Sample records for economic zone china

  1. Interactions between economic growth and environmental quality in Shenzhen, China's first special economic zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaozi Liu; Gerhard K. Heilig; Junmiao Chen; Mikko Heino

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and environmental quality is a debated topic. Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is one prominent hypothesis, positing an inverted U-shaped development–environment relationship. Here we test this hypothesis using data from Shenzhen, People's Republic of China. Established in 1980 as the first special economic zone in China, Shenzhen has developed from a small village into a large

  2. Magic and myth of migration: a case study of a special economic zone in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, X

    1987-09-01

    The town of Shenzhen, China, experienced rapid economic and demographic growth following the government's creation of four Special Economic Zones in 1980. The role of migration in the Shenzhen phenomenon is examined as a practicum for policymakers and demographic specialists. Specifically, the paper is concerned with "the sources and mechanisms of migration, and characteristics of migrants to Shenzhen in order to clarify the relationship between rapid economic growth and its demographic consequences in China. It also briefly assesses the problems associated with migration to Shenzhen and how they may affect the city's future." PMID:12268937

  3. Special Economic Zones and Economic Corridors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masami ISHIDA

    2009-01-01

    Various reports show that special economic zones (SEZ) have become a prime catalyst for regional development in developing countries such as China and the ASEAN countries. The SEZ can be defined as a specific geographical region with economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws. Many SEZs have characteristics of bonded zones, export processing zone (EPZ)

  4. Culture and commerce in China's Special Economic Zone : an experiment in design and development

    E-print Network

    Lee, Joyce See-yin

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the real estate environment in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone have been conducive to development and foreign investment. Based on a projected market demand, a mixed-use development in the theme of a ...

  5. China’s Economic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne M Morrison

    2008-01-01

    [Excerpt] Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1979, China has become one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. From 1979 to 2007 China’s real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of 9.8%. Real GDP grew 11.4% in 2007 (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in

  6. Biodiversity Impact Assessment of Industrial Development Plans for China's Beibu Gulf Economic Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bi Zhang; Wei Li; Guoyu Sun

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity has become an internationally central concern. As such, it is crucial to fully consider it into social economy development. This paper explores how to carry out the biodiversity impact assessment (BIA) as a useful tool for biodiversity conservation. Taking Beibu Gulf economic zone as the case, the study predicts the impact of the industrial development plans for the period

  7. The transition of urban growth in China : a case study of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone

    E-print Network

    Gao, Mingzheng, 1965-

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese government announced new economic reform policies in December of 1978. The announcement included an urban distribution policy that emphasized small cities and towns for rural urbanization as a means to achieve ...

  8. Stressors of dual-qualification nursing teachers in the ChengDu-ChongQing economic zone of China--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Youfeng; Liu, Hui; He, Hongyan

    2013-12-01

    Nursing and teaching are considered risk professions with high levels of stress and burnout. Dual-qualification nursing teachers (DQNT) are nurses who both teach and practise. These nurses face additional stress. This study explored the stressors of DQNT in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. This qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended interviews. The interview responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The participants in this study included 21 DQNT from 5 teaching hospitals in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. The results indicated that heavy workload, personal safety, inadequate pay, role overload, and poor working environment are stressors of DQNT. Furthermore, Chinese DQNT face violence from patients and students. The study provides a theoretical basis to help DQNT to cope with stress. PMID:23702488

  9. Spatial distribution of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1817) in the South China Sea Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razib, N. A.; Mustapha, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Rastrelliger kanagurta inhabits the South China Sea, where it is the most abundant commercial fish. Understanding distribution of this species is important. Objective of this study is to describe the relationship between spatial distribution of R. kanagurta and its local environmental factors. Chlorophyll-a distribution and sea surface temperature was obtained from Aqua MODIS satellite image. Fisheries data of 2007 to 2010 were obtained from the Southeast Asean Fisheries Department Center (SEAFDEC). These data were analyzed in relation to physical and environmental factors to establish the spatial-temporal distribution of the species. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was calculated from the fisheries data and used as abundance index. Kernel Density maps of the abundance were created. The result showed that the abundance generated by Kernel Density analysis at 10.0 to 12.0 were associated with chlorophyll-a concentration of 0.4 ± 0.1 mg/m3 and sea surface temperature of 27.0 ± 1.0 °C at offshore of Pahang coast. The density maps showed that the increase of R. kanagurta abundance was occurred in October. The environmental factors in South China Sea played an important role on R. kanagurta's density patterns. This study indicated the capability of GIS and satellite image to indicate aggregation area of R. kanagurta.

  10. ECONOMICALLY DETERMINED LIVESTOCK QUARANTINE ZONES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip L. Paarlberg; Ann Hillberg Seitzinger; John G. Lee

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines economic factors present when setting quarantine zones for contagious livestock diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A conceptual model explores the trade-offs as zone size expands. One trade-off is between the cost of economic activity inside the zone and the benefits of reduced disease spread. There are also agricultural and non-agricultural price effects to consider. Two hypothetical counties

  11. Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in surface sediments from a subtropical bay affected by the Special Economic Zone, China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yongmin; Pan, Hong; Yang, Yang; Gu, Jiguang; Zhao, Jiangang

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of nine metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Al) in surface sediments from 14 sampling sites in Shantou Bay were determined in order to understand current metal levels and spatial distribution due to the rapid development of the Shantou Special Economic Zone. Results showed that metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.31 to 1.74 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 35.98 to 74.19 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 24.43 to 79.24 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 428.45 to 809.87 mg kg(-1) for Mn, 16.91 to 31.51 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 35.59 to 64.84 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 84.91 to 246.51 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 2.93 to 3.93% for Fe, and 5.25 to 9.28% for Al. Although all metal concentrations in sediments meet Chinese National Standard Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality, both enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) show Pb and Cd pollution existed in the upper and middle bay, and pollution of other metals is also recorded in some sites depending on the sources; river input, sewage discharge, and port activities are the main sources of pollutant to the bay. PMID:23656944

  12. Understanding china's economic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

    2001-01-01

    Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are claimed to be successful in (a) agriculture where land is not owned by the fanners; (b)

  13. China, Southeast Asia and Economic

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jing

    No: 12-01 China, Southeast Asia and Economic Crises Nicholas Tarling New Zealand Asia Institute. Author: Emeritus Professor Nicholas Tarling, LittD (Cambridge), MNZM, is a Fellow at New Zealand Asia other authors, to take a wider perspective, either geographically or chronologically or both. Perhaps

  14. Occurrence, distribution, and source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and leaves from Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pei-Heng; Ni, Hong-Gang; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Shi, Ye-Hong; Zeng, Hui

    2011-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in soil and three plant species samples taken at different land use areas in Shenzhen China. The concentrations of ?(7)BDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, and BDE-183) and BDE-209 in the surface soils ranged from 0.23 to 271 and 8.9 to 5,956 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. These figures are comparable to that in the soils of electronic waste dismantling sites. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (contributes 85-99% of ?(8)PBDEs (?(7)PBDEs plus BDE-209)) in soils. The regression slopes of total organic carbon and individual BDE congeners were rather gentle, indicating that factors other than soil organic matter regulated the soil concentrations. Proximity to sources of deposition processes might be the major factors. In the plant leaves, ?(7)BDEs and BDE-209 concentrations ranged from 1.29 to 5.91 and 5.49 to 28.2 ng/g dw, respectively. BDE-209 is also the dominant component, but the contribution was much lower compared with that in soils. Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Michelia alba DC. show some similarities on the uptake of PBDEs, while Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia is different from them. The correlations between plant leaf concentrations and predicted gaseous concentrations were moderate, indicating that gaseous concentration did not influence the leaf concentration significantly. PMID:20437267

  15. Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, Andrew Allan

    Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change that was previously unavailable for the Sanya Region. Data acquired from the IKONOS-2 satellite are analyzed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to identify urban greenspace in three subscenes extracted from the Sanya landscape. Results suggest that urban greenspace can be successfully characterized with enhanced detail using landscape pattern indices (LPIs) and a correlogram approach. Inclusion of a spatial approach to greenspace characterization and planning is argued to be an important and easily implemented method for enhanced evaluation of urban quality of life. The government of Hainan has stated that it wishes to employ additional and more refined means of guiding future development practices. This study is a landscape analysis involving change detection of land cover as well as the spatial analysis of urban morphological features. It develops methodologies that may be used to investigate and document past and current urban conditions; some of these could be used by the Hainan Government to further their future urban planning goals of economic growth and ecological sustainability.

  16. Foreign Trade and Economic Reform in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas R. Lardy

    1992-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between China's foreign trade reforms and the domestic economic reforms that underlie China's recent policy of openness. It provided the first comprehensive analysis of how China has emerged, since reform began in 1978, as one of the most dynamic trading nations in the world. It examines both the external policy changes, such as the decentralisation

  17. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  18. The Shenzhen Special Economic Zone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    Landsat Thematic Mapper views Shenzhen, China, located on the Pearl River, in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 432. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1396, 1397, and 1398.

  19. China's Transition and Feminist Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günseli Berik; Xiao-yuan Dong; Gale Summerfield

    2007-01-01

    Since 1978 China has been undergoing transition from a socialist to a capitalist economy and the opening up to international trade and investment. This process has been accelerated by WTO membership. This article presents an overview of the gendered processes and outcomes associated with China's reforms, mainly focusing on the post-1992 period when the pace of reforms accelerated. The imperative

  20. Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China

    E-print Network

    Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China Sylvie Démurger, Jeffrey D. Sachs Development Working Papers #12;Forthcoming in Asian Economic Papers Vol. 1 No. 1 Geography, Economic Policy;1 October 14, 2001 Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China Sylvie Démurger, Jeffrey D

  1. Economics of Building Integrated PV In China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Byrne; Gerard Alleng; Aiming Zhou

    This paper presents a technical and economic analysis of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications for commercial buildings in Shanghai and Beijing China. The analysis assumes that the array area is 105 m 2 (equivalent to 6.3 kWp for amorphous silicon thin film technology and 10.0 kWp for polycrystalline technology). Rooftop and curtain wall applications are considered. BIPV is analyzed as: an

  2. Firm Concentration, Technology Promotion and Economic Performance: An Empirical Study on the Nature and Dynamics of Industrial Clusters in China’s Development Zones along the Down Reaches of Yangtze River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianghuai Zheng; Yanyan Gao; Xiaowen Hu

    2008-01-01

    Based on micro-firm data of development zones in Jiangsu Province along the Yangtze River, the effects of local factors special to development zones and of technology promotion on firm’s performance are tested, from which we try to illustrate the nature and dynamics of industrial clusters built on development zones. The results show that the primary reasons firms locate into development

  3. The economics of population aging in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, X

    1996-01-01

    This article relies on a Marxist framework for discussing the relationship between economic development and population aging in China. China places value on correctly understanding the causes, processes, trends, and socioeconomic consequences of population aging during the development of its socialist market economy. Many policies have an impact on the aged. Marxist theories of economic operations identify four key features--production, distribution, exchange, and consumption--which are affected by human activity. The age structure of population affects socioeconomic operations. An increase in accumulated capital means a decrease in consumption capital. China must maintain its high level of annual economic growth (6.0%-6.5%). 30% of China's national income must be used for accumulation of capital and investment, but the increase in the aged has led to growth in consumption capital. By 2050, it is expected that there will be over 100 million retirees needing about 800 billion RMB in pensions (20 times the amount in 1993). As the number of elderly grows, savings decline. The growth of the elderly will place demands on social security funds, which will in turn rely on an increased proportion of consumption capital. The increased labor force and the increased number of aged will both vie for a share in the national economy until about 2020, and then the problem will be declines in productivity in some areas. It is generally believed that support of the elderly should not rise above 10% of national income. In 1993, the elderly's share was 3.7%, and at the present rate of growth, it is expected that the share will be above 10% by 2030. Working families will have to carry a heavy domestic burden of care for their aged. Productivity will have to increase in order to offset the decline in per capita consumption capital due to aging. The author offers countermeasures at the macro- and microlevel for dealing with the demographic changes. PMID:12291971

  4. Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and

    E-print Network

    Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China* Sylvie Démurger Jeffrey D the location dummies in provincial growth regressions to obtain estimates of the effects of geography

  5. Analysis of the economic benefits and strategy of exploration and development of China`s oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Q.; Lei, H.

    1995-12-31

    On one hand, the population of China accounts for one- fifth that of the world, whereas the proved oil reserve for in average person in China makes up less than one nineth that in the world. And the average natural gas reserve per person for China is only one twentieth that of the world. On the other hand, the yearly oil output of China has from 120,000 tons to 139,000,000 tons, which has made China one of the largest oil countries in the world, presenting a striking contrast with the former. This is a problem which is worth noticing. More and more oil and gas are needed for the continued economic development of China, but the oil industry of exploration and development is faced with such contradictions and difficulties as of reserve volume, imbalance of the ratio of reserves and production, shortage of funds, surplus of staffs, low labor productivity, and so on. For this reason it is necessary to analyse the economic benefit and strategy of China`s oil and gas exploration and development. With a series of data and charts this paper analyses the economic benefit of the exploration and development of China`s oil and gas and proceed to study the strategy of {open_quotes}Stabilising the Eastern Part and Developing the Western Part of Oil Zones{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Starting the Second Oil Undertaking and Opening the Second Battlefield for Oil Production{close_quotes}. And in this paper the author comes up with his own points of view.

  6. China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

  7. 2013 China Latin America Economic Bulletin Rebecca Ray and Kevin P. Gallagher

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    2013 China ­ Latin America Economic Bulletin Rebecca Ray and Kevin P. Gallagher The China-Latin America Economic Bulletin is an annual note that summarizes and synthesizes trends in the burgeoning China-Latin America economic

  8. China’s higher education expansion and the task of economic revitalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyan Wang; Jian Liu

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China’s economic development.\\u000a These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China’s economy,\\u000a and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a description of key changes in the Chinese

  9. China, India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and

    E-print Network

    Coxhead, Ian

    China, India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and Environmental Implications for Low of Life Sciences and 2 La Trobe University 1. INTRODUCTION THE emergence of China and India as major and regional economic integration (Tongzon, 2005; Haddad, 2007; Athukorala, 2009). India's rapid growth

  10. New national seismic zoning map of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Tan Gao

    2003-01-01

    A new set of seismic zoning maps were published in August 1, 2001. It includes two maps, one is the seismic zoning map of\\u000a peak acceleration, and the other is the zoning map of the characteristic period of the response spectrum. The exceeding probability\\u000a of the map is 10% within 50 years. The scale of the map is 1:4 000

  11. China?s challenges to future sustainable economic growth and the implications for the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Degen

    2009-01-01

    The ?stunning comeback? of China after almost two centuries is one of the most significant trends affecting Western economies, particularly the United States (US). None of the key drives that have promoted China?s growth are really at risk if the Chinese government does not deviate from its present economic policy and keeps up gradual refinement of its unique and effective

  12. Redevelopment of development zones: The smart growth of cities in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xingping; Yuan Xinguo; Zhu Kai

    2012-01-01

    Development zones are the important carriers of China’s promoting industrialization and attracting international investment in the past 30 years and act as the primary means of city expansion. In this article, we analyse the low efficiency of land use problem existing in China’s current development zones. Comparing with the general old city update phenomenon, we make a detailed illustration on

  13. Development of passive design zones in China using bioclimatic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph C. Lam; Liu Yang; Jiaping Liu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the work on development of passive design zones for different climates in China. A total of 18 cities representing the five major climatic types, namely severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter were selected for climatic analysis. Measured weather data were gathered and analysed. A bioclimatic approach was adopted

  14. Innovation capacity and economic development: China and India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peilei Fan

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing the GDP growth from 1981 to 2004, this paper finds that innovation capacity has contributed significantly to the\\u000a economic growth of China and India, especially in the 1990 s. Outputs of the national innovation system, measured by patents\\u000a and high-tech\\/service exports, demonstrate the considerable progress China and India have made in innovation capacity. The\\u000a enhanced innovation capacity of China and

  15. Window on the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    Landsat Thematic Mapper views Shenzhen, China, located on the Pearl River, in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 432. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1396, 1397, and 1399.

  16. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

  17. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  18. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

  19. Free Zone - the Source of SocioEconomic Benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dula Borozan; Zeljko Klepo

    2007-01-01

    Practice in developed and developing countries indicates the existence of numerous and heterogeneous free zones as well as the different role which they have in the economic development of countries that have implemented them. The main objective for start-up of a modern free zone with industrial characteristics is to attract those investors who will build the industrial infrastructure for the

  20. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  1. On economic growth, FDI and exports in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shujie Yao

    2006-01-01

    China has achieved high economic growth for a prolonged period of time. Academic researchers have tried alternative explanations for this miraculous growth. This study focuses on the effect of exports and foreign direct investments (FDI) on economic performance, using a large panel data set encompassing 28 Chinese provinces over the period 1978–2000. Adopting Pedroni's panel unit root test and Arellano

  2. Foreign firms' financial and economic risk in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Ling; Hwee Loon Lim

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this research is to investigate how foreign firms manage financial and economic risks when operating in China's construction industry. The specific purposes of the paper are to: identify the types of financial and economic risks foreign firms face and the frequency and severity of these risks; examine how foreign firms manage these risks; and recommend

  3. Fiscal decentralization, public spending, and economic growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

    1998-01-01

    This study of China demonstrates how the allocation of fiscal resources between the central and local governments has affected economic growth since reforms began in the late 1970s. We find that a higher degree of fiscal decentralization of government spending is associated with lower provincial economic growth over the past fifteen years. This consistently significant and robust result in our

  4. China at the crossroads: the economics of tobacco and health

    PubMed Central

    Hu, T?W; Mao, Z; Ong, M; Tong, E; Tao, M; Jiang, H; Hammond, K; Smith, K R; de Beyer, J; Yurekli, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse economic aspects of tobacco control policy issues in China. Methods Published and collected survey data were used to analyse economic consequences of smoking. Economic analysis was used to address the role of tobacco farmers and the cigarette industry in the Chinese economy. Results In the agricultural sector, tobacco has the lowest economic rate of return of all cash crops. At the same time, the tobacco industry's tax contribution to the central government has been declining. Conclusion Economic gains become less important as the negative health impact of smoking on the population garners more awareness. China stands at a crossroads to implement the economic promises of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and promote the health of its population. PMID:16723674

  5. From divergence to convergence: re-evaluating the history behind China’s economic boom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loren Brandt; Debin Ma; Thomas G. Rawski

    2012-01-01

    China’s long-term economic dynamics pose a formidable challenge to economic historians. The Qing Empire (1644-1911), the world’s largest national economy prior to the 19th century, experienced a tripling of population during the 17th and 18th centuries with no signs of diminishing per capita income. In some regions, the standard of living may have matched levels recorded in advanced regions of

  6. Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2007-01-01

    Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions. PMID:18030342

  7. Economic Stress, Quality of Life, and Mortality for the Oldest-Old in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, W. Jean; Xu, Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    China's oldest old population is estimated to quadruple by 2050. Yet, poverty rate for the oldest old has been the highest among all age groups in China. This paper investigates the relationship between economic stress, quality of life, and mortality among the oldest-old in China. Both objective economic hardships and perceived economic strain are…

  8. Lifespan nutrition and changing socio-economic conditions in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengying Zhai; Huijun Wang MPH; Shufa Du; Yuna He MPH; Zhihong Wang MPH; Keyou Ge; Barry M Popkin

    2007-01-01

    Background: Twenty-five years ago, China introduced sweeping reforms in the structure of its rural economy, family planning program, and financial accountability within enterprises and service sector organizations. A rapid rise in economic productivity has resulted in continuing increases in income and changes to the traditional Chinese diet. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine how the social and

  9. China's Global Equity Oil Investments: Economic and Geopolitical Influences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojtek M. Wolfe; Brock F. Tessman

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we construct and analyze an original database of overseas Chinese equity oil investments (EOI) in order to assess the relative importance of economic and geopolitical factors in determining the type of countries that are most likely to receive those investments. We find that China's national oil companies (NOCs) choose to make considerable investments in certain oil rich

  10. Using Land to Promote Urban Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengri Ding; Erik Lichtenberg

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic incentives for urban spatial expansion in China by estimating the value of urban land using an econometric model applied to data from the 220 largest Chinese cities for the period 1996-2003. The results are consistent with the proposition that the rapid rate of urban spatial expansion resulted from a combination of fiscal pressure on local

  11. Capital Formation and Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Chow

    1993-01-01

    First, production functions are estimated for China's aggregate economy and for the five sectors--agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, and commerce--using annual data (some constructed by the author) from 1952 to 1980. Then, this paper measures the contribution of capital formation to the growth of these sectors, the effects of the Great Leap Forward of 1958-62 and of the Cultural Revolution of

  12. Economic reforms and health insurance in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan

    2009-08-01

    During the 1990s, Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and collective enterprises continually decreased coverage of public health insurance to their employees. This paper investigates this changing pattern of health insurance coverage in China using panel data from the China Nutrition and Health Survey (1991-2000). It is the first attempt in this literature that tries to identify precisely the effects of specific policies and reforms on health insurance coverage in the transitional period of China. The fixed effects linear model clustering at the province level is used for estimation, and results are compared to alternative models, including pooled OLS, random effects GLS model and fixed effects logit model. Strong empirical evidence is found that unemployment as a side effect of the Open Door Policy, and the deregulation of SOE and collective enterprises were the main causes for the decreasing trend. For example, urban areas that were highly affected by the Open Door Policy were associated with 17 percentage points decrease in the insurance coverage. Moreover, I found evidence that the gaps between SOE and non-SOE employees, collective and non-collective employees, urban and rural employees have considerably decreased during the ten years. PMID:19520475

  13. Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Mark

    Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam Lisa D-lateral shearing. Data from the southern RRSZ within Vietnam are complicated by Tertiary overprinting of rocks dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam, J. Geophys. Res

  14. Economic Stress, Quality of Life, and Mortality for the Oldest-Old in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jean Yeung; Zhenhua Xu

    2012-01-01

    China’s oldest old population is estimated to quadruple by 2050. Yet, poverty rate for the oldest old has been the highest\\u000a among all age groups in China. This paper investigates the relationship between economic stress, quality of life, and mortality\\u000a among the oldest-old in China. Both objective economic hardships and perceived economic strain are examined. We base our investigation\\u000a on

  15. Decoupling China’s Carbon Emissions Increase from Economic Growth: An Economic Analysis and Policy Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongxiang Zhang

    2000-01-01

    As the world’s second largest carbon emitter, China has long been criticized as a “free-rider” benefiting from other countries’ efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but not taking responsibility for its own emissions. China has been singled out as one of the major targets at the subsequent negotiations after the Kyoto meeting. By analyzing the historical contributions of interfuel switching,

  16. Fulbright Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1990. China's Economic Development: Research Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of nine research papers concerning aspects of the economy of China were written by U.S. college and university professors who traveled to China as part of the Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program. The papers include: "The Impact of Economic Reforms on the Status of Women in China" (M. Eysenbach); "China's Agricultural…

  17. Machinery and China's nexus of foreign trade and economic growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dic Lo; Thomas M. H. Chan

    1998-01-01

    This paper offers an interpretation of China's nexus of foreign trade and economic growth that centres around technological development. Evidence, mainly related to the performance of the machinery sector, is presented indicating that the phenomenal export expansion is not reducible to a market-centred trade regime, and that the standard thesis of export-led growth would not apply-the contribution of trade to

  18. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan?=?1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary. PMID:23604726

  19. Farewell to Diversity? New State Zones of Health Care Service in China’s Far West

    PubMed Central

    Klotzbücher, Sascha; Lässig, Peter; Jiangmei, Qin; Dongsheng, Rui; Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Using James Scott’s (2009) theoretical framework of the interaction between the state and peripheral people, we argue that the welfare state should be regarded as a pull-factor in the context of the state’s endeavours to project its power to distant peoples in assigned state zones. Our discussion is based on interviews in Xinyuan County in the Western part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Presenting current policies and alternative policy options discussed at the local level for providing primary health care in rural China, we argue that decisions made in the implementation process did not respond to the special health needs of mobile pastoralists in the high plains, but were part of the central state logic of homogenising settlement efforts and health care. Der theoretische Ansatz von James Scott zu Expansion von staatlicher Ordnung auf periphere Randgebiete wird auf den Aufbau von Wohlfahrts- und Gesundheitspolitik des modernen Staates angewendet und weiterentwickelt. Anhand mehrjähriger Feldstudien zwischen 2005 und 2009 zur Gesundheitsversorgungsstruktur im Kreis Xinyuan der Autonomen Uighurischen Region Xinjiang in der Volksrepublik China werden zuerst die nationalen Restrukturierungsmaßnahmen vorgestellt und Lösungen für eine bessere Versorgung der halbnomadisierenden kasachischen Hirtenfamilien diskutiert. Lokal entwickelte und an die nomadischen Lebensformen angepasste mobile Lösungen zur Gesundheitsfürsorge konnten nicht implementiert werden. Die Anstrengungen der staatlichen Akteure sind als Versuch zu sehen, bisher marginalisierte Gruppen aus den peripheren Gebirgsregionen und über die Integration in eine staatliche Gesundheitsversorgung in den Tälern anzusiedeln. PMID:25729121

  20. Forthcoming in the inaugural issue of Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies China's Economic Growth After WTO Membership

    E-print Network

    undergoing economic transition from a planned economy to a market economy, economic development from, and economic globalization from autarky to an important node within the global production network. RoughlyForthcoming in the inaugural issue of Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies China

  1. Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-03-01

    SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

  2. Techno-economic potential of bioethanol from bamboo in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bamboo is potentially an interesting feedstock for advanced bioethanol production in China due to its natural abundance, rapid growth, perennial nature and low management requirements. Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was selected as a promising technology to enhance sugar release from bamboo lignocellulose whilst keeping economic and environmental costs to a minimum. The present research was conducted to assess: 1) by how much LHW pretreatment can enhance sugar yields in bamboo, and 2) whether this process has the potential to be economically feasible for biofuel use at the commercial scale. Pretreatments were performed at temperatures of 170-190°C for 10–30 minutes, followed by enzymatic saccharification with a commercial enzyme cocktail at various loadings. These data were then used as inputs to a techno-economic model using AspenPlus™ to determine the production cost of bioethanol from bamboo in China. Results At the selected LHW pretreatment of 190°C for 10 minutes, 69% of the initial sugars were released under a standardised enzyme loading; this varied between 59-76% when 10–140 FPU/g glucan of commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2 was applied. Although the lowest enzyme loading yielded the least amount of bioethanol, the techno-economic evaluation revealed it to be the most economically viable scenario with a production cost of $0.484 per litre (with tax exemption and a $0.16/litre subsidy). The supply-chain analysis demonstrated that bioethanol could be economically competitive with petrol at the pump at enzyme loadings up to 60 FPU/g glucan. However, in a prospective scenario with reduced government support, this enzyme loading threshold would be reduced to 30 FPU/g glucan. Conclusions Bioethanol from bamboo is shown to be both technically and economically feasible, as well as competitive with petrol in China. Alternative approaches to reduce bioethanol production costs are still needed however, to ensure its competitiveness in a possible future scenario where neither tax exemptions nor subsidies are granted to producers. These measures may include improving sugar release with more effective pretreatments and reduced enzyme usage, accessing low cost bamboo feedstock or selecting feedstocks with higher/more accessible cellulose. PMID:24286490

  3. This article highlights current economic conditions in China and analyzes existing obstacles to improving

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    , infrastructure, and regulatory standards. Corporations--whether they pro- duce in China or not--are similarly, and labor conditions are set in the coastal zones of China. For some, China represents all economy. Critics argue that there are major incentives against effectively regulating industrial

  4. Resource evaluation of typical energy plants and possible functional zone planning in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbo Shao; Liye Chu

    2008-01-01

    Energy plants are important resources for bioenergy. China has 1554 species of oil plants, including 154 species with oil content greater than 40% in seeds, and 30 species of shrubs or arbor plants with rich biofuel components. Most of these oil plants grow in the tropical and subtropical zones of China. The richness of oil plants decreases gradually from south

  5. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants’ accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general. PMID:24376290

  6. Interjurisdictional competition for FDI: The case of China's “development zone fever”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junfu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In the attempt to compete for foreign investment, local jurisdictions in China set up a large number of development zones for industrial and commercial uses. Many of these areas never received any investment and sat idle for years as undeveloped sites. In several periods of time, development zones mushroomed at such a rampant pace that the central government had to

  7. Extraction of Suspicious Behavior of Vessels in the Exclusive Economic Zone

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extraction of Suspicious Behavior of Vessels in the Exclusive Economic Zone # Florent JANGAL1 of world maritime transport and significant economic stakes of territorial water management have prompted activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) activities and detect abnormal behavior using both

  8. Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…

  9. Foreign Exchange Rate Reform, the Balance of Trade and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis for China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaoyong Zhang

    This paper aims at assessing China's foreign exchange reform and the impact of its currency devaluation on the balance of trade. Our empirical results suggest that China's economic reform has improved the sensitivity of the economic system and made it responsive to market signals to allow changes in the exchange rate to influence the trade balance in the long-run. However,

  10. The impact of economic liberalization on marketing practices in the People?s Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengliang Deng; Jack Dart

    1995-01-01

    China?s ambitious economic reforms, which began in the late 1970s, were designed to revitalize existing enterprises. As part of this reform, various Western marketing practices were introduced into the economy. Since the current Chinese economic system is a hybrid, combining elements from both planned and market economies, the role of marketing in this setting may be quite different from that

  11. Aqaba's Old Town : proposed model for community development within the Aqaba Special Economic Zone

    E-print Network

    Al-Husseini, Dalia Z. (Dalia Zuehir)

    2007-01-01

    As a recently designated Special Economic Zone in 2001 and Jordan's only port, Aqaba has been experiencing a major economic boom and rapid development at a scale previously unprecedented in Jordan. Under the governance of ...

  12. Is Economic Transition Harmful to China’s Urban Environment? Evidence from Industrial Air Pollution in Chinese Cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canfei He; Fenghua Pan; Yan Yan

    2012-01-01

    Economic transition has posed a serious challenge to environmental protection efforts in China. This study explores the environmental effects of the triple transition process of marketisation, globalisation and decentralisation using data on industrial SO2 and soot emissions at the prefecture-city level. Panel data regression results find that marketisation and decentralisation have been harmful to the urban environment while economic globalisation

  13. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, X. H.; Wang, Y. D.; Hou, X. Y.

    2014-03-01

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005.

  14. 76 FR 12884 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone of the Bering Sea...may not be enough time for the AFA cooperative...due to postage cost differences. It is also possible...amount of additional time to complete and...burden include the time for reviewing instructions...EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0...

  15. 75 FR 79330 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone of the Bering Sea...may not be enough time for the AFA cooperative...due to postage cost differences. It is also possible...report. The total time required for a firm...burden include the time for reviewing instructions...EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 1....

  16. Growth of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in IndiaIssues and Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amitendu Palit

    2009-01-01

    Zones are popular instruments in developing countries for pursuing export-led growth strategies. Developing countries have built zones as models for selective policy applications and for easier integration into the world economy. India is not an exception. However, the recent Special Economic Zones (SEZs) that have come up following the SEZ Act of 2005 have created several controversies. These include concerns

  17. The possible response of life zones in China under global climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiongwen Chen; Xin-Shi Zhang; Bai-Lian Li

    2003-01-01

    The response of natural vegetation to climate change is of global concern. In this research, an aggregated Holdridge Life Zone System was used to study the possible response of life zones in China under doubled atmospheric CO2 concentration with the input climatic parameters at 0.5×0.5° resolution of longitude and latitude from NCAR regional climate model 2 (RegCM2) coupled with the

  18. Respiratory health problems associated to infrastructural development among residents living near Special Economic Zone in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair; Vipin Bihari; Balram Singh Pangtey; Manoj Kumar Pathak; Mohammad Fareed; Neeraj Mathur; Anup Kumar Srivastava

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the lung function status of residents living in areas adjacent to Noida Special\\u000a Economic Zone (NSEZ). The survey included 161 subjects (Bhangal = 79, Bakhtiyarpur = 48, and Hazipur = 34) and 104 subjects\\u000a from a non-industrial zone. The study showed a significantly high prevalence of lung function impairment (17.7%) amongst residents\\u000a living adjacent to Special Economic Zone (Bhangal)

  19. [Strategies and approaches of ecological and economical construction in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of north China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifeng

    2003-11-01

    After a century's exploitation on agriculture, the agroecosystem in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China has gone on a close and consumptive state, and the soil resources has suffered from desertization, alkalization and degradation. The deterioration of soil resources and eco-environment has threatened the ecological security of the regions in Beijing, Tianjin and North China. The strategies of promoting the ecological and economical development in the ecotone should include building up an opening production structure of agriculture and animal husbandry to input artificial energy from the social system, and organizing a cooperative production on agriculture and animal husbandry by exchanging products between the close regions to gain their profits. Based on the various objectives of the local farmers and the nation in the ecological rehabilitation, and the adverse succession of the ecosystem and economics, some technological approaches for making a breakthrough of economic and ecological construction were put forward, e.g., building up a suitable pattern of arbor or shrub intercropped with artificial pasture to protect soil against wind erosion, developing vegetable production adapted to the cold climate, and raising live stocks with corn residues from agricultural zone of North China, etc.. PMID:14997676

  20. Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

    2014-03-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

  1. The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

    1995-01-01

    The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

  2. Economic responses to the closure of small-scale coal mines in Chongqing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Andrews-Speed; Guo Ma; Bingjia Shao; Chenglin Liao

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, China launched a programme to close tens of thousands of small-scale coal mines within just three years. Few measures were put in place to mitigate the negative impacts. This paper reports on a study in the Chongqing Municipality of south-west China, with the aims of identifying the economic impacts of the mine closure campaign and examining what factors

  3. Thirty years of legal and economic reform in China: growth, institutions, and laws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Yueh

    2010-01-01

    China's impressive economic growth over three decades has seemingly occurred in the absence of a strong legal system. This paper views China's reform process over the past three decades as one that has entailed a gradual introduction of market forces into areas of the economy, which requires both dismantling the structure of the centrally planned economy and developing market-oriented institutions.

