14

333

Diurnal soil water dynamics in the shallow vadose zone (field site of China University of Geosciences, China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the relatively low soil moisture in arid or semi-arid regions, water vapour movement often predominates in the\\u000a vadose zone and affects the partitioning of energy among various land surface fluxes. In an outdoor sand bunker experiment,\\u000a the soil water content at 10 and 30 cm depth were measured at hourly intervals for 2.5 days during October 2004. It was found

Yijian Zeng; Li Wan; Zhongbo Su; Hirotaka Saito; Kangle Huang; Xusheng Wang

2009-01-01

334

The Himalayan collision zone carbonatites in western Sichuan, SW China: Petrogenesis, mantle source and tectonic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major and trace element compositions, and Sr Nd Pb and O C isotope data for Cenozoic carbonatites (WSC) in western Sichuan, east Tibet, China are presented in this paper. The WSC occur in the eastern Indo-Asian collision zone (EIACZ), and occur as sills or dykes in the contemporaneous syenitic intrusions, which form a 270-km long, NS-trending belt of carbonatite alkalic complexes, controlled by strike-slip faults that accommodated and adjusted to the collision strain. These carbonatite alkalic complexes with Cenozoic potassic felsic rocks and calc-alkaline (shoshonitic) lamprophyres form a semi-continuous potassic igneous province with magmatism peaking at ˜35 Ma in the EIACZ. The WSC are characterized by low SiO2 (< 10.22 %), FeO (< 1.20 %) and MgO (< 0.73 %), and a wide range of CaO content (40.7˜55.4 %) that distinguish them from primary magnesiocarbonatites. Overlapping emplacement ages and Sr Nd isotopic compositions and similar mantle-normalized trace element patterns to spatially associated syenites suggest an origin for the carbonatites by liquid immiscibility. The WSC are extremely enriched in LILE (Sr, Ba) and light REE, but relatively depleted in high-field strength elements (Nb, Ta, P, Zr, Hf, Ti), suggesting a metasomatized mantle source. Their ?18OV-SMOW (6.4˜10.5‰) and ?13CV-PDB (- 3.9 to - 8.5‰) values are similar to those of primary, mantle-derived carbonatites, also suggesting a mantle genesis. However, they have extremely low åNd(t) of - 3.2 to - 18.7 and relative high (87Sr / 86Sr)i of 0.706020˜0.707923, as well as a wide range of 207Pb / 204Pb (15.362 ˜ 15.679) and 208Pb / 204Pb ratios (38.083˜39.202), which distinguish them from most carbonatites around the world. Their Sr Nd, Sr Pb and Nd Pb isotopic signatures indicate that some carbonatites underwent Sr Nd Pb contamination by crustal materials, but the least-contaminated carbonatites were derived from a transitional source between EMI and EMII components. The TDM and modeling on Sr Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the formation of this source probably was related to recycling of oceanic crust and pelagic/terrigenous sediments with various mass ratios. Partial melting of the mantle source was most likely triggered by a Cenozoic asthenospheric mantle diapir related to Indian Asian continent collision at 65 45 Ma. Rising and emplacement of carbonatitic magmas with coeval potassium-rich magmas took place in the tectonic regime of the transition from transpression to transtension at Eocene/Oligocene boundary in the EIACZ.

Hou, Zengqian; Tian, Shihong; Yuan, Zhongxin; Xie, Yuling; Yin, Shuping; Yi, Longsheng; Fei, Hongcai; Yang, Zhiming

2006-04-01

335

Agricultural Ecological Zoning Plan of Old Industrial Bases in Liaoning Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of brief description of current situation of old industrial bases and primary industry of Liaoning Province, the paper introduces the general situation of agriculture-ecological zoning plan in Liaoning Province. First, the ecological bases of agricultural zoning plan are introduced through various topographic and geomorphic types, regional climate differences and imbalanced distribution of natural resources; Second, in accordance

Ning Liu

2010-01-01

336

Research on China’s export structure to the US: Analysis based on the US economic growth and exchange rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rapid appreciation of RMB, the consistent declining of the US economy and other uncertain factors, China’s export\\u000a volume to the United States has declined. The paper first chooses six industries to divide them into three groups based on\\u000a per capita possession of capital, then employs the monthly data from 2001 to 2008 to carry out EG two-step

Shusong Ba; Shanshan Shen

2010-01-01

337

THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE RISING CHINA ON THE CHINA AFRICA RELATIONSHIP A CASE STUDY ON CHINA'S RELATIONSHIP WITH SOUTH AFRICA, UGANDA AND NIGERIA (Research study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

of Management Abstract: This research paper aims to provide insights to the current status of the China-Africa relationship, prospects and challenges that it faces now and in the future and gives a brief recommendation on how to enhance this relationship for long-term mutual gain. China-Africa friendship is embedded in the long history of interchange. Sharing similar historical experience, China and

John C. S. Tang; Roland Amoussou Guenou; Stephen O. Ogunlana

338

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-06-12

339

Structural and geochronological constraints on the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the North Dabashan zone, South Qinling, central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and 40Ar/39Ar data from the mylonitic rocks of the North Dabashan zone (NDZ) document kinematic and tectonothermal characteristics of the Mesozoic collisional and intra-continental orogenesis in the southern part of the Qinling orogenic belt. The NDZ underwent two deformational phases during the Mesozoic period. The earlier one is characterized by top-to-the-SW thrust ductile shearing along a NW-trending shear zone (DSZ-1), while the later one is featured by dextral strike-slip ductile shearing along another NNW-trending shear zone (DSZ-2). The timing of the two deformation events have been constrained to be 245-189 Ma and 178-143 Ma respectively, by using mica 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. It is proposed that the earlier deformation event was associated with the Middle Triassic-Early Jurassic collision between the North and South China Blocks, which generated the initial framework of the NDZ; and the later one was related to the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous intra-continental orogeny in East Asia, which caused a significant eastward extrusion of the South Qinling and led to the formation of the SW-convex Dabashan foreland orocline. The distinguishing between these two deformation events sheds a new insight into the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt.

Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Shi, Wei

2013-03-01

340

Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.  

PubMed

The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2. PMID:16784172

Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

2006-06-01

341

Results of multibeam swath surveying by NOAA in the Gulf of Mexico exclusive economic zone  

SciTech Connect

The National Ocean Service/NOAA is conducting detailed, systematic multibeam swath surveys of the sea floor for all of the US Exclusive Economic Zone. The EEZ extends seaward from the coastline for 200 nautical miles (370 km). The surveys cover 100% of the ocean floor. The area surveyed in the Gulf of Mexico, as of January 1990, comprises about 70,000 km{sup 2}. Most of this area is south of Louisiana between 88{degrees}W and 91{degrees}W. It is anticipated that by the end of the 1990 field season this coverage will extend westward to 92{degrees}W or 93{degrees}W. The processed sounding data result in an evenly spaced 250 m grid. Navigational accuracy is generally accurate to within 50 m and it is estimated that most soundings, taking the sound velocity of sea water and other corrections into account, are measured to within l% of true depth. The major data products are (1) computer-produced multicolored bathymetric maps, each measuring one degree in longitude by one half degree in latitude, made at a scale of 1:100,000 with a contour interval of 20 m and (2) the 250 m gridded data, used to produce the map contours, made available on floppy disks for use in microcomputers. Plans call for three or four Gulf of Mexico maps to be published in 1990. However, after data processing and prior to the publication of a map, black and white diazo copies of the map are available to the public. Details of many seafloor features are being revealed for the first time by these surveys.

Grim, P.J. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD (USA))

1990-09-01

342

JOINT WORLD BANK INSTITUTE/EPA CHINA WORKSHOP ON ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE - E&C ROLES IN DEALING WITH CURRENT AND PROJECTED MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The World Bank Institute (WBI) provides funding for economic development in China. Modules of this funding are specifically dedicated for environmental protection projects. One of these modules is the development of compliance and enforcement. This is broken down into identifi...

343

Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Mangrove Zone in Zhangjiang River Estuary, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb) in surface sediments from 18 sites were examined in Zhangjiang Estuary Mangrove National Natural Reserve (ZEMNNR), which is the largest natural mangrove forest north of the Tropic of Cancer in China. The ranges of heavy metals expressed in mug\\/g sediment dry weight were as follows: Cr (48.14

Minggang Cai; Yun Wanga; Canrong Qiu; Jing Lin; Bihua Qian; Shuiying Huang; Jionghui Sun; Xiaoyan Liu; Xiaomeng Li; Shaozhou Xie; Bozhou Fang

2009-01-01

344

The dynamic response of geomagnetic sudden commencement to tectonic zone and large earthquakes in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the skin effect of EM waves, geomagnetic storm variations can be used to study the subsurface tectonic structure and faulting to have information of penetration view of the earth's interior. We collected geomagnetic storm report data for 8 years 2000-2007 from 35 geomagnetic stations in China and calculated the amplitude of the vertical component of geomagnetic storm sudden

X. Zeng; J. Zheng; Z. Wang; Y. Lin

2009-01-01

345

Projected Economic Growth in China and India: The Role of Demographic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the next decade, China’s labour force will begin to contract, while that of India will expand faster than its population. Relative labour abundance will bring higher capital returns and an increasing share of global FDI to India. Yet China may relax its One Child Policy further and India’s fertility could follow the pattern elsewhere in Asia and decline faster

Rod Tyers; Jane Golley; Iain Bain

2007-01-01

346

Economic reform and the future for real estate in the People?s Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the development of China?s land management system and the hidden constraints within which a socialist market system is striving to get established. Also examines the rationale behind investment in geographical areas of the PRC and the different trends in foreign investment observed to date. The establishment of real estate markets in China really only commenced in 1978 as a

Anthony Walker; Keith McKinnell

1995-01-01

347

The impacts of lower population growth on the quality of life and economic development: China's experience.  

PubMed

China's population in 1993 was 1.18 billion, which makes it the most populous nation in the world. The Chinese population policy aims to control growth and improve the quality of human resources. Most Chinese recognize the need for family planning. Replacement level fertility has been achieved, because there are limited resources to support a large population. Scarce resources are limiting economic development. There has been a loss of arable land, and the dream of 2 hectares of land, a cow, a wife and children, and a comfortable bed are not attainable. Water resources are also limited, the ratio of water to arable land is unevenly balanced, and there is overdrawing of groundwater. Energy shortages, environmental pollution, and pressure on employment are other effects of population pressure. The surplus labor force is about 150-190 million farmering laborers. Labor productivity has declined due to excess labor. Projections are that 20-25% of employees are surplus, and unemployed in urban areas will total 10 million. Without a strong family planning program, there will be a rural labor surplus of 200-360 million people by the year 2000. One benefit of lower population growth is the savings in child-rearing expenses. Estimated births averted between 1971 and 1992 was about 250 million, which translates to a savings of $500 billion. About 66% of this sum would be recovered in the same period and 33% would be recovered between 1993-2007. Government and nongovernmental spending on family planning totaled an estimated $10 billion between 1971-92. The ratio of input to output for averted births is 1 to 17. Total spending would have been RMB 2500 billion yuan for child rearing of averted births between 1971-92 and RMB 1828 billion yuan between 1991-2005. The saved money could be invested in economic development. An estimated 10% of national income could be saved. Another benefit from low population growth is the increased consumption evident between 1971-90. There has not been any significant change in the employment pattern in China. Women have benefitted from smaller families and greater involvement in the work force. 689 poor counties were identified as needing assistance, which resulted in increased incomes. PMID:12318709

Jiang, Z; Zhang, L

1994-02-01

348

Small?scale mapping of the exclusive economic zone using wide?swath side?scan sonar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) started a program in April 1984 to map the deep?water (greater than 200 m) areas of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) at a reconnaissance scale as a first effort to develop a geologic understanding of the new national offshore territory. This effort was in response to President Reagan's EEZ proclamation in March 1983, which

Gary W. Hill; Bonnie A. Mcgregor

1988-01-01

349

Optimum insulation thickness of residential roof with respect to solar-air degree-hours in hot summer and cold winter zone of china  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal protection of building envelope is one of the most effective ways for building energy conservation. In this study, the determination of optimum insulation thickness for residential roof with different surface colors is studied based on life cycle cost analysis and solar-air degree-hours in four typical cities of hot summer and cold winter zone of China. Four insulation materials including

Jinghua Yu; Liwei Tian; Changzhi Yang; Xinhua Xu; Jinbo Wang

2011-01-01

350

Land Use Zoning at the County Level Based on a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study from Yicheng, China  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can generate a corresponding optimal solution, with a different quantity structure and spatial pattern to satisfy the preference of the different decision makers; (7) the model proposed in this paper is capable of handling the land-use zoning problem, and the crossover and mutation operator can improve the performance of the model, but, nevertheless, leads to increased time consumption.

Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

2012-01-01

351

Implementation Effect of Farmland Protection in Urumqi—Changji Economic Zone, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-level evaluation index system is established with farmland protection as the target layer, farmland quantity, farmland quality and farmland sustainable development as the criterion layer. And the index layer includes the quantity change of farmland, per capita farmland area, multiple cropping index, total grain yield, unit grain yield, per capita grain security coefficient, and unit machinery dynamical input. Both

Jiang-nan Li

2010-01-01

352

National Estuary Study. Volume 5. Appendix E - Some Economic Factors Affecting the Estuary Zone Including Market Outlooks for Estuary Products. Appendix F - Technological Impacts on Estuary Resource Use. Appendix G -Conflicts and Problems in Specific Estuaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appendix E: The bulk of the report is constructed around a discussion of a few selected economic activities that are closely tied to estuarine zone resources. The final chapter deals with some general implications of economic activities to estuarine zone ...

1970-01-01

353

Sedimentary loadings and ecological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a typical mariculture zone of South China.  

PubMed

Two sediment cores were collected from Hailing Bay located in a typical mariculture zone of Guangdong Province, South China, and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of the sum of 27 PAHs ranged from 62 to 1200 ng g(-1) dry wt, and sediment in the study area was considered to be moderately polluted by PAHs. Source diagnostics based on PAH composition and principal component analysis suggested that PAHs in the study area were mainly derived from petroleum combustion, with discharge of PAHs from fishing boats as an important source. Ecological risk assessment results indicate that PAHs in sediment of the present study currently have minimal adverse effect on the mariculture environment. Comparison of sedimentary inventory of PAHs in the fish harbor of the study area with those in the Pearl River Estuary and the coastal Bohai Bay indicate that the sediment has become an important reservoir of PAHs. PMID:22898895

Yu, Huan-Yun; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wong, Charles S; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-08-17

354

Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment of soybean-based biodiesel as an alternative automotive fuel in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment for conventional diesel (CD) and soybean-based biodiesel (SB) in China was carried out in this paper. The results of the assessment have shown that compared with CD, SB has similar source-to-tank (StT) total energy consumption, 76% lower StT fossil energy consumption, 79% higher source-to-wheel (StW) nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions, 31%, 44%, 36%, 29%,

Zhiyuan Hu; Piqiang Tan; Xiaoyu Yan; Diming Lou

2008-01-01

355

Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families.MethodsA hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby

Ru-ning Guo; Hui-zhen Zheng; Li-qun Huang; Yong Zhou; Xin Zhang; Chan-kun Liang; Jin-yan Lin; Jian-feng He; Jin-qing Zhang

2012-01-01

356

76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule...2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI. (a) Locations. The following areas, from the surface...

2011-10-06

357

Energy plants in the coastal zone of China: Category, distribution and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel is running out day by day and wide plantation of energy plants is very promising to solve future energy crisis. However, China has to feed 22% of the world population but occupies less than 10% global arable lands. Therefore exploiting 2,000,000ha of non-agricultural coastal land is imperative. This article shows the category and unbalanced distribution of terrestrial and

Dong-Gang Guo; Xiao-Yang Zhang; Hong-Bo Shao; Zhong-Ke Bai; Li-Ye Chu; Tie-Liang Shangguan; Kun Yan; Li-Hua Zhang; Gang Xu; Jun-Na Sun

2011-01-01

358

Aquatic plants diversity in arid zones of Northwest China: patterns, threats and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated aquatic plant diversity by conducting the field investigation and collecting the published data in the arid\\u000a regions of Northwest China. Two hundred and twenty four taxa of vascular aquatic plants representing 64 genera and 34 families\\u000a occur in this area, 8.48% of which are endemic. Among these, 1 genus and 6 species were new state records and 1

Zhongqiang Li; Dan Yu; Wen Xiong; Dong Wang; Manghui Tu

2006-01-01

359

Aquatic plants diversity in arid zones of Northwest China: patterns, threats and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated aquatic plant diversity by conducting the field investigation and collecting the published data in the arid\\u000a regions of Northwest China. Two hundred and twenty four taxa of vascular aquatic plants representing 64 genera and 34 families\\u000a occur in this area, 8.48% of which are endemic. Among these, 1 genus and 6 species were new state records and 1

Zhongqiang Li; Dan Yu; Wen Xiong; Dong Wang; Manghui Tu

360

Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

2005-01-01

361

Spatial distributions of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The studies of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of (134)Cs and (242)Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60(o)C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89Bq/m(3) and 2.3-7.9mBq/m(3), respectively. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area. PMID:20430636

Ahmad, Zaharudin; Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah

2010-04-18

362

A speculative analysis of socio-economic influences on the fertility transition in China.  

PubMed

A broad range of causes related to institutional and socioeconomic development are examined in terms of their influence on fertility transition in China. The question is raised as to whether a uniform government population policy sufficiently accounts for the urban and rural differences in fertility and declines which preceded policy. Significant changes which may be determinants of fertility decline are discussed as: the 1) the emancipation of women, 2) the socialization of agriculture and industry, 3) social security and other welfare benefits, 4) public health care, 5) the expansion of education, 6) changes in female labor force participation, 5) the rise in urban residence, and 8) the "sending down" campaigns. As a result of these changes, people have become aware of choices and aspire to nontraditional life styles. These socioeconomic changes have been gradual and strenuous, and have given women a new decision-making power in forming their families. A new relationship exists between the individual and society. Children as a course of labor in family enterprises is no longer possible with the elimination of the private sector. Economic uncertainties have been minimized since 1949 so that children are no longer valued as risk aversion. A minimum income is guaranteed. Savings and institutionalized pension and insurance programs have brought security to many Chinese families, and children are no longer crucial to the support of parents in the traditional Chinese family. These changes removed the impetus for high fertility. The feudal marriage system no longer constrains women; educational levels are rising. Changes in rural areas occur rapidly with advances in electrification and road construction. There are alternatives to childbearing. It is the interaction of these dynamic factors and the accumulative process that provided the context for reproductive change, and hence fertility decline. The 1970s was a period of both intense family planning and socioeconomic development, and reflects not only the transition of society in the 1970s but also the cumulative changes of the 1950s and 60s. It is concluded that family has been influential, but direct and indirect socioeconomic changes are also determinants of fertility decline. There is no Western counterpart. The socioeconomic forces are not unique to China. PMID:12284857

Cheng, C

1991-09-01

363

Decision Support System of Fire Station Distribution and Responsible Area Zoning in Nanjing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, from a theoretical perspective, to study Fire Station Distribution and Responsible Area Zoning, found that optimizing standard was fire protection response time. Using this standard, the author constructed an Optimizing Mathematic model to convert response time problem to vehicular speed of Fire Engine. Based on principles of Transportation Accessibility and Road System Reliability, this paper chose thirteen factors

Xiang Zhang; Jian-gang Xu; Yi Qi

2009-01-01

364

The personal, societal, and economic burden of schizophrenia in the People's Republic of China: implications for antipsychotic therapy  

PubMed Central

Background This article describes the personal, societal, and economic burden attributable to schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China and highlights the potential for effective outpatient treatment to reduce this burden given recent changes in the Chinese health care system. The importance of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the burden of schizophrenia is also examined. Methods Published research on the burden, disability, management, and economic costs of schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China was examined in the context of the larger body of global research. Research written in English or Chinese and published before June 2012 was identified using PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Med database searches. The contribution of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the risk for relapse and hospitalization and improving patients’ functioning is described. Results Schizophrenia imposes a substantial burden on Chinese society, with indirect costs accounting for the majority of the total cost. Functional impairment is high, leading to lost wages and work impairment. In the People’s Republic of China, schizophrenia is the most common diagnosis among hospitalized psychiatric patients. Ongoing changes in the Chinese health care system may reduce some barriers to effective relapse prevention in schizophrenia and potentially reduce hospitalizations. The use of antipsychotics for acute episodes and maintenance treatment has been shown to decrease symptom severity and reduce the risk for relapse and hospitalization. However, discontinuing antipsychotic medication appears common and is a strong predictor of relapse. Cost-effectiveness research in the People’s Republic of China is needed to examine the potential gains from improved outpatient antipsychotic treatment. Conclusion Schizophrenia is a very costly mental illness in terms of personal, economic, and societal burden, both in the People’s Republic of China and globally. When treated effectively, patients tend to persist longer with antipsychotic treatment, have fewer costly relapses, and have improved functioning. Further research examining the long-term effects of reducing barriers to effective treatments on the societal burden of schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China is needed.

Montgomery, William; Liu, Li; Stensland, Michael D; Xue, Hai Bo; Treuer, Tamas; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

2013-01-01

365

The effects of urbanization on temperature trends in different economic periods and geographical environments in northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data collected from 22 urban and 65 rural meteorological stations in northwestern China between 1961 and 2009, this paper presents a study concerning the effects of urbanization on air temperature trends. To distinguish among the potential influences that stem from the economic development levels, population scales, and geographic environments of the cities in this region, the 49-year study period was divided into two periods: a period of less economic development, from 1961 to 1978, and a period of greater economic development, from 1979 to 2009. Each of the cities was classified as a megalopolis, large, or medium-small, depending on the population, and each was classified as a plateau, plain, or oasis city, depending on the surrounding geography. The differences in the air temperature trends between cities and the average of their rural counterparts were used to examine the warming effects of urbanization. The results of this study indicate that the magnitude of warming effects due to urbanization depends not only on a city's economic level, but also on the population scale and geographic environment of the city. The urbanization of most cities in northwestern China resulted in considerable negative warming effects during 1961-1978 but evidently positive effects during 1979-2009. The population scale of a city represents a significant factor: a city with a larger population has a stronger warming influence, regardless of whether the effect is negative or positive. Among the three geographic environments of the cities considered, plateaus and plains more significantly enhance warming effects than oases. The urban population trend has a very significant logarithm relationship with the urban temperature effect, but no clear relationships between urban temperature effects and city elevation were detected. The majority of the temperature trends, accounting for more than 60 % of the trends during 1961-2009, can be explained by natural factors, although urbanization has had some obvious effects on temperatures in northwestern China.

Fang, Feng; Guo, Junqin; Sun, Landong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xinping

2013-06-01

366

China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues. Updated June 17, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many Members of Congress charge that China's policy of accumulating foreign reserves (especially U.S. dollars) to influence the value of its currency constitutes a form of currency manipulation intended to make its exports cheaper and imports into China m...

M. Labonte W. M. Morrison

2009-01-01

367

China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues. Updated December 7, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some Members of Congress charge that China's policy of accumulating foreign reserves (especially U.S. dollars) to influence the value of its currency constitutes a form of currency manipulation intended to make its exports cheaper and imports into China m...

M. Labonte W. M. Morrison

2009-01-01

368

China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues. (Updated April 13, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many Members of Congress charge that China's policy of accumulating foreign reserves (especially U.S. dollars) to influence the value of its currency constitutes a form of currency manipulation intended to make its exports cheaper and imports into China m...

M. Labonte W. M. Morrison

2009-01-01

369

Implications of desalination for water resources in China — an economic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a country with severe water shortages. Water is becoming scarcer due to population growth, industrialization and urbanization. Recent studies show that by the next 50 years water resources per capita will go down to around 1700 m3, which is the threshold of severe water scarcity. Especially in North China, water shortage has become a critical constraint factor for

Yuan Zhou; Richard S. J. Tol

2004-01-01

370

China's Currency: A Summary of the Economic Issues, November 20, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many Members of Congress charge that China's policy of accumulating foreign reserves (especially U.S. dollars) to influence the value of its currency constitutes a form of currency manipulation intended to make its exports cheaper and imports into China m...

M. Labonte W. M. Morrison

2008-01-01

371

Cultural and economic influences on current accounting standards in the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounting Principles in the People's Republic of China have undergone dramatic reform since the 1970s. In moving toward a more market driven economy, the market structures and accounting rules have changed to the point that today many of the concepts and principles familiar in the most advanced economies are part of the Chinese regulations and laws. While China has forged

Lynford E. Graham; Chunyan Li

1997-01-01

372

Urban Transport Trends and Policies in China and India: Impacts of Rapid Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative overview of urban transport in the world’s two most populous countries: China and India. Cities in both countries are suffering from severe and worsening transport problems: air pollution, noise, traffic injuries and fatalities, congestion, parking shortages, energy use, and a lack of mobility for the poor. The urban transport crisis in China and India results

John Pucher; Neha Mittal; Yi Zhu; Nisha Korattyswaroopam

2007-01-01

373

ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF GLOBALIZATION: THE IMPACT OF ENTRY TO THE WTO ON CHINA'S GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractA panel data method is used to evaluate the impact of China's accession to the WTO. Time?series data for China, Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the UK, Hong Kong, Singapore, Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the USA and Taiwan are used to construct the growth path that what would have been followed had there been no

H. STEVE CHING; CHENG HSIAO; SHUI KI WAN; TONGSAN WANG

2011-01-01

374

Corporate Governance in China—Is Economic Growth Potential Hindered by Guanxi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the opening of the market and partial privatization of state-owned companies in China, the state still represents the controlling shareholder in larger companies. By analyzing the weaknesses of Chinese corporate governance we illustrate the framework for harmful corruption. China is characterized by a weak legal system and strong influences of traditions such as guanxi. In this article we analyze

UDO C. BRAENDLE; TANJA GASSER; JUERGEN NOLL

2005-01-01

375

Isolation and Characterization of 21 Microsatellite Loci in Cardiocrinum giganteum var. yunnanense (Liliaceae), an Important Economic Plant in China.  

