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1

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is China Report include Economic Affairs. It contains the issue with different topics on People's Republic of China: Provincial affairs, Economic Development Zones, Economic Management, Energy, Industry, Domestic Trade, Foreign Trade and Investment, ...

1984-01-01

2

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information concerning the economic affairs of China. The following sections are included: (1) national policy and issues, (2) provincial affairs, (3) economic development zones, (4) economic planning, (5) economic management, (6) fin...

1985-01-01

3

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from China on economic affairs. Topics include: economic development zones, economic management, construction, finance and banking, foreign trade and investment, Chinese media ...

1984-01-01

4

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains articles from China which deal with Economic Affairs. Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Provincial Affairs, Economic Zones, Domestic Trade, Industry, Agriculture, and Chinese Media on Foreign Economics.

1987-01-01

5

China’s Economic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1979, China has become one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. From 1979 to 2007 China’s real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of 9.8%. Real GDP grew 11.4% in 2007 (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in

Wayne M Morrison

2008-01-01

6

Ecological risk assessment of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China.  

PubMed

Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long - 58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005 - respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation. PMID:23343986

Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

2013-01-01

7

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report from China contains articles on National Policy and Issues; Provincial Affairs; Aggregate Economic Data; Economic Management; Industry and Construction; Foreign Trade and Investment; Transportation; Chinese Media on Foreign Economic Affairs; T...

1985-01-01

8

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on/from China. Topics include: National policy issues, provincial affairs, economic planning, economic management, finance and banking, mineral resources, industry, constructio...

1985-01-01

9

China's Economic Fauna: Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief history of economic avifauna research in China, the economic significance, ecology, distribution, and classification of birds (with external features and measurements describing the body of the bird) are surveyed. The characteristics of each famil...

C. Tso-Hsin

1964-01-01

10

China's Economic Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the initiation of economic reforms 30 years ago, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing economies. From 1979 to 2007, China's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of 9.8%. Real GDP grew 11.4% in 2007. However...

W. M. Morrison

2008-01-01

11

Dissolved trace elements in river water: spatial distribution and the influencing factor, a study for the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-nine water samples were collected from different river channels of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China. An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectromonitor (ICP-MS) was used to measure concentrations of the trace elements in these samples. The results suggest that the average concentrations of rare earth elements in river water show an increasing trend from the West River, the North River, the rivers of the Pearl River Delta, and the Shenzhen River to the East River. Relatively high concentrations of heavy metals appear in the East River, the rivers of the Pearl River Delta and the Shenzhen River, while the West River and the North River have relatively low heavy metal concentrations. Trace element concentrations in samples collected near urban or industrial areas are much higher than those of samples collected from distant areas, away from urban and industrial areas. After natural conditions, human activities have significant influence on the trace element concentrations in river water. This trace element concentration’s spatial distribution in the river water from the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is actually an integrated effect of natural conditions and human activity.

Ouyang, T. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kuang, Y. Q.; Huang, N. S.; Tan, J. J.; Guo, G. Z.; Gu, L. S.; Sun, B.

2006-03-01

12

Understanding china's economic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are claimed to be successful in (a) agriculture where land is not owned by the fanners; (b)

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

2001-01-01

13

Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in surface sediments from a subtropical bay affected by the Special Economic Zone, China.  

PubMed

The concentrations of nine metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Al) in surface sediments from 14 sampling sites in Shantou Bay were determined in order to understand current metal levels and spatial distribution due to the rapid development of the Shantou Special Economic Zone. Results showed that metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.31 to 1.74 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 35.98 to 74.19 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 24.43 to 79.24 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 428.45 to 809.87 mg kg(-1) for Mn, 16.91 to 31.51 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 35.59 to 64.84 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 84.91 to 246.51 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 2.93 to 3.93% for Fe, and 5.25 to 9.28% for Al. Although all metal concentrations in sediments meet Chinese National Standard Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality, both enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) show Pb and Cd pollution existed in the upper and middle bay, and pollution of other metals is also recorded in some sites depending on the sources; river input, sewage discharge, and port activities are the main sources of pollutant to the bay. PMID:23656944

Qiao, Yongmin; Pan, Hong; Yang, Yang; Gu, Jiguang; Zhao, Jiangang

2013-01-01

14

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PARTIAL CONTENTS: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES - LIAOWANG Reviews Status of Price Reform; Six Measures Proposed for Economic Readjustment; PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS -Report on Guangxi People's Congress Meeting; Sichuan Holds Economic, Technological Cooperation Con...

1986-01-01

15

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PARTIAL CONTENTS: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES - Individual Enterprise Engages 16 Million; PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS - Guiding Outline for Work of Hebel CPC Committee; ECONOMIC PLANNING - LIAOWANG Reports Ministries' Plans for Reforms; AGGREGATE ECONOMIC DATA - Sh...