  4. The role of foreign direct investment in China's post-1978 economic development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Zhang; Lawrence Chang

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of China's policy toward foreign direct investment (FDI) during the post-1978 period is reviewed and the volume, sources, geographic distribution and composition of FDI are analyzed. It is found that FDI has been positively associated with economic growth, and the increase of total fixed asset investment in China. Foreign direct investment has also forced an increasing number of

  5. Sources of China's economic growth 1952–1999: incorporating human capital accumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan WANG; Yudong YAO

    2003-01-01

    China's economic growth has been remarkable since the reform started in 1978. There is an ongoing debate about whether this performance is driven mainly by productivity growth or by factor accumulation. But few past studies taken human capital into account, and thus contained an omission bias. In this paper, we construct a measure of China's human capital stock over 1952–1999

  6. Different paths to economic reform in Russia and China: causes and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Buck; Igor Filatotchev; Peter Nolan; Mike Wright

    2000-01-01

    Economic reform in Russia has been described as ‘shock therapy’ because rapid industrial privatization, price liberalization and democratic reforms of the political system were introduced simultaneously. However, shock therapy led to insider control of most manufacturing firms, with important consequences for foreign investment. In contrast, China’s ‘gradualist’ reforms, without privatization or significant democratization, facilitated foreign joint ventures as the dominant

  7. On the Road: Access to Transportation Infrastructure and Economic Growth in China

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2012-02-29

    This paper estimates the effect of access to transportation networks on regional economic outcomes in China over a twenty-period of rapid income growth. It addresses the problem of the endogenous placement of networks by ...

  8. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-print Network

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  9. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...75 FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that...

  10. Economic costs attributable to smoking in China: update and an 8-year comparison, 2000–2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lian Yang; Hai-Yen Sung; Zhengzhong Mao; Teh-wei Hu; Keqin Rao

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo estimate the health-related economic costs attributable to smoking in China for persons aged 35 and older in 2003 and in 2008 and to compare these costs with the respective results from 2000.MethodsA prevalence-based, disease-specific approach was used to estimate smoking-attributable direct and indirect economic costs. The primary data source was the 2003 and 2008 China National Health Services Survey,

  11. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  12. The social cost of China's economic growth: messages from China's 2012 parliamentary session.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The fifth and final session of China's Eleventh National People's Congress (NPC), or parliament, was held in Beijing from March 5 to March 14, 2012. Several episodes stand out in this year's session. One is the abrupt dismissal immediately after the session of Bo Xilai, party chief of a major Chinese municipality and Politburo member. That has been arguably linked to the political and economic model he championed, which incorporated redistributive social policies and proactive government intervention. Also worthy of note is that nearly all NPC delegate seats are occupied by the country's elites, while working people are overwhelmingly under-represented, if not unrepresented. Last but not least, although neoliberalism has been widely discredited since the global economic crisis, the government work report delivered at this year's NPC session signals further embracement of private investment--not only domestic, but also foreign--in key industries and social services controlled by the state. These episodes merit reflection as they send important messages about the challenges facing the country's political economy now and in the future. PMID:23367803

  13. Persistence of Coastal Vegetation in Supratidal Zones of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongxiao; Chu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Coastal vegetation comprises a number of coastal specialists and terrestrial generalists. It remains unclear how they persist on disturbed and undisturbed coastal conditions. We tested the hypothesis that coastal specialists may be superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, but their superiority can be influenced by human disturbances. Eight separate sandy coasts of the Shandong Peninsula were sampled, representing for disturbed and undisturbed sandy coasts. Plants growing on their supratidal zones were surveyed. On this basis, we compared the relative dominances, niche widths, and commonness of all species, and also analyzed species diversities of the coasts. Coastal specialists were found to be more common and widespread on supratidal zones of the sandy coasts than terrestrial generalists haphazardly invading from hinterlands. Coastal specialists exhibited lower Sørensen dissimilarities than terrestrial generalists among the coasts. Tourist trampling seemed more detrimental than pond fishery to coastal vegetation. Relative to terrestrial generalists, coastal specialists responded to human disturbances more deterministically, with steady decreases in species diversities. These evidences verify that coastal specialists are intrinsically superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, especially of undisturbed coasts, because their dispersal among coasts adapts well to local storm surge regime. They also validate that human disturbances can depress the superiority of coastal specialists, partly by inducing invasion of terrestrial generalists. PMID:24224026

  14. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic

  15. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...12 to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...Management Council's (Council's) salmon management policy and to comply with...

  16. 75 FR 53873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels Participating in the...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch for vessels participating in the...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch allocated to vessels...

  17. Revitalize the lost enclave : establishing guidelines for the Free Economic Zone in Shanghai

    E-print Network

    Huang, Xing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on an emerging urban form: Free Economic Zone. As a special enclave with tax incentives and policy experimentation, the FEZ undertakes the mission to grow the economy and test new rules in developing ...

  18. Financial Development and Dual Economic Structural Transformation: Experience from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xiu-hua; Wan Ying

    2006-01-01

    Dual economic structure is not only a typical feature of developing countries in their initial economic development, but also its transformation is the main task of economic development in these countries. Finance is the core of modern economy, and financial development would exert crucial influences on dual economic structure transformation. However, neither financial development theory, nor dual economic structure theory

  19. Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ho-Jun

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic

  20. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

  1. Overview of Educational Development in Shenzhen Special Economic Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education: A Journal of Translations, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes the changes that have taken place in Shenzhen, China, a city which has grown from 30,000 people in 1979 to 350,000 currently. Discusses the educational reforms which have been made possible and necessary due to rapid growth and the city's open border with capitalist Hong Kong. Highlights incongruities between educational endeavors and…

  2. 77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of...Aleutian Islands Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY...Analysis for Modification of Economic Data Reports can be downloaded...CrabEDR212.pdf. Special Accommodations...

  3. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook [[Page 14305...Fishery; Economic Data Collection published on February...vessel moved fishing location primarily to avoid Chinook...Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska previously had...

  4. A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Wu, Chang-zhi; Gou, Xiao-qin; Liao, Jing-juan; Yang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P 2O 5 (?0.06 wt.%), Na 2O > K 2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, ?14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (La CN/Lu CN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu * = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and ? 18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma. The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al 2O 3 and Na 2O, and decreasing SiO 2, (Fe 2O 3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K 2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y decrease, while F, Li, Rb, Hf, Ta, Sn, Sc, Ga and Zn increase. (6) K/Rb, Al/Ga, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho decrease, and K/Cs, Th/U (La/Lu) CN and TE 1,3 (quantification factor of REE tetrad effect) increase. (7) There is a general decrease in whole-rock ? 18O from 9.25‰ to 9.75‰ in zone-a to 7.32‰ in zone-e. (8) Homogenization temperatures of melt inclusions in quartz decrease from about 860 °C for zone-a to about 660 °C for zone-e. It is interpreted that crystallisation of the magma started from zone-a and proceeded upwards to zone-e, and the vertical zoning is produced by fractional crystallisation accompanied by fluid-melt interaction. Some of the distinctive features of zone-e were caused by influx and reaction of meteoric fluid at the post-magmatic stage. Turbulent structures and co-magmatic deformation textures are well recorded in the rocks, and are ascribed to reduced viscosity and enhanced flow rate of the F- and H 2O-rich magma.

  5. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Hans van Meijl; Frank W. van Tongeren

    2003-01-01

    China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under

  6. India's economic growth and market potential: benchmarked against China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Kalyanaram

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – In the context of India's growth and development benchmarked against China, this paper aims to address two important research questions: How do the growth models and market potential of China and India compare? What are some policy lessons to be learned? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper presents a critical analysis and review of the empirical results. Findings – While

  7. Teaching Economic Geography in Two Contrasting Asian Contexts: Decentering Anglo-American Economic Geography in China and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Henry Wai-Chung; Liu, Weidong

    2006-01-01

    Teaching economic geography outside Anglo-American countries presents a particular pedagogical challenge, as theories and concepts developed in these countries might not be directly applicable outside their intellectual and national contexts. In this paper, the authors show how the peculiar institutional and development environments in China and…

  8. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-06-15

    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. PMID:25747370

  9. Sediment phosphorus fractions and profile distribution at different vegetation growth zones in a macrophyte dominated shallow Wuliangsuhai Lake, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenying Liu; Zhaohui Jin; Yawei Li; Tielong Li; Jiujun Gu; Si Gao

    2007-01-01

    Sediment phosphorus (P) fractions and profile distribution at submerged macrophyte growth zone, emergent macrophyte growth\\u000a zone and open-water zone were studied in Wuliangsuhai Lake, China, as well as the correlations among water content, grain\\u000a size, and organic matter and P fractions. Among the three surveyed zones, the highest concentrations of most P forms occurred\\u000a in the surface sediment and the

  10. Interdecadal changes of vegetation transition zones and their responses to climate in Northeast China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haibo Du; Zhengfang Wu; Ming Li

    According to the concept of ecoclimatic factor’s guarantee rate, this study purposes to quantitatively analyze the interdecadal\\u000a changes of the four major vegetation transition zones in Northeast China based on the warmth index first developed by Kira\\u000a and the humidity index put forward by Xu during the period 1961–2007. On this basis, the responses of the interdecadal changes\\u000a of vegetation

  11. Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqiu Chen; Lin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period\\u000a 1986–2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the\\u000a optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end

  12. [Dynamics and combined injuries of main pest species in rice cropping zones of Yunnan, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Kun; Dong, Yan; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Li-Min; Zan, Qing-An; Chen, Bin; Li, Zheng-Yue

    2014-01-01

    A series of rice pest injuries (due to pathogens, insects, and weeds) were surveyed in 286 farmers' fields for major rice varieties of three rice cropping zones of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The composition and dynamics of main pest species were analyzed, and the trend of rice pest succession in Yunnan was discussed based upon landmark publications. The results showed that the three rice cropping zones had different pest characteristics as regard to main species, dynamics and combined injuries. Sheath rot, bacterial leaf blight, rice stripe, leaf hoppers, armyworms and stem borers were serious in the japonica rice zone. Sheath blight and rice stripe were serious in the japonica-indica interlacing zone. Leaf blast, sheath blight, leaf folders and weeds above rice crop canopy were serious in the indica rice zone. False smut, plant hoppers and weeds below rice crop canopy were ubiquitous and serious in the three kinds of rice cropping zones. Many kinds of weed infestation emerged in the whole rice cropping seasons. Echinochloa crusgalli, Sagittaria pygmaea, Potamogeton distinctus and Spirodela polyrhiza were the main species of weeds in the rice cropping zones of Yunnan. Overall, levels of combined injuries due to pests in the japonica rice zone and the indica rice zone were higher than that in the japonica-indica interlacing zone. In terms of the trend of rice pest succession in Yunnan, injuries due to false smut, sheath blight and plant hoppers seemed to be in a worse tendency in all rice cropping zones of Yunnan, while dominants species of weeds in the paddy fields are shifting from the annual weeds to the perennial malignant weeds. PMID:24765862

  13. Economic transformation and the gender earnings gap in urban China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Gustafsson; Shi Li

    2000-01-01

    .   The gender wage gap and its development in urban China is analysed utilising two large scale surveys covering 10 provinces\\u000a for the years 1988 and 1995. The results indicate that from an international perspective, the gender wage gap in urban China\\u000a appears to be relatively small. It is, however, increasing. Decompositions based on estimated regression-models show that\\u000a somewhat less

  14. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  15. Crustal structure in an onshore-offshore transitional zone near Hong Kong, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shaohong; Zhao, Minghui; Qiu, Xuelin; Xu, Huilong; Shi, Xiaobin

    2010-03-01

    To study the crustal structure beneath the onshore-offshore transitional zone, a wide-angle onshore-offshore seismic experiment was carried out in northern South China Sea near Hong Kong, using large volume airgun sources at sea and seismic stations on land. The crustal velocity model constructed from traveltime fitting shows that the sedimentary thickness abruptly increases seaward of the Dangan Islands based on the characteristics of Pg and Multiple Pg, and the crustal structure beneath the sedimentary layer is relatively simple. The Moho depth is about 25-28 km along the profile and the P-wave velocity increases gradually with depth. The velocities in the upper crust range from 5.5 to 6.4 km/s, while that in the lower crust is 6.4-6.9 km/s. It also reveals a low velocity zone with a width of more than 10 km crossing the crust at about 75-90 km distance, which suggests that the Littoral Fault Zone (LFZ) exists beneath the onshore-offshore transitional zone. The magnetism anomalies, bouguer gravity anomalies and active seismic zone along the coastline imply the LFZ is a main tectonic fault in the onshore-offshore area. Combined with two previously published profiles in the continental South China (L-G profile) and in the northern margin of South China Sea (OBS1993) respectively, we constructed a land-sea super cross-section about 1000 km long. The results show the onshore-offshore transitional zone is a border separating the unstretched and the stretched continental crust. The low velocity layer (LVL) in the middle crust was imaged along L-G profile. However, the high velocity layer (HVL) in the lower crust was detected along OBS1993. By analyzing the mechanisms of the LVL in the middle crust and HVL in the base of crust, we believe the crustal structures had distinctly different attributes in the continental South China and in the northern SCS, which indicates that the LFZ could be the boundary fault between them.

  16. Statistical Analysis of the Economic Level of Beijing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-xu Hao; Li-fei Yang; Ya-li Wen

    2009-01-01

    According to the data of economic development in Beijing from the year 1995 to 2007, relevant economic indices are selected to analyze the economic development level of Beijing by the Principal Component Analysis Method. Result shows that the national economy maintains high, sustainable and stable development in the years 1995-2007. Both the primary and secondary industry output values have increased

  17. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon...Economic Data Collection AGENCY: National...aspects of the collection-of-information...mail to NMFS, Alaska Region, P...ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0 3. The authority...designated data collection auditor'' in...moved fishing location primarily...

  18. 77 FR 72791 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska...final 2011 Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation...and SSC reviewed models supporting a separate...biomass projection model developed by the...effort, and (6) economic effects of seasonal...in the exclusive economic zone off...

  19. The Community Features and Factors Influencing Surface Runoff of Restoration Vegetation in Xinfeng National Demonstration Zone, SE China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dai-hua Qi; Zhi-yong Xia; Lin Huang

    2010-01-01

    Xinfeng, is the typical region of the vegetation restoration of serious soil and water loss zone and a typical national demonstration zone for biological measures to control soil erosion in Jiangxi Province, SE China, in which the relationship between surface runoff and environmental factors, soil features and community features of restoration vegetation were analyzed using Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and

  20. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments. PMID:21147494

  1. Factor Analysis of the Northeast Economic Zone's Logistics Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Jiaxin; Li, Tingting

    Along with the expanding regional logistics network, the area's logistics competition is very important because it enhances the entire area's economy. This paper is based on both the domestic and foreign theories and methods used with related subjects to study the content of the area's logistics competition. According to the level of economic development in Northeast region, the scale of logistics demand, the situation of logistics supply as well as the level of development of information, all establish the urban logistics competitiveness index system using the factor analysis method through the SPSS system to evaluate the competitiveness of the urban logistics which is very representative of the Northeast economic area. Finally, this paper uses the fore mentioned system to calculate the scores of 27 city's separated into 3 categories: The first including 4 cities (Shenyang, Harbin, Dalian, Changchun), the second having 3 cities (Jilin, Daqing, Anshan) and the final category has 20 cities (Fushun, Songyuan, Qiqihar, Baotou etc.).

  2. Economic changes and afforestation incentives in rural China Sylvie Dmurger

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Chinese forest resources have increased both in coverage and in standing stock. This is mainly the result afforestation incentives. However, this negative impact is offset by the improvement of land quality Forest Management in China" funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France

  3. The state and economic involution: Russia through a China lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Burawoy

    1996-01-01

    Why has the Russian economy declined at the rate the Chinese economy has grown? In China the party-state has made possible the decentralization of property relations and the hardening of budget constraints whereas in Russia the disintegration of the party-state has led to privatization and soft budget constraints. Whereas the former combination entailed accumulation, the latter combination entailed “involution,” that

  4. The Impact of China's Economic Reforms on Agricultural Productivity Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John McMillan; John Whalley; Lijing Zhu

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for assessing the relative importance of price increases and strengthened individual incentives due to the introduction of the responsibility system for the post-1978 increase in China's agricultural productivity. Data on post-1978 Chinese agricultural performance suggest that a little over three-quarters of the measured productivity increase is due to payment system changes and the remainder to

  5. Regional Income Inequality and Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chen; Belton M. Fleisher

    1996-01-01

    Using an augmented Solow growth model with cross section and panel data, we find evidence of conditional convergence of per capita production across China's provinces from 1978 to 1993. Convergence is conditional on physical investment share, employment growth, human-capital investment, foreign direct investment, and coastal location. We project that, in the near term, overall regional inequality as measured by the

  6. From Divergence to Convergence: Re-evaluating the History Behind China's Economic Boom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loren Brandt; Debin Ma; Thomas G. Rawski

    2012-01-01

    China's long-term economic dynamics pose a formidable challenge to economic historians. The Qing Empire (1644-1911), the world's largest national economy prior to the 19th century, experienced a tripling of population during the 17th and 18th centuries with no signs of diminishing per capita income. In some regions, the standard of living may have matched levels recorded in advanced regions of

  7. Economics and markEting Economics of management Zone delineation in cotton Precision agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Velandia; R. M. Rejesus; K. Bronson; E. Segarra

    2008-01-01

    the concept of precision agriculture is based on the ability to improve the management of production factors using site-specific informa- tion. The optimal configuration of management zones for more precise management of farm inputs is one of the most important components in precision farming. the objective of this study is to develop a management zone delineation procedure based on a

  8. 76 FR 52301 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Gulf of Alaska Fishery Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating...management, safety, and economic gains realized under...alaskafisheries.noaa.gov. Special Accommodations These...disabilities. Requests for special accommodations...

  9. Economic Development and Agricultural Land Loss in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY GAR-ON YEH; XIA LI

    1999-01-01

    The Pearl River Delta is developing very rapidly in the last two decades since the adoption of economic reform and open-door policy of China in 1978. Concomitant to this development is the rapid change of landscape in both urban and rural areas. The loss of valuable agricultural land by the encroachment of urban development, especially massive construction sites from land

  10. The economics of sustainable energy for rural development: A study of renewable energy in rural China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Byrne; Bo Shen; William Wallace

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines recent modeling efforts and case studies to evaluate the economic viability of off-grid renewable energy technologies for rural application in developing countries. Case studies have been conducted for a representative sample of 41 households from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, who have operating experience of at least one year with small, off-grid wind (less than

  11. The Rural-Urban Divide: Economic Disparities and Interactions in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Knight; Lina Song

    2001-01-01

    This book describes and explains the remarkably large rural-urban divide in economic well-being that exists in China. How did it come about? How is it maintained, in the face of equilibrating market forces? What are the implications for future efficiency and equity in the Chinese economy? The book is divided into five parts: Part 1 introduces the context and scope

  12. Economic Markets and Higher Education: Ethical Issues in the United States and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Educational values in both the United States and in China have suffered from the social and political reach of economic markets in each society. The models for counteracting the marketization of values in higher education can however be found in each country's past educational traditions. Surprisingly, the developmental values inherent in…

  13. Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirong, Li

    2006-01-01

    Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years, it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy. This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy, educational investment and educational finance, educational cost and…

  14. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  15. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  16. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  17. Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  18. Syn-collisional transform faulting of the Tan-Lu fault zone, East China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang Zhu; Guo Sheng Liu; Man Lan Niu; Cheng Long Xie; Yong Sheng Wang; Biwei Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Origin of the continental-scale Tan-Lu fault zone (TLFZ), East China, remains controversial. About 550 km sinistral offset\\u000a of the Dabie orogenic belt (DOB) and Sulu orogenic belt (SOB) is shown along the NE-NNE-striking TLFZ. Syn-collisional, sinistral\\u000a ductile shear belts in the TLFZ have been identified. Thirteen phengite bulk separates from the mylonites were dated by the\\u000a 40Ar\\/39Ar method. They gave cooling

  19. 75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish...be a novel approach to managing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery...combines a limit on the amount of Chinook salmon that may be caught incidentally with...

  20. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...to the Fishery Management Plan for the Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...update the FMP to reflect the Council's salmon management policy and Federal law....

  1. OFFSHORE MARINE AQUACULTURE IN THE U.S. EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE (EEZ): LEGAL AND REGULATORY CONCERNS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Rieser; Susan Bunsick

    Future development of marine aquaculture in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is constrained by legal and regulatory concerns which need to be addressed in order for the industry to become finan- cially viable and internationally competitive. These concerns relate to prop- erty rights for aquaculture operators, conflicts with competing uses of public waters, and regulatory gaps and overlap. Failure

  2. Special Economic Zones in India: Investment, Trade, Employment Generation and Impact Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shah Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The papers attempts to analyse potential benefits of establishing Special Economic Zones (SEZs), their current status in terms of employment, investment and exports, bottlenecks in their functioning, adverse affects, and likely threats to the farming community in particular and agricultural sector in general. The SEZ policy aims at promoting exports of goods and services, investments from domestic and foreign sources,

  3. Impact of Special Economic Zones on Employment, Poverty and Human Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aradhna Aggarwal

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at examining the impact of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) on human development and poverty reduction in India. It identifies three channels through which SEZs address these issues : employment generation, skill formation (human capital development), and technology and knowledge upgradation. It examines how the impact of SEZs is passed through each of these channels. The study finds

  4. Southeastern extension of the Red River fault zone (RRFZ) and its tectonic evolution significance in western South China Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baoming Liu; Bin Xia; Xuxuan Li; Minqiang Zhang; Binhua Niu; Lifeng Zhong; Qinghuan Jin; Shaocheng Ji

    2006-01-01

    Recent geophysical surveys and basin modeling suggest that the No. 1 fault in the Ying-gehai basin (YGHB) is the seaward elongation\\u000a of the Red River fault zone (RRFZ) in the South China Sea (SCS). The RRFZ, which separates the South China and Indochina block,\\u000a extends first along the Yuedong fault, offshore of Vietnam, and then continues southward and breaks off

  5. Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Song Guojun, E-mail: Songguojun@vip.sohu.com; Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

    2011-11-15

    The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: > National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. > We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. > The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

  6. Study of the permeability in melting zone of South China Sea based on percolation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ju-ying; Xu, He-hua; Li, Yan-zhen; Shu, Wei-bing

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic crust is formed at mid-ocean ridges. The melting zone extends up to several hundreds of km laterally, the upwelling area at the spreading axis is confined to a narrow belt of only 2-3 km width. Whereas the parameter of permeability that magma ascending from the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is still poorly understood, despite the important role of the process for the formation of crust. Based on continuum percolation, we build the random fracture network as magma migration channels of South China Sea; with momentum equation, we deduced the dynamic pressure distribution with passive corner flow. After which, the permeability of melting zone is calculated with finite element method. Numerical simulation results indicate that there exists a power law relationship between the permeability and magma migration channels. The simulated result is consistent with that calculated by fractal method. The discovery of the ruler provides sound theoretical basis for the formation and evolution of oceanic crust, and may help us better understanding the formation and evolution of South China Sea.

  7. Plant Invasions in China: What Is to Be Expected in the Wake of Economic Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ewald Weber (University of Zurich; )

    2008-05-01

    Developing and transitional countries undergoing rapid economic development will face growing problems with biological invasions because international commerce will bring new invaders. We assessed the potential for plant invasions in China by comparing the country's current invasive flora with that of the United States, a nation of similar size and latitudinal span but with a different history of plant introductions. Invasive plant species richness in the United States is about twice as high as it is in China. The remarkably lower fraction of invasive woody plants in China suggests that more alien trees and shrubs could invade Chinese habitats. Road density correlated with invasive plant species density among geographical units, with numbers for China lower than those for the United States. The data suggest that China has been invaded less than the United States has, and that the potential for new plant invasions in China is high. Measures toward preventing biological invasions are needed and timelysteps taken now can prevent adverse impacts from future invasions.

  8. 75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...that pertain to the management of Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea subarea of...

  9. 78 FR 15677 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea...the exclusive economic zone of the Bering Sea and...programs in place at the time the CR Program began...decrease the submitter's time burden required to fill...be reported with some differences from the status...

  10. Coal use in the People`s Republic of China, Volume 2: The economic effects of constraining coal utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.; Benavides, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics; Tompkins, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. The dominance of coal in China`s energy balance has come at a high price to the environment. With the recent attention given to global warming issues, China`s energy consumption and production practices have become the subject of much concern. Of particular concern is China`s ability to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by constraining coal use and the impact such policies will likely have on the Chinese economy. The study is divided into two reports. Volume 1 focuses on the full coal fuel cycle, emissions, and environmental effects. This report (Volume 2) analyzes various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies and determines their effect on economic growth. Contrary to what some analysts have claimed, the current work suggests that it would not be costly for the Chinese to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, some strategies were accompanied by increases in China`s energy and economic efficiency, which actually stimulated economic growth.

  11. Technical and economic assessments commercial success for IGCC technology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, T.

    1998-07-01

    The experiences gained from several Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration plants operating in the US and Europe facilitate commercial success of this advanced coal-based power generation technology. However, commercialization of coal-based IGCC technology in the West, particularly in the US, is restricted due to the low price of natural gas. On the contrary, in China--the largest coal producer and consumer in the world--a lack of natural gas supply, strong demand for air pollution control and relatively low costs of manufacturing and construction provide tremendous opportunities for IGCC applications. The first Chinese IGCC demonstration project was initiated in 1994, and other potential IGCC projects are in planning. IGCC applications in re-powering, fuel switching and multi-generation also show a great market potential in China. However, questions for IGCC development in China remain; where are realistic opportunities for IGCC projects and how can these opportunities be converted into commercial success? The answers to these questions should focus on the Chinese market needs and emphasize economic benefits, not just clean, or power. High price of imported equipment, high financing costs, and the technical risk of first-of-a-kind installation barricade IGCC development in China. This paper presents preliminary technical and economic assessments for four typical IGCC applications in the Chinese marketplace: central power station, fuel switching, re-powering, and multi-generation. The major factors affecting project economics--such as plant cost, financing, prices of fuel and electricity and operating capacity factor--are analyzed. The results indicate that well-proven technology for versatile applications, preferred financing, reduction of the plant cost, environmental superiority and appropriate project structure are the key for commercial success of IGCC in China.

  12. Geographic Patterns of Air Passenger Transport in China 1980–1998: Imprints of Economic Growth, Regional Inequality, and Network Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengjun Jin; Fahui Wang; Yu Liu

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzes the geographic patterns of domestic air passenger transport in China from 1980 to 1998, with three foci: (1) impacts of economic reforms, (2) regional inequality in air transport development, and (3) network development. Accessibility to air transport improved significantly as China expanded its air transport system, 1980–1998. The dominance of major airports declined as the air transport

  13. Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

    2012-07-01

    Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions.

  14. Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

    2012-07-01

    Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions. PMID:21805230

  15. [Variability of vegetation growth season in different latitudinal zones of North China: a monitoring by NOAA NDVI and MSAVI].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaobing; Han, Ruibo; Ge, Yongqin

    2006-12-01

    In this study, North China was latitudinally divided into five zones, i.e., 32 degrees - 36 degrees N (Zone I), 36 degrees - 40 degrees N (Zone II), 40 degrees - 44 degrees N (Zone III), 44 degrees - 48 degrees N (Zone IV) and 48 degrees - 52 degrees N (Zone V), and the NOAA/ AVHRR NDVI and MSAVI time-series images from 1982 to 1999 were smoothed with Savitzky-Golay filter algorithm. Based on the EOF analysis, the principal components of NDVI and MSAVI for the vegetations in different latitudinal zones of North China were extracted, the annual beginning and ending dates and the length of growth season in 1982 - 1999 were estimated, and the related parameters were linearly fitted, aimed to analyze the variability of vegetation growth season. The results showed that the beginning date of the growth season in different zones tended to be advanced, while the ending date tended to be postponed with increasing latitude. The length of the growth season was also prolonged, with the prolonging time exceeded 10 days. PMID:17330457

  16. Assessment of China transit and economic efficiencies in a modified value-chains DEA model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-ho Chiu; Chin-wei Huang; Chun-Mei Ma

    2011-01-01

    This study incorporates the concepts of undesirable intermediate, intermediate input, uncontrollable input, and undesirable output to the value-chains model (Chen and Zhu, 2004), thereby creating a modified value-chains model to compute transit and economic efficiencies in 30 regions of China. The modified value-chains model forms a more general formulation to the value-added chains in the utilization of the above concepts;

  17. Water Scarcity and Water Use in Economic Systems in Zhangye City, Northwestern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Wang; Hong-lang Xiao; Rui-fang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Water has traditionally been considered a physically scarce resource in Northwestern China, and most investigations of water\\u000a scarcity focus on the finite nature of water supplies. Based on the input–output analysis, this paper establishes a number\\u000a of indicators of water consumption to analyze the structural relationships between economic activities and their physical\\u000a relationships with the water resources. These indicators allow

  18. The Impact of Bank and NonBank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqiang Cheng; Hans Degryse

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the relationship between finance and growth in a fast growing country, such as China. Employing\\u000a data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995–2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types\\u000a of financial institutions — banks and non-banks — have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth. Our findings\\u000a indicate that

  19. Environmental and economic challenges to coal`s future in China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1994-11-01

    Coal accounts for approximately 75% of China`s total primary energy consumption, and is by far the largest contributor to air pollution. The highest growth sector for coal consumption is the power sector, accounting for about 36 percent of total coal consumption in 1993. Over the 1994--2010 period most new, large power plants are expected to be coal-fired. Therefore, the availability and price of coal, as well as environmental constraints will be critical to foreign investors evaluating coal and power projects in China. The purpose of this paper is to provide useful technical, economic and environmental information and analysis on coal and the power sectors of China. The target audiences are potential investors and government energy and environmental policy people. This paper suggests a number of important energy and environmental policy issues that need to be addressed in a timely fashion in order to promote adequate levels of investment in coal and power developments in China. Although this paper highlights problems faced by foreign investors in coal and power, it is important to balance these problems against the large investment opportunities developing in these sectors.

  20. Receiver functions in northeast China – implications for slab penetration into the lower mantle in northwest Pacific subduction zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueqing Li; Xiaohui Yuan

    2003-01-01

    Seismic studies of the subducting lithosphere and the upper mantle discontinuities in the northwest Pacific subduction zone beneath Japan and northeast China have suggested contrary subduction scenarios. There was little consensus on the issue whether the subducting slab penetrates the upper mantle discontinuities into the lower mantle or it is deflected atop of the 660-km discontinuity over several hundred kilometers.

  1. SO2 emission cap planning for Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peng; Duan, Ning; Chai, Fahe; Xu, Yaxuan; He, Youjiang

    2012-01-01

    The SO2 emission sources of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone were divided into 556 emissions units according to four different categories, which are city, industry, point sources, and area sources. The CALPUFF model was used to calculate the contribution of each unit, and consequently obtain an influence-transferring matrix. To ensure that the SO2 concentrations of 46 cities and counties in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone meet air quality standards, an emission optimization model was developed to calculate optimal emissions of each emission unit under different development scenarios. The result showed the optimal emissions of SO2 by different provinces and industries. To achieve the target of restricting and optimizing development, corresponding planning programs were developed for every district. PMID:22783625

  2. Characteristics and source apportionment of organic matter in PM(2.5) from cities in different climatic zones of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jialiang

    For the first time, the dependency of the characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 on geographical and climatic zones in three metropolitan cities of China was studied. Seasonal samples were collected at suburban and urban sites in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2002 and 2003. To further support the above study, seasonal samples were also collected at Changdao Island, a remote island, in Bohai Sea/Yellow Sea. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) were analyzed. The characteristics of the n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-fatty acids, n-alkanols and molecular markers such as triterpanes were determined and used for source identification. Source apportionment was complemented by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling using the measured organic species as tracers. The impact of wind speed and wind direction on air quality was studied by back trajectory calculations and analysis. In general, traffic emissions were the largest contributors of OC followed by coal burning, kitchen emissions, vegetative detritus and biomass burning. However, in the space-heating season in Northern China, coal burning was the most important contributor of OC in the suburban areas of Beijing and at Changdao. Beijing had the highest concentration of organic aerosol followed by Guangzhou and Shanghai, while seasonal variation was in reverse order. Dispersion conditions determined by local topographies and meteorology were responsible for this trend. Contrary to common understanding, pollutant concentrations at the suburban sites were higher than the urban sites in all three cities. The main reason was the rapid urbanization of the suburban areas in the immediate vicinity of urban centers since China opened up for economic development, in addition, large numbers of manufacturing plants were relocated from the cities to the countryside in an attempt to clean up the urban environment. WSOC/TC ratios were comparable in all three cities at 0.2-0.3 and this value can be considered typical for urban aerosols from Chinese cities. Similar PAH/ALK ratios were found in the three cities, and PAHs were from a mixed contribution of coal burning and engine exhaust. More than half of the resolved SEOC was found to be n-fatty acids and they were mainly from kitchen emissions based on source profile comparisons and CMB analysis. The increase of contribution from coal burning in Beijing due to space heating was identified by the different distribution of triterpanes in summer and winter. The relative concentrations of semivolatile fossil fuel residue n-alkanes (<=C26) were inversely dependent on the ambient temperature. Similar trend was found in the concentrations of the semivolatile PAHs (molecular weight <=228). This was mainly caused by the gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile species in the different climatic zones. The enrichment of higher molecular weight plant wax compounds from Beijing to Shanghai to Guangzhou was a reflection of the variations of the vegetation in the different climatic zones. The seasonal variations in the concentrations and compositions of organic matter at Changdao were similar to the three cities, especially to Beijing. The remote island was also impacted by anthropogenic pollutants, and transported particles played a significant role in the contribution of the organic matter exemplified by the high WSOC/TC, low C18:1/C18 fatty acid, and high BeP/(BeP+BaP) ratios.