PubMed

Twenty-one microsatellite markers from the genome of Cardiocrinum giganteum var. yunnanense, an important economic plant in China, were developed with a fast isolation protocol by amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Polymorphism within each locus was assessed in 24 wild individuals from Gaoligong Mountains in western Yunnan Province, China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 4 with a mean of 2.9. The expected and observed levels of heterozygosity ranged from 0.042 to 0.726 and from 0.000 to 1.000, with averages of 0.44 and 0.31, respectively. These polymorphic microsatellite markers should prove useful in population genetics studies and assessments of genetic variation to develop conservation and management strategies for this species. PMID:22408400

Li, Rong; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junbo; Dao, Zhiling

2012-01-31

376

Some economic considerations on the importance of proactive integrated coastal zone management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The view is widely held that proactive integrated management of coastal zones is a rewarding strategy in the long run. It appears, however, rather difficult to substantiate this claim, both theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, first of all because the concepts of ‘proactive’ and ‘integrated’ still await their proper definitions and second, because the role of seemingly important variables and their

R. S. J. Tol; R. J. T Klein; H. M. A. Jansen; H. Verbruggen

1996-01-01

377

Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban forest conversion through model urbanization in Shenzhen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southern coastal China, Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ) was established as a model city by the government of mainland China in 1979 to demonstrate the competitive edge over Hong Kong across the straight. In less than three decades, Shenzhen has become a symbolic model city and changed from an agriculture-dominated landscape to a modern industrialization urban setting. The remote

Chongfeng Gong; Jiquan Chen; Shixiao Yu

2011-01-01

378

An integrative classification of vegetation in China based on NOAA AVHRR and vegetation-climate indices of the Holdridge life zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a method for integrated analysis of multi-source data for vegetation classification at the continental scale, and applied it to China. Multi-temporal 1 km NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Holdridge's life zone system and its vegetation-climate classification indices such as bio-temperature (BT), potential evapotranspiration rate (PER) and precipitation (P) correspond better with undisturbed vegetation types all over

Y. Pan; P. Gong; C. He; P. Shi; R. Pu

2007-01-01

379

An integrative classification of vegetation in China based on NOAA AVHRR and vegetation-climate indices of the Holdridge life zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a method for integrated analysis of multi-source data for vegetation classification at the continental scale, and applied it to China. Multi-temporal 1 km NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Holdridge's life zone system and its vegetation-climate classification indices such as bio-temperature (BT), potential evapotranspiration rate (PER) and precipitation ( P ) correspond better with undisturbed vegetation types

Y. Pan; X. Li; P. Gong; C. He; P. Shi; R. Pu

2003-01-01

380

Eclogite and carpholite-bearing metasedimentary rocks in the North Qilian suture zone, NW China: implications for Early Palaeozoic cold oceanic subduction and water transport into mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature eclogite and eclogite facies metapelite together with serpentinite and marble occur as blocks within foliated blueschist that was originated from greywacke matrix; they formed a high- pressure low-temperature (HPLT) subduction complex (melange) in the North Qilian oceanic-type suture zone, NW China. Phengite-eclogite (type I) and epidote-eclogite (type II) were recognized on the basis of mineral assemblage. Relic lawsonite and

S. G. SONG; L. F. ZHANG; Y. NIU; C. J. WEI; J. G. LIOU; G. M. SHU

2007-01-01

381

Fault zone evolution and its controls on ore-grade distribution at the Jian Cha Ling gold deposit, western Qinling region, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jian Cha Ling gold deposit is sited in folded and faulted Palaeoproterozoic rocks of the uplifted Mian-Lue-Yang block, adjacent to the Mianlue suture zone within the West Qinling mineral province, along the northern margin of the South China craton. Early Mesozoic gold mineralization at Jian Cha Ling, which has a pre-mined resource of about 536,000 oz Au, is controlled by

Richard M. Vielreicher; Noreen M. Vielreicher; Steffen G. Hagemann; Greg Jones

2002-01-01

382

Neither a borrower nor a lender : does China's zero net foreign asset position make economic sense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China in the past few years has emerged as a net foreign creditor on the international scene with net foreign assets slightly greater than zero percent of wealth. This is surprising given that China is a relatively poor country with a capital-labor ratio about one-fifth the world average and one-tenth the U.S. level. The main questions that the authors address

David Dollar; Aart Kraay

2005-01-01

383

[Size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different function zones of Guangzhou in autumn, China].  

PubMed

Size distribution of aerosol samples collected from two urban locations (Liwan and Wushan) and a suburban location (Xinken) in Guangzhou (South China) in autumn using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) were analyzed for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatography with mass selective detection (GC-MS). Bimodal distribution was found for 3- and 4-ring PAHs and unimodal for 5-, 6- and 7-ring PAHs. Different PAH size distribution models were found for urban and suburban. PAHs associated with larger particles in suburban than in urban, and different aging processes of aerosols can account for it. Adsorption behavior may be the main mechanism controlled the size distribution of PAHs in urban, and adsorption, absorption and multilayer adsorption may all play a part in suburban. For the diagnostic ratios of PAHs with the same molecular weight, large differences were found between the range of 1-2.5 microm and 0.1-0.56 microm. The concentrations of 13 PAHs were 39 ng/m3 in Xinken, 71-94 ng/m3 in Wushan and 32-154 ng/m3 in Liwan, and 5-7 ring PAHs were the most abundant. PMID:16767976

Duan, Jing-chun; Bi, Xin-hui; Tan, Ji-hua; Sheng, Guo-ying; Fu, Jia-mo; Hao, Ji-ming

2006-04-01

384

Demarcation of seabuckthorn plantations in three northern areas of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) planting areas in the three northern areas (north, northeast and northwest) of China are divided into five planting zones:\\u000a the semi-humid forest prairie climate zone for ecological and economic types of seabuckthorn plantations in the southern part\\u000a of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid steppe climate zone for similar types of plantations in the central part of the

Jian-zhong Hu

2005-01-01

385

The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion. Ecological engineering approaches can therefore reduce environmental impacts of LZTGR and optimize ecological services. In view of the current situation and existing ecological problems of LZTGR, according to function demands such as environmental purification, biodiversity conservation, and vegetation carbon sink enhancement, we should explore the eco-friendly utilization mode of resources in LZTGR. Ecological engineering approaches might minimize the impacts or optimize the ecological services. Natural regeneration and ecological restoration in LZTGR are valuable for soil erosion decrease, pollutant purification, biodiversity conservation, carbon sink increase, and ecosystem health maintenance in TGR. PMID:23296972

Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

2013-01-08

386

[Spatial pattern of soil moisture at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China].  

PubMed

By the methods of classic statistics and geostatistics, this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at 0-50 cm depth in different sampling grain sizes (1 m x 1 m and 2 m x 2 m) at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China. In study area, the soil moisture at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and 40-50 cm depths of cropland, grassland, and cropland-grassland boundary presented moderate variance, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of grassland was higher than that of cropland. The CV increased with soil depth, and a significant linear regression relation (P < 0.05) was observed between them in sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m. In sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m, the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at different depths was obviously higher at cropland-grassland boundary than in cropland and grassland, which had a moderate to strong spatial dependency, and the range (A0) was 7.65-30.99 m; whereas in sampling grain size 2 m x 2 m, the spatial distribution of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary had both the moderate to strong spatial dependency and the pure nugget effect, and the A0 was 4.16-18.86 m, suggesting that there existed ecological edge effect of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary. PMID:20560314

Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kun; Mi, Jia; Xie, Ying-Zhong

2010-03-01

387

Assessment of desertification in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in Northern China (1982-2006) using GIMMS NDVI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in Northern China (hereafter APTZNC) is situated in an arid/semi-arid area, and is one of the most vulnerable areas in the world subject to climate change. Annual integrated the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (hereafter GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (hereafter ?NDVI) and annual rainfall were used in this study. Meanwhile, the dynamics of ?NDVI and rain-use efficiency (hereafter RUE) were predicted during the period, through the use of the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test and linear regression temporal trend analysis. The tendency of desertification under different precipitation scenarios was also analyzed. The results showed that annual ?NDVI and rainfall were not significantly correlated in most sections of the study area, yet opposite results were observed for a smaller percentage of the study area (p<0.01). Changes in vegetation productivity may increase, whereas a significant decrease in a small pixel proportion was observed. The northeast and central sections of the study area are characterized by positive trends in RUE slope values, contrary to what was observed in the southwestern sections of the study area. The results fit well with the findings through ?NDVI and RUE. Rainfall in the range of 200-500 mm can be seen as a threshold value as the desertification trend decreases and vegetation restoration capacity is enhanced with increasing rainfall.

An, Youzhi; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chaoshun; Shi, Runhe

2013-09-01

388

[Seasonal variations of calorific values of Pinus koraiensis-broadleaved mixed forest litters and soil macrofauna in China temperate zone].  

PubMed

In this paper, the calorific values of Pinus koraiensis-broadleaved mixed forest litters and soil microfauna in China temperate zone were determined, with their seasonal variation patterns studied. The results showed that both the calorific values and their seasonal variation patterns were differed with the kinds of tree species litters and soil macrofauna in the mixed forest. The mean gross calorific value (GCV) of P. koraiensis litter was the highest (19.71 kJ x g(-1)), followed by Betula costata (18.22 kJ x g(-1)), Tilia amurensis (18.13 kJ x g(-1)), mixed litter (17.91 kJ x g(-1)), Fraxinus mandshurica (16.94 kJ x g(-1)), and Acer mono (16.25 kJ x g(-1)). With the decomposition of litter, the GCV of P. koraiensis and A. mono litters decreased, while that of F. mandshurica litter had little change. The GCV of T. amurensis and B. costata litters presented an increasing trend in the next year of decomposition. Among the marofauna, scolopendra had the highest GCV (22.07 kJ x g(-1)), followed by earthworm (16.72 kJ x g(-1)) and diplopod (13.28 kJ x g(-1)). Earthworm and diplopod had the identical seasonal variation pattern of GCV, while scolopendra was different from them. There was no significant relationship between the seasonal variation of GCV in litters and soil macrofauna. PMID:17615867

Yin, Xiu-Qin; Xin, Wei-Dong; Qi, Yan-Hong

2007-04-01

389

China's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that China may be on the verge of a “Green Leap Forward” that could make it a global environmental leader. This article argues that two principal forces have contributed to this development. First, Chinese officials now realize that a global shift away from fossil fuels will create enormous business opportunities on a global scale. Chinese companies are

Robert V. Percival

2011-01-01

390

Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or "Community Learning Centers" (CLCs). Second, we describe extensive site visits to CLCs in impoverished portions of China and Mexico, the centers operated by premier universities in each respective country. These CLCs constitute the core of new emerging systems of distance education, and their newness poses challenges and opportunities, which are discussed. Finally, we offer 12 points to develop further the concept and reality of distance learning in support of economic development.

Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

2008-04-01

391

Origin and tectonic implication of Triassic eclogite from the Song Ma suture zone between the Indochina and South China blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Song-Ma suture zone in northern Vietnam and Laos marks the collision of the Indochina and South China blocks, which consists of ophiolite, metamorphic sole and meta-sediments. The Song Ma ophiolite consisting of serpentinized peridotite, layered gabbro, basalt and diabase is considered to represent the relics of the Paleothyan lithosphere. In this study, we provide new petrological, geochemical and geochronological data of the Song Ma eclogite for understanding its origin and tectonic implication. The eclogite is closely associated with garnet-phengite quartz schist and garnet amphibolite in the northwestern edge of the suture zone. It consists of porphyroblastic garnet and fine-grained matrix of omphacite, garnet, phengite, quartz and rutile. The porphyroblastic garnet has a large inclusion-rich core and a thin inclusion-free rim; the identified inclusions include quartz, taramite, barroisite, zoisite, epidote and rutile. Garnet porphyroblasts exhibit pronounced compositional zoning: i.e. increase pyrope with decreasing alm, grs and sps components from core (alm53-54Sps3-4Prp18-19Grs24-28) to rim (alm42-45Sps1Prp31-36Grs18-22) suggesting a prograde metamorphic history. Omphacite (Jd33-37) and phengite (Si, 3.34-3.45 pfu) are homogeneous in composition. Most interstitial amphibole in the matrix is retrograde phase. Grt-Cpx-Ph thermobarometer yielded a peak P-T condition of 28 ± 2 kbar and 700 ± 50 oC. All eclogites have basaltic composition: SiO2 ~ 49 wt%, TiO2 ~ 0.8 wt%, MgO ~ 8.6 wt% and FeOtotal 9.4-10.2 wt%. They show flat or slightly LREE-enriched patterns with negative Eu anomaly, and negative Sr and Ti anomalies in spider diagram. Selected major and trace element contents of eclogite, garnet amphibolite and metabasite plotted in the discrimination diagrams of 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and TiO2-FeO/MgO and Th/Yb-Nb/Yb suggest that the protoliths of the Song Ma eclogite and metabasite have MORB-type geochemical affinities. Zircon separates form an eclogite sample show variable sizes of 0.03-0.1 mm, without inherited cores, and stubby internal structures in cathodoluminescence images with very low Th/U of 0.01-0.05. SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon crystals yielded a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 230.5 ± 8.2 Ma (N=25). The Th/U ratios and internal structures indicate a metamorphic zircon origin. These data imply the formation of eclogite was related to subduction of sub-ophiolite oceanic basaltic rocks. The closing of the Lao-Vietnamese branch of the Paleotethys, separating the Indochina and South China blocks, led to collision of the blocks during the Middle-Late Triassic, corresponding to the major episode of the Indochina Orogeny.