1986-01-01

16

Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change that was previously unavailable for the Sanya Region. Data acquired from the IKONOS-2 satellite are analyzed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to identify urban greenspace in three subscenes extracted from the Sanya landscape. Results suggest that urban greenspace can be successfully characterized with enhanced detail using landscape pattern indices (LPIs) and a correlogram approach. Inclusion of a spatial approach to greenspace characterization and planning is argued to be an important and easily implemented method for enhanced evaluation of urban quality of life. The government of Hainan has stated that it wishes to employ additional and more refined means of guiding future development practices. This study is a landscape analysis involving change detection of land cover as well as the spatial analysis of urban morphological features. It develops methodologies that may be used to investigate and document past and current urban conditions; some of these could be used by the Hainan Government to further their future urban planning goals of economic growth and ecological sustainability.

Millward, Andrew Allan

17

China Report: Economic Affairs. No. 335.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on economic affairs in China. Titles include; Importance of Technological Progress Emphasized; Problems in Shanxi's Economic Development Discussed; Advantages of Contracting fo...

1983-01-01

18

Current status of coastal zone issues and management in China: a review.  

PubMed

This paper identifies and examines social-economic and environmental issues recently emerged in China's coastal zone. Evaluation of management scheme and progress in perspectives of coordinated legislation, institutional arrangement, public participation, capacity building, and scientific research (mainly coastal planning and functional zoning) in China's coastal zone are made. The Chinese government has made a significant effort in developing legislation for the coastal zone. Jurisdictional and zoning boundaries, and allocating use rights for coastal and marine resources have been established. State Oceanic Administration is the leading agency responsible for China's ocean policymaking and overall management of ocean and coastal affairs. A demonstrated project for integrated coastal management in Xiamen has been implemented, and is characterized as "decentralization" approach in decision-making process. In view of the above, comprehensive coastal management in China is a big challenge, facing with many difficulties. Finally, recommendations are raised for tackling these issues for China's coastal zone management. PMID:17532045

Cao, Wenzhi; Wong, Ming H

2007-10-01

19

China Report, Economic Affairs, No. 360.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains articles on China. Some articles discussed include national policy issues, aggregate economic data, mineral resources, finance and banking, industries, construction, domestic trade, foreign trade, labor and wages, transportation, an...

1983-01-01

20

China's Demographic Limits to Economic Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China's demographic transition will create great difficulty in continuing the scale of economic development seen over the last 30 years. This difficulty will be experienced through the costs of the demographic detour, which began during the Great Leap For...

D. M. Truesdell

2012-01-01

21

33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30 Section 2.30 Navigation...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to...States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward...

2013-07-01

22

Relaxing Hukou: Increased labor mobility and China?s Economic Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

China?s Hukou system poses severe restrictions on labor mobility. This paper assesses the consequences of relaxing these restrictions for China?s internal economic geography. We base our analysis on a new economic geography model. First, we obtain estimates of the important model parameters on the basis of information on 264 of China?s prefecture cities over the period 1999-2005. Second, and by

Maarten Bosker; Steven Brakman; Harry Garretsen; Marc Schramm

2010-01-01

23

Economics of Building Integrated PV In China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technical and economic analysis of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) applications for commercial buildings in Shanghai and Beijing China. The analysis assumes that the array area is 105 m 2 (equivalent to 6.3 kWp for amorphous silicon thin film technology and 10.0 kWp for polycrystalline technology). Rooftop and curtain wall applications are considered. BIPV is analyzed as: an

John Byrne; Gerard Alleng; Aiming Zhou

24

EU-China Economic Relations: Interactions and Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

EU-China economic interactions became more and more frequent in the past decades, nowadays EU and China are main trade partner for each other. This paper analyzed EU-China economic interactions from three dimensions: bilateral governmental interactions, trade and investment flows as well as barriers to trade and investment. Findings show that EU-China close relationship is particularly based on goods trade especially

Zheng Lu

2012-01-01

25

China and India: economic performance, competition and cooperation: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

China and India chose similar economic development strategies in 1950 of near autarky, industrialization, and the dominance of the state in the economy. China came out of insulation and began reforming its economy in 1978. India’s hesitant and piecemeal reforms, initiated in the 1980s, became systemic and broader in 1991. Since 1980, China has grown at an average rate of

T. N. Srinivasan

2004-01-01

26

A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

2014-03-01

27

Legal institution building and economic development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of legal institution building during the process of China's economic miracle of past three decades. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To engage with the issue, the paper builds on historical research and comparable approaches which explore the interactions of legal institution building and economic reforms in China. Findings – Legal institution