  3. A Videotape Study of Science Teaching in Shenzhen, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Zhu, Chunying

    This report presents the results of a videotape study of science teaching in Shenzhen, China. Shenzhen is one of China's first special economic zones adjacent to Hong Kong. Developed from a small fishing village in the late 1970s, Shenzhen experienced fast economic growth in the last two decades, which has steadily increased the diversity of the…

  4. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony. PMID:25876419

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mariculture zones of China's northern Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Zong, Humin; Ma, Xindong; Na, Guangshui; Huo, Chuanlin; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2014-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in water and sediment samples collected from three mariculture zones in China's northern Yellow Sea. In these samples, total PAH concentrations ranged from 110.8 ng/L to 997.2 ng/L and 142.2 ng/gdry weight (dw) to 750.2 ng/gdw, respectively. The log KOC values of the various PAH compounds examined in this study increased with the log KOW values, which is consistent with the prediction regarding PAH behavior in the environment. However, these KOC values were lower than the predicted values as a result of the effects of organic matters, which were abundant in the mariculture water. The isomeric ratios of the PAHs in sediment indicated that the source of the PAHs in the mariculture zones were mainly pyrolytic. The TEQ(carc) values of PAHs ranged from 7 ng TEQ/gdw to 92 ng TEQ/gdw, and only a few samples met the safe criterion with respect to individual PAH concentrations. PMID:24952456

  6. Policy support, economic incentives and the adoption of irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2014-11-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in China. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of policy support and economic incentives on the adoption of irrigation technology in China. Based on a unique dataset collected at household and village levels from seven provinces in China, results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption on crop-sown areas was not high, and it was even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analyses results revealed that policy supports via subsidies and extension services have played an important role in promoting the adoption of irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played significant but contradictory roles in promoting the adoption of different types of irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to their substitution relationship, because having higher adoption of household-based irrigation technology reduce the incentives to invest in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  7. 76 FR 46207 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels participating...2011 directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels...

  8. 76 FR 40838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels participating...2011 directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels...

  9. 75 FR 41999 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...reopening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels participating...2010 directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels...

  10. 75 FR 3873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas for vessels...

  11. 75 FR 53606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas by vessels...

  12. 77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for...

  13. 76 FR 3045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act...

  14. 76 FR 9693 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Western...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod for...

  15. 75 FR 71045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  16. 75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore Component...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA)...

  17. 75 FR 3874 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Participating in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Participating in the Amendment...is closing directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels participating in the Amendment...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC)...

  18. 76 FR 66196 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Western...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod for...

  19. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl...the A season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC)...

  20. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore Component in the Central...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing...

  1. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA)...

  2. 76 FR 4551 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore Component...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act...

  3. 75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Central...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing...

  4. 75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore Component in the Western...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing...

  5. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Western...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing...

  6. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore Component in the Western...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing...

  7. 75 FR 8839 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore Component in the Central...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing...

  8. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the Western...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing...

  9. 76 FR 45217 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program; Amendment...approved, Amendment 88 would establish the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish...Amendment 88 is necessary to replace Central Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Rockfish...

  10. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and ``Other Flatfish...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish...bycatch allowance specified for the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other...

  11. 75 FR 30779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Stock Assessment of Eastern Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Stock Assessment of Eastern Bering...Sea pollock stock assessment is reviewed annually...examine whether the assessment incorporates the...designed the underlying model. DATES: The...

  12. New attempts on increasing economic gains in the development of geothermal resources in Beijing, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, K.

    1997-12-31

    The development of geothermal resources in the city of Beijing and its surrounding suburbs has been made possible by investments from companies in the surrounding Provinces of China. The development of these geothermal deposits has created a market for hot spring real estate. The real estate has been developed into comprehensive projects for recreation and vacation resorts, in addition to, heath care centers and greenhouse farming. This new attempt to develop these geothermal resources has increased the economic growth of the area and interest in geothermal expansion.

  13. The structure of the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Jin, Wei; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei; Li, Weimin

    2013-04-01

    The Xingcheng-Taili area (western Liaoning Province in China), and is tectonically located in the eastern section of the northern margin of the North China craton (NCC). This area is dominantly comprised of various types of granitic rocks. Based on, formation age, texture and mineral assemblage, the granitic rocks can be divided into three main types, which reflect the evolutionary history during the geological history of the NCC. Neoarchean granitic rocks with emplacement ages of ca. 2500 Ma, previously termed "Suizhong granite", are mainly exposed in the middle part of the study area. The Neoarchean granitic rocks are composed of granitic gneiss, biotite-hornblende-plagioclase gneiss and leucosomes. The granitic gneiss exhibits gneissic texture and S-C fabrics and contains a large number of biotite-hornblende-plagioclase gneiss and leucosomes enclaves with a similar gneissosity and anatectic characteristics. The steep gneissosity and banded structures trend nearly E-W, consist with the regional structures of the NCC, and indicate a tectonic setting of the NCC deep crust. Upper Triassic porphyritic granitic gneiss, granite aplite and quartz diorite with U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 220 Ma intruded Neoarchean gneisses. Their formation ages are considered to relate with the NCC destruction in the early Mesozoic times. A sinistral shear zone was developed within the porphyritic granitic gneiss and quartz diorite, with steep foliation, augen structure, and NE-ENE stretching lineation. Upper Triassic rocks have different deformation characteristics from the Neoarchean granitic rocks, which may indicate a deformation event in Late Triassic times, ductile deformation structures superimposed on Neoarchean granitic rocks. Biotite adamellite with a 150 Ma-age is located in the north and south of the study area. These rocks show the massive structure in the south, a gneissic structure in the north. The Late Jurassic magmatism reflects apparent thinning of NCC continental crust. The strongly deformed biotite adamellite developed a gneissosity structure with S-C fabrics, sinistral shear zones with NE trending, and show the deformation characteristics of shallow crustal level reflecting decratonization of NCC continental crust. Neoarchean granitic rocks and Late Triassic rocks were deformed again, generated mylonitic fabric, previous deformation structures have been transformed. The attitude of the foliation is ca. 316 357/88 with the stretching lineation of 240/5. The angle between S- and C-planes is between 10 and 20°. In strongly deformed portions, the two groups of foliation are almost parallel. The sharp angle between S- and C-foliation clearly indicates NE-NEE sinistral strike-slip characteristics of the ductile shear zone. Crystal preferred orientations of quartz determined by electron back scatter diffraction from three types of granitic rocks suggest sinistral strike-slipping and a deformation temperature at about 400°C. Quartz mainly shows low-temperature fabrics with dominant {0001}-slip system. All of the structural characteristics indicate that the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone represents a NE-ENE sinistral strike-slip ductile deformation event after intrusion of the Upper Jurassic biotite adamellite and transformed and superimposed previous deformation structures. This deformation event might have occurred in Early Cretaceous times related to the change of the motion direction from WNW to NNW of the West Pacific Izanagi plate, which obliquely subducted under the Eurasian plate.

  14. 78 FR 74063 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2014 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska...final 2012 Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation...and changes to the models used in the stock...preliminary Tier 3 assessment that was approved...biomass projection model developed by the...effort, and (6) economic effects of...

  15. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Ye; Siyue Li; Yulong Zhang; Quanfa Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) between the elevations of 145–175m in China's Three Gorges Reservoir has experienced a novel hydrological regime with half a year (May–September) exposed in summer and another half (October–April) submerged in winter. In September 2008 (before submergence) and June 2009 (after submergence), soil samples were collected in 12 sites in the WLFZ and heavy metals (Hg, As,

  16. Oceanic influence on the Baiu frontal zone in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunoki, Shiori; Manda, Atsuyoshi; Kodama, Yasu-Masa; Iizuka, Satoshi; Sato, Kazutoshi; Fathrio, Ibnu; Mitsui, Taku; Seko, Hiromu; Moteki, Qoosaku; Minobe, Shoshiro; Tachibana, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    high-resolution transect of atmospheric soundings across the Kuroshio Current in the East China Sea was conducted onboard a ship in June 2012 with the objective of analyzing the influence of the complex sea surface temperature (SST) distribution on the Baiu frontal zone (BFZ). Expendable bathythermograph castings and continuous surface meteorological observations were also examined. Two distinct mesoscale atmospheric fronts, characterized by changes of wind direction in the lower troposphere and surface air temperature, were found in the BFZ. One (northern) atmospheric front was observed around the SST front in relation to a warm water tongue extending from the Kuroshio. A high SST region around the northern atmospheric front enhances unstable near surface stratification and intensifies turbulent heat flux. They help modify the marine atmospheric boundary layer in the BFZ. The other (southern) atmospheric front was at the southern end of the BFZ. Intense evaporation over the Kuroshio and moisture transport by southerly winds were important in forming the conditionally unstable air masses in the lower troposphere of the BFZ.

  17. Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingguo

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental disaster. That is by adopting a policy of sustainable development to protect the already damaged environment. The study is centered by a case study of Yunnan Biomass-to-Electricity (BTE) Program, which is a joint research effort between American and Chinese institutions to implement biomass energy projects in rural areas of Yunnan province, China. By integrating energy production and environmental protection, the BTE Program could serve both the environmental and economic needs of the local regions. Therefore, the Yunnan BTE program can serve as a model of sustainable development. Furthermore, because the Yunnan BTE program was a cooperative research effort involving Chinese and American institutions, it also provides an opportunity to study and assess international joint policy implementation efforts. In this case study, we developed an analytical model that contains key factors, both constraints and opportunities, which may have affected the implementation of the BTE program. We explore the role of environmental policy and relationships among various relevant Chinese and American institutions involved in the BTE program. Through careful examination of these factors, and their roles in the process, we establish which facilitate and inhibit program implementation. The study of Mengpeng BTE project showed that all the factors in the analytical model influenced the outcome of the project implementation. Some played more vital roles while others were just minor players. The study demonstrated that preferential environmental policy and sound institutional setting are essential for the success of environmental program implementation in China. From this study, we have learned that it takes more than advanced technology and funding to implement sustainable development. We need not only good environmental policy, but also effective environmental policy. It was not that China lacked environmental policies to support sustainable development. It was rather that these policies were not thoroughly implemented. This case showed that the Chinese institutional setting posed problems for environmental policy implementation in China.

  18. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002, documents and reports from various power industry actors, and available academic literature analyzing current developments in the industry, I analyze the process of making deregulatory policies in electric power. Specifically, I ask whether or not the developments described above resulted in a shift in the relative power of contending actors in the industry, and consequently influenced policy outcomes.

  19. The Eroding Hukou System and the New Minimum Wage in China: The Impacts of Economic Inequality, Labor Shortages and Social Unrest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison J. Selby

    2012-01-01

    The hukou system, also known as the Household Registration System, has had a significant impact on China’s social, political, and economic trajectory since the time of its implementation in 1958. Specifically, it has helped to create the societal-wide imbalance between the prosperous coastal cities along the eastern seaboard and the lagging rural countryside of China’s interior provinces, where a second

  20. PERMANENT MIGRANTS TO CITIES IN CHINA: HUKOU ORIGIN AND EARNINGS AMONG MEN IN AN ERA OF ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaozhou; Oropesa, R.S.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    The massive volume of internal migration in China since the late 1970s has attracted considerable research attention. However, the integration of permanent migrants in cities during a time of economic transformation is understudied. Using information on earnings from the 2003 General Social Survey of China, this research examines whether permanent migrants are economically advantaged or disadvantaged in comparison to non-migrants in cities. We find that permanent migrants in cities tend to be economically advantaged and that their advantage depends more on human capital than on political capital. Nevertheless, this does not mean that political capital can be ignored. A nuanced view requires attention to how political and human capital jointly affect earnings in specific economic sectors. PMID:25133084

  1. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

  2. Economically Feasible Potentials for Wind Power in China and the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; McElroy, M. B.; Chris, N. P.; Tchou, J.

    2011-12-01

    The present study is intended to explore the economic feasible potentials for wind energy in China and the U.S. subject to their policy systems for renewable energy. These two countries were chosen as subject locales for three reasons: first, they are the two largest countries responsible for energy consumption and CO2 emissions; second, these two countries have the largest installed capacities and the fastest annual growth of wind power in the world; third, China and the U.S. have adopted two distinct but representative incentive policies to accelerate exploitation of the renewable energy source from wind. Investments in large-scale wind farms in China gain privileges from the concession policy established under China's Renewable Energy Law. The electricity generated from wind can be sold at a guaranteed price for a concession period (typically the first ten operational years of a wind farm) to ensure the profitability of the wind farm development. The effectiveness of this policy has been evidenced by the swift growth of total installed capacities for wind power over the past five years in China. A spatial financial model was developed to evaluate the bus-bar prices of wind-generated electricity in China following this wind concession policy. The results indicated that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030 assuming a guaranteed bus-bar price of 7.6 U.S. Cents per kWh over the concession period. It is noteworthy that the prices of wind-generated electricity could be as cheap as conventional power generation in the years following the concession period. The power market in the U.S. is more deregulated and electricity is normally traded in a bidding process an hour to a day ahead of real time. Accordingly, the market-oriented policy instrument of PTC subsidies was instituted in the U.S. to ensure the competitiveness of wind power compared to the conventional power generation in the regional power markets. The spatial financial model developed for previous analysis of wind energy in China was tailored to simulate the relevant investment environments for U.S. wind projects. A particular problem was investigated as to how the profitability and competitiveness of onshore wind power in the U.S. would be influenced by PTC subsidy levels varying from 0 to 4 cents per kWh. The results suggested that the current PTC level (2.1 cent per kWh) is at a critical point in determining the competitiveness of wind-generated electricity under normal costs. Setting system integration challenges aside, the potential for profitable wind-generated electricity could accommodate more than seven times U.S. electricity demand at the current PTC subsidy. Similar to the concession policy adopted in China, PTC subsidies are only available for the first ten years following the initiation of wind farms; wind power would still offer a renewable energy source for profitable electricity generation during the post-PTC period.

  3. Sensible and Latent Heat Flux Variability and Response to Dry-Wet Soil Moisture Zones Across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingxing; Ma, Zhuguo

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of sensible and latent heat fluxes over land has advanced slowly due to the absence of long-term measurements. To help address this, we produced a long-term heat flux dataset by using a land-surface model driven using observation-based atmospheric forcing. We then corrected the dataset using net radiation observations, and validated the corrected dataset using multiple-source measurements. The results indicate that the corrected dataset represents the variability of these two heat fluxes well on various time scales. Based on the dataset, analyses show that, during 1951-2008, sensible heat flux decreased significantly over China, with a linear trend of 0.04 W m year, while latent heat flux increased at 0.02 W m year. Regionally, the trends appeared more significant in north-east China, south-west China, and the Tibetan Plateau. On average, the Tibetan Plateau showed the maximum sensible heat flux, especially over the south-west region, with averages 100 W m. Meanwhile, higher latent heat fluxes mainly covered the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and southward, with averages 70 W m. Regarding the response of heat fluxes to soil moisture, the variations of sensible and latent fluxes were more sensitive to soil moisture over dry regions (arid and semi-arid soil moisture zones), while the stronger anomalies for both fluxes occurred over wet regions (semi-humid and humid soil moisture zones).

  4. When are no-take zones an economically optimal fishery management strategy?

    PubMed

    Sanchirico, James N; Malvadkar, Urmila; Hastings, Alan; Wilen, James E

    2006-10-01

    Discussions on the use of marine reserves (no-take zones) and, more generally, spatial management of fisheries are, for the most part, devoid of analyses that consider the ecological and economic effects simultaneously. To fill this gap, we develop a two-patch ecological-economic model to investigate the effects of spatial management on fishery profits. Because the fishery effects of spatial management depend critically on the nature of the ecological connectivity, our model includes both juvenile and adult movement, with density dependence in settlement differentiating the two types of dispersal. Rather than imposing a reserve on our system and measuring its effect on profits, we ask: "When does setting catch levels to maximize system-wide profits imply that a reserve should be created?" Closing areas to fishing is an economically optimal solution when the value derived from spillover from the reserve outweighs the value of fishing in the patch. The condition, while simple to state in summary form, is complex to interpret because it depends on the settlement success of the dispersing organisms, the nature of the costs of the fishing, the economic and ecological heterogeneity of the system, the discount rate, and growth characteristics of the fish population. The condition is more likely to be satisfied when the closed area is a net exporter of biomass and has higher costs of fishing, and for fish populations with density-independent settlement ("adult movement") than with density-dependent settlement ("larval dispersal"). Rather surprisingly, there are circumstances whereby closing low biological productivity areas, and even sometimes low cost areas to fish, can result in greater fishing profits than when both areas are open to fishing. PMID:17069360

  5. Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years. PMID:24468441

  6. Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery Based on Spatial Correlation Analysis in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Methods Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. Results The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other. PMID:25036182

  7. Assessing decentralised policy implementation in Vietnam : The case of land recovery and resettlement in the Vung Ang Economic Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. de Wit; Luong Viet Sang; Le Van Chien; Luong Thu Hien; Ha Viet Hung; Dang Thi Anh Tuyet; Dao Ngoc Bau; Quang Hoa; Mai Thi Thanh Tam

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 plans were implemented to create a deep-sea water port linked to an Economic Zone in the coastal Province of Ha Tinh, located in north central Vietnam. The multi-purpose Zone entitled ‘Vung Ang’, was to attract foreign investors, while the port would provide a link to nearby Laos and Thailand. The project obviously had large implications for the administrations

  8. Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process in Xi’an, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongming He; Jie Zhou; Yongjao Wu; Qian Yu; Wanchang Zhang; Xiuping Xie

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water quality pollution in Xi'an, China from 1996 to 2003. Results show that organic pollutants were the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed in petroleum concentration, chemical

  9. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: Carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. PMID:25662248

  10. Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China E of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial with conventional gasoline due to various incentives. In this paper, we examined making ethanol from the sugar

  11. An Economic Analysis of the External Constraints on Reform of the Higher Education Admissions System in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of an economic analysis of the intertwined role of the educational opportunities market and the educational products market, I believe that the unified entrance exam system currently in effect in China has, in reality, assumed the role of maintaining a price ceiling for opportunities in higher education. If we abolish the…

  12. A Businessman's Guide to the Economic Geography and International Trade of the People's Republic of China: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.; Madden, Gregory J., Comp.

    Intended to support undergraduate curricula in international business, this annotated listing cites English-language materials dealing mainly with international trade and the economic geography of China. Also included are materials dealing with demography, public health, historical geography, and the geography of cities. All materials included are…

  13. Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

  14. Normal mantle transition zone image of receiver functions CCP stacking form onshore broadband data in SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Gao, R.; Liu, Q.; Guan, Y.; He, R.; Li, W.; Ye, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The southeastern margin of China continental is one of ideal area to study modern plate interaction. In the last decades the regional and local scale passive images proposed a fine geometry model in which the Eurasian plate slab underthrust beneath Taiwan and the crust of SE China presents gradually thinning from inland to offshore. But obviously the Model has been confined poorly in lateral before this study.We present preliminary results of analysis of teleseismic events recorded by 20 broadband temporary onshore stations deployed along southeastern margin of China continent in Fujian province from 2008 to 2010.Results from H-k auto-searching method, the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal VP/VS ratio beneath each station were estimated. Along coastal H varies in a range of 27.51 to 33.06 km with an average of 30.37 km and a little gentle southwest dipping, and the VP/VS ratios from 1.721 to 1.809 with a mean of 1.758. VP/VS ratios is slight higher than inland (1.73),it can be inferred more mafic mineral component and fluid or partial melting exist in the coastal crust. The CCP stack image from 16664 reliable receiver functions reveals Moho at the level of 30km with a feature of not too sharp and gentle lateral variation. The 410-km discontinuity appears in the depth of average level of global IASP and in a thin conversion zone without noticeable dipping and surge. 660-km discontinuities is quite sharp and flat, however, due to the coverage of the data we cannot confine the 660 discontinuity well in central part of our current section sharp and flat 410- and 660-km discontinuities, and the transition zone thickness between them, is cohere with ambient mantle beneath SE China and Taiwan Strait. These results support that Eurasian plate slab is confined to a depth above 410 km. in other words, mantle transition zone (410 to 660) was less affected in the SE margin of China continent. Our result hint the model of Eurasian lithosphere delimination or slab break-off is perhaps more recommendable then mantle plum to interpolate lower velocity anomaly imaged by previos P-wave tomography. This research was supported by Sinoprobe-02(SFSTRPWT No.201011042).

  15. Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?

    E-print Network

    Qi, Tianyu

    We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

  16. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Jerald

    2013-12-31

    The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs). The results of these efforts contributed, in part, to the implementation of the objectives of Annex II-A to the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Fossil Energy Technology Development and Utilization. The Annex II-A objectives are defined so as “to jointly investigate and discuss key factors, analyses, data, processes, and technologies leading to the preparation and utilization of coal and mixed feedstock that includes coal as” environmentally and economically viable for alternative transportations fuels, additives, chemicals, as feedstock for the production of power and a source of energy to the industrial sector. Specific areas of cooperation addressed under this project include: 1. Coal Conversion (including use of feedstock mixtures such as coal/biomass) 2. Advanced Separation Processes (i.e., innovative coal preparation technologies) 3. Co-Production of Alternative Fuels, Chemicals and/or Power 4. Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels, to Include Hydrogen, and Carbon Recycle for Integrated Fuels and Chemical Production 5. Carbon Sequestration Technology Related to Coal Use 6. Technical Training, Workshops, and Meetings Of equal importance to the successful completion of the tasks of the project is the impact these results have had individually and collectively in the increased level of cooperation between, and participation of, US-China entities. The growing regional impact of these efforts are evident in: ? The growing interest in and applications of environmental technology by the Chinese industrial sector in reducing the environmental footprint of their facilities (e.g., carbon capture, utilization and storage); ? The expansion in the number of cooperative activities enabled by the use of established long-term relationships and developed common frames of reference (e.g., technology exchange cooperative contracts); ? The growth of interest in and use of U.S. technology by the Chinese coal conversion industry (e.g., the market for U.S. components of gasification systems); ? Confirmation of the potential, recently established, of the merits of exchange programs for US-Chinese professionals and administrators (e.g., the Global Knowledge Network Program).

  17. Climate change affecting temperature and aridity zones: a case study in Eastern Inner Mongolia, China from 1960-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jinwei; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Geli; Basara, Jeffrey B.; Greene, Scott; Xiao, Xiangming

    2013-08-01

    Recent climate change is substantially affecting the spatial pattern of geographical zones, and the temporal and spatial inconsistency of climatic warming and drying patterns contributes to the complexity of the shifting of temperature and aridity zones. Eastern Inner Mongolia, China, located in the interface region of different biomes and ecogeographic zones, has experienced dramatic drying and warming over the past several decades. In this study, the annual accumulated temperature above 10 °C (AAT10) and the aridity index, two key indicators in geographical regionalization, are used to assess warming and drying processes and track the movements of temperature and aridity zones from 1960 to 2008. The results show a significant warming at the regional level from 1960 to 2008 with an AAT10 increase rate of 7.89 °C·d/year ( p < 0.001) in Eastern Inner Mongolia, while the drying trend was not significant during this period. Spatial heterogeneity of warming and drying distributions was also evident. Analysis of warming and drying via piecewise regression revealed two separate, specific trends between the first 31 years (1960-1990) and the subsequent 18 years (1991-2008). Generally, mild warming and very slight wetting occurred prior to 1990, while after 1991 both warming and drying were significant and enhanced. Continuous warming drove a northward shift of temperature zones from the 1960s to 2000s, while aridity zones displayed enhanced temporal and spatial variability. Climate change effects on temperature and aridity zones imply that the patterns of cropping systems, macro-ecosystems, and human land use modes are potentially undergoing migration and modification due to climate change.

  18. Benefit–Cost Appraisals of Export Processing Zones: A Survey of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kankesu Jayanthakumaran

    2003-01-01

    This article surveys research on the performance of Export Processing Zones (EPZs) using a benefit–cost analytical framework. Results suggest that zones in South Korea, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, China and Indonesia are economically efficient and generate returns well above estimated opportunity costs. On the other hand, the heavy infrastructure costs involved in setting up the zone in the Philippines resulted in

  19. Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is very complex. This paper focus on the development of a methodology to target the ESZ based on currently available tools (Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrologic Model). According to the features of the TGRR, a spatially explicit and process-based method was introduced to help plan the placement of the ESZ in the TGRR for water quality benefits. The methods presented here were based on the integration of grid-based terrain analysis and nonpoint source pollution estimates. Firstly, the contribution of nonpoint source pollution from upslope farmland and urban to the TGRR was determined by grid-based terrain analysis. The upslope contributing area beyond the ESZ was defined as a "source". The SWAT model was used to analyze the characteristics of the pollution load. Secondly, the ESZ was defined as a "sink" and the reducing pollution loads in each grid cell of the ESZ was calculated by the REMM model. Finally, the key areas in the TGRA where the ESZ have the greatest potential to improve water quality were identified and the formula of the width of the ESZ was determined. However, the method in this article considers only the function of pollutants reduction in the ESZ, the next stage of the study will involve detailed modeling for the function of ecological corridor in the ESZ.

  20. 76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska...the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). NMFS would...action also would require full retention of salmon in the Central and Western GOA...

  1. 75 FR 8547 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...opening and closing dates of the Atka mackerel directed fisheries within the harvest...the 2010 A season HLA limits of Atka mackerel in areas 542 and 543 of the Bering...

  2. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  3. 75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in these areas allocated to vessels...

  4. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in the CAI by vessels participating...

  5. 75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 A season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

  6. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian District of the...the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  7. 78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...the A season allowance of the 2013 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

  8. 75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 B season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

  9. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas specified for...

  10. 77 FR 26212 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...the A season allowance of the 2012 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

  11. 77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  12. 75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas specified for...

  13. 78 FR 35771 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  14. 78 FR 17341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...120806311-3213-01] RIN 0648-BC25 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska...Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...that would implement Amendment 42 to the Fishery Management Plan for Bering...

  15. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...0910301387-91390-01] RIN 0648-AY33 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska...Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...regulations to implement Amendment 34 to the Fishery Management Plan for Bering...

  16. 76 FR 4552 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering...the A season allowance of the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC)...

  17. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ...of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line...

  18. 76 FR 66195 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC)...

  19. 75 FR 8840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering...season apportionment of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable catch (TAC)...

  20. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

  1. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

  2. 76 FR 3044 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the Gulf of Alaska...prohibiting directed fishing for sculpins, sharks, squid, and octopus in the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch (TAC) of sculpins, sharks, squid, and octopus in the GOA....

  3. Marine ferromanganese concretions from the polish exclusive economic zone: Influence of major inflows of north sea water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Glasby; Sz. U?cinowicz; J. A. Sochan

    1996-01-01

    Ferromanganese concretions within the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) are found mainly in the depth range 60–70 m on the thresholds between the Bomholm Basin and Slupsk Furrow and between the Gotland and Gdansk Basins. They also occur on elevations of the seafloor within the Bomholm Basin, on the southern slopes of Slupsk Furrow, and on the lower southwestern slopes

  4. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...the projected unused amount of the 2010 rock sole total allowable catch (TAC) specified...allow the 2010 total allowable catch of rock sole to be fully harvested. DATES:...

  5. 77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...to the initial total allowable catch of squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of squid in the BSAI was established as 361...

  6. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...necessary to limit incidental catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for...measures prevent overfishing. The 2011 octopus overfishing level in the BSAI is 528...

  7. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached....

  8. 76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...to the initial total allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus in the BSAI was [[Page 17361

  9. 78 FR 44465 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of...

  10. 76 FR 45709 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of...

  11. 76 FR 70665 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...initial total allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the...total allowable catch (ITAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea was...

  12. 77 FR 39649 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area...

  13. 75 FR 53608 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of...

  14. 75 FR 69598 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels participating in the Amendment...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific ocean perch total allowable catch specified...

  15. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...December 13, 2010, to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that the...distinct population segment of Steller sea lions or adversely modify its designated...

  16. Economic Impact of Maternal Death on Households in Rural China: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Huntington, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. Methods A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1–3 months after maternal death or childbirth) and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID), linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. Findings The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported “household economy became worse” during the follow-up period (adjusted OR?=?6.04, p<0.001). During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001). Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p?=?0.024). Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p?=?0.037), clothes and commodity (p?=?0.003), traffic and communication (p?=?0.022) and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p?=?0.014). Conclusion Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported “household economy became worse”, decreased income and expenditure, increased debts and changed expenditure pattern. PMID:24204648

  17. Mantle Transition Zone Structure Beneath Southeastern China and its Implications for Stagnant Slab and Water Transportation in the Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rong; Xu, Yixian; Luo, Yinhe; Jiang, Xiaohuan

    2014-09-01

    We determined depth variation of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities beneath southeastern China by common-converted-point stacking of -wave receiver functions of 121 permanent Chinese seismic stations. We then combined the results with seismic velocity variation to estimate temperature and water content variations in the mantle transition zone of the region. Previous tomographic studies have shown a stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone in eastern Asia that is connected to subduction of the western Pacific. Temperature variations obtained clearly outline the shape of the stagnant slab, with its western edge at 113.5E and the southern edge at 28.5N. The correlation between the location of the stagnant slab and surface tectonics suggests that the Cenozoic extension in eastern China is closely associated with the subduction of the western Pacific and its eastward migration. The water content of the stagnant slab is lower than in surrounding slabs, suggesting that the water has already been released from the subducting slab into the upper mantle.

  18. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies. PMID:25023655

  19. JOINT WORLD BANK INSTITUTE/EPA CHINA WORKSHOP ON ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE - E&C ROLES IN DEALING WITH CURRENT AND PROJECTED MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Bank Institute (WBI) provides funding for economic development in China. Modules of this funding are specifically dedicated for environmental protection projects. One of these modules is the development of compliance and enforcement. This is broken down into identifi...

  20. The effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality: an epidemiologic study in four climatic zones in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little evidence is available about the association between temperature and cerebrovascular mortality in China. This study aims to examine the effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality in different climatic zones in China. Method We obtained daily data on weather conditions, air pollution and cerebrovascular deaths from five cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou) in China during 2004-2008. We examined city-specific associations between ambient temperature and the cerebrovascular mortality, while adjusting for season, long-term trends, day of the week, relative humidity and air pollution. We examined cold effects using a 1°C decrease in temperature below a city-specific threshold, and hot effects using a 1°C increase in temperature above a city-specific threshold. We used a meta-analysis to summarize the cold and hot effects across the five cities. Results Beijing and Tianjin (with low mean temperature) had lower thresholds than Shanghai, Wuhan and Guangzhou (with high mean temperature). In Beijing, Tianjin, Wuhan and Guangzhou cold effects were delayed, while in Shanghai there was no or short induction. Hot effects were acute in all five cities. The cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. The hot effects were followed by mortality displacement. The pooled relative risk associated with a 1°C decrease in temperature below thresholds (cold effect) was 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.020, 1.053). The pooled relative risk associated with a 1°C increase in temperature above thresholds (hot effect) was 1.014 (95% CI: 0.979, 1.050). Conclusion Cold temperatures are significantly associated with cerebrovascular mortality in China, while hot effect is not significant. People in colder climate cities were sensitive to hot temperatures, while people in warmer climate cities were vulnerable to cold temperature. PMID:24690204

  1. Benthos and demersal fish habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Hermann; Reiss, Henning; Ehrich, Siegfried; Sell, Anne; Panten, Kay; Kloppmann, Matthias; Wilhelms, Ingo; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2013-09-01

    We compiled data from different monitoring surveys to analyse and compare community and diversity patterns of fish, epi- and infauna in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea in order to identify benthic habitats common to all faunal components. We found congruent community patterns of fish, epi- and infauna for the coastal waters, the Oysterground and the area called "Duck's Bill", which coincided with specific abiotic characteristics of these regions. The three regions were defined as special habitats for fish, epi- and infauna species in the German EEZ. The differences in the seasonal variability of abiotic factors seem to be the most important discriminating abiotic characteristic for the three habitats. The spatial distribution of fish, epifauna and infauna communities remained stable over time although habitat characteristics such as sea surface temperature increased due to climate change. However, it is expected that the coastal habitat will be more sensitive to future climate change effects in contrast to the Oysterground and Duck's Bill habitat.

  2. GLORIA II Sonograph Mosaic of the Western U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacchione, D. A.; Drake, D. E.; Edwards, B.; Field, M.; Gardner, J.; Hampton, M.; Karl, H.; McCulloch, D.; Kenyon, N.; Masson, D.

    In 1983 the United States declared sovereign rights and jurisdiction over living and nonliving resources in an area extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) seaward from its shores. In response to the establishment of this Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented a program, called EEZ-Scan, to systematically map the EEZ, using the Geological Long- Range Inclined ASDIC (GLORIA) II longrange side scan sonar system developed by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) of Great Britain [Somers et al, 1978]. The first part of the EEZ-Scan field program was completed in the summer of 1984, when USGS and IOS scientists surveyed the EEZ off the western conterminous United States aboard the British research vessel Farnella (Figure 1). The west coast survey, requiring 96 days of ship time and four separate legs, has resulted in virtually total sonograph coverage of the sea floor from the continental shelf break to the 200-nautical mile limit between the Mexican and Canadian borders, an area of about 850,000 km2 . Other data collected on the cruises included two-channel digital seismic reflection and 3.5-kHz highresolution and 10-kHz bathymetric profiles, as well as towed magnetometer data along approximately 20,000 km of trackline spaced nominally at 30-km intervals.