Zhang, R. Y.; Lo, C.; Grove, M.; Chung, S.; Iizuka, Y.; Tri, T.

2011-12-01

392

A stagnant slab in a water-bearing mantle transition zone beneath northeast China: Implications from regional SH waveform modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) nearby the subducting slabs is fundamentally important for understanding scales of mantle circulation as well as composition of the upper mantle. Partly due to a poor sampling of the MTZ for the first-arrivals at regional distances, tomographic images obtained are typically complicated for regions around the subduction zones in the northwestern Pacific (e.g. van der Hilst et al, 1991; Fukao et al, 1992; Gorbatov and Kennett, 2003; Huang and Zhao et al, 2006). Alternatively, modeling of regional P or S waveforms is an effective approach to constrain transition zone velocity structure as triplicated phases sample various depths in the mantle. The travel time, especially the relative time between the first and later arrivals, and the amplitude of different phases are sensitive to the velocities around the mantle discontinuities. However, studies based on this method proposed correspondingly different velocity structures in the MTZ behind the Japan arc (e.g. Tajima et al, 1998; Wang, et al., 2006; Tajima and Grand, 2009; Wang et al., 2009; Wang and Niu, 2010), yielding ambiguous interpretations about the thermal and composition structure in the deep upper mantle. In this study, we modeled the triplicate SH waveforms for a dense regional seismic array to constrain the detailed shear velocity structure of the MTZ beneath northeast China. A total of 43 transverse waveforms in a very narrow range of 257-270° in back-azimuth are investigated. Our results indicate that a layer of seemingly high SH velocity anomalous lies just above the bottom of the MTZ, which might be associated with the flattening part of the stagnant Pacific slab extending further west from the Japan Sea subduction zone. The lack of obvious depression of the 660 implies a limited temperature deficit (~143-166 K) around the westward-extended flattened Pacific slab. The transition zone, as a whole, is featured by low SH velocity (0.08-0.12 km/s variation) and high Vp/Vs ratio (~1.84-1.87) relative to the iasp91 model, indicating ~0.2-0.3 wt.% H2O ((3.0-4.5)×104 ppm H/Si ) content in the MTZ. The integrated picture of the slab and the morphology of the 660-km discontinuity from previous tomography images, receiver function analysis, S-to-P converted wave studies (e.g. Fukao et al., 2001; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Li and Yuan, 2003; Li et al., 2008) and our results, supports a scenario that, the fast eastward retreat of the Japan trench result in the horizontally deflected slab when the downgoing part of the subducting oceanic lithosphere hits the bottom of the upper mantle.

Ye, L.; Li, J.; Tseng, T.; Yao, Z.

2010-12-01

393

P and SH velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath Northeast China: Evidence for a stagnant slab in hydrous mantle transition zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high-dense regional body waves for three deep earthquakes that occurred around Russia-China border, we investigate both S and P wave velocity structures in the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast China and northern part of North China Craton, where the northwestern Pacific plate is imaged to subhorizontally lie above the 660-km discontinuity. We observe an increasing trend of S-P travel time residuals along the epicentral distance within a distance range of 11-16.5°, indicating a velocity anomaly in MTZ. We seek the simplest model that explains the observed broadband waveforms and relative travel times of triplication for a confined azimuth sector. Both SH and P data suggest a ˜140±20km high velocity layer lying above a slightly depressed and broad 660-km discontinuity. Shear velocity reduction of ˜2.5% in the deeper part of the transition zone is required to compensate for the significantly large relative time between AB and CD triplicate branches and the increased trending of S-P travel time residuals as well. The MTZ, as a whole, is featured by low shear velocity and high Vp/Vs ratio. A water-rich mantle transition zone with 0.2-0.4wt% of H2O may account for the discrepancy between the observed Vp and Vs velocity structures. Our result supports the scenario of a viscosity-dominated stagnant slab with an increased thickness of ˜140km, which was caused by the large viscosity contrast between the lower and upper mantles. The addition of water and eastward trench retreat might facilitate stagnation of the subducting Pacific slab beneath Northeast China.

Li, Juan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiujiao; Yuen, David A.

2013-04-01

394

Formation mechanism of the Qiongdongnan basin northwest of the South China Sea-dating the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locating on the northwestern margin of the South China Sea, the Qiongdongnan basin is a NE-trending rift zone in general. Bounding with the NW-trending Yinggehai basin and the Red River- East Vietnam Fault Zone to the west, the evolution of the Qiongdongnan basin bears large amounts of information about the slip of the Red River Fault zone. Combined the geological analysis with analogue modeling experiments, we suggest that the evolution of the Qiongdongnan is controlled not only by the southeastward to south southeastward extension, but also by the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault zone. The central depression of the Qiongdongnan basin is controlled mainly by the southeastward to south southeastward extension, while the southern depression developed under the combined stress filed of southeastward extension and the dextral slip along the NNW-trending Red River fault zone. The northern depression was formed by the combined effect of the sinistral slip along the Red River Fault Zone and the southeastward extension. According to the age of the shear fault starting to develop in the southwest of the Qiongdongnan basin, as well as the age for the northwestern part to develop, the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault zone began around early oligocene, later than the rifting of the Qiongdongnan basin. The sinistral slip rate of the Red River Fault zone during early Oligocene may be smaller than the displacement rate of the Qiongdongnan basin, but become reversed thereafter, which in turn caused tectonic inversion and folding along the western segment of the Qiongdongnan basin, and NW- to NNW-trending Rediel faults from late Oligocene to middle Miocene. Through the deformation history of the Qiongdongnan basin, we defined the sinistral slip stage Indochina along the Red River Fault zone from about 36Ma to 16Ma, and further a rapid slip occurring after 30Ma.

Sun, Z.; Jiang, J.; Xie, W.

2010-12-01

395

Human capital investments and gender earnings gap: Evidence from China's economic reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the contributions of gender dierences in post school investments (PSI) in human capital to the gender earnings gap in China. First, by exploring the exogenous variations in the length of working life caused by dierences in mandatory retirement age, we nd that the gender earnings gap is mainly driven by the dierence in

Haoming Liu

396

DYNAMICS IN THE ONLINE GAME INDUSTRY OF CHINA: A POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ITS COMPETITIVENESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese online game industry is one of the fastest growing interactive entertainment industries in the world. The industry now launches more than 200 game titles to the market annually. Some popular game characters have become cultural icons in China. As the market landscape expands, the industry continues to attract new ventures. The Chinese online game industry is a fast

PEICHI CHUNG; JIANGPING YUAN

2009-01-01

397

Could financial distortions be no impediment to economic growth after all? Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data for 30 Chinese provinces over the period 1989-2003, this study examines the relationship between finance, and real GDP, capital, and total factor productivity growth. We find that traditionally used indicators of financial development and China-specific indicators measuring the level of state interventionism in finance are generally negatively associated with growth and its sources, while indicators measuring the degree

Alessandra Guariglia; Sandra Poncet

2008-01-01

398

Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies attempted to make use of the scale expansion as a tool to reduce the inequality of higher education among different regions with different development levels through providing the poor regions preferential treatment and support in this regard. This paper analyses a provincial dataset

Frank Bickenbach; Wan-Hsin LIU

2011-01-01

399

China's Currency: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy. Updated January 9, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continued rise in China's trade surplus with the United States and the world, and complaints from U.S. manufacturing firms and workers over the competitive challenges posed by Chinese imports have led several Members to call for a more aggressive U.S....

M. Labonte W. M. Morrison

2008-01-01

400

Rural-urban and regional inequality in output, income and consumption in China under economic reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Fast growth in China has led to significant improvement in people's living standards and average income. However, it has also brought about a huge rise in inequality. The purpose of this paper is to analyse regional and rural-urban inequality using a few income and consumption indicators. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data are collected from official statistical sources for all the

Shujie Yao; Zongyi Zhang; Gengfu Feng

2005-01-01

401

Economic evaluation of an IGCC cogeneration power plant with CCS for application in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China polygeneration from coal via gasification is seen as a promising technology that responds to the issues of security of energy supply and climate change. However, the implementation of coal-gasification schemes is still hampered with a comparatively low operational availability, and the relative cost imposed by polygeneration is deemed high. First, the capital expenses become higher due to the

Xu Zhaofeng; Jens Hetland; Hanne M. Kvamsdal; Li Zheng; Liu Lianbo

2011-01-01

402

CHINA'S SPECTACULAR GROWTH SINCE THE MID1990S - MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the macroeconomic reasons for the Chinese boom since the mid-1990s. It is argued that the stable growth performance of China would not have been possible without the strategy of unilaterally fixing the exchange rate, which has been implemented since 1994. This strategy was successful because it was accompanied by a reform of the wage-setting regime in the

Heiner Flassbeck

403

Challenge Facing China's Economic Growth in Its Aging but not Affluent Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic transition has occurred more rapidly in China than in most developed countries. As the population ages, the growth rate of the working age population has started to decline and the absolute quantity of the working age population will begin to shrink after 2015, which will inevitably result in structural labor shortage. Under the circumstance where comparative advantage is still

Fang Cai; Meiyan Wang

2006-01-01

404

Gender and Occupational Mobility in Urban China during the Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the gender patterns of occupational mobility in post-reform Urban China using a national representative dataset. The results reveal marked differences between married men and women: women are more likely than men to undergo lateral or downward occupational changes, but are less likely to experience upward mobility. The results also show that the public-sector restructuring has increased the

Yueping Song; Xiao-yuan Dong

2011-01-01

405

Crust mantle structure difference across the gravity gradient zone in North China Craton: Seismic image of the thinned continental crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean North China Craton (NCC) has been tectonically modified and lost its thick lithospheric keel during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The processes and mechanisms of the lithospheric modification and its appearance in and the relation between different subregions of the NCC are still poorly understood. Seismic data from 45 stations along a 470-km long profile cross the Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) and the Taihangshan Mountain Range (TMR) in the NCC were employed to construct a coherent structural image of the crust and uppermost mantle. An integrated receiver function imaging technique combining the common conversion point stacking approach with waveform inversion and forward modeling was proposed to extract the structural information beneath the study region. Modeling of Bouguer gravity anomalies was also applied to constrain the density distribution. The imaging result reveals distinct structural features between the mountain range and the basin area, and presents a picture of uneven crust thinning within the study region. In the east BBB the crust is significantly thinned due mainly to the reduction in the thickness of the lower crust including the crust-mantle transition zone, by up to ˜12 km. The west TMR, in contrast, is characterized by a relatively thick lower crust of ˜20 km. The teleseismic waveform data and the gravity observation suggest a thicker crust and a buoyant mantle lithosphere beneath the TMR compared with the BBB. The contrasting crustal structural features appear coupled with the lithospheric processes and possibly reflect that different tectonic mechanisms and deformation regimes dominated the evolution of the two regions. The North-South Gravity Lineament, lying between the TMR and BBB, might represent a deep intra-continental boundary separating the NCC into topographically and tectonically different regions.

Zheng, Tianyu; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Weiwei; Zhu, Rixiang

2006-11-01

406

Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related hotspots must be determined based on different regions and economic sectors.

Ye, Qian; Glantz, Michael H.; Song, Lianchun; Sun, Guowu; Pan, Xiaoling

2003-07-01

407

Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.  