  3. The socio-economic importance of wild vegetable resources and their conservation: a case study from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobo Zou; Fengqiu Huang; Limin Hao; Jiewen Zhao; Hanpin Mao; Jiachun Zhang; Shuyan Ren

    2010-01-01

    Summary  In the Xiangxi region of western Hunan province, China, 335 taxa belonging to 87 families and 119 genera are utilised as wild\\u000a vegetables. In order to take advantage of this naturally occurring resource we examined the horticultural and the associated\\u000a socio-economic aspects of these taxa. Wild vegetables, as the mainstay of human diet and Chinese traditional medicines, have\\u000a played an

  4. Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment of soybean-based biodiesel as an alternative automotive fuel in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyuan Hu; Piqiang Tan; Xiaoyu Yan; Diming Lou

    2008-01-01

    Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment for conventional diesel (CD) and soybean-based biodiesel (SB) in China was carried out in this paper. The results of the assessment have shown that compared with CD, SB has similar source-to-tank (StT) total energy consumption, 76% lower StT fossil energy consumption, 79% higher source-to-wheel (StW) nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions, 31%, 44%, 36%, 29%,

  5. A study on legislative and policy tools for promoting the circular economic model for waste management in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhui Li; Keli Yu

    The circular economy has been developing rapidly in recent years in China. A legislative system has been created to provide\\u000a legal protection for the development of a circular economy, including a series of price and tax measures in the waste management\\u000a area. These measures form the basic foundation for promoting better waste management under the circular economic model. Many\\u000a challenges,

  6. Adjacent state issues for the United States in establishing an exclusive economic zone: the cases of Canada and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, R.E.; Hennessey, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates the issues that might emerge between the US and both Canada and Mexico in the establishment of adjacent exclusive economic zones (EEZs). Given the ambiguity of the United Nations Convention language and historic differences in approach to law of the sea issues, it is likely that there will be differences in how each of these countries will manage and regulate activities within their respective zones. Since many of the resources and activities are transboundary in nature, the potential for conflict between states exists. The paper highlights existing areas of conflict and evaluates the potential for future disagreements. 3 figures.

  7. Trends of NDVI, precipitation and their relationship in different forest ecological zone of China during 1982 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sa; Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Xi; Zhang, Guo; Yang, Ting

    2014-11-01

    This study analyzes the change of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and precipitation for forest in different ecological zones in China and their correlation over the period of 1982-2006. The specific aim of this paper was to identify the changing trends of NDVI and precipitation and understand their relations, especially, on which duration the precipitation influence NDVI strongly during growing season of forest in different ecological aspects. The results showed that 1) the break points of NDVI and precipitation appeared in different years in most ecological zones, but in temperate continental forest and temperate mountain system, they have a high degree of consistency; 2) the NDVI in boreal coniferous forest, temperate mountain system and tropical moist deciduous forest showed a increasing trend during 1982-2006 and the lowest value were appeared in different time and the precipitation in boreal coniferous forest and temperate mountain system showed a decreasing trend; 3) the forest in different ecological zones has different patterns with different periods and lags and the peak value of pearson correlation coefficients were showed in different duration and lag, and NDVI and precipitation generally have the negative but weak relation.

  8. An Analytical Solution of Groundwater Evapotranspiration in Arid Riparian Zone: A Case Study for the Tarim River in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Z.; Dang, Q.; Wang, L.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET) constitutes a major component of the water balance in arid riparian zone. Most of groundwater ET studies depend on numerical models but it is not easy to discuss the controling factors of groundwater ET in riparian zone. A two-dimension conceptal framework was set up to understand the groundwater ET in arid riparian zone. We deduced an analytical solution and its simplification of riparian ET based on a negative exponential relation between groundwater ET and groundwater depth. The groundwaer ET is controlled by soil type (soil hydraulic condontivity and parameter in the negative exponential relation), aquifer thickness, potential ET and river water table. Three soil types (sand, sandy loam and loam) with different soil texture were selected to discuss the riparian ET and it was found that the riaprian ET is similar for different soil type. The framework and analytical solution are applied in Tarim River in China where a river restoration project had been put into practice. The discussions are helpful to design water supply pattern of river restoration.

  9. Optimization of geometry, material and economic parameters of a two-zone subcritical reactor for transmutation of nuclear waste with SERPENT Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-06-01

    An optimization study of a subcritical two-zone homogeneous reactor was carried out, taking into consideration geometry, material, and economic parameters. The advantage of a two-zone subcritical system over a single-zone system is demonstrated. The study investigated the optimal volume ratio for the inner and outer zones of the subcritical reactor, in terms of the neutron-physical parameters as well as fuel cost. Optimal geometrical parameters of the system are suggested for different material compositions.

  10. Seasonal evolution of aerosol stratigraphy in Ürümqi glacier No. 1 percolation zone, eastern Tien Shan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feiteng Wang; Zhongqin Li; Xiaoni You; Chuanjin Li; Huilin Li; Xiangying Li; Yuman Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The processes involved in the evolution of vertical profiles of Mg2+, Ca2+ and microparticle concentrations, as well as their seasonal variation in surface snow, were studied by weekly sampling from September 2003 to September 2004 of a snow pit on Ürümqi glacier No. 1, eastern Tien Shan, China. The development of the microparticle and Mg2+ and Ca2+ stratigraphy in the

  11. Modification of subcontinental lithospheric mantle above continental subduction zone: Constraints from geochemistry of Mesozoic gabbroic rocks in southeastern North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing-Liang; Zhao, Zi-Fu; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2012-08-01

    The subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in the southern margin of the North China Block was modified by the Triassic subduction of the South China Block, but less is known about subsequent events. This study presents a geochemical study of its anatectic products, Mesozoic gabbroic rocks from the southeastern edge of the North China Block. Zircon U-Pb dating gave ages of 119 ± 4 to 131 ± 1 Ma for magma crystallization. The gabbroic rocks have high contents of MgO, Cr and Ni as well as high Mg# values, but low contents of SiO2. They exhibit arc-like trace element patterns, enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, and high ?18O values. These geochemical features indicate their derivation from partial melting of a fertile mantle source that is enriched not only in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements but also in radiogenic isotopes. In particular, they have two-stage whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf model ages of Mesoproterozoic to Paleoproterozoic, which are similar to those of ultrahigh-pressure metaigneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. This suggests a genetic relationship in precursor origin between them. Therefore, the mantle source for the gabbroic rocks would be generated by crustal metasomatism through underplate reaction of the overlying SCLM-wedge peridotite with felsic melts derived from subducting continental crustal rocks of the South China Block during the Triassic continental collision. The fertile and enriched signatures in the mantle source were imparted by the crustally derived melts in the continental subduction channel, giving rise to the metasomatised SCLM in the Triassic. Because of its fertile and enriched properties, the metasomatised SCLM was susceptible to partial melting in an extensional tectonic setting, resulting in gabbroic magmatism in the Early Cretaceous. Therefore, these gabbroic rocks provide petrological and geochemical records of the crust-mantle interaction above a continental subduction zone. The spatial effect of continental deep subduction on the overlying SCLM wedge may extend to 200-300 km distant from the collisional orogen. The melt metasomatism would have modified the chemical and physical properties of the SCLM in the southern North China Block, facilitating the SCLM thinning in the Mesozoic.

  12. Water quality in the upper Han River basin, China: The impacts of land use\\/land cover in riparian buffer zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyue Li; Sheng Gu; Xiang Tan; Quanfa Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Vegetated riparian zones adjacent to rivers and streams, can greatly mitigate nutrients, sediment from surface through deposition, absorption and denitrification, yet, human activities primarily land use practices have dramatically reduced the capacity. In this study, 42 sampling sites were selected in the riverine network throughout the upper Han River basin (approximately 95,200km2) of China. A total of 252 water samples

  13. Humidity Control Systems for Civil Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    E-print Network

    Yu, X.

    2006-01-01

    controlled unit to dry and cool outdoor air. Key words: hot summer and cold winter zone; civil buildings; humidity control; air-conditioning system; ventilation mode 1 INTRODUCTION The Yangtze River basin, its special geographic location causes...

  14. Land Use Zoning at the County Level Based on a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study from Yicheng, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can generate a corresponding optimal solution, with a different quantity structure and spatial pattern to satisfy the preference of the different decision makers; (7) the model proposed in this paper is capable of handling the land-use zoning problem, and the crossover and mutation operator can improve the performance of the model, but, nevertheless, leads to increased time consumption. PMID:23066398

  15. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2. PMID:16784172

  16. Residual strength of slip zones of large landslides in the Three Gorges area, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Wen; A. Aydin; N. S. Duzgoren-Aydin; Y. R. Li; H. Y. Chen; S. D. Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Slip zones of the large landslides in the Three Gorges area are commonly composed of fine-grained soils with substantial amount of coarse-grained particles, particularly gravel-sized particles. In this study, residual strength of the soils from slip zones of these landslides were examined in relation to their index properties based on a survey of 170 landslides. It was found that laboratory-determined

  17. Niche partitioning of marine group I Crenarchaeota in the euphotic and upper mesopelagic zones of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anyi; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Zao

    2011-11-01

    Marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGI) represents a ubiquitous and numerically predominant microbial population in marine environments. An understanding of the spatial dynamics of MGI and its controlling mechanisms is essential for an understanding of the role of MGI in energy and element cycling in the ocean. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of MGI in the East China Sea (ECS) by analysis of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, and the biotin carboxylase gene accA. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that these genes were higher in abundance in the mesopelagic than in the euphotic zone. In addition, the crenarchaeal amoA gene was positively correlated with the copy number of the MGI 16S rRNA gene, suggesting that most of the MGI in the ECS are nitrifiers. Furthermore, the ratios of crenarchaeal accA to amoA or to MGI 16S rRNA genes increased from the euphotic to the mesopelagic zone, suggesting that the role of MGI in carbon cycling may change from the epipelagic to the mesopelagic zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic profiling of the 16S rRNA genes revealed depth partitioning in MGI community structures. Clone libraries of the crenarchaeal amoA and accA genes showed both "shallow" and "deep" groups, and their relative abundances varied in the water column. Ecotype simulation analysis revealed that MGI in the upper ocean could diverge into special ecotypes associated with depth to adapt to the light gradient across the water column. Overall, our results showed niche partitioning of the MGI population and suggested a shift in their ecological functions between the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the ECS. PMID:21873485

  18. Sedimentary loadings and ecological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a typical mariculture zone of South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wong, Charles S; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-10-26

    Two sediment cores were collected from Hailing Bay located in a typical mariculture zone of Guangdong Province, South China, and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of the sum of 27 PAHs ranged from 62 to 1200 ng g(-1) dry wt, and sediment in the study area was considered to be moderately polluted by PAHs. Source diagnostics based on PAH composition and principal component analysis suggested that PAHs in the study area were mainly derived from petroleum combustion, with discharge of PAHs from fishing boats as an important source. Ecological risk assessment results indicate that PAHs in sediment of the present study currently have minimal adverse effect on the mariculture environment. Comparison of sedimentary inventory of PAHs in the fish harbor of the study area with those in the Pearl River Estuary and the coastal Bohai Bay indicate that the sediment has become an important reservoir of PAHs. PMID:22898895

  19. Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

  20. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule...2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI. (a) Locations. The following areas, from the surface...

  1. The personal, societal, and economic burden of schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China: implications for antipsychotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, William; Liu, Li; Stensland, Michael D; Xue, Hai Bo; Treuer, Tamas; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

    2013-01-01

    Background This article describes the personal, societal, and economic burden attributable to schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China and highlights the potential for effective outpatient treatment to reduce this burden given recent changes in the Chinese health care system. The importance of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the burden of schizophrenia is also examined. Methods Published research on the burden, disability, management, and economic costs of schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China was examined in the context of the larger body of global research. Research written in English or Chinese and published before June 2012 was identified using PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Med database searches. The contribution of effective antipsychotic therapy in reducing the risk for relapse and hospitalization and improving patients’ functioning is described. Results Schizophrenia imposes a substantial burden on Chinese society, with indirect costs accounting for the majority of the total cost. Functional impairment is high, leading to lost wages and work impairment. In the People’s Republic of China, schizophrenia is the most common diagnosis among hospitalized psychiatric patients. Ongoing changes in the Chinese health care system may reduce some barriers to effective relapse prevention in schizophrenia and potentially reduce hospitalizations. The use of antipsychotics for acute episodes and maintenance treatment has been shown to decrease symptom severity and reduce the risk for relapse and hospitalization. However, discontinuing antipsychotic medication appears common and is a strong predictor of relapse. Cost-effectiveness research in the People’s Republic of China is needed to examine the potential gains from improved outpatient antipsychotic treatment. Conclusion Schizophrenia is a very costly mental illness in terms of personal, economic, and societal burden, both in the People’s Republic of China and globally. When treated effectively, patients tend to persist longer with antipsychotic treatment, have fewer costly relapses, and have improved functioning. Further research examining the long-term effects of reducing barriers to effective treatments on the societal burden of schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China is needed. PMID:23983478

  2. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  3. Relationship between Air Pollutants and Economic Development of the Provincial Capital Cities in China during the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictorssuch as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provinical cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  4. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  5. Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingguo Gao

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental

  6. Economic Development, Enlightenment and Creative transformation: Creative Industries in the New China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin O’Connor

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines some of the implications for China of the creative industries agenda as drawn by some recent commentators. The creative industries have been seen by many commentators as essential if China is to move from an imitative low-value economy to an innovative high value one. Some suggest that this trajectory is impossible without a full transition to liberal

  7. The upper mantle beneath the continental rift of Tanlu, Eastern China: evidence for the intra-lithospheric shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Ross, John V.; Mercier, Jean-Claude C.

    1993-10-01

    Spinel-lherzolite xenoliths from four Neogene basanite volcanic cones of Yitong within the Tanlu Rift of eastern China can be divided into two groups according to their grain sizes: coarse-grained peridotites (> 1.5 mm) and mylonite peridotites (<0.1 mm). Coarse-grained samples display various texture types ranging from protogranular to tabular granoblastic, implying a virtually steady-state stress in the mantle. Some recovery of olivines (up to 4 mm) in tabular granoblastic matrix (1 mm) reflect a stress relaxation, followed by another stress increase inferred from some rare kink bands in these crystals. Such cyclic stress variation is probably related to the multistage of formation of the Yitong graben which has been subject to both tensile and compressive stress. Two subtypes are found for mylonite peridotites: porphyroclastic and mosaic. The extremely fine grain size ( < 0.01 mm) yield the highest stress estimates ( > 400 Mpa) among those reported in literature so far. One spinel-mylonite peridotite contains minor plagioclase, indicating their shallow depth of origin. Electron microprobe analysis reveals distinct chemical features for these two different textural groups. Coarse-grained peridotites are compositionally homogeneous. Sample to sample variations are ascribed to different degrees of extraction of basalt during ancient partial melting events related to the regional upwelling of the upper mantle during subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern continent of China. Geothermometric calculations show that all coarse-grained samples as well as the intruded pyroxenite are equilibrated between 900-1050°C. Conversely, in the mylonite samples, compositional zoning is found at the rims (200 ?m) of the pyroxenes with decreasing Ca, AI and Cr from cores to rims, whereas the composition profile of the porphyroclast cores indicate that these fine-grained samples were in equilibrium some time prior to mylonitization. Compositional disequilibrium at porphyroclast rims reflects the kinetics of diffusion-controlled reactions due to a cooling event associated with later intense shearing deformation some time before eruption. This cooling history (from 980 to 740°C) is further revealed by the geothermometric study of the core/rim and porphyroclast/neoblast compositions in these mylonite peridotites. These highly deformed peridotites indicate the presence of an intra-lithospheric shear zone(s) near the crust/mantle boundary, which formed synchronously with the fullest development of Yuan-Yitong rift during Oligocene and Eocene times. We infer, then, that these Yitong Iherzolite xenoliths record at least two superimposed episodes of deformation and chemical evolution which were closely related to the regional geodynamic evolution.

  8. Molecular data and ecological niche modeling reveal population dynamics of widespread shrub Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae) in China’s warm-temperate zone in response to climate change during the Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its high number of endemic deciduous broad-leaved species in China’s warm-temperate zone, far less attention has been paid to phylogeographic studies in this region. In this work, the phylogeographic history of Forsythia suspensa endemic to China’s warm-temperate zone was investigated to explore the effect of climate change during the Pleistocene on the distribution of this deciduous broad-leaved species in China. Results The cpDNA data revealed seven phylogeographical groups corresponding to geographical regions. By contrast, the nrDNA data supported the samples clustered into three groups, which was inconsistent with separate geographical regions supported by cpDNA data. Ecological niche modeling showed that the climatically suitable area during the cold period was larger than that during the warm period. Conclusions Both molecular data and ecological niche modeling indicated that F. suspensa expanded to nearby low-elevation plains in the glacial periods, and retreated to mountaintops during interglacial warmer stages. This study thus supported that F. suspensa persisted in situ during the glacial of the Pleistocene with enlarged distribution area, contrary to the hypothesis of long distance southward migration or large-scale range contraction. PMID:24885704

  9. Reconsidering brownfield redevelopment strategy in China's old industrial zone: a health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wanxia; Geng, Yong; Ma, Zhixiao; Sun, Lina; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Urban environmental quality in brownfield redevelopment sites is of vital importance after most of former industrial areas were replanned or changed into residential and recreational areas. Hence, it is necessary to rethink if those brownfield redevelopment sites have been cleaned up so that there will be no negative health impacts to local residents. Under such a circumstance, this paper aims to evaluate the contamination level of heavy metals within a brownfield redevelopment site in China, namely, the Tiexi old industrial zone in Shenyang. Surface soil and dust samples were collected from local industrial sites, residential/commercial sites, traffic sites, and recreational sites, respectively. Our analysis results revealed that although the soils in the brownfield redevelopment sites had been treated and remediated, heavy metal pollution still exists in certain sites, especially in the current industrial sites that will be planned into residential/commercial or recreational zones, and the current residential sites where the former industrial sites located, showing that past industrial activities did and will continue to influence the soil quality. Further health risk assessment indicates that As and Pb generated from industrial sites and traffic sites has a potential to pose serious health risks to local residents, especially children. The hotspots with more serious health risks to children are mainly concentrated in the areas close to the former Shenyang Smelting Plant. After one decade of redevelopment, the Tiexi old industrial zone has become a new urban area which is not suitable for large-scaled soil remediation efforts. Thus, the phytoremediation by trees or herbs in heavy-metal-contaminated land is more appropriate and should be embedded into urban green land planning. This study provides innovative policy insights on urban brownfield redevelopment to both governmental officials and related stakeholders so that they can make appropriate remediation actions. PMID:25205156

  10. Thermal dynamic in hyporheic zone response to river temperatures formed by reservoir operations in Xinanjiang River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Zhao, J.; Chen, L.; Tao, X.; Zhao, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding heat fluxes through hyporheic zones (HZ) becomes increasingly important as anthropogenic influences and changing climate alter river thermal regimes. The HZ directly interacts with river thermal regimes by storing and releasing heat over a range of timescales. Alteration of HZ can lead to shifts in aquatic species composition and changes in biogeochemical processes. In this study we examine a reach of the Xinanjiang, China downstream of the Xinanjiang Dam. The Xinanjiang Dam introduces a low temperature water (LTW) region to the downstream of a length of 23 km and an area of 9.9 km2, which greatly changes the downstream thermal regime. However, how and to what extent the LTW in stream affect the HZ temperature distribution and, ulteriorly, the full range of the river ecosystem are still not completely understood. We quantify hyporheic exchange and heat transport induced by LTW by field experiments and numerical simulations for coupled groundwater flow and heat transport. Both surface and subsurface water temperature are measured in a study region for model validation. The hydraulic head and water temperature along the water-aquifer interface are considered as the input boundaries for groundwater models. The upwelling water with short streamline paths shows the same temperature pattern as surface water but the temperature of water that comes out from the deep subsurface zones rises much higher and shows a relatively lower variation. However, with the continuing exchange of surface LTW and groundwater, the low temperature spreads over the entire domain. Detailed field characterization and groundwater modeling indicate residence times of hyporheic flux can vary from hours to months. A significant implication is that the LTW released from upstream reservoir contributes to the downstream temperature field and potential degradation of habitats in hyporheic zones.

  11. Advancing Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Variations of Soil Nutrients in the Water Level Fluctuation Zone of China’s Three Gorges Reservoir Using Self-Organizing Map

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Yang, Yuyi; Shu, Xiao; Zhang, Jiaquan; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-01-01

    The ~350 km2 water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China, situated at the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, experiences a great hydrological change with prolonged winter inundation. Soil samples were collected in 12 sites pre- (September 2008) and post submergence (June 2009) in the WLFZ and analyzed for soil nutrients. Self-organizing map (SOM) and statistical analysis including multi-way ANOVA, paired-T test, and stepwise least squares multiple regression were employed to determine the spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients in relation to submergence, and their correlations with soil physical characteristics. Results showed significant spatial variability in nutrients along ~600 km long shoreline of the TGR before and after submergence. There were higher contents of organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), and nitrate (NO3-) in the lower reach and total phosphorus (TP) in the upper reach that were primarily due to the spatial variations in soil particle size composition and anthropogenic activities. Submergence enhanced soil available potassium (K), while significantly decreased soil N, possibly due to the alterations of soil particle size composition and increase in soil pH. In addition, SOM analysis determined important roles of soil pH value, bulk density, soil particle size (i.e., silt and sand) and nutrients (TP, TK, and AK) on the spatial and temporal variations in soil quality. Our results suggest that urban sewage and agricultural runoffs are primary pollutants that affect soil nutrients in the WLFZ of TGR. PMID:25789612

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban forest conversion through model urbanization in Shenzhen, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chongfeng Gong; Jiquan Chen; Shixiao Yu

    2011-01-01

    In southern coastal China, Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ) was established as a model city by the government of mainland China in 1979 to demonstrate the competitive edge over Hong Kong across the straight. In less than three decades, Shenzhen has become a symbolic model city and changed from an agriculture-dominated landscape to a modern industrialization urban setting. The remote

  13. Regional economic function analysis of U.S. foreign-trade zones

    E-print Network

    Otsubo, Hirotoshi

    2005-01-01

    Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZs) are defined as designated areas in the United States where foreign merchandise is considered to be international commerce and not subject to U.S. customs duties unless or until it enters into the ...

  14. Nutrient dynamics in the winter thermohaline frontal zone of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su Mei; Guo, Xinyu; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Bi, Yan Feng; Luo, Xin; Li, Jian Bing

    2010-11-01

    As the first attempt to estimate the nutrient transport across the winter thermohaline frontal zone on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the nutrient dynamics around the front and the effects of cross-frontal water exchange on nutrient transport were investigated using wintertime field observations. Both water temperature and salinity increased from coastal to oceanic waters, showing the presence of a thermohaline front. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients decreased oceanward, especially across the thermohaline front, while those of dissolved organic nutrients (i.e., dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus) showed patchy distributions. Ammonium was the major constituent of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and DON was the main component of total dissolved nitrogen. Molar ratios of PO43-/total dissolved phosphorus decreased from coastal to oceanic waters, indicating that PO43- was rapidly removed and/or consumed from the water column and that organic matter degradation increased offshore, replenishing PO43-. Molar ratios of NO3-/(NH4+ + DON) were 0.01-0.6, indicating dominance of regenerated nitrogen. Surface water convergence and bottom water divergence were identified in the across-shore velocity field, and the calculated across-shore nutrient fluxes suggest that the presence of the winter thermohaline front promotes the offshore transport of nutrients from coastal waters. The transport path begins with convergence of surface coastal waters toward the front, followed by the sinking in the frontal region and the oceanward movement through the bottom layer of the front offshore side. With an assumption of 500 km as the length of thermohaline front on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the calculated offshore fluxes of nutrients across the entire front are larger than those from the Zhujiang (Pearl River) and the Changjiang (Yangtze River).

  15. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  16. Deep resistivity structure along the Longmen Mountain fault zone in the eastern Tibetan plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhang, G.; Luo, W.; Luo, H.; Cai, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, W.; Qin, Q.

    2012-12-01

    1.Introduction Many researchers (e.g.,Wang et al.,2009) have proposed the relevant knowledge of tectonic evolution and dynamic characteristics of the Longmen Mountain belt as well as the Songpan-Ganzi and Yangtze blocks in the past few decades, the knowledge of shallow thrust nappe tectonic along the belt has then been generally recognized. It's, however, still difficult to image the deep crust and mantle structures and reveal the dynamic mechanism of the crustal formation under the Longmen Mountain. In this study, we carried out the MT experiments along and across the Longmen mountain region and investigated the relationships between the crust structure and seismic activity basing on the latest MT geological results. 2. Field observations We conducted three MT experiment profiles in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. One is along the Mingshan-Guangyuan profile parallel with the structural direction, and another two profiles (Maqu-Gaoliangzhen and Luqu-Hechuan) perpendicular to the Longmen Mountain fault zone. In this study, we use the conventional magnetotelluric (MT) data combine with the long-period magnetotelluric (LMT) data to observe electromagnetic response. The MT and LMT data was observed by using the V8 instrument and LEMI-417, respectively. 3. Conclusion (1) According to the results of MT inversion, we find that the high concentration of stress process along the Songpan-Ganzi block and the Yangtze block colliding zone might result from the deep crust-mantle tough shear Zone of Longmen Mountain expanded to mid-upper crust, and finally leads to a new rupture. This could be one of the focal mechanisms of the Wenchuan earthquake (Ms 8.0) generating. The deep resistivity structure along the Longmen Mountain fault zone can be divided into southern,middle and northern segments from southwest to northeast. The total resistivity of southern segment is lower than the middle and northern portions. We suggest that the upper crust of the Longmen Mountain, south of Dayi, might be of lower rock strength. We then propose that it's difficult to accumulate the stress to result in upper crust crack under the south segment compared with that of the northern segment. This may be one of the reasons that the southern segment has fewer aftershocks after Wenchuan earthquake. (2) Due to the thick rigid plate and the western Qinghai-Tibet Yangtze plate extrusion from the southeast direction, the Longmen Mountain and Songpan-Ganzi region have dynamic properties of the shallow abduction to the Yangtze plate, and the deep subduction to the Yangtze plate. In addition, the GPS study indicates that there is a relative movement between Yangtze plate and Songpan-Ganzi region, and the displacement rate of Yangtze plate is faster than Songpan-Ganzi region. Therefore, the Yangtze plate forms a wedge insert into the Longmen Mountain, i.e., the thrust nappe structure of upper crust and the development of the lower crust "subduction zone", leading to a "Crocodile mouth"-shape structure across the Longmen fault zone.

  17. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  18. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  19. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  20. 76 FR 40674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallops

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...OFL. Lacking a stock assessment model, the sources of scientific...to compile the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation...species. An Environmental Assessment was prepared for Amendment...environmental, social, and economic impacts of the...

  1. Economic statecraft with Chinese characteristics : the use of commercial actors in China's grand strategy

    E-print Network

    Norris, William J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This study is about Chinese economic statecraft: what it is, how it works and why it is more or less effective. The study builds a theory of economic statecraft that provides an explanation of how states use firms to pursue ...

  2. Maintaining economic value of ecosystem services whilst reducing environmental cost: a way to achieve freshwater restoration in china.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingli; Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Jiashou; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Lek, Sovan; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries are central to food security in China and this remains one of the most important priorities for the growing human population. Thus, combining ecosystem restoration with economics is pivotal in setting successful conservation in China. Here, we have developed a practical management model that combines fishery improvement with conservation. For six years, a ban on fertilizer and a reduction of planktivorous fish stocking along with the introduction of both mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was apparent in Wuhu Lake, a highly eutrophic lake located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Annual fish yield decreased slightly after the change in management, whereas fisheries income increased 2.6 times. Mandarin fish and Chinese mitten crab accounted for only 16% of total fisheries production but for 48% of total fisheries income. During this six year period, water clarity increased significantly from 61 cm to 111 cm. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll decreased significantly from 1.14 to 0.84 mg/L, 0.077 to 0.045 mg/L, and 21.45 to 11.59 ?g/L respectively, and macrophyte coverage increased by about 30%. Our results showed that the ecological status of shallow lakes could be rapidly reversed from eutrophic to oligotrophic using simple biomanipulation, whilst maintaining fisheries economic value. It also offers a better approach to shallow fisheries lake management in Asia where traditionally the stocking of Chinese carp and use of fertilizers is still popular. PMID:25803696

  3. Maintaining Economic Value of Ecosystem Services Whilst Reducing Environmental Cost: A Way to Achieve Freshwater Restoration in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mingli; Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Jiashou; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Lek, Sovan; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries are central to food security in China and this remains one of the most important priorities for the growing human population. Thus, combining ecosystem restoration with economics is pivotal in setting successful conservation in China. Here, we have developed a practical management model that combines fishery improvement with conservation. For six years, a ban on fertilizer and a reduction of planktivorous fish stocking along with the introduction of both mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was apparent in Wuhu Lake, a highly eutrophic lake located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Annual fish yield decreased slightly after the change in management, whereas fisheries income increased 2.6 times. Mandarin fish and Chinese mitten crab accounted for only 16% of total fisheries production but for 48% of total fisheries income. During this six year period, water clarity increased significantly from 61 cm to 111 cm. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll decreased significantly from 1.14 to 0.84 mg/L, 0.077 to 0.045 mg/L, and 21.45 to 11.59 ?g/L respectively, and macrophyte coverage increased by about 30%. Our results showed that the ecological status of shallow lakes could be rapidly reversed from eutrophic to oligotrophic using simple biomanipulation, whilst maintaining fisheries economic value. It also offers a better approach to shallow fisheries lake management in Asia where traditionally the stocking of Chinese carp and use of fertilizers is still popular. PMID:25803696

  4. The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-zhong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion. Ecological engineering approaches can therefore reduce environmental impacts of LZTGR and optimize ecological services. In view of the current situation and existing ecological problems of LZTGR, according to function demands such as environmental purification, biodiversity conservation, and vegetation carbon sink enhancement, we should explore the eco-friendly utilization mode of resources in LZTGR. Ecological engineering approaches might minimize the impacts or optimize the ecological services. Natural regeneration and ecological restoration in LZTGR are valuable for soil erosion decrease, pollutant purification, biodiversity conservation, carbon sink increase, and ecosystem health maintenance in TGR. PMID:23296972

  5. The Lag Effects and Vulnerabilities of Temperature Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Subtropical Climate Zone in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jixia; Wang, Jinfeng; Yu, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha—a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0–3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10–25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0–2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ?65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%–8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%–7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and younger people. PMID:24733034

  6. [Seasonal variations of calorific values of Pinus koraiensis-broadleaved mixed forest litters and soil macrofauna in China temperate zone].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-Qin; Xin, Wei-Dong; Qi, Yan-Hong

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the calorific values of Pinus koraiensis-broadleaved mixed forest litters and soil microfauna in China temperate zone were determined, with their seasonal variation patterns studied. The results showed that both the calorific values and their seasonal variation patterns were differed with the kinds of tree species litters and soil macrofauna in the mixed forest. The mean gross calorific value (GCV) of P. koraiensis litter was the highest (19.71 kJ x g(-1)), followed by Betula costata (18.22 kJ x g(-1)), Tilia amurensis (18.13 kJ x g(-1)), mixed litter (17.91 kJ x g(-1)), Fraxinus mandshurica (16.94 kJ x g(-1)), and Acer mono (16.25 kJ x g(-1)). With the decomposition of litter, the GCV of P. koraiensis and A. mono litters decreased, while that of F. mandshurica litter had little change. The GCV of T. amurensis and B. costata litters presented an increasing trend in the next year of decomposition. Among the marofauna, scolopendra had the highest GCV (22.07 kJ x g(-1)), followed by earthworm (16.72 kJ x g(-1)) and diplopod (13.28 kJ x g(-1)). Earthworm and diplopod had the identical seasonal variation pattern of GCV, while scolopendra was different from them. There was no significant relationship between the seasonal variation of GCV in litters and soil macrofauna. PMID:17615867

  7. f max and fault zone property of Lushan earthquake of 20 April 2013, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jian; Chen, Xiaofei

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we determined f max from near-field accelerograms of the Lushan earthquake of April 20, 2013 through spectra analysis. The result shows that the values of f max derived from five different seismography stations are very close though these stations roughly span about 100 km along the strike. This implies that the cause of f max is mainly the seismic source process rather than the site effect. Moreover, according to the source-cause model of Papageorgiou and Aki (Bull Seism Soc Am 73:693-722, 1983), we infer that the cohesive zone width of the rupture of the Lushan earthquake is about 204 with an uncertainty of 13 m. We also find that there is a significant bulge between 30 and 45 Hz in the amplitude spectra of accelerograms of stations 51YAL and 51QLY, and we confirm that it is due to seismic waves' reverberation of the sedimentary soil layer beneath these stations.