PubMed

Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities. PMID:18853224

He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

2008-10-14

408

Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

2008-12-01

409

The Information Technology Spillover Effect and Substitution Effect Analyses on Economics in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the developing of the information technology, the information technology plays more important role in economy. The information technology innovation's forming process not only produces economic effect itself, but also has some influence on the other related industry. The influence effect analyses of the information technology on the economic growth includes two parts : The information technology innovation's forming and

Su Huixiang

2010-01-01

410

WTO, China and the Asian Economies: Free Trade Areas and New Economic Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of free trade agreements (FTAs) and the emergence of new Asian regionalisms such as the enlarged ASEAN (ie, ASEAN+3 or especially ASEAN+China) and other bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral FTAs in recent years pose challenges and offer opportunities but also require research into these important developments and their underlying fundamental trade-growth causation and impact for member countries. Existing methods

Tran Van Hoa

2004-01-01

411

Garden of Grand Vision: Economic life in a flophouse complex Harbin, China 1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Second World War Harbin was a major city in the puppet-state ofManzhouguo, the industrial heart of the Japanese war effort in East Asia.The Garden of Grand Vision was a flophouse complex located in the Chineseslums of Harbin. The 2,000 drug addicts, gamblers and prostitutes who madethe Garden their home were mostly migrants from North China who had fallenon

Kathryn Meyer

2001-01-01

412

Spatialization modeling of rural socio-economic data based on neural network: A case study of Fangshan District in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining the quantitative positioning space-based demographic and socio-economic information has the significance on assessing resources, environment and disaster. This paper presents a dynamic modeling method for rural GDP statistics data spatialization based on neural network Selecting Fangshan District in Beijing, China as the study area and taking villages as studying unit, this paper analyzes spatial correlation between the rural GDP

Yaqing Li; Xiaojuan Li; Yonghua Sun; Jingyi Sun

2011-01-01

413

Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic

Andrew J. Challinor; Elisabeth S. Simelton; Evan D. G. Fraser; Debbie Hemming; Mathew Collins

2010-01-01

414

The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings

David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H. Terpstra; Yu Kai-cheng

1997-01-01

415

The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings

David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H. Terpstra; Yu Kai-cheng

416

The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence–divergence–crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as a theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The

David A Ralston; David H Holt; Robert H Terpstra; Yu Kai-Cheng

417

Analysis of the trade-off between economic growth and the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions in the Poyang Lake Watershed, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake eutrophication leading to water pollution is a major global concern. In recent years, rapid economic growth and the increase in the intensity of resource exploitation in China have caused the influx of nitrogen and phosphorus into lakes. This in turn has led to more severe lake eutrophication, more frequent outbreaks of algal blooms, and the degradation of lake ecosystems.

Xiangzheng Deng; Yonghong Zhao; Feng Wu; Yingzhi Lin; Qi Lu; Jing Dai

2011-01-01

418

The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence–divergence–crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as a theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The

David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H Terpstra; Yu Kai-Cheng

2008-01-01

419

Economic analysis of upgrading aging residential buildings in China based on dynamic energy consumption and energy price in a market economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article employed a standard LCC to conduct economic analysis of upgrading the aging residential buildings in China. According to the current situation, an interest rate of 6%, an inflation rate of 3%, an increase rate of annual energy savings of 2% and an increase rate of electricity price of 2% were assumed in the method. The results indicated that

Jinlong Ouyang; Meijun Lu; Bing Li; Chunyuan Wang; Kazunori Hokao

2011-01-01

420

Defensive medicine or economically motivated corruption? A confucian reflection on physician care in China today.  

PubMed

In contemporary China, physicians tend to require more diagnostic work-ups and prescribe more expensive medications than are clearly medically indicated. These practices have been interpreted as defensive medicine in response to a rising threat of potential medical malpractice lawsuits. After outlining recent changes in Chinese malpractice law, this essay contends that the overuse of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions cannot be attributed to malpractice concerns alone. These practice patterns are due as well, if not primarily, to the corruption of medical decision-making by physicians being motivated to earn supplementary income, given the constraints of an ill-structured governmental policy by the over-use of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. To respond to these difficulties of Chinese health care policy, China will need not only to reform the particular policies that encourage these behaviors, but also to nurture a moral understanding that can place the pursuit of profit within the pursuit of virtue. This can be done by drawing on Confucian moral resources that integrate the pursuit of profit within an appreciation of benevolence. It is this Confucian moral account that can formulate a medical care policy suitable to China's contemporary market economy. PMID:18027252

Chen, Xiao-Yang

421

An update on China in the political economy of information and communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In prior research I have attempted to bring out the salience of two converging political?economic trends. One originates in the communications and information sector, which throughout prior decades has evolved into the lead zone of business investment and profit?making. The second stems from China, whose reinsertion into global capitalism has generated a powerful economic surge: in 2007, International Monetary Fund

Dan Schiller

2008-01-01

422

Assessing the regional impacts of climate change on economic sectors in the low-lying coastal zone of Mediterranean East Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tekken, V., Costa, L. and Kropp, J.P., 2009. Assessing the complex impacts of climate change on economic sectors in the low-lying coastal zone of Mediterranean East Morocco. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 56 (Proceedings of the 10th International Coastal Symposium), pg - pg. Lisbon, Portugal, ISBN The Mediterranean region has been found to be specifically vulnerable to climatic variability and

V. Tekken; L. Costa; J. P. Kropp

423

The Effects of Affirmative Quality Feedback on Low Socio-Economic Students' Zone of Proximal Development Reading Gains (ZPDRL): A Causal-Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore upper elementary reading classes in a low socio-economic area to determine the effects frequent praise, both academically and socially, have on the zone of proximal development in reading (ZPD[subscript RL], Renaissance Learning, 2006). A causal-comparative study was utilized by observing two groups of…

Prescott, Sharon H.

2010-01-01

424

Discriminatory zoning in colonial Hong Kong : A review of the post-war literature and some further evidence for an economic theory of discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to argue that racially discriminatory zoning in Colonial Hong Kong could have been a form of protectionism driven by economic considerations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper was based on a review of the relevant ordinances, literature, and public information, notably data obtained from the Land Registry and telephone directories. Findings – This paper reveals that many

Lawrence W. C. Lai

2011-01-01

425

Economic Factors Shaping China's Defense Spending: Historical Trends and Recent Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the academic literature on the relationship between defense spending and economic growth focuses on addressing a single question: How does an increase or decrease in defense spending affect growth of the overall economy. While this is certainly an...

J. Wood

2010-01-01

426

Foreign Economic Trends and Their Implications for the United States: The Republic of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The series of reports presents current business and economic developments in every country that offers a present or potential market for United States goods. The reports include a summary of the prospective impact on the United States economy, changing tr...

S. Stack

1971-01-01

427

Economic optimal nitrogen application rates for rice cropping in the Taihu Lake region of China: taking account of negative externalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen application rates (NARs) is often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because only individual nitrogen (N) losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. Since N can permeate the ecosystem in numerous forms commencing from the acquisition of raw material, through manufacturing and use, to final losses in the farming process (e.g., N2O, NH3, NO3- leaching, etc.), the costs incurred also accumulate and should be taken into account if economically-optimal N rates (EONRs) are to be established. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and raw material exploitation processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.01 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 185 kg N ha-1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.

Xia, Y.; Yan, X.

2011-07-01

428

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Yishak Volcanic Sequence, Kudi ophiolite, West Kunlun (NW China): implications for the magmatic evolution in a subduction zone environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yishak Volcanic Series (YVS) is part of the Late Cambrian Kudi ophiolite in the western Kunlun Mountains, NW China, which marks the oldest suture zone in the Tibetan Plateau. The YVS is a well-preserved sequence comprising five conformable units (A to E) of basalts to andesites, with mafic dykes in Units A to D. These rocks are sequentially characterized upward by geochemical features of N-MORB (Unit A), E-MORB (Unit B), island-arc basalt (Unit C), BABB (Unit D and mafic dykes) and boninite series rocks (Unit E), reflecting complex interactions among various source components. The evolution of magma compositions from MORB-dominated to boninite series rocks clearly indicates temporally increasing subduction signatures, which, in combination with the extensional tectonic background, suggests that the Kudi ophiolite most likely formed in a spontaneous nucleation of subduction zone.

Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhou, Hui

2005-09-01

429

Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

2009-07-01

430

Prevalence of neural tube defects in economically and socially deprived area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This paper aims to understand the situation and epidemiology trend of neural tube defects in Guizhou province, China from\\u000a 1996 to 2004.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  Pregnant women from 17 hospitals in Guizhou province were chosen for investigation of perinatal infants from January 1996\\u000a to December 2004.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Of 1,208 birth defect cases studied in this 9-year period, a total of 122 cases were

Jie Liu; Guo Z. Yang; Jin L. Zhou; Shi P. Cao; David H. W. Chau; Hsiang-fu Kung; Marie C. Lin

2007-01-01

431

Melting of the oceanic crust in the stagnant slab at the mantle transition zone: constraints from alkaline basalts in eastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold oceanic plates, which include igneous and sediment layers, start sinking along subduction zones. The layers dehydrate and melt as they undergo subduction, which feeds slab components to arc magmas. After it has been subducted, the remaining slab stagnates in the mantle transition zone (at depths of 400 - 660 km), where the minerals undergo pressure-induced transformations, and the resulting density turnover prevents further slab penetration and instead it stagnates. Experimental data predict that the stagnant slab melts due to conductive heating from the ambient mantle and then the residual slab becomes dense and can sink deeper. Here we present evidence that melts from the igneous layers in the stagnant Pacific plate slab have contributed to the source composition of basalts erupted in eastern China. Within the Cenozoic basalts of eastern China there is a zone of SiO2-poor basalts extending N-S at approximately 119 °E between 26 and 41 °N. New geochemical data from Cenozoic alkaline basalt lavas in the Shandong area, which is within this zone, also reveal low SiO2 (<44 wt%) and high FeO* (>13 wt%). In addition, the Shandong basalts have distinctive trace element patterns. Multi element plots (normalized to the primitive mantle) show that they commonly have convex-up patterns with depletions in Rb, Ba, Pb relative to other large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements, and to a lesser extent, depletions in Zr and Hf relative to middle rare earth elements, which is similar to those of the OIBs with HIMU isotopic signatures. However, in contrast to HIMU basalts, the radiogenic isotope compositions (Nd-Sr-Pb) of the Shandong basalts suggest that they were derived from a depleted mantle source rather than a HIMU mantle source. Nd-Hf isotope compositions form a mixing trend between Indian and Pacific mantle domains. The most Si-deficient Shandong basalts, which also have high Ce/Pb, plot at the most radiogenic end of the ?Nd-?Hf array, closest to the Pacific mantle domain. Seismic tomography shows that the zone of SiO2-poor Cenozoic basalts, including Shandong, in eastern China is located above the western leading edge of the stagnant slab of the Pacific plate, which extends N-S along 119°E. The geochemical characteristics of the SiO2-poor basalts, particularly those of Shandong, lead us to conclude that the source of these basalts includes a strong contribution from melts generated at the leading edge of the stagnant slab of the Pacific plate. These melts are derived from the melting of dehydrated carbonate-bearing igneous layers at the leading edge of the stagnant slab.

Sakuyama, T.; Tian, W.; Kimura, J.; Fukao, Y.; Hirahara, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Senda, R.; Qing, C.; Miyazaki, T.; Tatsumi, Y.

2011-12-01

432

Timing of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: constraints from zircon U-Pb ages from granitic rocks in the shear zone along the Ailao Shan Range, Western Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the boundary between the Indochina and the South China blocks, the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone underwent a sinistral strike-slip shearing which is characterized by ductile deformation structures along the Ailao Shan range. The timing issue of left-lateral shearing along the ASRR shear zone is of first-order importance in constraining the nature and regional significance of the shear zone. It has been, therefore, focused on by many previous studies, but debates still exist on the age of initiation and termination of shearing along the shear zone. In this paper, we dated 5 samples of granitic plutons (dykes) along the Ailao Shan shear zone. Zircon U-Pb ages of four sheared or partly sheared granitic rocks give ages of 30.9 ± 0.7, 36.6 ± 0.1, 25.9 ± 1.0 and 27.2 ± 0.2 Ma, respectively. An undeformed granitic dyke intruding mylonitic foliation gives crystallization age of 21.8 ± 1 Ma. The Th/U ratios of zircon grains from these rocks fall into two populations (0.17-1.01 and 0.07-0.08), reflecting magmatic and metamorphic origins of the zircons. Detailed structural and microstructural analysis reveals that the granitic intrusions are ascribed to pre-, syn- and post-shearing magmatisms. The zircon U-Pb ages of these granites provide constraints on timing of the initiation (later than 31 Ma from pre-shearing granitic plutons, but earlier than 27 Ma from syn-shearing granitic dykes) and termination (ca. 21 Ma from the post-shearing granitic dykes) of strong ductile left-lateral shearing, which is consistent with previous results on the Diancang Shan and Day Nui Con Voi massifs in the literature. We also conclude that the left-lateral shearing along the ASRR shear zone is the result of southeastward extrusion of the Indochina block during the Indian-Eurasian plate collision. Furthermore, the left-lateral shearing was accompanied by the ridge jump, postdating the opening, of the South China Sea.

Tang, Yuan; Liu, Junlai; Tran, My-Dung; Song, Zhijie; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhao, Zhidan; Chen, Wen

2012-11-01

433

Timing of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: constraints from zircon U-Pb ages from granitic rocks in the shear zone along the Ailao Shan Range, Western Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the boundary between the Indochina and the South China blocks, the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone underwent a sinistral strike-slip shearing which is characterized by ductile deformation structures along the Ailao Shan range. The timing issue of left-lateral shearing along the ASRR shear zone is of first-order importance in constraining the nature and regional significance of the shear zone. It has been, therefore, focused on by many previous studies, but debates still exist on the age of initiation and termination of shearing along the shear zone. In this paper, we dated 5 samples of granitic plutons (dykes) along the Ailao Shan shear zone. Zircon U-Pb ages of four sheared or partly sheared granitic rocks give ages of 30.9 ± 0.7, 36.6 ± 0.1, 25.9 ± 1.0 and 27.2 ± 0.2 Ma, respectively. An undeformed granitic dyke intruding mylonitic foliation gives crystallization age of 21.8 ± 1 Ma. The Th/U ratios of zircon grains from these rocks fall into two populations (0.17-1.01 and 0.07-0.08), reflecting magmatic and metamorphic origins of the zircons. Detailed structural and microstructural analysis reveals that the granitic intrusions are ascribed to pre-, syn- and post-shearing magmatisms. The zircon U-Pb ages of these granites provide constraints on timing of the initiation (later than 31 Ma from pre-shearing granitic plutons, but earlier than 27 Ma from syn-shearing granitic dykes) and termination (ca. 21 Ma from the post-shearing granitic dykes) of strong ductile left-lateral shearing, which is consistent with previous results on the Diancang Shan and Day Nui Con Voi massifs in the literature. We also conclude that the left-lateral shearing along the ASRR shear zone is the result of southeastward extrusion of the Indochina block during the Indian-Eurasian plate collision. Furthermore, the left-lateral shearing was accompanied by the ridge jump, postdating the opening, of the South China Sea.

Tang, Yuan; Liu, Junlai; Tran, My-Dung; Song, Zhijie; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhao, Zhidan; Chen, Wen

2013-04-01

434

Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

1979-01-01

435

The Analysis of the Structure, Productivity, and Distribution of Zoobenthocenoses in the Lithuanian Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea and the Importance of some Benthos Species to Fish Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with the structure of zoobenthocenoses in the Lithuanian economic zone of the Baltic Sea, productivity and distribution of certain typical cenoses depending on the prevailing type of ground and depth. Zoobenthocenoses are identified according to the dominant organism species (Mytilus edulis–Balanus improvisus, Macoma baltica–Nereis diversicolor). The economic zone under consideration is divided into six regions each of

Algis Bubinas; Gintautas Vaitonis

2003-01-01

436

Age, maturation, and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age, maturation and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas were studied based on random sampling of the Chinese jigging fishery off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) during 2008-2010. Estimated ages ranged from 144 to 633 days, confirming that the squid is a short-lived species with longevity no longer than 2 years. Occurrence of mature females and hatching in each month indicated that Humboldt squid spawned year-round. Back-calculated hatching dates for the samples were from January 22nd, 2008 to April 22nd, 2010 with a peak between January and March. Two size-based and two hatching date-based populations could be defined from mantle length (ML) at maturity and back-calculated hatching dates, respectively. Females matured at a larger size than males, and there was a significant difference in ML at maturity between the two hatching groups ( P <0.05). The waters adjacent to 11°S off the Peruvian EEZ may be a potential spawning ground. This study shows the complexity of the population structure and large variability in key life history parameters in the Humboldt squid off the Peruvian EEZ, which should be considered in the assessment and management of this important resource.

Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong; Tian, Siquan; Li, Jianhua; Fang, Zhou; Yang, Mingxia

2013-01-01

437

The effects of economic and political events on the behaviour of Stock Market Index in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an emerging stock market and under the centrally control of the Government, the Chinese Stock Market has been identified as being partially segmented from global capital markets. As a consequence, the local economic factors and the Government policies are the primary influences of the movements of the Chinese Stock Market Indices. This article seeks to address the question of

Yang Xia

2011-01-01

438

Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…

Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

439

Research on the interaction between sports industry and economic society development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports and economic society development are connected closely, and their complementary relationship is the inevitable trend of sports development in new times. With the development of national economy and nationwide fitness taking deep root, the sports industry has become the powerful driving force of booming national economy. This article analyses the current situation and prospect of our sports education, points

Gong Yingying

2011-01-01

440

The effect of education subsidies on regional economic growth and disparities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of education subsidies on regional economic growth and the disparities between two Chinese regions, Jiangsu and Liaoning, by simulating their economies in a six-period overlapping generations model in which individuals decide their length of education. This study estimates the long-run growth rates, that is, the steady growth paths of the regional economies based on current

Yuko Shindo

2010-01-01

441

Development of household biogas digesters and its economic analysis in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the development of biogas digesters, a problem, which is how to appraise the economic benefits, always exists. This paper mainly discusses the necessity of cost-benefit analysis on biogas digesters, clearly defines some vague concepts during the analysis, tells how to quantitatively analyse the environmental benefits, and affirms the role of the government and the rural families.

Wang Xiaohua; Feng Zhenmin

2007-01-01

442

Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…

Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

443

Large-Scale Economic Change and Youth Development: The Case of Urban China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social ecological and dynamic systems theories propose that human development is shaped by the cumulative impact of social interactions in proximal and distal settings, which are themselves influenced by social and economic forces. The understanding of the links between microsystem-level factors (such as parenting styles and parent-child…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Way, Niobe; Chen, Xinyin

2012-01-01

444

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)|

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

445

Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China's Hunan Province  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

2011-01-01

446

Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past 20 years, China's economy has been developing rapidly. Yet is China's education keeping up the same pace as its economic development? What is the current situation for China's education? With the advent of knowledge-based economy, how will education in China adjust itself in order to meet the growing demands of economy? This paper…

Fengzhen, Yang

2002-01-01

447

Bank discrimination, holding bank ownership, and economic consequences: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper finds that compared with Chinese state-owned firms, non-state-owned firms have a greater propensity to hold significant ownership in commercial banks. These results are consistent with the notion that because non-state-owned firms are more likely to suffer bank discrimination for political reasons, they tend to address their financing disadvantages by building economic bonds with banks. We also find that

Zhengfei Lu; Jigao Zhu; Weining Zhang

2012-01-01

448

China report: Economic affairs. Energy: Status and development, 32, [October 28, 1984  

SciTech Connect

JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document concerns economic affairs, especially the status and development of energy. Some topics discussed are national policy, power network, hydropower, thermal power, coal and oil and gas.

NONE

1984-10-28

449

Design of the dike-pond system in the littoral zone of a tributary in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Three Gorges Dam is the greatest water control project in the world with the largest fresh water littoral zone. Emergence of the littoral zone during the growing season provides some plants with the opportunity to complete their growth cycle, but the fluctuating water level also brings about some environmental problems, such as soil erosion, water pollution, and biodiversity reduction.

Bo Li; Xingzhong Yuan; Hongyan Xiao; Zhongli Chen

2011-01-01

450

China's Thirty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's transformation over the past three decades has touched every corner of Chinese society and had an enormous global economic impact. Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, in his Foreword to this book, calls China's accomplishments \\

451

78 FR 17341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...implemented a comprehensive economic data collection program. The CR Program requires participants to complete an annual economic...The Council and NMFS use the EDR to assess the success of the CR Program and develop amendments to the FMP necessary...

2013-03-21

452

Testimony before the U.S.China Economic and Security Review Commission Hearing on China's Proliferation and the Impact of Trade Policy on Defense Industries in the United States and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thank you for the opportunity to participate in today's hearing on China's proliferation policies and practices. China is a recognized nuclear weapon state under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and possesses enough nuclear material for hundreds of nuclear weapons. China has approximately 200 nuclear weapons on various delivery platforms, mostly short- and medium-range missiles. Approximately 20 Chinese weapons are deployed on

Russell Senate; Joseph Cirincione

453

The Economic Impact of Climate, CO2, and Tropospheric Ozone Effects on Crop Yields in China, the US, and Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple environmental changes that may occur over the next century will affect crop productivity. Some of these effects are likely to be positive (CO2 fertilization), some negative (tropospheric ozone damage), and some may be either positive or negative (temperature and precipitation). Climate effects may operate in either direction because the direction of change may differ across regions (more precipitation in some areas and less in others) and warming may increase growing season lengths in cold-limited growing areas while acting as a detriment to productivity in areas with already high temperatures. Previous work has shown the effects of these combined environmental changes on carbon sequestration in natural and managed systems, and valued these effects in terms of avoided costs of fossil fuel carbon abatement. The more direct and obvious economic effect, however, is the changes in crop yields implied by these vegetation effects. Here we use the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) to analyze the potential economic impact of changes in crop yields. For this work we have augmented the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model by further disaggregating the agricultural sector. This allows us to simulate economic effects of changes in yield (i.e. the productivity of cropland) on the regional economies of the world, including impacts on agricultural trade. The EPPA model includes multiple channels of market-based adaptation, including input substitution and trade. We are thus able to examine the extent to which market forces contribute toward adaptation and thus modify the initial yield effects. We examine multiple scenarios where tropospheric ozone precursors are controlled or not, and where greenhouse gas emissions are abated or not. This allows us to consider how these policies interact. We focus on China, the US, and Europe which are currently regions with high levels of tropospheric ozone damage. We find significant negative effects of tropospheric ozone on crop yields and the agricultural economy under current conditions. Our results compare favorably with other methods that show damages of the same level. Our future simulations depend highly on whether tropospheric ozone precursors are controlled in the future. While policies exist in countries to limit tropospheric ozone as a local/regional pollutant, a growing problem particularly in the northern latitudes that include our focus regions, will be that background levels of ozone could reach levels such that it will be difficult for any one country to control its ozone levels without similar control efforts in other regions. This preliminary work highlights the importance of these policy interactions, and emphasizes the need for improved modeling of the atmospheric transport of pollutants.

Reilly, J. M.; Felzer, B. S.; Paltsev, S.; Melillo, J. M.; Prinn, R. G.; Wang, C.; Sokolov, A. P.; Wang, X.

2004-12-01

454

Mental health, duration of unemployment, and coping strategy: a cross-sectional study of unemployed migrant workers in eastern china during the economic crisis  

PubMed Central

Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. Results The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. Conclusions The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers.

2012-01-01

455

Health economic evaluation of acupuncture along meridians for treating migraine in China: results from a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate different types of acupuncture treatment for migraine in China from the perspective of health economics, particularly the comparison between treatment of specific acupoints in Shaoyang meridians and penetrating sham acupoints treatment. Methods Data were obtained from a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of acupuncture treatment in patients with migraine. Four-hundred eighty migraineurs were randomly assigned to 3 arms of treatment with genuine acupoints and 1 arm of penetrating sham acupoints. The primary outcome measurement was the cost-effectiveness ratio (C/E), expressed as cost per 1?day reduction of headache days from baseline to week 16. Cost-comparison analyses, differences in the migraine-specific quality of life questionnaire (MSQ), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were taken as secondary outcome measurements. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results The total cost per patient was ¥1273.2 (95% CI 1171.3-1375.1) in the Shaoyang specific group, ¥1427.7 (95% CI 1311.8-1543.6) in the Shaoyang non-specific group, ¥1490.8 (95% CI 1327.1-1654.6) in the Yangming specific group, and ¥1470.1 (95% CI 1358.8-1581.3) in the sham acupuncture group. The reduced days with migraine were 3.972?±?2.7, 3.555?±?2.8, 3.793?±?3.6, and 2.155?±?3.7 in these 4 groups (P?China. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00599586

2012-01-01

456

Diverse rhizobia associated with woody legumes Wisteria sinensis, Cercis racemosa and Amorpha fruticosa grown in the temperate zone of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-nine bacterial isolates from root nodules of the woody legumes Wisteria sinensis, Cercis racemosa and Amorpha fruticosa grown in the central and eastern regions of China were characterized with phenotypic analysis, PCR-based 16S and 23S rRNA gene RFLP, Box PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Seven main phena were defined in numerical taxonomy, which corresponded to distinct groups within the

Jie Liu; En Tao Wang; Wen Xin Chen

2005-01-01

457

Micromorphological analysis of soil structure under no tillage management in the black soil zone of Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the “black soil” in Northeast China has been greatly deteriorated by long-term intensive conventional mouldboard\\u000a plow tillage (CT) practices. In this study, micromorphological observation and image analysis of soil thin sections were conducted\\u000a to evaluate the impacts of 21 years (1986–2007) of no tillage (NT) on soil structure as compared to CT in an experiment near\\u000a Gongzhuling

Hu Zhou; Baoguo Li; Yizhong Lu

2009-01-01

458

Environmental and economic assessment of municipal sewage sludge management - a case study in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

A case study was conducted in Beijing to identify municipal sewage sludge (SS) management systems appropriate for a sound material-cycle society. The environmental and economic impacts of four realistic SS-handling scenarios were investigated: stabilization by thermal drying, increased inclusion of SS in cement manufacture, and using either dried or carbonized SS as substitute fuel for coal-fired power generation plants. The results showed that the current sludge management system had the lowest operating cost but higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a low recycling rate. The case with the use of carbonized SS reused in coal-fired power plants had higher energy consumption and almost the same GHG emissions as the current system. On the other hand, the case including more SS in cement manufacture had the same level of energy consumption with much lower GHG emissions. The case with the use of dried SS in coal-fired power plants also resulted in lower energy consumption and lower GHG emissions than at present. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis showed that drying SS with surplus heat from cement plants used less energy and emitted less GHG compared to the other two drying methods. PMID:23552233

Li, Xinyi; Takaoka, Masaki; Zhu, Fenfen; Wang, Jiawei; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Tadao

2013-01-01

459

Eco-geochemical Assessment of Agroecosystems: Cd in the Chengdu Economical Region, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cadmium (Cd) in the Chengdu Economic Region was studied as an example of eco-geochemical assessment on agroecosystems. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition samples, chemical fertilizers, irrigation water, and plants were collected. The concentrations of Cd and other elements in these samples were analyzed and the fluxes of input and output of the agroecosystem were calculated. The results indicated that the Cd was more concentrated in the surface soil than in the deep soil, and Cd concentration in some rice samples exceeded the upper limit of the pollution-free agricultural products. The input of Cd into the agroecosystem was 17.8 g·hm -2·y -1 on average, which accounted for 85.2% of the total input. Infiltration (2.34 g·hm -2·y -1) and harvest (1.87 g·hm -2·y -1) were the two most important Cd outputs. The average increase of Cd content in soil was 0.006 mg·kg -1·y -1, which was a result of sources outside of the agroecosystem. In the next 20 years, the area of the grade III soil will increase 2-3 times under the current input and output condition of Cd, which will lead to significant decrease of the arable land. The decrease of the pH in the study area was 0.106 y -1 because of fertilization and acid rain, of which 89.6% was from the contribution of chemical fertilizers. The present study indicates that, even though 95% of the rice production is safe, after 20 years, 70% of the safe soil will degrade, and the area of alarming soil will increase rapidly from 4% to 27% of the total cultivated area in the region.