  8. A Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming Model for Uncertainty-Based Environmental Economic Optimization in the Lake Fuxian Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Rui; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yajuan

    2013-01-01

    The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP) method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP) and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers' preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of “low risk and high return efficiency” in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management. PMID:24191144

  9. Sedimentation and associated trace metal enrichment in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiang; Bao, Yuhai; He, Xiubin; Zhou, Huaidong; Cao, Zhijing; Gao, Peng; Zhong, Ronghua; Hu, Yunhua; Zhang, Xinbao

    2014-05-01

    Impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir has created an artificial riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km(2), which has been subjected to seasonal inundation and exposure due to regular reservoir impoundment and the occurrence of natural floods. The significant alteration of hydrologic regime has caused numerous environmental changes. The present study investigated the magnitude and spatial pattern of sedimentation and metal enrichment in a typical section of the riparian zone, composed of bench terraces with previous agricultural land uses, and explored their links to the changed hydrologic regime. In particular, we measured the total sediment depths and collected surface riparian sediments and down-profile sectioned riparian soils (at 5 cm intervals) for trace metal determination. Our analysis showed that the annual average sedimentation rates varied from 0.5 to 10 cm·yr(-1) and they decreased significantly with increasing elevation. This lateral distribution was principally attributed to seasonal variations in water levels and suspended sediment concentrations. Enriched concentrations of trace metals were found both in the riparian sediments and soils, but they were generally higher in the riparian sediments than in riparian soils and followed a similar lateral decreasing trend. Metal contamination assessment showed that the riparian sediments were slightly contaminated by Ni, Zn, and Pb, moderately contaminated by Cu, and moderately to strongly contaminated by Cd; while riparian soils were slightly contaminated by As, and moderately contaminated by Cd. Trace metal enrichment in the riparian sediments may be attributed to external input of contaminated sediments produced from upstream anthropogenic sources and chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions during pure sediment mobilization and after sink for a prolonged flooding period due to reservoir impoundment. PMID:24561931

  10. ‘Mobile men with money’: the socio-cultural and politico-economic context of ‘high-risk’ behaviour among wealthy businessmen and government officials in urban China

    PubMed Central

    URETSKY, ELANAH

    2014-01-01

    China’s transition from an injection drug-driven HIV epidemic to one primarily transmitted through sexual contact has triggered concern over the potential for HIV to move into the non-drug-injecting population. Much discussion has focused on the migrant men of China’s vast ‘floating population’ who are considered a high-risk group. As a result, many men who frequently engage in high-risk behaviour but are not included in this especially vulnerable group are evading HIV prevention messages. This paper highlights the socio-cultural and politico-economic factors that motivate many of China’s wealthy businessmen and government officials, sometimes referred to as ‘mobile men with money’, to engage in such behaviour. Examination of the activities related to the work of these men reveals a situation where the confluence of a market-oriented economy operating within a socialist-style political system under the influence of traditional networking practices has engendered a unique mode of patron-clientelism that brings them together over shared social rituals including feasting, drinking and female-centered entertainment that is often coupled with sexual services. As a result, consideration of the socio-cultural factors influencing these men’s sexual practices is important for responding to the newly emerging stage of China’s HIV epidemic. PMID:18975228

  11. Species composition and diversity of macrobenthos in the intertidal zone of Xiangshan bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Haifeng; Zheng, Dan; You, Zhongjie; Xu, Nianjun; Lou, Dan; Huang, Chengwei

    2015-04-01

    Xiangshan bay is a narrow semi-closed bay and situated on the northwestern coast of the East China Sea. Over past decades, it has become to a major bay with intensive human activities, dense urbanized area, and poor water quality. The aim of this paper was to reveal the ecological status through the elucidation of the species composition, abundance, biomass and diversity of macrobenthos in this bay. Six intertidal sections were surveyed from January 2007 to November 2008 quarterly. Sections TG, HD and XH are located in the three inner bays, sections QJ and WS are located near the thermal power plants, and section XX is located at the outer part of Xiangshan Bay. Great variations in macrobenthos community were indentified, and the species composition of the community in the present study showed the dominance in the order of molluscs (bivalves and gastropods), crustaceans and others, and only few Polychaeta were recorded. Only three dominant species, Littorina brevicula, Ilyplax tansuiensis, and Cerithidea cingulata were collected in all the sections, and a total of 19 dominant species were recorded only in one section. Two-way ANOVA analyses of abundance indicated that there were significant differences among sections or seasons. Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H') had its maximum (2.45) in section QJ, and minimum (1.76) in section TG. Multiple irregular k-dominance plots clearly showed that the study area was polluted and the macrobenthos community was under stress. We conclude that the macrobenthos of Xiangshan Bay have been disturbed by human activities, especially at the interior bay.

  12. Origin and tectonic implication of Triassic eclogite from the Song Ma suture zone between the Indochina and South China blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Lo, C.; Grove, M.; Chung, S.; Iizuka, Y.; Tri, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Song-Ma suture zone in northern Vietnam and Laos marks the collision of the Indochina and South China blocks, which consists of ophiolite, metamorphic sole and meta-sediments. The Song Ma ophiolite consisting of serpentinized peridotite, layered gabbro, basalt and diabase is considered to represent the relics of the Paleothyan lithosphere. In this study, we provide new petrological, geochemical and geochronological data of the Song Ma eclogite for understanding its origin and tectonic implication. The eclogite is closely associated with garnet-phengite quartz schist and garnet amphibolite in the northwestern edge of the suture zone. It consists of porphyroblastic garnet and fine-grained matrix of omphacite, garnet, phengite, quartz and rutile. The porphyroblastic garnet has a large inclusion-rich core and a thin inclusion-free rim; the identified inclusions include quartz, taramite, barroisite, zoisite, epidote and rutile. Garnet porphyroblasts exhibit pronounced compositional zoning: i.e. increase pyrope with decreasing alm, grs and sps components from core (alm53-54Sps3-4Prp18-19Grs24-28) to rim (alm42-45Sps1Prp31-36Grs18-22) suggesting a prograde metamorphic history. Omphacite (Jd33-37) and phengite (Si, 3.34-3.45 pfu) are homogeneous in composition. Most interstitial amphibole in the matrix is retrograde phase. Grt-Cpx-Ph thermobarometer yielded a peak P-T condition of 28 ± 2 kbar and 700 ± 50 oC. All eclogites have basaltic composition: SiO2 ~ 49 wt%, TiO2 ~ 0.8 wt%, MgO ~ 8.6 wt% and FeOtotal 9.4-10.2 wt%. They show flat or slightly LREE-enriched patterns with negative Eu anomaly, and negative Sr and Ti anomalies in spider diagram. Selected major and trace element contents of eclogite, garnet amphibolite and metabasite plotted in the discrimination diagrams of 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and TiO2-FeO/MgO and Th/Yb-Nb/Yb suggest that the protoliths of the Song Ma eclogite and metabasite have MORB-type geochemical affinities. Zircon separates form an eclogite sample show variable sizes of 0.03-0.1 mm, without inherited cores, and stubby internal structures in cathodoluminescence images with very low Th/U of 0.01-0.05. SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon crystals yielded a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 230.5 ± 8.2 Ma (N=25). The Th/U ratios and internal structures indicate a metamorphic zircon origin. These data imply the formation of eclogite was related to subduction of sub-ophiolite oceanic basaltic rocks. The closing of the Lao-Vietnamese branch of the Paleotethys, separating the Indochina and South China blocks, led to collision of the blocks during the Middle-Late Triassic, corresponding to the major episode of the Indochina Orogeny.

  13. Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickenbach, Frank; Liu, Wan-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies have attempted to make use of scale expansion as a tool to reduce inequality of higher education among regions with different development levels by providing poor regions with preferential treatment and support. This paper analyzes…

  14. Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Bickenbach; Wan-Hsin LIU

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies attempted to make use of the scale expansion as a tool to reduce the inequality of higher education among different regions with different development levels through providing the poor regions preferential treatment and support in this regard. This paper analyses a provincial dataset

  15. Introduction Urban China has witnessed sweeping economic and social changes in the past two

    E-print Network

    - economy model. Yet the process of transition in China is persistently governed and monitored by the state. Despite all the changes transition has brought about, state institutions continue to play a determining. I argue that labor- market returns are not only determined by conventional factors such as human

  16. Primary rock magnetism for the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone at Jiulong outcrop, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongliang; Li, Haibing; Lee, Teh-Quei; Chou, Yu-Min; Song, Sheng-Rong; Sun, Zhiming; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Si, Jialiang

    2014-04-01

    Primary rock magnetism analysis was performed on samples from the Jiulong outcrop across the Anxian-Guanxian fault of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake rupture zone. The protolith of hanging wall of this outcrop is the upper Triassic sediments, which formed the fault breccia and gouge by repeated large earthquakes. The footwall of this outcrop contains Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. The average magnetic susceptibility value of the gouge is slightly less than that of potential protolith. Based on the primary rock magnetism, the main magnetic carriers are Fe-sulfides for the gouge, magnetite for the fault breccia, and magnetite and hematite for the Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. Possibly during or after repeated large earthquakes (just like the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake), it transformed the magnetic mineral from magnetite to Fe-sulfides by low thermal decomposition processes along the Anxian-Guanxian earthquake fault, which induces the slightly less average magnetic susceptibility values of the gouge than that of potential protolith. If this magnetic mineral changed only because of repeated large earthquake process, the heating by low velocity seismic slip friction and seismic fluid could possibly have been less than 300 °C. If this magnetic mineral of the Anxian-Guanxian earthquake fault is only induced after repeated large earthquakes, the earth surface process acts an important role for the magnetic mineral change. More other further studies should be done to verify the primary magnetic mineral phase change and discriminate the time of this magnetic mineral variation.

  17. Health economic evaluations of medical devices in the People’s Republic of China: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongrong; Modaresi, Farhang; Borisenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify and review the methodological quality of health economic evaluations of medical devices performed in the People’s Republic of China. To our knowledge, no such investigations have been performed to date. Methods A systematic literature review involving searches of Medline, Medline In-Process, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of the Tufts Medical Center, and the Wanfang Database was performed. The search spanned the period from 1990 to 2013. Studies on health economic evaluations of medical devices, in-vitro diagnostics, procedures, and the use of medical devices in Chinese health care settings were included. Full-text articles and conference abstracts in English and Chinese were included. Results Fifty-seven publications were included, 26 (46%) of which were in English and 31 (54%) of which were in Chinese. The included publications covered a wide range of clinical areas, such as surgery (n=23, 40%), screening (n=9, 16%), imaging use (n=6, 11%), kidney intervention (n=4, 7%), and nine other technological areas. Most of the studies (n=31, 54%) were cost analyses. Among the others, 13 (50%) studies used modeling, and another 13 (50%) were within-trial evaluations. Among studies that used modeling, eleven (85%) conducted sensitivity analyses, six of which had one-way sensitivity analysis, whereas one conducted both one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses; four of these eleven modeling-based analyses included probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was reported in ten (18%) studies, eight of which were screening studies. The remaining two modeling studies were in areas of imaging and oncology. Conclusion This study indicates that there are major limitations and deficiencies in the health economic evaluations on medical devices performed in the People’s Republic of China. Further efforts are required from different stakeholders – academic, governmental, and privatized – to improve health economic research capacity and to put it to use when informative decisions are made in the health care setting.

  18. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced technologies and more efficient industries. On the other hand, institutional change (i.e., marketization) and innovation (i.e., technological progress) exerted positive impacts on AVEC improvement, as always expected in this and other studies. Finally, the model comparison indicated that SEM was capable of separating spatial effect from the error term of OLS, so as to improve goodness-of-fit and the significance level of individual determinants.

  19. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  20. Making sense of institutional change in China: The cultural dimension of economic growth and modernization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Herrmann-Pillath

    2011-01-01

    Building on a new model of institutions proposed by Aoki and the systemic approach to economic civilizations outlined by Kuran, this paper attempts an analysis of the cultural foundations of recent Chinese economic development. I argue that the cultural impact needs to be conceived as a creative process that involves linguistic entities and other public social items in order to

  1. Green Governance - One Solution for two problems? Climate change and economic shocks: risk perceptions and coping strategies in China, India and Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Senz; Dieter Reinhardt

    2010-01-01

    This collection of papers is based on an international workshop held in the summer of 2009 at the University of Duisburg-Essen. It brings together different perceptions regarding China, India and Bangladesh as they face the risks and crises of climate change and economic shocks like the recent global financial crisis. The papers reflect assumptions concerning the concept of Risk Society

  2. The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H Terpstra; Yu Kai-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence–divergence–crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as a theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The

  3. The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H. Terpstra; Yu Kai-cheng

    1997-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings

  4. Developing country experience with eco-industrial parks: a case study of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Shi; Marian Chertow; Yuyan Song

    2010-01-01

    To address the pollution that accompanies rapid industrial growth in China, a National Eco-industrial Park Demonstration Program was launched in 2000. This article provides a case study of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA). The emergence of an environmental institution in TEDA is used as a backdrop to assess how TEDA has transformed itself into one of the top three

  5. Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    Variation in seed weight is common within and among plant species, but few studies have attempted to document the pattern of seed weight and germination attributes for aquatic macrophytes at a large scale. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China. Our results showed that the average seed weight was 0.24 g per 100 seeds with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 28.4% among the eight P. pectinatus populations. The total germination fraction of seeds of P. pectinatus was relatively poor, less than 35% in seven P. pectinatus populations, and the lowest germination percentage found was only 2%. There were significant differences in seed weight, time to onset of germination, and total germination fraction among the eight different populations. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed a strongly positive correlation between seed weight and water temperature and pH. Seed weight and the maternal environmental factors significantly affected both time to initiation of germination and total germination fraction. Our results suggest that (1) seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seeds are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion.

  6. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  7. MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology applied in China: Combustion temperature, flue gas loss and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhe; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Xiangpeng; Shao, Jingai; Wang, Ke; Chen, Hanping

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the application prospect of MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology in China, the technical and economical analyses of a municipal solid waste (MSW) grate furnace with oxy-fuel incineration technology in comparison to co-incineration with coal are performed. The rated capacity of the grate furnace is 350tonnes MSW per day. When raw MSW is burned, the amount of pure oxygen injected should be about 14.5wt.% under 25% O2 oxy-fuel combustion conditions with the mode of oxygen supply determined by the actual situation. According to the isothermal combustion temperature (Ta), the combustion effect of 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (?=1.43) is identical with that of MSW co-incineration with 20% mass ratio of coal (?=1.91). However, the former is better than the latter in terms of plant cost, flue gas loss, and environmental impact. Despite the lower costs of MSW co-incineration with mass ratio of 5% and 10% coal (?=1.91), 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (?=1.43) is far more advantageous in combustion and pollutant control. Conventional combustion flue gas loss (q2) for co-incineration with 0% coal, 20% coal, 10% coal, 5% coal are around 17%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, while that under the condition of 25% O2 oxy-enriched combustion is approximately 12% (?=1.43). Clearly, q2 of oxy-enriched incineration is less than other methods under the same combustion conditions. High moisture content presents challenges for MSW incineration, therefore it is necessary to dry MSW prior to incineration, and making oxy-enriched incineration technology achieves higher combustion temperature and lower flue gas loss. In conclusion, based on technical and economical analysis, MSW oxy-enriched incineration retains obvious advantages and demonstrates great future prospects for MSW incineration in China. PMID:25680237

  8. Recent geomorphic change in LingDing Bay, China, in response to economic and urban growth on the Pearl River Delta, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziyin; Milliman, John D.; Zhao, Dineng; Zhou, Jieqiong; Yao, Caihua

    2014-12-01

    Decreased fluvial water and sediment discharge, increasing land reclamation, changing climate, and rising sea level have had an ever-increasing impact on river deltas, particularly those deltas bordering Southeast Asia. Utilizing 100 years of navigational and bathymetric data, together with more than 50 years of fluvial discharge data, we here document the impact of human activities on the Pearl River Delta and its estuary at LingDing Bay, China, the site of recent rapid economic expansion and urbanization. Between 1906 and 1988, approximately 80 km2, ~ 1 km2/yr, of land was reclaimed from the Bay, almost entirely for agriculture. During the ensuing 20 years, 1988-2008, nearly 200 km2 of land was reclaimed (10 km2/yr), mostly to be used for manufacturing and shipping facilities; even some of the previously reclaimed agricultural land was converted to industrial use. Most of the reclaimed land came from a corresponding loss of intertidal and shallow depths: between 1988 and 2008, the area occupied by supratidal and subtidal flats (- 2 to 5 m water depths) declined by ~ 180 km2. Channel dredging to accommodate ever larger ships, in contrast, increased areas with depths greater than 10 m by about 36 km2. Although water volume in the northern bay has decreased by 20% since 1906, decreasing bay area has resulted an overall 15% deepening of the bay. With continued economic expansion in the Pearl River Delta, LingDing Bay should continue to shrink in both area and water volume, although the bay should continue to deepen.

  9. Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

  10. Environmental Management Systems at the Industrial Park Level in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Geng; Raymond Côté

    2003-01-01

    Environmental management systems (EMSs), such as International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001, can be used as a tool in China by industrial park managers to improve their environmental performance. This article uses the case of the Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone (DETDZ) to show how to establish a comprehensive environmental management system (CEMS) according to the ISO 14001 standard

  11. The Effects of Affirmative Quality Feedback on Low Socio-Economic Students' Zone of Proximal Development Reading Gains (ZPDRL): A Causal-Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Sharon H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore upper elementary reading classes in a low socio-economic area to determine the effects frequent praise, both academically and socially, have on the zone of proximal development in reading (ZPD[subscript RL], Renaissance Learning, 2006). A causal-comparative study was utilized by observing two groups of…

  12. Transnational corporations and ocean technology transfer: New economic zones are being developed by public\\/private partnerships but deep sea miners balk on royalties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chennat Gopalakrishnan

    1989-01-01

    Coastal state jurisdiction at 200 nautical miles is today a fact of international law. This has led to a unique situation in the ownership and control of ocean resources; thus 15 coastal states have received among them approximately 41 percent of the world's 200-mile economic zone area. At least half of these are less-developed coastal states (LDCS) which lack the

  13. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

  14. Exports, Inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Regional Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haishun Sun; Ashok Parikh

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between exports and economic growth is strong in developing economies. Both externality effects of exports on the non-exports sector and higher marginal productivity in the exports sector in relation to the non-exports sector play an important role in promoting exports and GDP growth. The underlying theoretical model of FEDER, 1982, is used with the data on the Chinese

  15. Economic Globalization, Politico-Cultural Identity and University Autonomy: The Struggle of Tsinghua University in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2006-01-01

    A great deal of research has addressed the tension between economic globalization and local cultural identity, and the tension between convergence in global policy objectives and divergence in local practices, but research has not explored the impact of the complex interactions between these tensions on an individual university, especially in…

  16. Large-Scale Economic Change and Youth Development: The Case of Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Way, Niobe; Chen, Xinyin

    2012-01-01

    Social ecological and dynamic systems theories propose that human development is shaped by the cumulative impact of social interactions in proximal and distal settings, which are themselves influenced by social and economic forces. The understanding of the links between microsystem-level factors (such as parenting styles and parent-child…

  17. Water Shortages, Water Allocation and Economic Growth: The Case of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangming Fang; Terry L. Roe; Rodney B. W. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Current projections indicate that by 2025, water scarcity will affect over one quarter of the world’s population. This suggests that the need to manage water more efficiently will become more pressing during the next few years as the demand for water increases along with the expansion of economies and their populations. This paper investigates the economic impacts of efficient intraregional

  18. Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…

  19. A Study on the Rate of Contribution of Education Investment to the Economic Growth in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Bo-nai; Lai, Xiong-xiang

    2006-01-01

    There is an evident bi-directional causality relationship between education investment and economic growth based on an analysis of statistics from 1952 to 2003 released by the State Statistics Bureau. A generalized difference regression model is set up to investigate the relationship between the two. Studies show that the rate of contribution of…

  20. Economic Analysis of Photovoltaic Electricity Supply for an Electric Vehicle Fleet in Shenzhen, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Tang; Bin Ye; Qiang Lu; Dong Wang; Ji Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility analysis on photovoltaic (PV) electricity-powered electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of both technological and economic considerations. The analysis is based on the fact that EVs can provide energy storage capacity for intermittent PV output low carbon electricity, thus reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption of EVs. Four models of power supply systems are

  1. Public Health Workers and Vaccination Coverage in Eastern China: A Health Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Shen, Lingzhi; Guo, Jing; Xie, Shuyun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than one million deaths among children under 5 years of age every year. Public Health Workers (PHWs) are needed to provide immunization services, but the role of human resources for public health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been assessed in China. The objective of this study was to test whether PHW density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China. Methods: The vaccination coverage rates of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV), Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis combined vaccine (DTP), and Poliomyelitis Vaccine (PV) were chosen as the dependent variables. Vaccination coverage data of children aged 13–24 months for each county in Zhejiang Province were taken from the Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS). Aggregate PHW density was an independent variable in one set of regressions, and Vaccine Personnel (VP) and other PHW densities were used separately in another set. Data on densities of PHW and VP were taken from a national investigation on EPI launched by Ministry of Health of China in 2013. We controlled other determinants that may influence the vaccination coverage like Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person, proportion of migrant children aged <7 years, and land area. These data were taken from Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Statistics and ZJIIS. Results: PHW density was significantly influence the coverage rates of MCV [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR) = 4.29], DTP3(AOR = 2.16), and PV3 (AOR = 3.30). However, when the effects of VPs and other PHWs were assessed separately, we found that VP density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV AOR = 7.05; DTP3 AOR = 1.82; PV3 AOR = 4.83), while other PHW density was not. Proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant determinants for vaccination coverage, while GDP per person had no effect on vaccination coverage. Conclusions: A higher density of PHWs (VP) would improve the availability of immunization services over time and space, which may increase the possibility of achieving a higher childhood vaccination coverage rate. It was indicated that the level of GDP per person had no association with the improved vaccination coverage after controlling for other potential factors. Our findings implicated that PHW density was a major constraint on immunization coverage in Zhejiang Province. PMID:24859680

  2. Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Lipsey; Gordon R. Sparks; Peter O. Steiner

    1979-01-01

    The twelfth edition of this classic text has built upon the success of previous editions and has been thoroughly updated and revised to give students a deeper understanding and appreciation of the core principles of Economics. Suitable for beginners, Economics is accessible but has a rigour that will stretch readers to achieve their full potential. In-depth explanations of key theoretical

  3. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  4. Multifunctional assessment and zoning of crop production system based on set pair analysis-A comparative study of 31 provincial regions in mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jin; Fu, Meichen; Sun, Jingjing; Zheng, Xinqi; Zhang, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingxuan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we present a multifunctional indicator system for the performance evaluation of crop production system by set pair analysis method. Five functions were summarized to represent the multifunctionality of crop production system, including production function, supply function, ecological function, security function and economic function. Setting a case study of 31 provincial regions in mainland China, this paper conducted a comparison of each function in different regions, divided into 9 groups by cluster analysis. The results show that: the levels of multifunction in most regions are under a low degree balance; the production function has a high coordination with the economic function and security function in China; the supply function is lowly correlated with the other functions, especially the economic function has negative correlation with the supply function to some extent; some relevant policies and suggestions are deduced for multifunctional improvement. It is concluded that the multifunctional indicators and the set pair analysis method can serve as an effective method for the assessment of crop production system.

  5. Structure and geochronological constraints on the ductile deformation observed along the Gaoligong Shan and Chong Shan Shear Zones, Yunnan (China)

    E-print Network

    Akciz, Sinan Osman, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism by which the Cenozoic post-collisional northward motion of India relative to Eurasia and South China was accommodated along its eastern boundary is still a poorly understood aspect of the tectonic evolution ...

  6. Bank discrimination, holding bank ownership, and economic consequences: Evidence from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengfei Lu; Jigao Zhu; Weining Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper finds that compared with Chinese state-owned firms, non-state-owned firms have a greater propensity to hold significant ownership in commercial banks. These results are consistent with the notion that because non-state-owned firms are more likely to suffer bank discrimination for political reasons, they tend to address their financing disadvantages by building economic bonds with banks. We also find that

  7. Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern. Moreover, according to the spatial clustering index, the urban growth pattern predicted through MOP is more reasonable. In summary, the proposed model provides a set of Pareto urban growth solutions, which compromise environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed. PMID:24994100

  8. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  9. Female streetwalkers' perspectives on migration and HIV/STI risks in a changing economic and social environment: a qualitative study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Jennifer; Hu, Dier; Chang, Ruth; Zaccaro, Heather; Iguchi, Martin; Zheng, Huang; He, Na

    2015-06-01

    China's 30-year economic boom has created a unique social and economic market for commercial sex, as well as for a workforce of migrant women from rural China. This qualitative study explores the impact of the rapidly changing social and economic environment on migration patterns, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), STI risk behaviours and health beliefs among female streetwalkers in Shanghai. Qualitative data were collected in 2010 through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 16 streetwalkers to characterise their migration passages, sexual health and behaviours, and peer networks. Many streetwalkers reported histories of childhood impoverishment, of family or partner violence or trauma, of migration consistent with the timeline and routes of economic development and of a scarcity in health, social or economic support. Their knowledge of the prevention and treatment of HIV and STIs was limited. They had little bargaining power on condom use and the majority resorted to vaginal douching and self-management with antibiotics as preventative measures. The study identifies streetwalkers' perspectives on the changing environment, their options and actions and, finally, HIV/STI risks that were unique to this hidden population. PMID:25587711

  10. Structures, microfabrics, fractal analysis and temperature-pressure estimation of the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Bernroider, Manfred; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Zhao, Yingli

    2014-05-01

    The ductile shear zone in Xingcheng-Taili area (western Liaoning Province in China) is tectonically located in the eastern section of the northern margin of the North China craton, and dominantly comprises deformed granitic rocks of Neoarchean and Triassic to Late Jurassic age, which were affected by shearing within middle- to low-grade metamorphic conditions. Because a high-temperature metamorphic overprint is lacking, microstructures attesting to low-temperature ductile deformation are well preserved. However, the rocks and its structures have not been previously analyzed in detail except by U-Pb zircon dating and some geochemistry. Here, we describe the deformation characteristics and tectonic evolution of the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone, in order to understand the mode of lithosphericscale reactivation, extension and thinning of the North China craton. The ductile deformation history comprises four successive deformation phases: (1) In the Neoarchean granitic rocks, a steep gneissosity and banded structures trend nearly E-W (D1). (2) A NE-striking sinistral structure of Upper Triassic rocks may indicate a deformation event (D2) in Late Triassic times, which ductile deformation structures superimposed on Neoarchean granitic rocks. (3) A gneissose structure with S-C fabrics as well as an ENE-trending sinistral strike-slip characteristic (D3) developed in Upper Jurassic biotite adamellite and show the deformation characteristics of a shallow crustal level and generated mylonitic fabrics superimposed on previous structures. (4) Late granitic dykes show different deformational behavior, and shortening with D4 folds. The attitude of the foliation S and mineral stretching lineation of three main types of rocks shows remarkable differences in orientation. The shapes of recrystallized quartz grains from three main types of granitic rocks with their jagged and indented boundaries were natural records of deformation conditions (D1to D3). Crystal preferred orientation of quartz determined by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) suggest sinistral strike-slip displacement within a temperature at about 400 to 500° C. Quartz mainly shows low-temperature fabrics with dominant {0001}-slip system. As the deformed rocks show obvious deformation overprint, we have estimated flow stresses from dynamically recrystallized grain sizes of quartz separately. But coincident fractal analysis showed that the boundaries of recrystallized grains had statistically self similarities with the numbers of fractal dimension from 1.153 to 1.196 with the range of deformation temperatures from 500 to 600° C, which is corresponding to upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies conditions. Together with published flow laws to estimated deformation rates between the region of 10-11 - 10-13 S-1depending on the temperature 500 ° C, and the paleo-stress was calculated with grain size of recrystallized quartz to be at 5.0 to 32.3 MPa. Even though the deformation history and kinematics are different, progressive microstructures and texture analysis indicate an overprint by the low-temperature deformation (D3). Typical regional-dynamic metamorphic conditions ere deduced by mineral pair hornblende-plagioclase and phengite barometry identified within the ductile shear zone. The hornblende-plagioclase pair of porphyritic granitic gneiss gives metamorphic conditions of T =450-500 ° C and p=0.39 GPa, which indicate a metamorphic grade of lower-amphibolite facies conditions and a depth of around 13 km estimated following a normal lithostatic pressure. All of the structural characteristics indicate that the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone represents a mainly ENE-striking sinistral ductile strike-slip zone, which formed after intrusion of the Upper Jurassic biotite adamellite and transformed and superimposed previous deformation structures. This deformation event might have occurred in Early Cretaceous times and was related to the lithospheric thinning and extension, due to roll-back of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern North China craton.

  11. Velocity contrast along the rupture zone of the 2010 Mw6.9 Yushu, China, earthquake from fault zone head waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Peng, Zhigang; Wang, Baoshan; Li, Zefeng; Yuan, Songyong

    2015-04-01

    Fault zone head waves (FZHWs) travel along the bimaterial fault interface and can be used to provide high-resolution imaging of fault zone properties. Here we use aftershock data following the 2010/04/13 Mw6.9 Yushu earthquake to quantify velocity contrast along the Garzê-Yushu Fault (GYF). FZHWs are identified as low-amplitude, long-period seismic signals with polarities opposite to the direct P arrivals. We observe FZHWs at 4 stations near faults that bound both sides of the Jielong basin, which is a pull-apart basin that is partially filled by Longbao Lake. The time delays between the direct P and FZHWs increase systematically with along-strike distances, and the corresponding observed velocity contrast is on the order of 5-8%. However, we do not observe a clear increase of time delay with hypocentral depth, suggesting that the pull-apart basin forms a thick low-velocity zone that likely exists in the top few kilometers of the crust. The velocity contrast southeast of the mainshock epicenter is very small (1-3%), consistent with both field observations and seismic tomographic results.

  12. Mental health, duration of unemployment, and coping strategy: a cross-sectional study of unemployed migrant workers in eastern china during the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. Results The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. Conclusions The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers. PMID:22856556

  13. Receiver function images of the mantle transition zone beneath NE China: New constraints on intraplate volcanism, deep subduction and their potential link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Yongshun John; Grand, Steve; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ning, Jieyuan; Tanaka, Satoru; Obayashi, Masayuki; Ni, James

    2015-02-01

    In order to better understand the deep subduction geometry of the Pacific plate and genesis of intraplate volcanism in northeast China (NE China), we computed a total of 45,505 receiver functions from 788 teleseismic events recorded by 255 stations (NECESSArray temporal and permanent stations) in NE China. We used a common-conversion-point stacking (CCP) method to generate a 3D reflectivity volume beneath the study area. To position the P-to-S conversions to the correct depths, we employed 3D crustal and mantle models as references to make time to depth conversion. The 3D reflectivity volume was generated in an area between 115°-135°E and 40°-49°N, in the depth range of 300 to 800 km. We found significant topographic relief on the 660-km discontinuity across the study area. In particular, in a westward Pacific plate subduction section between 40°N and ?45.5°N, the 660-km discontinuity is depressed by as much as ?30-40 km along the western extension of the deep seismicity. The depression is elongated along the strike of the deep seismicity and is confined to a 200-300 km region in the E-W direction of subduction. To the west of this depression the 660-km discontinuity is uplifted by 5-10 km in a rectangular area of ?100 km by 200 km centered at about 125°E and 43°N. In the north, the 660-km discontinuity is moderately depressed (?20 km) in a broad area that extends further west. The high and low regions in the 660-km topographic map correlate, respectively, with low- and high-velocity anomalies in the P- and S-wave tomographic velocity images at the same depth. Our results suggest that slab stagnation might not be occurring in the southern part of the NE China, where the Changbaishan volcanic complex is located, thus the magmatism is unlikely caused by dehydration of the flat-lying Pacific slab in the transition zone. The low velocity mantle upwelling arising from a gap of stagnant slabs is a likely source that feeds the volcanic complex in NE China.

  14. Truth concealed behind "Zero Increase of Total Water Use" and coordination approach of socio-economic and eco-environmental water uses in the Weihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Wei, N.; Hao, C.; You, J.; Niu, C.; Qiu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The water resources situation in the water-stressed Weihe River Basin, China, is more serious now than ever before because of a decrease in water resources and socio-economic development. A "Zero increase of socio-economic water use" in recent years gives people a wrong understanding and conceals the water crisis in the basin because the socio-economic water consumption has actually increased. Water use for the hydro-ecological system has been greatly reduced by a decrease in water resources and socio-economic water consumption increase. New concepts of hierarchical water uses for every sector and water consumption control are suggested for coordinating water uses of the socio-economy and ecosystems in the water-stressed basin. The traditional water resources allocation and regulation in China usually set up a priority sequence for water use sectors. Generally speaking, domestic water use has the highest priority and a highest guarantee rate, followed by industrial water use, irrigation and lastly ecological water use. The concept of hierarchical water use for every sector is to distinguish the water use of every sector into minimum part, appropriate part, and expected extra part with different guarantee rates, and the minimum parts of all sectors should be first guaranteed. By applying a water allocation model, we compared the water allocation results of the traditional approach and the newly suggested approach. Although further study is desired, the results are believed to be of an important referential value to sustainable development in the basin.

  15. Fault weakening by water in the brittle-plastic transition zone of the Wenchuan fault zone (Longmenshan, China):a study through deformed exhumed granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, L.; Zhou, Y.; Li, H.

    2012-12-01

    The seismogenic fault of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake showed a high-angle reverse slip, and the hypocenter lies in the middle crust. High pore fluid pressure and/or low friction coefficient related to water-rock reaction may have contributed to fault sliding. The current technologies cannot give us the water content in the deep fault. We determined the water content in deformed granites at the outcrops of two ductile shear zones found in the southern and middle sections of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, and estimated the deformation temperature and flow stress that the samples experienced in early geological history to explore the past earthquake mechanisms in the Longmenshan region. The microstructures of deformed granites showed that inhomogeneous ductile deformation occurred in the deep fault. The deformation temperature is ~400 to 500°C , obtained by the deformation fabrics of quartz, and the flow stress ranges from 15 to 80 MPa. Using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the trace amount water in quartz and feldspar include hydroxyl in crystals, grain boundaries water and fluid inclusions. The quartz water content ranges from 0.001 wt% to 0.031 wt%, and that of feldspar from 0.004 wt% to 0.103 wt%. Trace-amount water increases with the strain of rocks, and water contents with fluid inclusions decrease with deformation. Based on the study of fluid inclusions with the composition of NaCl-H2O using micro-thermometer and Laser Raman micro-spectrometer, the temperature of fluid capture is estimated to range from 330 to 350°C, corresponding to a depth of 18 to 19 km in the Longmengshan fault zone, which indicates that the fluid pressure coefficient ranges from 0.15 to 0.9, implying that the pore fluid pressure varied form low to high. Both high pore fluid pressure and minerals with low friction coefficient generated by water-rock reaction could weaken the fault significantly and increase the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone according to the reconstructed rheological structures of the Longmenshan region. All of these could lead to a brittle fault slip on top of the brittle-plastic transition zone. In addition, we built a preliminary model with respect to water transition in a seismic cycle using the data of water content and fluid pressure across the deep fault.