Yang, Zhongfang; Hou, Qingye; Yu, Tao; Chen, Jiawei; Xia, Xueqi; Huang, Yong; Li, Kuo

460

Geology of the Haiyuan Fault Zone, Ningxia-Hui Autonomous Region, China, and its relation to the evolution of the Northeastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Haiyuan area, located along the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in north central China, provides a laboratory for studying how the plateau has grown in late Cenozoic time. Rocks in the area range from pre-Silurian (Precambrian?) to Recent; the pre-Silurian and Cenozoic rocks form the most extensive outcrops. The pre-Silurian rocks consist of amphibolite- and greenschist-grade metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks unconformably overlain by Silurian and Devonian red beds. All of these rocks are intruded by granodiorite of unknown age. Cenozoic rocks consist of 2.6-3.0 km of Eocene to Miocene red beds that were deposited over an extensive area in this part of China. Pliocene conglomerate contains clasts from all older formations and is interpreted to have been derived from highlands developed during the beginning of Cenozoic deformation in the Haiyuan area. Except for the widespread loess deposits, Quaternary rocks reflect deposition in local tectonic environments. The oldest Cenozoic structures in the Haiyuan area are folds and small thrust faults that generally strike N30°-45°W and involve mostly pre-Quaternary rocks. These structures and all the Quaternary rocks are cut by the Haiyuan left-lateral strike-slip (left-slip) fault zone that generally trends N60°-65°W and is nearly vertical. At the western end of the mapped area a fault zone, which strikes N75°-90°W, forms a left-stepping transfer zone that connects with another segment of the Haiyuan fault zone, which continues N60°-65°W west into Gansu Province. A small basin, the Salt Lake Basin, is marked by active faults in the area of the transfer zone and is interpreted as a pull-apart basin along the left-slip Haiyuan fault zone. At its eastern end the Haiyuan fault zone has an irregular surface trace; east of Luzigou an active fault striking N35°-45°W branches to the south. This southern branch appears to be a younger fault and now accommodates most of the left-slip deformation that formerly occurred on the easternmost part of the Haiyuan fault zone. This younger fault connects through a left-stepping transfer zone to a parallel fault, the Xiaokou fault, that can be traced into the Liupan Shan about 60 km to the southeast. The Laohuyaoxian Basin is interpreted as a very young pull-apart basin in the area of the transfer zone. Matching different geological features across the Haiyuan fault zone yields a total left-slip offset of between 10.5 and 15.5 km, and the best constrained offsets yield 12.9-14.8 km. If left slip began near the end of the Pliocene time or earliest Pleistocene time, it indicates an average slip rate between 5 and 10 mm/yr. Progressively smaller offsets can be determined on progressively younger geological features, but dates for these younger features are too imprecise to constrain slip rates through time. Surface ruptures that formed during the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (M = 8.7) show mostly left-slip displacement with magnitudes of more than 10 m in some places. Active faulting in the region suggests the Tibetan Plateau may be extending to the northeast in time. In the Haiyuan area, deformation probably began in Pliocene time, compared with a likely earlier initiation to the southwest; thus deformation began about 40-45 m.y. after collision between India and Asia. Formation of the low ranges to the northeast of the Haiyuan area, however, may have developed at different times and deformation may not have propagated regularly to the northeast. A total displacement of 10.5-15.5 km on the Haiyuan fault zone indicates that this fault zone does not accommodate large-scale eastward lateral transfer of continental fragments in the northern Tibetan Plateau.

Burchfiel, B. C.; Zhang, Peizhen; Wang, Yipeng; Zhang, Weiqi; Song, Fangmin; Deng, Qidong; Molnar, Peter; Royden, Leigh

1991-12-01

461

Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponin

McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

2011-08-18

462

Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.  

PubMed

The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. PMID:22311560

Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

2012-02-08

463

Occurrence of soluble salts and moisture in the unsaturated zone and groundwater hydrochemistry along the middle and lower reaches of the Heihe River in northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation, over-development of water resources and population growth have contributed to degeneration of vegetation in the Heihe River Basin in northwest China. Salts and water contents are the most important factors affecting the growth of vegetation in this arid area. This study was conducted to determine soluble salt levels of soils in the unsaturated zone and the hydrochemistry of groundwater at 14 sites in this region. Concentrations of soluble ions in the soils deceased with depth. Soil ion contents increased at depths below the root system of native plants. Sulfate was the dominant anion in both the unsaturated zone and the groundwater. Total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater ranged from less than 1 g/L in the middle reaches of the watershed to about 10 g/L in the arid lower reaches. In the middle and upper reaches of the watershed, salinity in soil and groundwater decreased. Groundwater was highly variable in hydrochemistry. The lower reaches was predominated by SO4-Na•Mg and SO4-Mg•Na type water, whereas in the middle reaches groundwater is characterized by lower TDS and HCO3-dominated type water. Evapotranspiration is responsible for occurrence of the soluble salts in the soil profiles. Dissolution is the dominant chemical process in the middle reaches, whereas evapotranspiration prevails in the lower reaches of the Heihe River.

Zhou, Xun; Fang, Bin; Wan, Li; Cao, Wenbing; Wu, Shengjun; Feng, Weidong

2006-08-01

464

Evaluation of the economic and environmental impact of converting cropland to forest: a case study in Dunhua county, China.  

PubMed

The Sloping Land Conversion Program (also known as "Grain for Green" or the Upland Conversion Program) for converting cropland to forest is one of China's most ambitious environmental initiatives, and is one of the world's largest land-conservation programs with a budget of RMB 337 billion (over US$ 40 billion). Although environmental impacts have played a vital role in the general reasoning and argumentation for forest plantations, environmental impact analyses have often received less attention than economic analyses in the planning of plantation forestry projects. The overall goal of this paper is to evaluate the program's environmental impact considering the farmer's interests and the potential social benefits due to carbon sequestration in different scenarios based on household and field survey data in Dunhua County. Our findings are that: (1) in many cases, the program did not give adequate consideration to land productivity and environmental heterogeneity when selecting plots; (2) more than half of the reforestation plots were on flat cropland (slopes of less than 5 degrees ); (3) in five of the eight townships, net incomes on reforested land were substantially above or below previous crop incomes, raising questions about the efficiency of the allocation of compensation to farmers participating in the program; (4) the potential carbon co-benefit increased the NPV of the program by 5954-7009 RMB/ha. In conclusion, we recommend that more attention should be paid to the quality of reforestation programs rather than just their scale and note that consideration of potential carbon sequestration co-benefits enhances the benefits of cropland conversion programs. PMID:17188798

Wang, C; Ouyang, H; Maclaren, V; Yin, Y; Shao, B; Boland, A; Tian, Y

2006-12-22

465

Control of French and Japanese subsidiaries in China: implementing control mechanisms before and after the global economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central research question investigated herein involves why and how multinational firms implement various instruments and mechanisms to maintain control over their subsidiaries in China. During 2005–2007, the authors interviewed expatriate managers in charge of 12 French and 10 Japanese subsidiaries in China. The interviews show that multinational companies base their subsidiary control policy on four main control dimensions: the

Johannes Schaaper; Shuji Mizoguchi; Hiroyuki Nakamura; Seiki Yamashita

2011-01-01

466

Future cereal production in China: The interaction of climate change, water availability and socio-economic scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food production in China is a fundamental component of the national economy and driver of agricultural policy. Sustaining and increasing output to meet growing demand faces significant challenges including climate change, increasing population, agricultural land loss and competing demands for water. Recent warming in China is projected to accelerate by climate models with associated changes in precipitation and frequency of

Xiong Wei; Conway Declan; Lin Erda; Xu Yinlong; Ju Hui; Jiang Jinhe; Holman Ian; Li Yan

2009-01-01

467

Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables

Hasret Benar Balcioglu; Kivanç Vural

2009-01-01

468

Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families. Methods A hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The incidence of outpatient influenza cases in Zhuhai was estimated on the basis of the number of influenza patients detected by the sentinel sites. A telephone survey on the direct costs associated with illness was conducted as a follow-up. Results The incidence of influenza was estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 19.2 per 1,000 population in 2009. Children aged <5 years were the most-affected population, suffering from influenza at the highest rates (34.3 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 95.3 per 1,000 population in 2009). A high incidence of 29.2–40.9 per 1000 population was also seen in young people aged 5–24 years in 2009. ILI activity and influenza virus isolations adopted a consistent seasonal pattern, with a summer peak in July 2008 and the longest epidemic period lasting from July–December 2009. The medical costs per episode of influenza among urban patients were higher than those for rural patients. A total of $1.1 million in direct economic losses were estimated to be associated with outpatient influenza during 2008–2009 in Zhuhai community. Conclusions Influenza attacks children aged <5 years in greater proportions than children in other age groups. Seasonal influenza 2008 and Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 had different epidemiological and etiological characteristics. Direct costs (mostly medical costs) impose an enormous burden on the patient family. Vaccination strategies for high-risk groups need to be further strengthened.

Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Chan-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; He, Jian-feng; Zhang, Jin-qing

2012-01-01

469

The Hengshan low-angle normal fault zone: Structural and geochronological constraints on the Late Mesozoic crustal extension in South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We document in this paper a significant low-angle normal fault, namely the Hengshan detachment fault, which extends more than 150 km long in NNE orientation and bounds an elongated Early Cretaceous basin in Hunan Province, central South China. Detailed structural and geochronological analyses have been conducted along its southern segment, where a well exposed, ~ 3 km thick, flat ductile shear zone develops along the western margin of the Hengshan granitic massif. This zone is featured by shallow-dipping foliations of varied trend from NE to NW, which bear penetrative stretching lineations varying from NW to SW trend. Shear sense criteria indicate top-to-the-NW and top-to-the-SW motions along its northern and southern parts, respectively. Quartz c-axis orientations of mylonitic rocks from the shear zone exhibit asymmetric single or crossed girdle patterns, and the distributions of fabric point maxima suggest a simultaneous operation of basal and prism slips, indicating a deformation temperature ranging from 400 °C to 550 °C. One zircon U–Pb age of the sheared albitite and three muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages of the mylonitic rocks indicate that the ductile shearing initiated at 136 Ma and lasted till 97 Ma. The zircon U–Pb dating results of five granitic samples from the Hengshan granitic pluton yield two phases of crystallization ages of 232–228 Ma and 150–151 Ma respectively, indicating two preceding magmatic events prior to the ductile shearing in the lower plate. Our structural and geochronological data allow defining the Hengshan massif as an extensional dome, rather than a metamorphic core complex as previously predicted, due to the lack of syn-tectonic plutonism and the origin of detachment fault associated with the reactivation of the inherited thrust. This study provides crucial evidence for understanding how the mid–upper crust deformed during the process of extension, which testifies to a coeval occurrence of non-coaxial deformation of the ductile flow in the middle crust and brittle faulting in the upper crust. It also sheds new insights into the timing of the regional crustal extension in South China, and permits to constrain its onset time to be ca. 136 Ma.

Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Su, Jinbao; Li, Yong; Cui, Jianjun; Shi, Wei

2013-10-01

470

Assessment of rock mass characteristics and the excavation disturbed zone in the Lingxin Coal Mine beneath the Xitian river, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe production and induced hazard prevention in coal mines mainly concern problems in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ), but coal mining can also make a significant impact on the environment. Comprehensive techniques using a borehole TV viewer system, electrical logging, and monitoring of drilling fluid leakage offer the ability to identify changing geological conditions and the location of any nearby

Xingping Lai; Meifeng Cai; Fenhua Ren; Mowen Xie; Tetsuro Esaki

2006-01-01

471

Analyzing the non-stationary space relationship of a city's degree of vegetation and social economic conditions in Shanghai, China using OLS and GWR models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the fast urbanization process, how does the vegetation environment change in one of the most economically developed metropolis, Shanghai in East China? To answer this question, there is a pressing demand to explore the non-stationary relationship between socio-economic conditions and vegetation across Shanghai. In this study, environmental data on vegetation cover, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery in 2003 were integrated with socio-economic data to reflect the city's vegetative conditions at the census block group level. To explore regional variations in the relationship of vegetation and socio-economic conditions, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were applied to characterize mean NDVI against three independent socio-economic variables, an urban land use ratio, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population density. The study results show that a considerable distinctive spatial variation exists in the relationship for each model. The GWR model has superior effects and higher precision than the OLS model at the census block group scale. So, it is more suitable to account for local effects and geographical variations. This study also indicates that unreasonable excessive urbanization, together with non-sustainable economic development, has a negative influence of vegetation vigor for some neighborhoods in Shanghai.

Wang, Kejing; Zhang, Yuan; An, Youzhi; Jing, Zhuoxin; Wang, Chao

2013-09-01

472

The outlook for the discovery of new types of economic uranium deposits in the Kodar-Udokan zone of the Transbaikal territory in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of detailed fieldwork and analytical procedures (microprobe, X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, etc.), ores and altered wall-rock rocks of the Khadatkanda and Etyrko deposits in the Kodar-Udokan mineragenic zone were studied. Economic concentrations of gold and some other accompanying metals have been established in ore of the Khadatkanda uranium deposit in the Syul’ban uranium district. REE-U lodes with brannerite-uraninite have been found at the Etyrko Fe-Ti-V deposit related to the Chinei layered pluton in the Udokan mining district. The outlook for the discovery of new types of economic uranium deposits is substantiated with respect to the known hydrothermal uranium ore objects and nontraditional setting related to the layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions.

Makar'ev, L. B.; Mironov, Yu. B.; Voyakovsky, S. K.

2010-10-01

473

Study on disparity of regional economic development based on geoinformatic Tupu and GWR model: a case of growth of GDP per capita in China from 1999 to 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional disparity of economic development in China is always greatly concerned by investigators domestic and abroad, and sets of models have been used in the analysis. Spatial dependence, which is hidden in the data with spatial attributes, usually is not taken into account in classical statistics methods, such as ordinary linear regression(OLR) model. Along with the development of spatial statistics, more and more attentions are paid on spatial interactions between observations in the study of regional disparity. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) is a simple but effective model to recognize spatial variation and local difference, which considers the influence of the spatially non-stationarity of the variables. In this study, GWR model and Geo-Informatic Tupu were used to analyze the disparity of regional economic development in China, taking GDP per capita in 1999 and 2003 as a case, which is usually used to measure level of economic development. GDP per capita in the 338 cities in 1999 were selected to simulate GDP per capita in 2003 and to analysis non-stationarity of the growth of GDP per capita. Using Geo-Informatic Tupu, A series of maps were processed to display patterns of local parameter estimates, such as local r-squares, the residual sum of squares, local residual and so on, to gain a better understanding of the degree of spatial non-stationarity in a relationship over space. We tested for geographic heterogeneity in the parameters and compare them to estimates obtained from global regression approaches. The results suggested there was heterogeneity in the regression coefficients across broad regions of China, and a one-size fits all approach to describe growth processes appeared simplistic. The GWR model improved over the OLR model, and it was able to better explain the variation in the data and to simulate GDP per capita with smaller errors than the OLR models.

Li, Feixue; Li, Manchun; Liang, Jian

2007-08-01

474

77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; correction...published on February 3, 2012. This correction is intended to clarify regulatory...

2012-03-09

475

Multi-phase distribution of organic micropollutants in Xiamen Harbour, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xiamen Harbour, in the Xiamen Special Economic Zone of the People’s Republic of China, was studied for its water and sediment quality, by determining the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 18 organochlorine insecticides in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), pore water and sediment samples from nine stations in the Harbour. Total PAH concentrations

J. L Zhou; H Hong; Z Zhang; K Maskaoui; W Chen

2000-01-01

476

Chapter 6 Sources and Occurrence of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Pearl River Delta, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pearl River Delta is a fast-developing economic zone in South China. Relatively abundant monitoring data of POPs are available in the regional environment. DDT is still the most priority POP widely occurred at high concentrations in the air, wild fishes and human breast milk. Fast-increasing municipal waste incinerators, as well as electronic waste cycling activities in the region are

Gan Zhang; Xiangdong Li; Xinming Wang; Eddy Y. Zeng; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

477

The Rise of China and India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and Environmental Implications for Low-Income Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of China and, more recently, of India, is having major effects on every facet of the global economy. The supply of labor-intensive manufactured exports (from China in particular) has been accompanied by a huge expansion in their imports both of raw materials and of skill-intensive manufactured parts and components. This 'offshoring' of intermediates production by large, labor-abundant

Ian Coxhead; Sisira Jayasuriya

2008-01-01

478

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

479

Demography of Aging in China and the United States and the Economic Well-Being of their Older Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today China has the world’s largest older population, defined as aged 65 and over. The size of the older population in the\\u000a United States is also large, ranking third in the world in 2000. The combined older populations of China and the United States\\u000a represented 29 percent of the world’s population 65 and older in 2000. The large older populations

Charles Louis Kincannon; Wan He; Loraine A. West

2005-01-01

480

75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-25

481

75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...total allowable catch limit in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-06

482

76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-10

483

China's 'Hot Money' Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic conditions in China are of considerable concern to U.S. policy makers, given the potential impact of China's economy on the global and U.S. economy. The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as 'hot money,' has...

M. F. Martin W. M. Morrison

2008-01-01

484

China in Transition. Middle School Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes and comments upon a Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad Program trip to China. Discusses economic, social, and political changes in China during recent years. Provides recommendations for instructional resources for teaching about China. (CFR)|

Sabato, George

1996-01-01

485

Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

2013-08-01

486

Diverse rhizobia associated with woody legumes Wisteria sinensis, Cercis racemosa and Amorpha fruticosa grown in the temperate zone of China.  

PubMed

Fifty-nine bacterial isolates from root nodules of the woody legumes Wisteria sinensis, Cercis racemosa and Amorpha fruticosa grown in the central and eastern regions of China were characterized with phenotypic analysis, PCR-based 16S and 23S rRNA gene RFLP, Box PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Seven main phena were defined in numerical taxonomy, which corresponded to distinct groups within the genera Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium in 16S and 23S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP. The phylogenetic relationships of the 16S rRNA genes supported the grouping results of PCR-RFLP. Most of the isolates from Amorpha fruticosa were classified into two groups closely related to Mesorhizobium amorphae. Seventeen of the 21 isolates from Wisteria sinensis were identified as two groups related to Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. Six out of 10 isolates from Cercis racemosa were identified as a group related to Bradyrhizobium. Our results indicated that each of the investigated legumes nodulated mainly with one or two rhizobial groups, although isolates from different plants intermingled in some small bacterial groups. In addition, correlation between geographic origin and grouping results was found in the isolates from Amorpha fruticosa. These results revealed that the symbiotic bacteria might have been selected by both the legume hosts and the geographic factors. PMID:16094873

Liu, Jie; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

2005-07-01

487

[Effects of tillage mode and nitrogen application rate on nitrogen use efficiency of wheat in a farming-pasture zone of North China].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted in a farming-pasture zone in Chifeng City of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, North China to investigate the effects of different tillage modes and nitrogen (N) application rates on the grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of winter wheat. The results showed that long term conservation tillage increased the wheat NUE by 3% -4%, and decreased the environmental pollution by fertilizer N. Conservation tillage promoted the N absorption by wheat, and increased the grain yield. When the N application rate increased from 120 kg hm-2 to 360 kg . hm-2, the NUE decreased from 36. 5% to 26% , fertilizer N loss increased by about 5% , i. e. , the corresponding N loss was increased from 60 kg hm-2 to 200 kg hm-2, and the environmental N pollution increased markedly. The wheat NUE of the residual N in last season was less affected by tillage mode, but more affected by the N application rate in last season, with an overall tendency of the higher the N application rate in last season, the lower the NUE and the more the fertilizer N loss. After two seasons' wheat planting, the proportion of the total nitrogen recovery by the wheat-soil system was about 44% -50%, among which, the residual N in soil occupied about 13% -18% of applied N. PMID:23898657

Chang, Xu-hong; Zhao, Guang-cai; Yang, Yu-shuang; Feng, Ming; Ma, Shao-kang; Wang, De-mei; Bi, Yu-qiang; Yang, Su-rong

2013-04-01

488

Zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and granitoids in the coastal tectonic zone of SE China: Constraints on the timing of Late Mesozoic orogeny  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal Changle-Nan'ao tectonic zone of SE China contains important geological records of the Late Mesozoic orogeny and post-orogenic extension in this part of the Asian continent. The folded and metamorphosed T3-J1 sedimentary rocks are unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks or occur as amphibolite facies enclaves in late Jurassic to early Cretaceous gneissic granites. Moreover, all the metamorphic and/or deformed rocks are intruded by Cretaceous fine-grained granitic plutons or dykes. In order to understand the orogenic development, we undertook a comprehensive zircon U-Pb geochronology on a variety of rock types, including paragneiss, migmatitic gneiss, gneissic granite, leucogranite, and fine-grained granitoids. Zircon U-Pb dating on gneissic granites, migmatitic gneisses, and leucogranite dyke yielded a similar age range of 147-135 Ma. Meanwhile, protoliths of some gneissic granites and migmatitic gneisses are found to be late Jurassic magmatic rocks (ca. 165-150 Ma). The little deformed and unmetamorphosed Cretaceous plutons or dykes were dated at 132-117 Ma. These new age data indicate that the orogeny lasted from late Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) to early Cretaceous (ca. 135 Ma). The tectonic transition from the syn-kinematic magmatism and migmatization (147-136 Ma) to the post-kinematic plutonism (132-117 Ma) occurred at 136-132 Ma.

Cui, Jianjun; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Xianbing; Ma, Licheng

2013-01-01

489

Sustainable Growth for China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's economic system and ecosystem have everything to gain by teasing apart the issues related to infrastructure and climate change in China. If China is to sustain its economic growth and improve its living standards over the next several decades, huge sums of capital will be needed to finance green infrastructure in energy and water. While cooperative approaches between

Andrew H. Chen; Jennifer Warren

2011-01-01

490

Japan eyes China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research trip to Tokyo found contrasts between Japanese policies of engaging China economically and the U.S. emphasis on\\u000a human rights. It also found distinct differences between Washington and Tokyo in assessing the present and future security\\u000a threat of China in Asia. While the United States is apprehensive about increasing military power, Japan is more concerned\\u000a with China’s political and

Harvey W. Nelsen

1995-01-01

491

Particulates pollution management and economic analysis of small rural enterprises in mountain areas: A case study of Wenquan town in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, many rural enterprises in China's mountainous areas are developing rapidly, and due to poor planning and improper management, in an uncontrolled manner. These small enterprises are making atmospheric pollution far more serious and more difficult to control than before. Thus, as is the case with most developing countries, China is facing the challenge of managing the increased environmental pollution that is accompanying its economic development. This paper examines the case of cement dust pollution in the town of Wenquan in Sichuan province in order to determine how to adjust the relationship between development of rural enterprises and atmospheric environmental pollution in mountainous areas. Using the single objective linear programming method, and based on the principle of overall optimization, an optimal control plan for different pollution sources was worked out and an economic assessment on reclamation of cement dust was completed. According to our analysis, after implementation of this plan for four years, two months, the concentrations of suspended particles in Wenquan will achieve the requirement of the national third-order ambient air quality standard; the current serious dust pollution will be completely controlled; and the reclamation of cement dust will totally compensate for the cost of dust control and will result in 92,000 yuan of pure profit per year. At that time, the economy and environment will be in harmony.

Ning, Datong; Li, Huaiyu; Yang, Xiaosong

1994-03-01

492

Can Increased Trade Prevent Conflict with China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, the United States began to run a significant trade deficit with China due to the dual forces of greater trade liberalization and China’s transition from a command economy towards a market economy. Proponents of free trade with China argue that greater integration will lead to a convergence of interests that reaches beyond economics. Despite growing economic

Stephen Rush

2007-01-01

493

Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD\\/VCD players and copiers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the popularization of household electrical appliances and the rapid development of office automation and networking, a huge number of consumer electronic devices, computers, copiers, and fax machines have been put into use in China over the last two decades. These products almost all use a certain amount of standby power--the power that is consumed when a device is connected

Jiang Lin; Tienan Li; Aizhen Li; Guoqing Zhang

2004-01-01