  16. Microscale characterization and trace element distribution in bacteriogenic ferromanganese coatings on sand grains from an intertidal zone of the East china sea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linxi; Sun, Liguang; Fortin, Danielle; Wang, Yuhong; Yin, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 yr BP by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C was discovered in an intertidal zone of the East China Sea. Extensive and horizontally stratified sediments with black color on the top and yellowish-red at the bottom, and some nodule-cemented concretions with brown surface and black inclusions occurred in this intertidal zone. Microscale analysis methods were employed to study the microscale characterization and trace element distribution in the stratified sediments and concretions. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered electron imaging (BSE) revealed the presence of different coatings on the sand grains. The main mineral compositions of the coatings were ferrihydrite and goethite in the yellowish-red parts, and birnessite in the black parts using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). SEM observations showed that bacteriogenic products and bacterial remnants extensively occurred in the coatings, indicating that bacteria likely played an important role in the formation of ferromanganese coatings. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized middle rare earth element (MREE) enrichment patterns of the coatings indicated that they were caused by two sub-sequential processes: (1) preferentially release of Fe-Mn from the beach rocks by fermentation of ancient woods and colloidal flocculation in the mixing water zone and (2) preferential adsorption of MREE by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the seawater. The chemical results indicated that the coatings were enriched with Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, especially with respect to Co, Ni. The findings of the present study provide an insight in the microscale features of ferromanganese coatings and the Fe-Mn biogeochemical cycling during the degradation of buried organic matter in intertidal zones or shallow coasts. PMID:25786213

  17. Microscale Characterization and Trace Element Distribution in Bacteriogenic Ferromanganese Coatings on Sand Grains from an Intertidal Zone of the East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linxi; Sun, Liguang; Fortin, Danielle; Wang, Yuhong; Yin, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 yr BP by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C was discovered in an intertidal zone of the East China Sea. Extensive and horizontally stratified sediments with black color on the top and yellowish-red at the bottom, and some nodule-cemented concretions with brown surface and black inclusions occurred in this intertidal zone. Microscale analysis methods were employed to study the microscale characterization and trace element distribution in the stratified sediments and concretions. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered electron imaging (BSE) revealed the presence of different coatings on the sand grains. The main mineral compositions of the coatings were ferrihydrite and goethite in the yellowish-red parts, and birnessite in the black parts using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). SEM observations showed that bacteriogenic products and bacterial remnants extensively occurred in the coatings, indicating that bacteria likely played an important role in the formation of ferromanganese coatings. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized middle rare earth element (MREE) enrichment patterns of the coatings indicated that they were caused by two sub-sequential processes: (1) preferentially release of Fe-Mn from the beach rocks by fermentation of ancient woods and colloidal flocculation in the mixing water zone and (2) preferential adsorption of MREE by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the seawater. The chemical results indicated that the coatings were enriched with Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, especially with respect to Co, Ni. The findings of the present study provide an insight in the microscale features of ferromanganese coatings and the Fe-Mn biogeochemical cycling during the degradation of buried organic matter in intertidal zones or shallow coasts. PMID:25786213

  18. Common Pb isotope mapping of UHP metamorphic zones in Dabie orogen, Central China: Implication for Pb isotopic structure of subducted continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ji; Wang, Ying; Li, Shu-Guang

    2014-10-01

    We report Pb isotopic compositions for feldspars separated from 57 orthogneisses and 2 paragneisses from three exhumed UHPM slices representing the North Dabie zone, the Central Dabie zone and the South Dabie zone of the Dabie orogen, central-east China. The feldspars from the gneisses were recrystallized during Triassic continental subduction and UHP metamorphism. Precursors of the orthogneisses are products of Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatic events, those in north Dabie zone emplaced into the lower crust and those in central and south Dabie zones into middle or upper crust, respectively. On a 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram, almost all orthogneisses data lie to the left of the 0.23 Ga paleogeochron and plot along the model mantle evolution curve with the major portion of the data plotting below it. On a 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram the most of data of north Dabie zone extend in elongate arrays along the lower crustal curve and others extend between the lower crustal curve to near the mantle evolution curve for the plumbotectonics model. This pattern demonstrates that the Pb isotopic evolution of the feldspars essentially ended at 0.23 Ga and the orthogneiss protoliths were principally dominated by reworking of ancient lower crust with some addition of juvenile mantle in the Neoproterozoic rifting tectonic zone. According to geological evolution history of the locally Dabie orogen, a four-stage Pb isotope evolution model including a long time evolution between 2.0 and 0.8 Ga with a lower crust type U/Pb ratio (? = 5-6) suggests that magmatic emplacement levels of the protoliths of the orthogneisses in the Dabie orogen at 0.8 Ga also play an important role in the Pb evolution of the exhumed UHPM slices, corresponding to their respective Pb characters at ca. 0.8-0.23 Ga. For example, north Dabie zone requires low ? values (3.4-9.6), while central and south Dabie zones require high ? values (10.9-17.2). On the other hand, Pb isotopic mixing between north and central or south Dabie zones during retro-grade metamorphism enhanced by the extensive magmatism in the Cretaceous has also been observed in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagrams. A combined study of common Pb isotopic compositions of Dabie orthogneisses and Sulu UHPM rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project demonstrates that a slab marked by extremely unradiogenic Pb observed in the main hole was absent in the Dabie orogen. However, occurrence of some Mesozoic granitoids with such unradiogenic character in the Dabie orogen suggests that their source may be a buried unradiogenic unit underlying below north Dabie zone. This case study clearly shows that whether the position of the Dabie data relative to the orogen curve of the plumbotectonic model is helpful in understanding the Pb isotopic structure and evolution of subducted continental crust.

  19. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponin

  20. 76 FR 47493 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...harvests, and associated economic and social benefits, when...provided by the approved stock assessment model. An Environmental Assessment was prepared for Amendments...environmental, social, and economic impacts of the...

  1. 'Mobile men with money': the socio-cultural and politico-economic context of 'high-risk' behaviour among wealthy businessmen and government officials in urban China.

    PubMed

    Uretsky, Elanah

    2008-11-01

    China's transition from an injection drug-driven HIV epidemic to one primarily transmitted through sexual contact has triggered concern over the potential for HIV to move into the non-drug-injecting population. Much discussion has focused on the migrant men of China's vast 'floating population' who are considered a high-risk group. As a result, many men who frequently engage in high-risk behaviour but are not included in this especially vulnerable group are evading HIV prevention messages. This paper highlights the socio-cultural and politico-economic factors that motivate many of China's wealthy businessmen and government officials, sometimes referred to as 'mobile men with money', to engage in such behaviour. Examination of the activities related to the work of these men reveals a situation where the confluence of a market-oriented economy operating within a socialist-style political system under the influence of traditional networking practices has engendered a unique mode of patron-clientelism that brings them together over shared social rituals including feasting, drinking and female-centered entertainment that is often coupled with sexual services. As a result, consideration of the socio-cultural factors influencing these men's sexual practices is important for responding to the newly emerging stage of China's HIV epidemic. PMID:18975228

  2. Response of Vegetation and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Storage to Grazing Intensity in Semi-Arid Grasslands in the Agro-Pastoral Zone of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min-yun; Xie, Fan; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Overgrazing has been the primary cause of grassland degradation in the semi-arid grasslands of the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China. However, there has been little evidence regarding grazing intensity impacts on vegetation change and soil C and N dynamics in this region. This paper reports the effects of four grazing intensities namely un-grazed (UG), lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG) on vegetation characteristics and soil properties of grasslands in the Guyuan county in the agro-pastoral transition region, Hebei province, northern China. Our study showed that the vegetation height, canopy cover, plant species abundance and aboveground biomass decreased significantly with increased grazing intensity. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in the 0–50 cm were highest under UG (13.3 kg C m?2 and 1.69 kg N m?2) and lowest under HG (9.8 kg C m?2 and 1.22 kg N m?2). Soil available nitrogen (SAN) was significantly lower under HG (644 kg N hm?2) than under other treatments (725–731 kg N hm?2) in the 0–50 cm. Our results indicate that the pasture management of “take half-leave half” has potential benefits for primary production and livestock grazing in this region. However, grazing exclusion was perhaps the most effective choice for restoring degraded grasslands in this region. Therefore, flexible rangeland management should be adopted in this region. PMID:24819162

  3. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    E-print Network

    Pandas in China Guangming He Ã? Xiaodong Chen Ã? Wei Liu Ã? Scott Bearer Ã? Shiqiang Zhou Ã? Lily Yeqing Cheng and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from

  4. Future cereal production in China: The interaction of climate change, water availability and socio-economic scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong Wei; Conway Declan; Lin Erda; Xu Yinlong; Ju Hui; Jiang Jinhe; Holman Ian; Li Yan

    2009-01-01

    Food production in China is a fundamental component of the national economy and driver of agricultural policy. Sustaining and increasing output to meet growing demand faces significant challenges including climate change, increasing population, agricultural land loss and competing demands for water. Recent warming in China is projected to accelerate by climate models with associated changes in precipitation and frequency of

  5. Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the magnitudes of the He and H2 anomalies of three surveys declined significantly with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found in three replicates at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity. PMID:21134257

  6. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...Islands Trawl Limited Access Fishery in the C. opilio Bycatch Limitation Zone of the Bering...pelagic trawl gear for walleye pollock, in the C. opilio bycatch limitation zone (COBLZ...exceeding the 2010 COBLZ bycatch allowance of C. opilio specified for the BSAI trawl...

  7. Application of Short-Offset TEM (SOTEM) Technique in Mapping Water-Enriched Zones of Coal Stratum, an Example from East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-ying; Xue, G. Q.; Muhammad, Younis Khan; Gelius, L. J.; Zhou, Nan-nan; Li, Hai; Zhong, Hua-sen

    2015-01-01

    Water inrush from limestone coal beds is disastrous for coal mining. In general, it is very difficult to detect such water-enriched zones because of their relatively large burial depth. In this paper, we propose a novel transient electromagnetic method (TEM) configuration, short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM). Consistency of the results obtained from SOTEM measurements in the Shandong province, East China and drilling information indicate that the proposed TEM configuration not only improves the accuracy, but also enlarges the exploration depth for detecting water-enriched areas in coal mines ranging from 1,000 to 1,200 m depth. In this region, a majority of the deep coal beds are filled with water. The SOTEM technique was successfully employed in detecting the floor of a coal seam at a depth of about 1,500 m, as well as in identifying the location of the water-saturated area. These findings were later confirmed by subsequent drillings. Thus, our study indicates that SOTEM represents a convenient and effective technique for deep mineral and hydrogeological investigations due to its high sensitivity to conductive zones (water enriched areas) and vertical resolution.

  8. The Hengshan low-angle normal fault zone: Structural and geochronological constraints on the Late Mesozoic crustal extension in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Su, Jinbao; Li, Yong; Cui, Jianjun; Shi, Wei

    2013-10-01

    We document in this paper a significant low-angle normal fault, namely the Hengshan detachment fault, which extends more than 150 km long in NNE orientation and bounds an elongated Early Cretaceous basin in Hunan Province, central South China. Detailed structural and geochronological analyses have been conducted along its southern segment, where a well exposed, ~ 3 km thick, flat ductile shear zone develops along the western margin of the Hengshan granitic massif. This zone is featured by shallow-dipping foliations of varied trend from NE to NW, which bear penetrative stretching lineations varying from NW to SW trend. Shear sense criteria indicate top-to-the-NW and top-to-the-SW motions along its northern and southern parts, respectively. Quartz c-axis orientations of mylonitic rocks from the shear zone exhibit asymmetric single or crossed girdle patterns, and the distributions of fabric point maxima suggest a simultaneous operation of basal and prism slips, indicating a deformation temperature ranging from 400 °C to 550 °C. One zircon U-Pb age of the sheared albitite and three muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages of the mylonitic rocks indicate that the ductile shearing initiated at 136 Ma and lasted till 97 Ma. The zircon U-Pb dating results of five granitic samples from the Hengshan granitic pluton yield two phases of crystallization ages of 232-228 Ma and 150-151 Ma respectively, indicating two preceding magmatic events prior to the ductile shearing in the lower plate. Our structural and geochronological data allow defining the Hengshan massif as an extensional dome, rather than a metamorphic core complex as previously predicted, due to the lack of syn-tectonic plutonism and the origin of detachment fault associated with the reactivation of the inherited thrust. This study provides crucial evidence for understanding how the mid-upper crust deformed during the process of extension, which testifies to a coeval occurrence of non-coaxial deformation of the ductile flow in the middle crust and brittle faulting in the upper crust. It also sheds new insights into the timing of the regional crustal extension in South China, and permits to constrain its onset time to be ca. 136 Ma.

  9. Assessment of rock mass characteristics and the excavation disturbed zone in the Lingxin Coal Mine beneath the Xitian river, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingping Lai; Meifeng Cai; Fenhua Ren; Mowen Xie; Tetsuro Esaki

    2006-01-01

    Safe production and induced hazard prevention in coal mines mainly concern problems in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ), but coal mining can also make a significant impact on the environment. Comprehensive techniques using a borehole TV viewer system, electrical logging, and monitoring of drilling fluid leakage offer the ability to identify changing geological conditions and the location of any nearby

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of an industrial area of China: multivariate analyses and geostatistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Yonglong Lu; Wentao Jiao; Tieyu Wang; Wei Luo; John P. Giesy

    2010-01-01

    Tianjin Bin Hai New Area (BHNA) is the third largest economic zone in China. This is an older industrial area that has been developing rapidly but with many historic sources of contamination. The concentrations of 16 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed for priority control by the US EPA were quantified in 105 surface soil samples by the use of

  11. [Distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches, Shandong Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Li, Ha; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was conducted on the abundance, group composition, and distribution of meiofauna at the Second Beach of Taiping Bay and the Shilaoren Beach in Qingdao in January, April, July, and October 2008, aimed to analyze the distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in the intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches. The measurements of environmental factors, including sediment grain size, interstitial water salinity, interstitial water temperature, organic matter content (TOC), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, were made simultaneously. There existed obvious seasonal differences in the environment factors, which could be clustered into two groups, i. e. , spring-winter group (January and April) and summer-autumn group (July and October). At the Second Beach of Taiping Bay, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1167.3 +/- 768.3) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the most dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 91% of the total. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance at the Second Beach differed horizontally, with the abundance ranked as high tide zone < middle tide zone < low tide zone. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance also varied seasonally, with high values in spring/winter and low values in summer/autumn (spring > winter > autumn > summer). The vertical distribution of the meiofauna in the high and middle tide zones of the Second Beach varied seasonally too. The meiofauna migrated downward with increasing temperature, concentrated in surface layer in winter and migrated downward in summer. At the Shilaoren Beach, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1130.2 +/- 1419.1) ind x 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda accounted for 85% of the total. There was a great similarity of the environmental factors in the middle tide zone of the Second Beach and Shilaoren Beach, which led to no differences in the meiofaunal group composition and abundance. However, the vertical distribution of the meiofauna differed between the two beaches. When the temperature decreased, the meiofauna at Shilaoren Beach migrated downward. The ANOVA and BIOENV analyses showed that the TOC and MD phi were most responsible for the distribution of meiofauna among the tidal zones, the interstitial water temperature, MD phi, and TOC were the main causes of the seasonal variation of meiofaunal group composition and abundance, whereas the sediment Chl a affected the vertical migration of meiofauna. Tourism-induced sediment variation was another factor affecting the meiofaunal abundance, group composition, and distribution. PMID:23479891

  12. Impacts of LUCC on soil properties in the riparian zones of desert oasis with remote sensing data: a case study of the middle Heihe River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Penghui; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Zhao, Ruifeng; Duan, Yuewei

    2015-02-15

    Large-scale changes in land use and land cover over long timescales can induce significant variations in soil physicochemical properties, particularly in the riparian zones of arid regions. Frequent reclamation of wetlands and grasslands and intensive agricultural activity have induced significant changes in both land use/cover and soil physicochemical properties in the riparian zones of the middle Heihe River basin of China. The present study aims to explore whether land use/land cover change (LUCC) can well explain the variations in soil properties in the riparian zones of the middle Heihe River basin. To achieve this, we mapped LUCC and quantified the type of land use change using remote sensing images, topographic maps, and GIS analysis techniques. Forty-two sites were selected for soil and vegetation sampling. Then, physical and chemical experiments were employed to determine soil moisture, soil bulk density, soil pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total potassium, total phosphorous, available nitrogen, available potassium, and available phosphorous. The Independent-Samples Kruskal-Wallis Test, principal component analysis, and a scatter matrix were used to analyze the effects of LUCC on soil properties. The results indicate that the majority of the parameters investigated were affected significantly by LUCC. In particular, soil moisture and soil organic carbon can be explained well by land cover change and land use change, respectively. Furthermore, changes in soil moisture could be attributed primarily to land cover changes. Changes in soil organic carbon were correlated closely with the following land use change types: wetlands-arable, forest-grasslands, and grasslands-desert. Other parameters, including pH and total K, were also found to exhibit significant correlations with LUCC. However, changes in soil nutrients were shown to be induced most probably by human agricultural activity (i.e. fertilize, irrigation, tillage, etc.), rather than by simple conversions from one land use/cover types to the others. PMID:25460959

  13. Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin American Economic Development Kevin P-author of the new book, The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, Stanford University Press. The author would like to thank Elen Shrethsa for research as- sistance #12;Taking the China

  14. Rock magnetism constrain response thickness on earth surface to large earthquake: Evidence from the Bajiaomiao Outcrop of the Wenchuan Earthquake Rupture Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T.; Song, S.; Sun, Z.; Wang, X.; Chou, Y.; Chevalier, M.; Si, J.; Wang, H.

    2013-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake has raptured along two fault zones, the Yingxiu-Beichuan f and the Anxian-Guanxian fault zones. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) funded by the Chinese government, drilled five holes close to the two seismic fault zones. Fault gouge with various thicknesses were found in the drill holes and at the earth surface outcrops. In general, one such large earthquake creates several centimeters-thick fault gouge, i.e. the repeated large earthquakes must have taken place in the Longmen Shan region in order to accumulate the amount of gouge observed here. Rock magnetism is an economic, easy-access and non-destructive method for deciphering the magnetic mineral assemblage during large earthquake slip process, which can give us more information about this intercontinental earthquake dynamics, thanks to the occurrence of many large earthquakes as well as to the thick fault gouge present here. The Bajiaomiao outcrop, crossing to the Yingxiu-Beichuan seismic fault rapture zone, consisted of fault breccia and gouge in the hanging wall and Quaternary conglomerate in the footwall. The samples from the hanging wall of this outcrop were used to study rock magnetic porperties. Basing on the in-situ field magnetic susceptibility measurement, high magnetic susceptibility values were found in the fault gouge, possibly induced by more new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals. We apply other rock magnetic methods (such as Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM), high-temperature thermomagnetism (K-T)) to the samples from the Bajiaomiao outcrop. The IRM results show that the magnetite was present in the gouge and fault breccia of the hand hall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan seismic fault rapture zone. Basing on the K-T results, magnetite and other ferromagnetic minerals existed in the gouge and fault breccia; the <2 cm thick gouge close to the fault rapture zone had existed the only magnetic mineral of magnetite. This < 2cm gouge was most likely induced by one large earthquake. Recently, no evidence shows that this <2 cm-thick gouge close to Yingxiu-Beichuan seismic fault surface rapture zone was induced by the large 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake.

  15. China in Transition. Middle School Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabato, George

    1996-01-01

    Describes and comments upon a Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad Program trip to China. Discusses economic, social, and political changes in China during recent years. Provides recommendations for instructional resources for teaching about China. (CFR)

  16. Rn and CO2 geochemistry of soil gas across the active fault zones in the capital area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Li, Y.; Du, J.; Zhou, X.; Xie, C.; Zhang, W.

    2014-02-01

    The present work is proposed to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of soil gas Rn and CO2 across the active faults in the capital area of China, for the understanding of fault activities and the assessment of seismic hazard. A total of 342 soil gas sampling sites were measured twice in 2011 and 2012 along seven profiles across four faults. The results of soil gas surveys show that in each profile, due to the variation of gas emission rate, the concentrations of Rn and CO2 changed in the vicinity of faults. Spatial distributions of Rn and CO2 in the study areas were different from each other, which was attributed to soil types affecting the existence of Rn and CO2. Compared with 2011 soil gas survey, the increases of Rn and CO2 concentrations in 2012 were related to the enhancement of seismic activities in the capital area of China. Our results indicate that special attention for seismic monitoring should be paid to Xinbaoan-Shacheng Fault and the north east segment of Tangshan Fault in the future.

  17. Rn and CO2 geochemistry of soil gas across the active fault zones in the capital area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Li, Y.; Du, J.; Zhou, X.; Xie, C.; Zhang, W.

    2014-10-01

    The present work is proposed to investigate the spatiotemporal variations in soil gas Rn and CO2 across the active faults in the capital area of China in order to understand fault activities and assess seismic hazard. A total of 342 soil gas sampling sites were measured twice in 2011 and 2012 along seven profiles and across four faults. The results of soil gas surveys show that, in each profile, due to the variation in gas emission rate, the concentrations of Rn and CO2 changed in the vicinity of faults. Spatial distributions of Rn and CO2 in the study areas were different from each other, which was attributed to soil types affecting the existence of Rn and CO2. Compared with the measurement result of 2011, the increasing amplitude of average concentration value of Rn and CO2 in profiles in 2012 ranged from 30.2 to 123.4% and 66.3 to 131.7%, respectively, which were coincident with the enhancement of seismic activities in the capital area of China. Our results indicate that special attention with regard to seismic monitoring should be paid to the Xinbaoan-Shacheng Fault and the northeastern segment of the Tangshan Fault in the future.

  18. Micro-Institution : design and craft in education for socio-economic change for urban China migrant workers' children

    E-print Network

    Gao, Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    The socioeconomic condition of the urban migrant worker remains one of the most substantial manifestations of inequality in China. The ever-growing wealth and human rights disparity between urban citizens and rural farmers ...

  19. Demography of Aging in China and the United States and the Economic Well-Being of their Older Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Louis Kincannon; Wan He; Loraine A. West

    2005-01-01

    Today China has the world’s largest older population, defined as aged 65 and over. The size of the older population in the\\u000a United States is also large, ranking third in the world in 2000. The combined older populations of China and the United States\\u000a represented 29 percent of the world’s population 65 and older in 2000. The large older populations

  20. Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

    1993-01-01

    China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

  1. 75 FR 11778 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...BSAI ecosystem and the economic condition of groundfish...the groundfish stock assessments in recommending OFL...for fishermen and add economic benefits to the nation...Plan Team's selected model incorporating the latest...into the current stock assessment. The SSC also...

  2. 75 FR 76372 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...information available for the assessment cycle in the fall of...requests comment about the economic value of Kamchatka flounder...CDQ groups about the economic value of Kamchatka...such as revised stock assessments and catch data. The...and changes to the models used in the stock...

  3. Ophiolitic mélanges in crustal-scale fault zones: Implications for the Late Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in West Junggar, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; Guo, Zhaojie

    2014-12-01

    The Baijiantan and Darbut ophiolites in West Junggar are exposed in steep fault zones (>70°) containing serpentinite mélange, in contact on either side with regionally distributed Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous ocean floor peperitic basalts and overlying sedimentary successions. The ophiolitic mélanges show classic structural features created by strike-slip faulting and consistent shear sense indicators of left-slip kinematics. Sandstone blocks within the mélanges resemble the surrounding sediments in lithology and age, indicating that the ophiolitic mélanges consist of locally derived rocks. The ophiolitic mélanges therefore originated from left-slip fault zones within a remnant basin and are not plate boundaries nor subduction suture zones. Sandstone is the youngest lithology involved in the mélange and provides a maximum age for the mélange of 322 Ma, whereas stitching plutons are younger than 302 Ma. Multiple clusters in zircon ages from single gabbro blocks in the mélange at ~375, ~360, ~354, and ~340 Ma are inconsistent with accretionary incorporation of subducting ocean crust but rather suggest that episodic movement of the faults provided pathways for magma from the mantle into magma chambers. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of West Junggar involved Late Devonian to Carboniferous relative motion between the Junggar block and West Junggar ocean basin, which triggered the left-slip fault zones within a remnant ocean basin, along which the oceanic crust was disrupted to form linear ophiolitic mélanges. Final filling of this remnant ocean basin and its dismemberment by strike-slip faulting occurred in the late Carboniferous, followed by crustal thickening by juvenile granites at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary.

  4. Shallow groundwater nitrogen responses to different land use managements in the riparian zone of Yuqiao Reservoir in North China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiming LU; Chengqing YIN

    2008-01-01

    This field study investigated the nitrogen concentrations in the shallow groundwater from an ephemeral stream and four land uses: cropland, two-year restored (2yr) and five-years restored (5yr) woodlands, fishponds, and the nitrogen flux in the riparian zone of Yuqiao Reservoir. The groundwater nitrate-N concentrations in cropland were the highest among the four land uses. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and nitrate-N

  5. Pb isotope geochemistry of lead, zinc, gold and silver deposit clustered region, Liaodong rift zone, northeastern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangfeng Chen; Gang Yu; Chunji Xue; Hui Qian; Jianfeng He; Zhi Xing; Xun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    33 Pb isotopic analyses were reported for sulfide and hydrothermal carbonate minerals and marble of the Xiquegou lead-zinc,\\u000a the Zhenzigou zinc-lead and the Gaojiapuzi silver deposits from the Qingchengzi ore field and the Beiwagou zinc-lead deposit\\u000a in the west, Proterozoic Liaodong rift zone. Pb isotopic ratios of the marble from the Qingchengzi ore field range from 18.24\\u000a to 30.63 for

  6. Spatial distribution characteristics of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in unsaturated zone of Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan; Ma, Teng; Cui, Yahui; Qi, Zhichong

    2014-12-01

    Sewage irrigation is one of the best options to reduce the stress on limited fresh water and to meet the nutrient requirement of crops. Environment pollution caused by volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (VHCs) associated with sewage irrigation has received increasing attention due to the toxicological importance in ecosystem. The aim of this study was to discuss the spatial distribution characteristics of VHCs in unsaturated zone under sewage irrigation and their migration in the environment. Soil samples were collected from XiaoDian district of TaiYuan city and measured for the major VHCs including of chloroform (CHCl3), tetrachloromethane (CCl4), trichloroethylene (C(2)HCl(3)), tetrachloroethylene(C(2)Cl(4)), pentachlorobenzene (C(6)HCl(5)), hexachlorobenzene (C(6)Cl(6)). Results showed that VHCs were accumulated in the unsaturated zone with long-term sewage irrigation. The contents of VHCs in the unsaturated zone of the study area were 34, 2, 3, 1.5, 8.3, 4.8 times higher than the background value respectively. Soils with long-term irrigation of sewage showed higher contents of VHCs than that with short-term irrigation of sewage. Not only the irrigation time, soil physical properties (e.g. soil texture) also played an important role on VHCs accumulation in soil. PMID:25193606

  7. The chemical composition and source identification of soil dissolved organic matter in riparian buffer zones from Chongming Island, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulai; Yang, Changming; Li, Jianhua; Shen, Shuo

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) that is derived from the soil of riparian buffer zones has a complex chemical composition, and it plays an important role in the transport and transformation of pollutants. To identify the source of DOM and to better understand its chemical and structural properties, we collected 33 soil samples from zones with fluctuating water levels along the major rivers on Chongming Island, evaluated the DOM contents in riparian soil, analyzed the chemical composition and functional groups and traced DOM origins by using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with clustering analysis. All sampling sites were divided into four groups by principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the DOM molecules. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the DOM contents between every two groups; however, the DOM fractions differed significantly among the different site groups in the following order: ? lipids and ? proteins>? sugars and ? fatty acids>? amino acids, ? indoles and ? alkaloids. DOM in the riparian buffer zones originated from riparian plants, domestic sewage and agricultural activities, and the hydrophobic and amphiphilic fractions accounting for over 60% of the identified molecules were the dominant fractions. Our study has confirmed the heterogeneous properties of DOM, and it is of vital importance to isolate and characterize the various DOM fractions at the molecular level for a better understanding of the behavior and roles of DOM in the natural environment. PMID:24997959

  8. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-02-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature of economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of economic impact from drought by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact with a model based on cost-and-benefit analysis. By using analysis of "with-and-without", profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis on a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified, and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained using an autoregressive error model to separate impact by disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free condition and disaster-hit condition, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote the reflections on economic equality among various economic bodies at the occurrence of natural disasters.

  9. The arsenic contamination of rice in Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China: arsenic speciation and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Lu, Shaoyou; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuyi

    2015-04-01

    Rice is a staple food in China, but it may contain toxic heavy metals. Hence, the concentrations of arsenic (As) species (As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA) were evaluated in 260 rice samples from 13 cities of Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China. The levels of sum concentrations of As species in rice samples varied from non-detect to 225.58 ng g(-1), with an average value of 57.27 ng g(-1). The mean concentrations of the major As species detected in rice samples were in the order As(III) (34.77 ng g(-1)) > As(V) (9.34 ng g(-1)) > DMA (8.33 ng g(-1)) > MMA (4.82 ng g(-1)). The rice samples of Guangdong Province were categorized as inorganic As type. Significant geographical variation of As speciation existed in rice samples of 13 cities of Guangdong Province by chi-square test (p < 0.05). The average human weekly intakes of inorganic As via rice consumption in Guangdong Province, southern China, were 1.91 µg kg(-1) body weight. Hazard quotients of total As via rice consumption of adults in 13 cities ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, indicating the As contents in rice from Guangdong Province had no potential adverse impact on human health. PMID:25287102

  10. Risk factors associated with slide positivity among febrile patients in a conflict zone of north-eastern Myanmar along the China-Myanmar border

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region is extremely heterogeneous. While China and Thailand have been relatively successful in controlling malaria, Myanmar continues to see high prevalence. Coupled with the recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border, this makes Myanmar an important focus of malaria within the overall region. However, accurate epidemiological data from Myanmar have been lacking, in part because of ongoing and emerging conflicts between the government and various ethnic groups. Here the results are reported from a risk analysis of malaria slide positivity in a conflict zone along the China-Myanmar border. Methods Surveys were conducted in 13 clinics and hospitals around Laiza City, Myanmar between April 2011 and October 2012. Demographic, occupational and educational information, as well as malaria infection history, were collected. Logistic models were used to assess risk factors for slide positivity. Results Age patterns in Plasmodium vivax infections were younger than those with Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to have falciparum infections. Patients who reported having been infected with malaria during the previous year were much more likely to have a current vivax infection. During the second year of the study, falciparum infections among soldiers increased signficiantly. Conclusions These results fill some knowledge gaps with regard to risk factors associated with malaria slide positivity in this conflict region of north-eastern Myanmar. Since epidemiological studies in this region have been rare or non-existent, studies such as the current are crucial for understanding the dynamic nature of malaria in this extremely heterogeneous epidemiological landscape. PMID:24112638

  11. Structures in the transition zone of the northeast South China Sea: serpentinite dome vs mantle exhumation, or evidence of Mesozoic active subduction transferring to Cenozoic passive extension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Zhou, D.

    2013-12-01

    Complete sedimentary sequences and weak erosion make the transition zone of the South China Sea the optimal place to study the entire evolution history of marginal sea basins, as well as the transition mechanism from active subduction to passive extension. 2D long cable seismic profiles revealed that both Baiyun and Liwan sag in the northeast South China Sea margin were lack of large controlling faults, especially in Liwan sag, syn-rift sequences waved above the basement. Dome-like uplifts(serpetinite uplifts?) or diapirs(?) came from below the basement, caused the syn-rift sequences pushed up around 36Ma(T80). Gravity inversion based on seismic reflection indicated that the dome has a lower density and a lower layer velocity than normal crust. Also around the Continent-Ocean Boundary (COB), a small segment similar to the lower crust was exposed. Between this exposed segment and the Cenozoic oceanic crust, mantle seems to be exhumed along the breakup point. Between the COB and roughly the shelf break, high velocity lower crust was discriminated in the northeast continental margin. Structures in northeast South China Sea seems having many similarities with Newfoundland-Iberia margin, by serpentinite(?) dome and exhumed mantle, although spreading rate here is intermediate. In fact, regional background suggests that there might be another interpretation: transition from Mesozoic subduction to Cenozoic extension occurred through paleo oceanic crust breakup in the northeast, which in turn retained Mesozoic subduction system beneath the northeast continental margin. Confined with magnetic anomaly, Bouguer gravity gradient anomaly, and well drilling lithological evidences, Cenozoic Baiyun sag developed upon Mesozoic fore-arc, while Cenozoic Liwan sag developed upon Mesozoic accretionary prism. The high velocity lower crust was caused by both remnant subducted slab and by Oceanic-Continent interaction due to subduction. There might also be serpentinite dome and exhumed mantle, but may be caused by extension and breakup of paleo oceanic slab, not the depth-dependent extension. IODP drillings are needed to test all these scientific conjectures.

  12. 77 FR 52674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...NEPA). The proposed action would restrict groundfish fishing in the BSAI to ensure the groundfish fisheries are not...JAM and minimize the potential economic impact on the fishing industry to the extent practicable while meeting the...

  13. 77 FR 22750 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...action would restrict groundfish fishing in the BSAI to ensure the groundfish...potential economic impact on the fishing industry to the extent practicable while...lions may be incidentally taken in fishing gear, may be disturbed by...

  14. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...Council (Council). The CIE review will examine the scientific methods and practices employed by NMFS in the design and administration...recommendations for methodological improvements to achieve best scientific practices in economic data collection and...

  15. Extreme Climatic Events Modelling and Economic Impacts Under Different Climate Change Scenarios: a Risk Management Application to the Rural Sector in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, E.; Ghil, M.

    2013-05-01

    An increasing body of literature has shown the increase of frequency of occurrence of extreme weather events such as heat waves or heavy precipitation events across the world. Several economic systems and networks present high levels of vulnerability to weather variability and extreme weather events. This research proposes a methodological framework to characterize the cascading climate-to-economy risk profiles of economic systems to weather variability in different global warming scenarios. A weather-index and machine learning-based approach is introduced to encode and characterize the studied systems vulnerability to weather variability. The latter is enclosed in a "weather-within-climate" stochastic downscaling approach in order to characterize the interaction of low and high frequency climate variability and project risk profiles into future climate scenarios. The probabilistic weather-driven physical loss risk profiles are finally used to model supply shock-driven economic direct and indirect economic losses in the studied region or country. Given the acute vulnerability of the rural population to weather variability and global warming, this probabilistic risk assessment-based methodology is applied to the study the risk profile of weather-driven loss in the rural sector in a developing country, China. Province-level weather-to-economy risk profiles results of weather-driven staple crops loss under different technological and climate scenarios are presented. Implications for the design of risk management policy mixes are finally discussed.

  16. Revegetation impacts soil nitrogen dynamics in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Liu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-06-01

    Revegetations in riparian ecosystem are important in regulating soil nitrogen (N) dynamics. However, impacts of revegetation on soil N cycling and thereby on ecosystem functioning are not fully understood. We conducted an in situ incubation in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir region to evaluate soil N transformation including net N mineralization rate, net ammonification rate, net nitrification rate, net denitrification rate, N leaching and plant N uptake as well as the soil inorganic N (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) concentration in the top soils (0-20cm) following revegetations (implementing tree, shrub and herb plantations) over two years. The soil inorganic N concentration and N leaching were lower in the tree soils than in herb and shrub soils. Tree plantations decreased net N mineralization rate and net ammonification rate compared to herb and shrub soils, possibly due to lower soil organic carbon (SOC) input and soil temperatures. Whereas tree plantations increased soil net denitrification rate compared to herb and shrub soils because of higher tree NO3(-)-N uptake together with higher net nitrification rate. The inorganic N in the tree and shrub soils were lower in fall and summer, respectively, which was dependent on the seasonal variations in plant N uptake, soil N transformation, and N leaching. Thus, our results suggest that tree plantations could decrease soil inorganic N concentration and N leaching by altering both the quantity and quality of SOC and thereby potentially improve water quality in the riparian zone. PMID:25723959

  17. Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

    2013-08-01

    Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

  18. U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: Implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction-zone UHP metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.Y.; Yang, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Li, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the Zhimafang ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) peridotite from pre-pilot drill hole PP-1 of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. The peridotite occurs as lens within quartofeldspathic gneiss, and has an assemblage of Ol + Opx + Cpx + Phl + Ti-clinohumite (Ti-Chu) + Grt (or chromite) ?? magnesite (Mgs). Zircons were separated from cores at depths of 152 m (C24, garnet lhezolite), 160 m (C27, strongly retrograded phlogopite-rich peridotite) and 225 m (C50, banded peridotite), and were dated by SHRIMP mass spectrometer. Isometric zircons without inherited cores contain inclusions of olivine (Fo91-92), enstatite (En91-92), Ti-clinohumite, diopside, phlogopite and apatite. The enstatite inclusions have low Al2O3 contents of only 0.04-0.13 wt.%, indicating a UHP metamorphic origin. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age for garnet lherzolite (C24) is 221 ?? 3 Ma, and a discordia lower intercept age for peridotite (C50) is 220 ?? 2 Ma. These ages are within error and represent the time of subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. A younger lower intercept age of 212 ?? 3 Ma for a foliated wehrlite (C27) was probably caused by Pb loss during retrograde metamorphism. The source of zirconium may be partially attributed to melt/fluid metasomatism within the mantle wedge. Geochronological and geochemical data confirm that the mantle-derived Zhimafang garnet peridotites (probably the most representative type of Sulu garnet peridotites) were tectonically inserted into a subducting crustal slab and subjected to in situ Triassic subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of storm runoff on the thermal regime and water quality of a deep, stratified reservoir in a temperate monsoon zone, in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim; Ma, Weixing; Sun, Xin; Xu, Jinlan

    2014-07-01

    Jinpen Reservoir is a deep, stratified reservoir in Shaanxi province, located in a warm temperate zone of Northwest China. Influenced by a temperate monsoon climate, more than 60% of the annual precipitation is concentrated from late summer to autumn (July-September). In recent years, extreme rainfall events occurred more frequently and strongly affected the thermal structure, mixing layer depth and evolution of stratification of Jinpen Reservoir. The reservoir's inflow volume increased sharply after heavy rainfall during the flooding season. Large volumes of inflow induced mixing of stratified water zones in early autumn and disturbed the stratification significantly. A temporary positive effect of such disturbance was the oxygenation of the water close to the bottom of the reservoir, leading to inhibition of the release of nutrients from sediments, especially phosphate. However, the massive inflow induced by storm runoff with increased oxygen-consuming substances led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate. After the bottom water became anaerobic again, the bottom water quality would deteriorate due to the release of pollutants from sediments. Heavy rainfall events could lead to very high nutrient input into the reservoir due to massive erosion from the surrounding uninhabited steep mountains, and the particulate matter contributed to most nutrient inputs. Reasonably releasing density flow is an effective way to reduce the amounts of particulate associated pollutants entering the reservoir. Significant turbid density flow always followed high rainfall events in Jinpen Reservoir, which not only affected the reservoir water quality but also increased costs of the drinking water treatment plant. Understanding the effects of the storm runoff on the vertical distributions of water quality indicators could help water managers to select the proper position of the intake for the water plant in order to avoid high turbidity outflow. PMID:24485908

  20. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. PMID:20702024

  1. 77 FR 66564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...reallocating the projected unused amount of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using trawl gear and...the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  2. 75 FR 55690 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...reallocating projected unused amounts of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using trawl gear to...the 2010 total allowable catch of Pacific cod established for trawl catcher vessels...

  3. 77 FR 76425 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf...reallocating the projected unused amount of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using trawl gear to...the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective...

  4. 76 FR 26 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...reallocating projected unused amounts of Pacific cod among multiple sectors in the Bering Sea...the 2010 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective...

  5. 78 FR 58955 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...the projected unused amounts of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using trawl gear to...the 2013 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective...

  6. 78 FR 55228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

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    2013-09-10

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...reallocating the projected unused amount of Pacific cod from trawl catcher/processors to catcher...the 2013 total allowable catch of Pacific cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  7. 75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  8. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

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    2013-02-12

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2013-0032 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  9. 76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

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    2011-03-02

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  10. 78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

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    2013-03-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  11. 78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  12. 75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  13. 75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  14. 77 FR 65330 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  15. 77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  16. 76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

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    2011-02-28

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  17. 77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

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    2012-02-17

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  18. 76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

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    2011-09-08

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  19. 75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...

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    2010-10-19

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  20. 78 FR 63899 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  1. 77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

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    2012-10-24

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  2. 77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  3. 76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  4. 75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  5. 75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...total allowable catch limit in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  6. Grain size effect on PBDE and PCB concentrations in sediments from the intertidal zone of Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingru; Zheng, Binghui; Qin, Yanwen; Jiao, Lixin; Zhang, Lei

    2010-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of great environmental concern because their concentrations in the environment are increasing exponentially, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous contaminants, although their usage ceased in most industrialized countries in the mid-1970s. This research provides particle-scale understanding of PBDE and PCB distribution in sediments obtained from the three intertidal flats of Bohai Bay, China. The sediments were fractionated into three size groups (<31, 31-63, and >63?m diameter). The PBDE, PCB, and total organic matter contents were not associated with grain size, and the lowest total organic matter was found in the 31-63?m fraction at all three sites. The PCBs and PBDEs were distributed differently among the various fractions from the three sites. The highest level of PCBs and PBDEs occurred in the 31-63?m fraction of the Dagukou sediments, and their lowest levels were found in Lujuhe sediments. In the Qikou sediments, the lowest PCB level occurred in the 31-63?m fraction and the lowest PBDE level was found in the <31?m fraction. These results indicate that the environmental behavior of PBDEs and PCBs are affected by the texture and organic matter content of sediments. PMID:20875665

  7. DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    conclusions. Keywords: Event study; multiple listings; mergers and acquisitions, China JEL Classifications: CDEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY OF CANTERBURY and Finance College of Business and Economics University of Canterbury Private Bag 4800, Christchurch New

  8. [Effects of tillage mode and nitrogen application rate on nitrogen use efficiency of wheat in a farming-pasture zone of North China].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xu-hong; Zhao, Guang-cai; Yang, Yu-shuang; Feng, Ming; Ma, Shao-kang; Wang, De-mei; Bi, Yu-qiang; Yang, Su-rong

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a farming-pasture zone in Chifeng City of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, North China to investigate the effects of different tillage modes and nitrogen (N) application rates on the grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of winter wheat. The results showed that long term conservation tillage increased the wheat NUE by 3% -4%, and decreased the environmental pollution by fertilizer N. Conservation tillage promoted the N absorption by wheat, and increased the grain yield. When the N application rate increased from 120 kg hm-2 to 360 kg . hm-2, the NUE decreased from 36. 5% to 26% , fertilizer N loss increased by about 5% , i. e. , the corresponding N loss was increased from 60 kg hm-2 to 200 kg hm-2, and the environmental N pollution increased markedly. The wheat NUE of the residual N in last season was less affected by tillage mode, but more affected by the N application rate in last season, with an overall tendency of the higher the N application rate in last season, the lower the NUE and the more the fertilizer N loss. After two seasons' wheat planting, the proportion of the total nitrogen recovery by the wheat-soil system was about 44% -50%, among which, the residual N in soil occupied about 13% -18% of applied N. PMID:23898657

  9. [Dynamic changes of vegetation net primary productivity in permafrost zone of Northeast China in 1982-2009 in response to global change].

    PubMed

    Mao, De-Hua; Wang, Zong-Ming; Luo, Ling; Han, Ji-Xing

    2012-06-01

    As one of the high-latitude cold regions, the permafrost zone of Northeast China (PZNC) is more sensitive to global change. Based on the AVHRR GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI, and by using CASA model, this paper simulated the net primary productivity (NPP) in the PZNC from 1982 to 2009. In 1982-2009, the mean annual air temperature, annual solar radiation and sunshine duration, and atmospheric CO2 concentration and its annual increasing rate in the PZNC increased significantly while the annual precipitation had a significant decrease, and the annual NPP showed an up-and-down trend, with the turning point in 1998. The annual NPP had a high spatial heterogeneity, with an average of 623 g C X m(-2). Comparing with air temperature, the precipitation in growth season was the main factor affecting the NPP. Land use change altered land cover, and thus, the spatiotemporal characteristics of NPP. A significant positive correlation was observed between the NPP and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The impact of permafrost degradation on NPP differed with regional environment. The NPP had a significant positive correlation with the mean annual ground temperature, but a negative correlation with the annual maximum permafrost depth. PMID:22937638

  10. Latin America and China Under Global Neoliberalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex E. Fernández Jilberto; Barbara Hogenboom

    2007-01-01

    While China and Latin America simultaneously implemented neoliberal policies as part of a profound economic restructuring process, there are important differences in the results of their policies and economic performance. This article discusses the different development paths of Latin America and China, including their starting points, economic policies and political processes. China's expansion and Latin America's liberalization have brought the

  11. Spatial Variation in the Storages and Age-Related Dynamics of Forest Carbon Sequestration in Different Climate Zones—Evidence from Black Locust Plantations on the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China’s Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001). The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha?1 (1 Mg = 106 g) in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha?1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha?1 to 28.4 Mg C ha?1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration. PMID:25799100

  12. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Naughton; Edward Steinfeld

    This course will provide a comprehensive analytical and empirical discussion on China's economic reform. Three main questions are addressed: How did China implement economic reform? What were the state and society relationships during the reform era? How was Chinese political-economic development shaped by and in turn influencing the global system? All these questions are discussed in a comparative perspective by

  13. Seismic reflection imaging of a paleo-strike-slip zone: Permain-Jurassic structures and implications for the evolution of the NW Junggar Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Wang, X.; Wang, R.

    2013-12-01

    The recognition of inactive paleo-strike-slip faults can be difficult, especially when their fault-related structures have been buried by several kilometers of sediments. However, the subsurface seismic data are able to identify the characteristics of the structures in these areas. In this study, we focus on the geometry and evolution of the strike-slip fault zones in the Northwest Junggar Basin, by using both 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data. Based on the results of our analysis, we characterized the Dalabute and Hong-Che Domains, whose structures are both fitting for the Riedel shear model. In the Dalabute domain, the observed structures are mainly composed of en echelon folds and main P and R faults with other secondary reverse faults, while the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ) is oriented to Northeast-Southwest. However, the structures in Hong-Che domain are characterized by main strike-slip faults with a narrow deformation zone along the straight fault traces, and compressional faults and folds within their restraining bends. As well, the orientation of the PDZ changes to North-South. Meanwhile, the extensional structures observed in both Dalabute and Hong-Che domains suggest the regional extension in the Early to Middle Permian. The growth strata associated with en echelon folds indicates the onset of strike-slip fault in Dalabute domain is Late Permian, whereas a few data show the onset of strike-slip fault in Hong-Che region is no later than Middle Triassic. The deformation in Northwest Junggar baisn lasted untill Late Jurassic. The Dalabute domain reactived and inversed to sinitral strike-slip during the Cenzoic time, whereas the Hong-Che domain was almost inactive then. We proposed that the observed Dalabute and Hong-che dextral strike-slip system might be a part of sinistral shear system in the Altaid orogenic collage in central Asia during the Late Permian to Jurassic time, which also helps to better understand the evolution of the NW Junggar Basin, NW China.

  14. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

  15. Economic Development and the Market Place for Education: Dynamics of the International Schools Sector in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamato, Yoko; Bray, Mark

    2006-01-01

    To some extent, all schools operate in a market place; but the interaction with the market place may be particularly evident in the international schools sector, since many such schools are operated by foundations or private companies which charge fees. This article focuses on the distinctive market place of Shanghai, China, which has undergone…

  16. Decadal to millennial deformation in the Pamir - Tian Shan collision zone, NW China and surface expression of active tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufe, A.; Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Bekaert, D. P.; Hussain, E.

    2013-12-01

    The collision between the Pamir and the Tian Shan is a type example of intracontinental collision. GPS studies show that in Northwest China, at the junction between the Tarim basin, the Pamir and the Tian Shan, 7-9 mm/y of north-south shortening are presently accommodated across the boundary between the two orogens. Here, the deformation has mostly stepped out from the high mountain front into the foreland and has formed a complex array of compressional structures. We compare rates of decadal deformation in the area with 104- to 106-year estimates and investigate the extent to which stream profiles and topography reflect the active tectonics in this setting. A dataset of decadal deformation rates around the Tarim-Tian Shan-Pamir junction in Northwest China is obtained from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time-series analysis. We use the StaMPS/MTI package to combine small-baseline and persistent-scatterer techniques and obtain results that show no significant residual topographic phase correlation. Our data show that deformation has stepped away from the high mountain front and is concentrated on a few structures in the foreland of the Pamir and Tian Shan. Line-of-sight deformation of up to 2-4 mm/y on the Pamir Frontal Thrust (PFT) and the Kashi detachment anticline are observed. No significant displacement of the Main Pamir Thrust can be detected. Within error, the modern deformation rates agree with previously published millennial to million-year estimates along the PFT. However, decadal deformation rates deviate from million-year shortening and rock-uplift rates of anticlines in the foreland of the Tian Shan. It remains unclear whether the discrepancy arises from a recent change to a new persistent uplift rate, or merely from short timescale fluctuation of uplift rate, for example within an earthquake cycle. In an additional step, we extract stream profiles and normalized steepness index (ksn) values for rivers with drainage areas larger than 9 km2 using an SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Stream profiles of large catchments (drainage area of > 1000 km2) draining the Pamir and the Tian Shan are straight or slightly convex across the entire foreland with consequent downstream increases in ksn values. However, no significant changes in stream profiles or ksn values are observed where channels cross presently active structures in the foreland. We note exceptions from this observation at locations of strong litholgic contrasts. The analysis of many small streams with headwaters in the active structures is limited by the resolution of the DEM. A few channels that are large enough to be resolved do not consistently have higher ksn values than equivalently sized streams on presently inactive structures. Our observations, therefore, show that the stream profiles and steepness indices of streams with drainage areas > 9 km2 do not clearly indicate the locus of active deformation in this area despite rock-uplift rates of 1-4 mm/y. Possible reasons for this result include the dry climate of the Tarim basin leading to an overestimation of contributing drainage area in the foreland, the rapid erosion of weak lithologies exposed in many of the active structures, and the possible role of sediment load in rivers and aggradation in the foreland in smoothing of any steepening that was due to uplift.

  17. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...indicate each change in location for any haul by checking...indicate each change in location for any haul by checking...indicate each change in location for any haul by checking...Proposed New Economic Data Collections Each of the three proposed...electronic format on the NMFS Alaska Region Web site....

  18. 76 FR 80782 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...final 2010 Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation...age-structured model for the Aleutian...Pacific cod stock assessment that will be reviewed...groups about the economic value of Kamchatka...as revised stock assessments and catch data...and changes to the models used in the...

  19. Late Quaternary paleoseismic behavior and rupture segmentation of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault along the Longmen Shan fault zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Yongkang; Chen, Wenshan; Xu, Xiwei; Chen, Lichun; Wang, Hu; Li, Yanbao

    2014-11-01

    Late Quaternary rupture behavior of large earthquakes along the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and the Longmen Shan fault zone has been the focus of geoscientists since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. However, most studies have concentrated on the southern segment of the fault from Yingxiu to Beichuan. Here we opened trenches and used borehole drilling in Guixi and Pingxi along the northern segment (north of Beichuan) with the following paleoseismic results: (1) Trenches at Pingxi and Guixi reveal that at least one paleoseismic event occurred prior to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake with ages of 770-955 A.D. and 665-1030 A.D. determined at the two locations, respectively. This event is possibly associated with a historical earthquake documented from 16 November to 15 December of 942 A.D.; furthermore, the trench and boreholes at Guixi may reveal another paleoseismic event occurred at 8240-7785 B.C.; (2) the northern segment (north of Beichuan) of the seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured independently from the southern segment; specifically, the southern segment records three events within the past 6000 years, whereas the northern segment shows a different rupture behavior. We suggest that the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault can be divided into at least two rupture segments.

  20. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

  1. Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challinor, Andrew J.; Simelton, Elisabeth S.; Fraser, Evan D. G.; Hemming, Debbie; Collins, Mathew

    2010-07-01

    Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic data to account for autonomous farmer adaptation. The simulations show crop failure rates increasing under climate change, due to increasing extremes of both heat and water stress. Crop failure rates increase with mean temperature, with increases in maximum failure rates being greater than those in median failure rates. The results suggest that significant adaptation is possible through either socio-economic measures such as greater investment, or biophysical measures such as drought or heat tolerance in crops. The results also show that adaptation becomes increasingly necessitated as mean temperature and the associated number of extremes rise. The results, and the limitations of this study, also suggest directions for research for linking climate and crop models, socio-economic analyses and crop variety trial data in order to prioritize options such as capacity building, plant breeding and biotechnology.

  2. Distinguishing the impacts of land use and arid process on natural potential productivity of cultivated land in the north farming pastoral zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunyang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Peijun; Yang, Yang

    2008-10-01

    The paper distinguished the impacts of land use and arid process on the Natural Potential Productivity of Cultivated Land (NPPCL) in the North Farming - Pastoral Zone of China (NFPZC) from 1990 to 2000 with the integration of remote sensing technique and Geographical Information System (GIS). The arid processes in NFPZC from 1970 to 2006 were analyzed. The land use processes from 1990 to 2000 were investigated. The NPPCL in NFPZC from 1990 to 2000 were calculated by using the Thornthwaite-Memorial model. And finally the influences of land use and arid process on the NPPCL in NFPZC from 1995 to 2007 were distinguished by using the powerful spatial analysis function of GIS. The main results were as follows: (1) In spite of some climate variation, it still had an obvious arid process in the NFPZC during the past three decades. Such arid process made the NPPCL in the NFPZC decrease 16.61 million tons from 1990 to 1995 and 19.55 million tons from 1995 to 2000. (2) From 1990 to 2000, cultivated land in NFPZC changed intensively. It expanded from 231907 km2 in 1990 to 238032 km2 in 1995 and 244109 km2 in 2000. Such land use process caused the NPPCL in the NFPZC increase 5.36 million tons from 1990 to 1995 and 4.48 million tons from 1995 to 2000. (3) Influenced simultaneously by land use and arid process, NPPCL also changed obviously in NFPZC from 1990 to 2000 with 11.24 million tons decrease during 1990 and 1995 and 15.08 million tons decrease during 1995 and 2000 respectively. Spatially, the NPPCL is sensitive to arid process in the Northwest area of NFPZC, governed by Shanxi province, Gansu province and Ningxia autonomous region. While in the Northeast area of NFPZC governed by Hebei province and Shanxi provinces, land use play the dominate role to influence NPPCL. It suggested that the impacts of both the cultivated land loss and the climate change on cultivated land productivity should be simultaneously concerned to avoid food problems in China.

  3. Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel F. Law

    2008-01-01

    Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

  4. Magnetic fingerprinting of hydrodynamic variations and channel erosion across the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chenyin; Zhang, Weiguo; He, Qing; Dong, Yan; Yu, Lizhong

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic measurements were conducted on surface sediments and suspended particles collected across the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze Estuary, in order to examine the spatial distribution of magnetic mineral assemblages and the factors responsible for this distribution. The results indicate that magnetic properties are dominated by ferrimagnetic grains. Bulk magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values show positive correlations with the proportion of the > 63 ?m fraction in the North Channel, while anhysteretic remanent magnetization (?ARM) is significantly correlated with the proportion of the < 16 ?m fraction in both surface sediments and suspended particles. Such a bimodal distribution of ferrimagnetic minerals in the sand and finer fractions is confirmed by particle size-specific measurements. Sediments in the North Channel have the highest ? and SIRM values but lowest ?ARM/SIRM ratios, which is consistent with the coarsest particle size due to strong hydrodynamics, i.e. currents. Within each channel, ? and SIRM values are higher in sediments from shallower water depth due to energetic conditions resulting from waves. Compared with surface sediments, suspended particles have lower ? and SIRM values but higher ?ARM/SIRM ratios due to lower sand fractions. The increasing trend of ?ARM/SIRM of suspended particles along the pathway of sediment transport indicates weakening hydrodynamics from the inner estuary to the outer estuary. Diagenesis is another factor influencing magnetic properties in addition to particle size. Channel erosion leads to local exposure of buried sediments on the channel bed. As a result of a stronger diagenetic imprint, they show magnetic properties different from the recently deposited sediments. Our results indicate that magnetic properties cannot only indicate spatial variations in hydrodynamics, but also provide insight into sediment erosion/deposition processes. Combined granulometric and magnetic methods can therefore be used to interpret hydrodynamics and track changes in estuary morphology.

  5. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  6. Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Ni, Mingjiang; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao

    2013-08-01

    In China, the continuously increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in an urgent need for changing the current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system based on mixed collection. A pilot program focusing on source-separated MSW collection was thus launched (2010) in Hangzhou, China, to lessen the related environmental loads. And greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kyoto Protocol) are singled out in particular. This paper uses life cycle assessment modeling to evaluate the potential environmental improvement with regard to GHG emissions. The pre-existing MSWM system is assessed as baseline, while the source separation scenario is compared internally. Results show that 23 % GHG emissions can be decreased by source-separated collection compared with the base scenario. In addition, the use of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) is suggested for further optimizing the management of food waste. 260.79, 82.21, and -86.21 thousand tonnes of GHG emissions are emitted from food waste landfill, composting, and AD, respectively, proving the emission reduction potential brought by advanced food waste treatment technologies. Realizing the fact, a modified MSWM system is proposed by taking AD as food waste substitution option, with additional 44 % GHG emissions saved than current source separation scenario. Moreover, a preliminary economic assessment is implemented. It is demonstrated that both source separation scenarios have a good cost reduction potential than mixed collection, with the proposed new system the most cost-effective one. PMID:23436063

  7. Western China energy development and west to east energy transfer: Application of the Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenying Chen; Hualin Li; Zongxin Wu

    2010-01-01

    China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China

  8. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions. PMID:25023984

  9. Transnational corporations and ocean technology transfer: New economic zones are being developed by public/private partnerships but deep sea miners balk on royalties

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, C. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Coastal state jurisdiction at 200 nautical miles is today a fact of international law. This has led to a unique situation in the ownership and control of ocean resources; thus 15 coastal states have received among them approximately 41 percent of the world's 200-mile economic zone area. At least half of these are less-developed coastal states (LDCS) which lack the key inputs, capital, technology, and managerial skill, essential to tap their ocean resources. A significant part of ocean technology in offshore oil, fisheries, aquaculture, and deep seabed mining exists in the private sector. Consequently, the transnational corporations (TNCs) are the major providers of ocean technology to the LDCS by a process of transfer through service contracts, turnkey operations, co-production agreements and, most importantly, joint ventures. All evidence points to a continued constructive partnership between the LDCS and the TNCs under the new regime of ocean resource management.

  10. Ordovician appinites in the Wugongshan Domain of the Cathaysia Block, South China: Geochronological and geochemical evidence for intrusion into a local extensional zone within an intracontinental regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yufang; Ma, Changqian; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Junhong; Zheng, Jianping; Nong, Junnian; Zhang, Zejun

    2014-06-01

    Palaeozoic mafic igneous rocks are potentially significant in constraining the tectonic nature and evolution of the Kwangsian Orogeny in the eastern South China Block, yet they have received little attention because of their limited outcrop. Geochemistry and geochronology was carried out on newly identified Ordovician ultramafic-mafic appinites in the Wugongshan Domain of the Cathaysia Block. Seven appinite samples yielded 206Pb/238U crystallisation ages ranging from 452 ± 4 Ma to 473 ± 3 Ma. Abundant 480-500 Ma zircon xenocrysts and/or inherited zircons were found in the appinites, possibly indicating an earlier magmatism episode in the early Palaeozoic period. The Wugongshan appinites are ultramafic to mafic in composition, and the ultramafic rocks display features of cumulates (high concentrations of MgO, Fe2O3t, Cr, Ni, and low concentrations of total alkali and total rare earth elements [REE]). The appinite geochemistry displays: relatively flat chondrite normalised REE patterns with slight enrichment in light REE and weak negative Eu anomalies; enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (such as Rb, K), and weak depletion in Nb-Ta in primitive mantle normalised trace element patterns. We suggest that the Wugongshan appinites likely originated from an ancient metasomatised mantle, and that crustal assimilation, fractional crystallisation (AFC), magma mingling and hydration were involved in the petrogenetic process, based on the combination of geochemistry, crust-like bulk Sr, Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions (?Nd (t) = - 8.2 to - 3.2, initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7067-0.7144, zircon ?Hf (t) values peaking at - 9 to - 3) and regional geological data. Further considering the alignment and chronology of the appinites, we suggest that the appinitic magmas probably were emplaced along the Jiangshan-Shaoxing Fault in a local extensional zone in an intracontinental regime in the early Palaeozoic.

  11. Towards a Confucian Approach to Health Care Allocation in China: A Dynamic Geography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongfu Cao; Yunling Wang; Linjuan Zheng; Li Yanwen

    China began its large scale social and economic reform in 1978, and by 1994, the final aim of the economic restructuring was met. A market economic system was established which had a substantial effect on China’s health care system. In the course of the reform, China, introduced and absorbed useful experiences from different countries concerning health care systems. However, China

  12. Energy exploitation and economic growth in Western China: An empirical analysis based on the resource curse hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuai Shao; Zhongying Qi

    2009-01-01

    Based on resource curse hypothesis, this paper carries out an econometric analysis on the relationship and its transmission\\u000a mechanism between energy exploitation and economic growth with cross-province panel data over 1991–2006. Results reveal that\\u000a there is the significantly negative correlation between energy exploitation and economic growth, which indicates since the\\u000a 1990s, the resource curse effect from energy exploitation has appeared

  13. Rural Households' Attitude and Economic Strategies Toward the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFG): A Case Study in Qira, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hua; Lu, Yonglong; Xing, Ying; He, Guizhen; Sun, Yamei

    2009-06-01

    The Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFG), which was initiated by the Chinese government in 1999, is a cropland retirement program with integrated objectives for ecological preservation and local development. The purpose of this article was to study the influencing factors of attitude and economic strategies in rural households toward the CCFG. Rural households’ knowledge, attitude and economic strategies toward the CCFG were investigated through a questionnaire survey in Qira, China. Influencing factors of attitude and strategies of households were analyzed using a logit model technique. The analysis indicated that household’s income level, environmental knowledge of the program, and program implementation were significant influencing factors in a household’s attitude toward the CCFG, while major influencing factors of household strategies were their regional background and availability of income generation sources. Meaningful association was not found between attitude and strategy choices. Rich households had more strategy choices, while poor households were usually confined to low input strategies with uncertain income. To sustain their livelihood, the poor need extra assistances in marketing, loan granting, employment training, information, and technical services.

  14. Rural households' attitude and economic strategies toward the conversion of cropland to forest and grassland program (CCFG): a case study in Qira, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hua; Lu, Yonglong; Xing, Ying; He, Guizhen; Sun, Yamei

    2009-06-01

    The Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFG), which was initiated by the Chinese government in 1999, is a cropland retirement program with integrated objectives for ecological preservation and local development. The purpose of this article was to study the influencing factors of attitude and economic strategies in rural households toward the CCFG. Rural households' knowledge, attitude and economic strategies toward the CCFG were investigated through a questionnaire survey in Qira, China. Influencing factors of attitude and strategies of households were analyzed using a logit model technique. The analysis indicated that household's income level, environmental knowledge of the program, and program implementation were significant influencing factors in a household's attitude toward the CCFG, while major influencing factors of household strategies were their regional background and availability of income generation sources. Meaningful association was not found between attitude and strategy choices. Rich households had more strategy choices, while poor households were usually confined to low input strategies with uncertain income. To sustain their livelihood, the poor need extra assistances in marketing, loan granting, employment training, information, and technical services. PMID:19340481

  15. A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark

    2014-11-01

    China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments. PMID:24945700

  16. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the loess plateau of china.

    PubMed

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001). The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha-1 (1 Mg = 106 g) in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration. PMID:25799100

  17. Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, an integrated damage from floods in Russia was about 1 billion euros, floods have caused the death of over 200 people. It is one of the most pressing scientific topics, but most of the works devoted to natural risks assessment. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the influence of dangerous hydrological phenomena (e.g. floods, underflooding and surges) on society, using vulnerability and damage assessment techniques. The objectives are to examine domestic and foreign methodologies, to integrate them and to test on specific Russian territory. Foreign training was organized at UNU-EHS (Bonn, Germany). Three different methods were used for each stage of research. The first part of the research was devoted to estimation of potential damage for population and economy of the Baltic Sea coastal zones. The authors used a model, which takes into account direct damage (loss of life, destruction of buildings, etc.) as well as indirect effects of the first, second, etc. orders (loss of profits, loss of the budget, etc.). A database, based on satellite images, maps, yearbooks of Russian Statistical Service and reports of entities, has been prepared. The database is a matrix, in which the rows are coastal zones, and the columns are given indicators: number of people in port areas (people), cost of fixed assets (million rubles), investment (million rubles.), revenue / profit (million rubles.), etc. The authors identified zones with different depth of flooding, using satellite images, and calculated the direct and indirect costs, using the methodology of EMERCOM. Maximum direct potential damage for the Baltic coast is about 15,7 billion euros, but indirect damage is more than 25,5 billion euros. The second part of research was devoted to vulnerability assessment of coastal municipalities of Krasnodar Region. A database, as a matrix of 252 parameters from 2007 to 2009 for 14 coastal municipalities, was developed. The parameters were divided into several blocks according to UNU-EHS methodology: 'exposure' and 'vulnerability', consisting of 'susceptibility', 'coping capacity' and 'adaptive capacity'. Relevant indicators for each block were selected and verified by statistical methods. The authors estimated the share of people potentially exposed to flooding with the help of geographic information system. The authors, using the technique of World Risk Index (2011), calculated sub-indices for each block, and made the maps. Areas with the highest socio-economic risks were identified on the Azov and the Black sea coast: Slavyansky, Krymsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Temryuksky and Primorsko-Akhtarsky municipal districts. On the third stage, the main purpose was to integrate and use both approaches in evaluation of socio-economic risks on micro-geographical level for different categories of the population and different industries (agriculture, utilities, etc.), using 'field' data. Field study was conducted in Slavyansky municipal district of Krasnodar region and included opinion polls, special interviews with businessmen and authorities, collection of municipal statistics and data from companies, etc. Vulnerability maps, speed evacuation maps, maps of possible locations of warning systems and maps of high insurance risks were developed. Proposals for improvement of legislation for coastal zones were prepared. The conducted research has shown the importance of both social ('vulnerability'), and economic ('damage') components of risk assessment. Using the previously discussed methods individually does not bring desired results because of deficiencies of Russian statistics. It is essential for accurate risk assessment to use an 'ensemble' of methods (statistical, field observations, etc.) on micro geographic level. The work has a practical importance for improving safety of local communities.

  18. 10. China's Emergence, Real Exchange Rates, and Implications for East Asian Regional Trade and

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    10. China's Emergence, Real Exchange Rates, and Implications for East Asian Regional Trade arena is China, whose economic reforms have led it to record growth rates, dramatically accelerating export expansion and sharply improving material living standards. China's global economic emergence

  19. Genetic structure and gene flow in the endangered aquatic economic crop Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmel. (Nymphaeaceae) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuan-Huo; Wahiti Gituru, Robert

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to measure the levels of genetic variation and patterns of population structure within and among five extant populations of Brasenia schreberi, an endangered aquatic plant in China. Six primers selected from sixty ISSR primers were used in the study which amplified 49 reproducible bands with 22 (44.9%) being polymorphic, indicating low levels of genetic diversity at the species level. AMOVA analysis revealed that most genetic variation (85.64%) is present among populations. The low level of gene flow (Nm = 0.1) is estimated among five remaining populations. A Mantel test show significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance (r = 0.91). Several factors including clonal growth, habitat fragment, population isolation, restricted gene flow among populations and agricultural practices, might have played an important role in maintaining the genetic structure of B. schreberi populations in China. In view of the limited genetic information currently available for B. schreberi, we recommend in situ preservation of the remaining population.

  20. Moral Choice and the Declining Influence of Traditional Value Orientations Within the Financial Sector of a Rapidly Developing Region of the People’s Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Francis Woodbine

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a field experiment involving 400 employees from ten financial institutions operating within the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone of the People’s Republic of China. It was found that, when faced with an agency-based problem, employees indicated they would be less inclined to advise management of the existence of unethical work practices. Younger employees without supervisory

  1. SME financing in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Xiang Liu

    2007-01-01

    SMEs have a great contribution in China’s economic expansion. However, the financing predicament currently faced by SMEs constitutes a great bottleneck for their development. Banks are reluctant to lend to them, mainly due to the lack of collateral and their poor capability in pricing risk. This is the reason why credit guarantee institutions play a key role in SME financing

  2. Exploratory analysis of health-related quality of life among the empty-nest elderly in rural China: An empirical study in three economically developed cities in eastern China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Along with rapid economic development, the aging process in China is gradually accelerating. The living conditions of empty-nest rural elderly are worrisome. As a more vulnerable group, empty-nest elderly are facing more urgent health problems. This study explores the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of empty-nest elderly in rural China and aims to arouse more social concern for their HRQOL. Methods Research subjects were empty-nest rural elderly from three cities: Nanjing, Suzhou, and Wenzhou (ages???60, n?=?967). This study used the five-dimensional European quality of health scale (EQ-5D) and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure the HRQOL of the respondents. Spearman correlation coefficient, stereotype logistic regression, ordered probit regression and multinomial logistic regression, and Structural equation model (SEM) methods are employed to study the relationship. Results (1) The Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the correlations of similar domains between the SF-12 and the EQ-5D scales are relatively strong. (2) Men’s scores are higher than that of women’s in general health (GH) and anxiety/depression (AD) models. (3) The scores of physical component summary (PCS), physical functioning (PF), mental health (MH), and usual activities (UA) decline with age. (4) Apart from PCS, vitality (VT), and role-emotional (RE) as dependent variables, the education passes all the significance tests. The higher the education is, the higher the scores of physical or psychological health are. (5) The scores of PCS and bodily pain (BP) of empty-nest elderly are divorced or higher in other marital status. (6) In SEM analysis, the effect of basic information of empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scale is more significant. Conclusions First, the frequency histograms of EQ-5D show that the scores of empty-nest elderly in rural China are generally low. Second, in all SF-12 items, the HRQOL is low. Third, men’s scores are higher than that of women’s. The elderly with higher education reported higher scores than those with lower education. Fourth, the effect of socio-demographic variables of the rural Chinese empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scores is more significant, whereas the effect on EQ-5D scores is less significant. PMID:24766880

  3. Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or "Community Learning…

  4. The rapid economic and industrial growth of China, exemplified by a 10-fold increase in its gross domestic

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    's soil, air, and water are polluted by xenobiotic contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic, and residual xenobiotic contaminants (e.g., heavy metals, organic pollutants) have become major issues in soil.g., nutrients runoff, pesticide runoff, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, pathogens). Economic and industrial

  5. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, J

    1996-06-01

    This monograph provides a systematic analysis of interprovincial migration in China and regional population dynamics since the 1950s. Data were obtained from the 1% sample survey of 1987. Chapters are devoted to an examination of the main features of population distribution and spatial differences of major demographic indicators, the causes and selectivity of migration, and the structure of migration. Explanatory models are used to estimate regional in- and out-migration rates and to identify factors that determine regional differences between those rates. The analysis of regional population trends since the 1950s is used to produce multiregional population projections at the provincial level for the period 1987-2087. The final chapter discusses the implications for socioeconomic development of regional population trends. Employment, marriage, and reunions with family are the three main causes of migration in China. City migrants tend to move between cities, while town and county migrants move to other towns in the same province or cities in other provinces. The eastern economic zones (Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangxi) had net in-migration during 1982-87. Other regions with net in-migration included the middle and western economic zones, with the exception of Hubei and Ningxi provinces, which had net out-migration. Most interprovincial migration flows were between neighboring provinces. The direction of flows was from less developed middle and western economic zones to more developed eastern economic zones. The migration pattern during 1982-87 reversed the pattern during 1949-78. The migration flows were sensitive to the shift in migration policy, to economic reforms, and to strategies of economic development that favored the east coast. The natural components of population change will have a vital impact on regional population changes, which are unevenly distributed across the nation. PMID:12321069

  6. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  7. Social development in China: Progress and problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwong-leung Tang

    1999-01-01

    China has undergone spectacular economic growth in the last 15 years. Concomitant to this growth has been a rising standard of living. This article looks at various social indicators to gauge the extent of social development in China. Compared to other developing countries, China has made great srides in the United Nations Human Development Index. However, China is still beset

  8. SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA 92030006 86-351-7010700 86-351-7010700 E-mail: scope #12;SCOPE-ZHONGYU ENvirONmENtal FOrUm 2012 October 11-14, 2012 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China Chair of Environmental Development Dr. Shu Sun, Academician, President of SCOPE CAST China Former Vice President

  9. International Symposium on Hydrogeology and the Environment, Wuhan, China, Oct. 17 20, 2000 A confined groundwater zone in weathered igneous rocks and its impact

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    A confined groundwater zone in weathered igneous rocks and its impact on slope stability Jiu Jimmy Jiao in igneous rock saprolites are a serious natural hazard in Hong Kong and have been extensively studied groundwater zone may exist in the weathered igneous rock profile due to a highly fractured zone. In Hong Kong

  10. Fluid inclusion, rare earth element geochemistry, and isotopic characteristics of the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic Ore district, northwestern Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Caixia; Bi, Xianwu; Liu, Shen; Hu, Ruizhong

    2014-05-01

    The Baiyangping Cu-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the northern part of the Lanping-Simao foreland fold belt, which lies between the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan and Lancangjiang faults in western Yunnan Province, China. The source of ore-forming fluids and materials within the eastern ore zone were investigated using fluid inclusion, rare earth element (REE), and isotopic (C, O, and S) analyses undertaken on sulfides, gangue minerals, wall rocks, and ores formed during the hydrothermal stage of mineralization. These analyses indicate: (1) The presence of five types of fluid inclusion, which contain various combinations of liquid (l) and vapor (v) phases at room temperature: (a) H2O (l), (b) H2O (l) + H2O (v), (c) H2O (v), (d) CmHn (v), and (e) H2O (l) + CO2 (l), sometimes with CO2 (v). These inclusions have salinities of 1.4-19.9 wt.% NaCl equivalents, with two modes at approximately 5-10 and 16-21 wt.% NaCl equivalent, and homogenization temperatures between 101 °C and 295 °C. Five components were identified in fluid inclusions using Raman microspectrometry: H2O, dolomite, calcite, CH4, and N2. (2) Calcite, dolomitized limestone, and dolomite contain total REE concentrations of 3.10-38.93 ppm, whereas wall rocks and ores contain REE concentrations of 1.21-196 ppm. Dolomitized limestone, dolomite, wall rock, and ore samples have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with ores in the Huachangshan, Xiaquwu, and Dongzhiyan ore blocks having large negative ?Ce and ?Eu anomalies, which may be indicative of a change in redox conditions during fluid ascent, migration, and/or cooling. (3) ?34S values for sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite sulfide samples range from -7.3‰ to 2.1‰, a wide range that indicates multiple sulfur sources. The basin contains numerous sources of S, and deriving S from a mixture of these sources could have yielded these near-zero values, either by mixing of S from different sources, or by changes in the geological conditions of seawater sulfate reduction to sulfur. (4) The C-O isotopic analyses yield ?13C values from ca. zero to -10‰, and a wider range of ?18O values from ca. +6 to +24‰, suggestive of mixing between mantle-derived magma and marine carbonate sources during the evolution of ore-forming fluids, although potential contributions from organic carbon and basinal brine sources should also be considered. These data indicate that ore-forming fluids were derived from a mixture of organism, basinal brine, and mantle-derived magma sources, and as such, the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic ore deposit should be classified as a “Lanping-type” ore deposit.

  11. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

  12. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis. PMID:17207519

  13. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the study objectives, nighttime light images and LandScan gridded population data were used to disaggregate demographic GDP data reported at the province level to the pixel level. The disaggregated GDP data were integrated with MODIS annual NPP data to map joint changes of GDP and NPP from 2001 to 2007. Economic development and environmental change can lead to land cover change, and the land cover change can, in turn, determine the changes of NPP. Thus, a change detection matrix with basic land cover elements was produced from MODIS land cover type products to augment the analyses of changing patterns of GDP and NPP in China. To safely discern that the changes of NPP are mainly affected by anthropogenic factors and not natural forces, the extents of undeveloped, established developed (existing before 2001), and newly developed (emerging after 2001) areas were delimited from the nighttime light images. Results show that most Chinese developed areas experienced coupled increases in GDP and NPP between 2001 and 2007 across different geographic scales, but no significant correlations exist between the total changes (or percentage changes) in GDP and NPP at the province, the city, or the pixel level. Despite large increases in GDP, the decreases in vegetated land expected according to IPAT theory did not occur in developed areas. Instead, barren land markedly decreased and built-up land slightly decreased in extent. These changing patterns suggest that China's economic growth produced some positive impacts on its ecosystem production as measured using NPP. In light of these findings a reexamination of the IPAT theory is necessary. I propose a revision to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept to fully illustrate the relationship between economic growth and ecosystem production as an indicator of environmental quality. According to the EKC, at relatively low levels of economic output, economic growth produces negative impacts on environmental quality. The negative impacts tend to reach a maximum at high levels of economic output and then decline at sustained levels

  14. China’s New Demographic Reality: Learning from the 2010 Census1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides an examination of China’s 2010 census data to evaluate its quality and to assess China’s demographic situation. The demographic trends revealed by the new census data suggest that China has entered a new demographic era characterized by prolonged low fertility, elevated sex ratios, rapid aging, fast urbanization and major geographic redistribution. How China responses to these demographic challenges will have profound implications for its social and economic future. PMID:25620818

  15. The economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces: a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Xie, Gaodi; Zhang, Canqiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-06-15

    Urbanization involves the replacement of vegetated surfaces with impervious built surfaces, and it often results in an increase in the rate and volume of rainwater surface runoff. Urban green spaces play a positive role in rainwater-runoff reduction. However, few studies have explored the benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces. Based on inventory data of urban green spaces in Beijing, the paper evaluated the economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces, using the rainwater-runoff-coefficient method as well as the economic valuation methods. The results showed that, 2494 cubic meters of potential runoff was reduced per hectare of green area and a total volume of 154 million cubic meters rainwater was stored in these urban green spaces, which almost corresponds to the annual water needs of the urban ecological landscape in Beijing. The total economic benefit was 1.34 billion RMB in 2009 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1=RMB6.83), which is equivalent to three-quarters of the maintenance cost of Beijing's green spaces; the value of rainwater-runoff reduction was 21.77 thousand RMB per hectare. In addition, the benefits in different districts and counties were ranked in the same order as urban green areas, and the average benefits per hectare of green space showed different trends, which may be related to the impervious surface index in different regions. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role that Beijing's green spaces play in rainwater regulation and in the creation and scientific management of urban green spaces. PMID:22366359

  16. Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Fan, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Z. Z.; Sun, L. Y.; Xiong, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and biochar addition on the net global warming potential (net GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). These experiments were conducted in an intensive vegetable field with 4 consecutive vegetable crops in 2012 and 2013 in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with a 32 factorial design in triplicate at N fertilizer rates of 0, 1475, 1967 kg N ha-1 and biochar rates of 0, 20, and 40 t ha-1. Although CH4 emissions were not obviously affected by N fertilization, N2O emissions increased by 27.2-116.2% and the net GWP increased by 30.6-307.2%. Consequently, the GHGI increased significantly, but vegetable yield and the NEEB did not improve. Furthermore, biochar amendments did not significantly influence CH4 emissions, but significantly decreased the N2O emissions by 1.7-25.4%, the net GWP by 89.6-700.5%, and the GHGI by 89.5-644.8%. In addition, vegetable yields significantly increased by 2.1-74.1%, which improved the NEEB. Thus, N fertilization did not increase vegetable yields or the NEEB. However, N fertilization did increase the net GWP and GHGI. In contrast, biochar additions resulted in lower N2O emissions and net GWP and GHGI, but increased vegetable yield and the NEEB in the intensive vegetable production system. Therefore, appropriate biochar amendment should be studied to combat changing climate and to improve the economic profits of vegetable production.

  17. China's Western Development Strategy: Policies, Effects and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Lu; Xiang Deng

    2011-01-01

    China’s Western Development Strategy (WDS) has been carried out since 1999 with remarkable achievements, whereby Western China also experienced a rapid and stable development during the past decade. This paper analyzes policy actions and effects of WDS. The findings indicate that Western China’s economic development has experienced a dramatic reversion after implementation of WDS, which to a certain extent, proves

  18. Anonymous Banking and Financial Repression: How Does China's Reform Limit Government Predation without Reducing Its Revenue?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong-En Bai; David Daokui Li; Yingyi Qian; Yijiang Wang

    1999-01-01

    China's economic performance of the past two decades presents a puzzle for the economics of transition and development: Enormous private business incentives were unleashed that have fueled rapid economic growth despite the fact that China has had very weak \\

  19. Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-04-01

    It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to be reversed. At least two factors contribute to the dichotomy between huge investment and limited results. First, the majority of the efforts have been limited to engineering approaches to water pollution control, ignoring the important roles of non-engineering approaches and stakeholder participation. Second, the complex hydrological regime of the basin may aggravate the impacts of various pollutant sources. Using the Yincungang canal, one major tributary to the Lake Tai, as an example, we discuss our work on both hydrological and socio-economic factors affecting the water quality of the canal, as well as the grand challenges of coupling hydrological systems and socio-economic systems in the region. Keywords non-point source pollution, rural sewage, agricultural pollution, spatio-temporal pattern, stakeholder participation

  20. The AIDS epidemic and economic input impact factors in Chongqing, China, from 2006 to 2012: a spatial-temporal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqi; Xiao, Qin; Zhou, Liang; Ma, Dihui; Liu, Ling; Lu, Rongrong; Yi, Dali; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the spatial-temporal clustering of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Chongqing and to explore its association with the economic indices of AIDS prevention and treatment. Methods Data on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and economic indices of AIDS prevention and treatment were obtained from the annual reports of the Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control for 2006–2012. Spatial clustering analysis, temporal-spatial clustering analysis, and spatial regression were used to conduct statistical analysis. Results The annual average new HIV infection rate, incidence rate for new AIDS cases, and rate of people living with HIV in Chongqing were 5.97, 2.42 and 28.12 per 100?000, respectively, for 2006–2012. The HIV/AIDS epidemic showed a non-random spatial distribution (Moran’s I?0.310; p<0.05). The epidemic hotspots were distributed in the 15 mid-western counties. The most likely clusters were primarily located in the central region and southwest of Chongqing and occurred in 2010–2012. The regression coefficients of the total amount of special funds allocated to AIDS and to the public awareness unit for the numbers of new HIV cases, new AIDS cases, and people living with HIV were 0.775, 0.976 and 0.816, and ?0.188, ?0.259 and ?0.215 (p<0.002), respectively. Conclusions The Chongqing HIV/AIDS epidemic showed temporal-spatial clustering and was mainly clustered in the mid-western and south-western counties, showing an upward trend over time. The amount of special funds dedicated to AIDS and to the public awareness unit showed positive and negative relationships with HIV/AIDS spatial clustering, respectively. PMID:25818270

  1. Assessment of population exposure to PM10 for respiratory disease in Lanzhou (China) and its health-related economic costs based on GIS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter) is very important for protecting human health and establishing pollution control policy. Population exposure estimation is the first step in formulating exposure data for quantitative assessment of harmful PM10 pollution. Methods In this paper, we estimate PM10 concentration using a spatial interpolation method on a grid with a spatial resolution 0.01° × 0.01°. PM10 concentration data from monitoring stations are spatially interpolated, based on accurate population data in 2000 using a geographic information system. Then, an interpolated population layer is overlaid with an interpolated PM10 concentration layer, and population exposure levels are calculated. Combined with the exposure-response function between PM10 and health endpoints, economic costs of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution are analyzed. Results The results indicate that the population in Lanzhou urban areas is distributed in a narrow and long belt, and there are relatively large population spatial gradients in the XiGu, ChengGuan and QiLiHe districts. We select threshold concentration C0 at: 0 ?g m-3 (no harmful health effects), 20 ?g m-3 (recommended by the World Health Organization), and 50 ?g m-3 (national first class standard in China) to calculate excess morbidity cases. For these three scenarios, proportions of the economic cost of PM10 pollution-related adverse health effects relative to GDP are 0.206%, 0.194% and 0.175%, respectively. The impact of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations in 2000 is also analyzed. Sandstorm weather in spring, inversion layers in winter, and precipitation in summer are important factors associated with change in PM10 concentration. Conclusions The population distribution by exposure level shows that the majority of people live in polluted areas. With the improvement of evaluation criteria, economic damage of respiratory disease caused by PM10 is much bigger. The health effects of Lanzhou urban residents should not be ignored. The government needs to find a better way to balance the health of residents and economy development. And balance the pros and cons before making a final policy. PMID:24069906

  2. Reading Education Action Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Sally; Gewirtz, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Explores the conceptualization of social justice embedded in the education-action-zones policy recently implemented in England. Although zone populations suffer three types of social injustice, the initiative recognizes economic disadvantage, but inadequately acknowledges cultural and associational injustices. Cultural remedies cannot be imposed…

  3. A comparison of fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas outside three Exclusive Economic Zones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2013-05-01

    Although many studies on the fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, have been conducted in the coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of various countries due to its commercial and ecological importance, limited biological information is available from waters outside these EEZs. In this paper, we examined D. gigas fishery biology from waters outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, based on the fishery data collected by Chinese jigging vessels during 2006 to 2010. The dominant mantle lengths of D. gigas were 350-450 mm, 250-400 mm and 250-350 mm outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, respectively. Size structure analysis show that a medium-sized group existed mostly in the waters outside the Chilean and Peruvian EEZs, whereas a small-sized group occurred mainly in the waters outside the Costa Rican EEZ. The longevity of the squid outside the Costa Rican EEZ was less than 10 months, while most of those outside Chilean and Peruvian EEZs were about 1-1.5 years and very few large individuals were 1.5-2 years old. A higher percentage of mature individuals existed outside Costa Rican EEZ implying the region as a potential spawning ground, while lower proportions of mature squid outside the Peruvian and Chilean EEZs indicated that spawning may be occurring outside our study area. Spatial differences in sizes at maturity of the squid are thought to be result from different environmental factors especially different temperature and nutrition among the three areas. Stomach-content analysis showed that cannibalism was important in the diet of D. gigas. Stress generated by jigging may increase the incidence of cannibalism.

  4. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from the Permian sandstones in Da Xing'an Mountains, NE China: New evidence for the eastern extension of the Erenhot-Hegenshan suture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqing; Liu, Yongjiang; Neubauer, Franz; Jin, Wei; Genser, Johann; Ren, Shoumai; Li, Wei; Wen, Quanbo; Zhao, Yingli; Liang, Chenyue

    2012-04-01

    The Erenhot-Hegenshan suture zone is located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) cutting obliquely through the Da Xing'an Mountains in NE China, and represents the hotly debated boundary of the Xing'an and Songliao blocks. In this study, we present new U-Pb zircon ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from Permian sandstones in the Da Xing'an Mountains (DXAM) of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Based on the genetic relation of the suggested "Hegenshan Ocean" and the Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot magmatic arc, we seek the eastern extension of the Erenhot-Hegenshan suture zone by tracing the provenance information of the magmatic arc from our Permian sandstones. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of detrital zircons of the Permian sandstones yield evidence for two age groups of ˜280 and ˜320 Ma, which represent the Late Paleozoic magmatic arcs. Zircons of the older cluster are considered to derive from the Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot magmatic arc with its age cluster of 310-320 Ma and similar ?Hf(t) values of 3.46-10.41. Further Paleozoic age groups of ˜380 Ma, ˜430 Ma and ˜500 Ma indicate a mixture of age groups of variable origin. The samples from the central-southern DXAM comprise a mixture of Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot and Ondon Sum-Xar Moron magmatic arcs, and even include a contribution from the magmatic arc in the northern margin of the North China craton. The samples from the central and northern DXAM contain a mixture of Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot magmatic arc and post-orogenic magmatic rocks from the Erguna block, respectively. Synthesizing this unique information on a magmatic arc with an approximate age of 320 Ma, we define a distribution of the Sonidzuoqi-Xilinhot magmatic arc as follows: the arc extends from north of Solon Obo, via Sonidzuoqi, Xilinhot through Ulanhot to Qiqihar, and then it is cut by the sinistral Nenjiang-Balihan strike-slip fault (western boundary fault of Songliao basin), and ultimately extends to Longzhen. The Erenhot-Hegenshan suture zone is located north of this magmatic arc.

  5. What shapes Americans' opinion of China? Country characteristics, public relations and mass media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuli Wang; Pamela J. Shoemaker

    2011-01-01

    This study looks at the effect of China's political freedom, economic development and public relations efforts on the US media's coverage of China, and on Americans' opinions of China in the past 30 years. China's political freedom was found to be significant in predicting US media coverage of China and Americans' opinion of China, with more freedom leading to more

  6. Heartache of the state, enemy of the self: bipolar disorder and cultural change in urban China.

    PubMed

    Ng, Emily

    2009-09-01

    Past works in anthropology and psychology have described the Chinese orientation toward life as situation-centered with an external locus of control. This model has also been applied to the understanding of affect disorders in China--depressive patients have been found to focus on outside circumstances surrounding dysphoric moods. However, dramatic economic, sociopolitical and cultural changes in post-Mao China may be affecting these cognitive orientations toward emotional distress. This paper focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder in China. The study is based on semistructured interviews with patients at a Western-style mental health institution in Shenzhen, the first successful Special Economic Zone in China. My data suggest that the location of agency has shifted across generations. Whereas those who grew up in the Maoist era are inclined to use external circumstances to explain the control over and responsibility for their illness, younger patients tend to emphasize self-blame and individual responsibility. I argue that these intergenerational differences in ethnopsychology relate to the multifaceted rise of individualism in post-Mao China. The paper ends with an examination of this observed shift vis-à-vis recent theories of neoliberal discipline in China and a discussion of potential psychological implications. PMID:19526331

  7. Ji Wang: Enhancing Engineering Education in China Enhancing Engineering Education in China in Crossroads of

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ji

    general knowledge courses (Foreign languages, politics, physical education, economics, history, etcJi Wang: Enhancing Engineering Education in China Enhancing Engineering Education in China Engineering Education November 1-4, 2007 Purdue University #12;Ji Wang: Enhancing Engineering Education

  8. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

  9. Timing of initiation of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: microstructural and geochronological constraints from high temperature mylonites in Diancang Shan, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Liu, J.; Leiss, B.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

    2009-04-01

    The high grade metamorphic massifs (e.g. Xuelong Shan, Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan in China and Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic massif in Vietnam) along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone in Southwestern China bear much information on the large-scale left-lateral strike-slip shearing in eastern Tibet during Indian-Eurasian plate collision and post-collisional accommodation process in late Oligocene-early Miocene. The metamorphic massifs are narrow zones bounded by brittle faults. Low-grade metamorphic rocks are lying on the west and sedimentary rocks to the east. Rocks in these massifs are partly sheared with widespread occurrence of high temperature mylonites that have subhorizontal stretching lineations. Left-lateral shearing is indicated by mesoscale and microscale shear indicators in the mylonites. Debates exist on the timing of initiation and duration of left-lateral shearing, and mechanism of exhumation of the high grade metamorphic rocks along Ailao Shan Red River shear zone. The Diancang Shan complex, a typical metamorphic massif, is constituted by three units, i.e. a central high strain shear zone, a western low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary sequence in the Lanping basin, and an eastern superimposed retrograde metamorphic belt. The central high grade metamorphic complex consists of metamorphic rocks of amphibolite facies conditions. High-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages and structural elements indicate a deep level crustal metamorphism and deformation of the rocks. L-tectonites are typical indicators of high-temperature deformation in the highly sheared granitic mylonites. Widespread occurrence of different shear criteria (e.g. sheared veins, sigmoid and delta -porphyroclasts) suggests that these gneisses experienced very intensive high-temperature progressive left-lateral strike-slip shearing. A large synkinematic augen monzogranitic intrusion is recognized in the central belt by the present work. The intrusion has an obvious porphyritic texture, in which very huge crystals (up to 3 cm in diameter) of feldspars occur as phenocrysts in a fine grained matrix of quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + mica. The monzogranites are sheared and form high temperature mylonites. Their well-developed lineation and inter-layering with paragneisses resulted from high-temperature shearing during or subsequent to emplacement. Macrostructural analysis revealed that the high temperature granitic mylonites are mainly confined to the shear zone, experienced shear deformation and extended along the shear zone. Feldspar phenocrysts in the monzogranite intrusions have different shapes like sigmoid, delta and S-C fabrics indicating left-lateral shearing. A sequential and progressive process from magmatic crystallization, through late-crystallization metasomatism, to crystalline plasticity is evidenced by rock microstructures. Early crystallization is characterized by porphyritic structures, especially by growth zoning in feldspar grains. Evidences for late magmatic metasomatism are widespread in the mylonitic rocks. An early phase of K-metasomatism is indicated by the replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar, which is best documented by plagioclase left-over grains in marginal zones of K-feldspar megacrysts. Patches of these left-over grains are often optically continuous and hence can be related to originally larger plagioclase grains. K-feldspar grains are further metasomatized by relatively potassium-rich plagioclase to form myrmekite structure. In some cases, myrmekites seem to be stress-induced because their distribution and orientation can be attributed to bulk left-lateral shearing. The granitic intrusion and its wall rocks are highly sheared by late- or post intrusive high temperature plastic deformation. Quartz grains often have irregular grain boundaries implying high temperature grain boundary migration. Rectangular quartz ribbons, augen-shaped grain aggregates, quartz sigmoid, and quartz grains with straight boundaries and triple junctions are also indicative of intensive high temperature deformation. Feld

  10. 158 East Asian Studies/Economics Economics 272--Japan's Modern Economy

    E-print Network

    Dresden, Gregory

    's Modern Economy Economics 399--Economics Seminar History 103--China: Origins to 20th Century Reforms: The Control of Ethnic Diversity in China (16th-20th Centuries) History 389--Topics in Asian or African History of Gender in Late Imperial China (10th-19th Centuries) History 386--Managing Mongols, Manchus and Muslims

  11. Early Paleozoic to Middle Triassic bivergent accretion in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: insights from zircon U-Pb dating of ductile shear zones in central Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yilong; Zhou, Hanwen; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Zhong, Zengqiu

    2014-09-01

    The Solonker suture zone records the termination of convergence in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The timing of termination of the Solonker suture and the tectonic style of the southern CAOB have long been controversial. The Baolidao arc-accretion complex and the Ondor Sum subduction-accretion complex are located immediately to the north and south of the Solonker suture zone respectively. However, the tectonic settings and formation ages of these two complexes are debated. In this paper, we present a systematic study of LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages of multiple units and lithologies from both the complexes to constrain the timing of final collision between the South Mongolian microcontinent and the North China craton. The geochronological results indicate that the northward subduction of the Paleoasian Oceanic lithosphere beneath the South Mongolian microcontinent at ~ 452 Ma induced extensive melting of overriding continental crust. Continuous subduction led to accretionary wedge-continent collision at the southern margin of the South Mongolian microcontinent, represented by the 416 ± 3 Ma granitic activity in the southern margin of the Baolidao arc-accretion complex. After Early Paleozoic collision, widespread magmatism occurred at 316-302 Ma in response to transient extension along the southern margin of the South Mongolian microcontinent. There was a deep marine basin during Permian times to the south of the microcontinent. The closure of this oceanic basin led to Late Paleozoic-Early Triassic north-dipping subduction and final suturing of the CAOB during Late Permian to Middle Triassic times. Proximal forearc sediments composed of arc volcanic and plutonic materials with crystallization ages varying from 299 ± 3 Ma to 267 ± 3 Ma, and some intrusions at 274 ± 2 Ma caused by the melting of continental crust were produced along the northern margin of the Solonker suture zone. Accretion and collision occurred at ~ 263 Ma. The southward subduction of the Paleoasian Oceanic lithosphere beneath the North China craton at ~ 451 Ma induced high-grade metamorphism and partial melting in the south-dipping subduction zone. An arc/forearc-related ocean at the northern margin of the North China craton existed during the southward subduction (324-300 Ma) and was filled during transient regional extension (299-290 Ma) in Linxi area to form the protolith of the Shuangjing Schist, accompanied with widespread Late Carboniferous to Early Permian arc volcanic and plutonic activity in the CAOB. Initial subduction of the arc/forearc-related oceanic basin occurred during 290-280 Ma, and was followed by the convergence of the North China craton and the South Mongolian microcontinent until ~ 230 Ma. The eastern section of the CAOB formed by bivergent Early Paleozoic to Middle Triassic accretion until ~ 263-230 Ma that ended in the closure of the Paleoasian Ocean.

  12. Satellite monitoring of spatio-temporal dynamics of China’s coastal zone eco-environments: preliminary analysis on the relationship between the environment, climate change and human behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Qin; L. Zhu; A. Ghulam; Z. Li; P. Nan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, temporal dynamics of eco-environmental changes in coastal areas of China during 1981–2000 are investigated\\u000a based on four key surface parameters including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), thermal index, moisture index\\u000a and surface broadband albedo derived from quantitative remote sensing techniques and meteorological data. Firstly, land surface\\u000a temperature (LST) and land surface broadband albedo are retrieved by the

  13. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. PMID:25189479

  14. Does China deserve the market economy status?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-José Rinaldi-Larribe; William S. Lightfoot; Zhongxiu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Throughout the past 30 years, major economic reforms have been implemented in China; in 2001, China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) was a major step, since it enabled the country to formally join the globalised world. But China entered the WTO without market economy status (MES), meaning that other countries can easily use the WTO international

  15. China's Statistical System and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xue, Susan

    2004-01-01

    As the People's Republic of China plays an increasingly important role in international politics and trade, countries with economic interests there find they need to know more about this nation. Access to primary information sources, including official statistics from China, however, is very limited, as little exploration has been done into this…

  16. To Appear in Middle East Economic Survey (MEES)-Op-Ed http://www.mees.com/cms/ China's Angst over Iran Sanctions

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Tom

    fifty percent of its imported oil now comes from the Persian Gulf, and any U.S.-Iran clash could reserves. This year China is completing the second of two storage facilities that together hold 100 million

  17. Economic design in a long-distance migrating molluscivore: how fast-fuelling red knots in Bohai Bay, China, get away with small gizzards.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Ma, Zhi-Jun; Hua, Ning; van Gils, Jan A; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-10-01

    We carried out an observational and experimental study to decipher how resource characteristics, in interaction with the predator's phenotype, constrain a fitness-determining performance measure, i.e. refuelling in a migrant bird. Two subspecies of red knot (Calidris canutus rogersi and C. c. piersmai) use northern Bohai Bay, Yellow Sea, China, for the final prebreeding stopover, during their 10,000-15,000 km long migrations between wintering and breeding areas. Here, they feed on small bivalves, especially 2-7 mm long Potamocorbula laevis. With an average stay of 29 days, and the need to store 80 g of fat for the onward flights to high-Arctic breeding grounds, red knots need to refuel fast. Using existing knowledge, we expected them to achieve this on the basis of (1) prey with high flesh to shell mass ratios, (2) large gizzards to crush the ingested molluscs, or (3) a combination of the two. Rejecting all three predictions, we found that red knots staging in Bohai Bay had the smallest gizzards on record (4.9 ± 0.8 g, mean ± s.e.m., N = 27), and also found that prey quality of P. laevis is much lower than predicted for the measured gizzard size (i.e. 1.3 rather than the predicted 4.5 kJ g(-1) dry shell mass, DM(shell)). The estimated handling time of P. laevis (0.2 s) is much shorter than the observed time between two prey ingestions (0.7 s), indicating that prey handling time is no constraint. Based on field observations of dropping rates and on indoor digestion trails, the shell processing rate was estimated at 3.9 mg DM(shell) s(-1), i.e. three times higher the rate previously predicted for red knots eating as fast as they can with the measured gizzard size. This is explained by the small and easily crushed P. laevis enabling high processing rates. As P. laevis also occurred in high densities, the metabolizable energy intake rate of red knots with small gizzards at 5 J s(-1) was as high as at northward staging sites elsewhere in the world. Currently, therefore, food characteristics in Bohai Bay are such that red knots can refuel fast whilst economizing on the size of their gizzard. These time-stressed migrants thus provide an elegant example of symmorphosis. PMID:24006345

  18. ‘Mobile men with money’: the socio?cultural and politico?economic context of ‘high?risk’ behaviour among wealthy businessmen and government officials in urban China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elanah Uretsky

    2008-01-01

    China's transition from an injection drug?driven HIV epidemic to one primarily transmitted through sexual contact has triggered concern over the potential for HIV to move into the non?drug?injecting population. Much discussion has focused on the migrant men of China's vast ‘floating population’ who are considered a high?risk group. As a result, many men who frequently engage in high?risk behaviour but

  19. 75 FR 24969 - China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...and in those markets with which China has negotiated trade agreements...the principal measures affecting China's agricultural imports, including...A quantitative analysis of the economic effects of China's MFN tariffs,...

  20. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    accounting framework of China’s energy and economic structure built using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) modeling software.accounting framework of China’s energy and economic structure, built using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) modeling software.accounting framework of China’s energy and economic structure built using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) modeling software.