Weigang Li; Jixiang Chen; Dongying Wu

2010-01-01

28

Redevelopment of development zones: The smart growth of cities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development zones are the important carriers of China’s promoting industrialization and attracting international investment in the past 30 years and act as the primary means of city expansion. In this article, we analyse the low efficiency of land use problem existing in China’s current development zones. Comparing with the general old city update phenomenon, we make a detailed illustration on

Wang Xingping; Yuan Xinguo; Zhu Kai

2012-01-01

29

Mixed Feelings: East Asia's Debate about China's Economic Growth and Regional Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite China's sustained, rapid economic growth and the contrasting recession in Japan during the past decade, Japan still leads China in key economic indicators such as gross domestic product, outward investment, and trade volume. China's large and incr...

Y. Sato

2003-01-01

30

China's Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studying the internal migration of China since 1949, the overall effect of migration on economic performance has had a discernible impact both positive and negative at different times. There are two distinct aspects: the actual migration patterns and thei...

L. H. Seeger

2012-01-01

31

Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

2008-11-01

32

Fiscal decentralization, public spending, and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of China demonstrates how the allocation of fiscal resources between the central and local governments has affected economic growth since reforms began in the late 1970s. We find that a higher degree of fiscal decentralization of government spending is associated with lower provincial economic growth over the past fifteen years. This consistently significant and robust result in our

Tao Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

1998-01-01

33

Economic Choices: China after Mao. High School and Junior College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, developed for high school and community college students, has a two-fold purpose: to introduce students to free market and planned economic systems, and to examine China's recent efforts to supplement its planned economy with market mechanisms. The unit is appropriate for a variety of courses, including economics, social studies,…

Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

34

Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.  

PubMed

The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa

2005-03-01

35

China at the crossroads: the economics of tobacco and health  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyse economic aspects of tobacco control policy issues in China. Methods Published and collected survey data were used to analyse economic consequences of smoking. Economic analysis was used to address the role of tobacco farmers and the cigarette industry in the Chinese economy. Results In the agricultural sector, tobacco has the lowest economic rate of return of all cash crops. At the same time, the tobacco industry's tax contribution to the central government has been declining. Conclusion Economic gains become less important as the negative health impact of smoking on the population garners more awareness. China stands at a crossroads to implement the economic promises of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and promote the health of its population.

Hu, T-W; Mao, Z; Ong, M; Tong, E; Tao, M; Jiang, H; Hammond, K; Smith, K R; de Beyer, J; Yurekli, A

2006-01-01

36

Investment, investment efficiency, and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates China’s economic growth with respect to the growth of investment at aggregate level between 1978 and 2000, and analyzes the investment–growth nexus during the this period of high growth through the consideration and calculation of investment\\/GDP ratios and incremental capital-output ratios (ICORs) in real terms, with some comparison to the NIEs in East Asia. It finds that

Zhang Jun

2003-01-01

37

China's Free Trade Negotiations: Economics, Security, and Diplomacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1980s and the advent of reforms led by Deng Xiaoping, China has pursued an increasingly export-oriented trade\\u000a policy. This trend has been accompanied by selective domestic agricultural and industrial restructuring, privatization and\\u000a internationalization. But while China has long been a vigorous global trader and has entered into numerous trade and economic\\u000a agreements with partners around the world,

S. Hoadley; J. Yang

38

Student Responses to Economic Reform in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes research suggesting diverse trends in the behavior and attitudes of Chinese students, which often conflict with Chinese tradition and customs, and official Chinese government ideology. Addresses the decline of personal sacrifice for the social cause, and changes in courtship and sexual attitudes. Relates most of these changes to China's…

Chunhou, Zhang; Vaughan, C. Edwin

1996-01-01

39

Low-Carbon Economy -- Strategic Choice for China's Sustainable Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper based on China's current situation, analysts that China's export-oriented economy is facing trade protection, high energy consumption, high resource consumption, environmental damage and a series of ecological problems, which do a great harm to China's sustainable economic growth. Low-carbon economy characterized by low power consumption, low pollution and low emissions will be a breakthrough in China's economic transformation.

Jinfeng Xiu; Chao Shi

2011-01-01

40

Economic Development, Rural livelihoods, and Ecological Restoration: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a case study in Southeast China to demonstrate how the substantial changes in rural livelihoods have been\\u000a driven by a combination of “pull” forces from external economic development, and “push” forces from local areas, leading to\\u000a a shift in rural household economic activities: household outmigration and de-population of the countryside, changes in energy\\u000a consumption, and most importantly,

Chengchao Wang; Yusheng Yang; Yaoqi Zhang

2011-01-01

41

Capital Formation and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, production functions are estimated for China's aggregate economy and for the five sectors--agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, and commerce--using annual data (some constructed by the author) from 1952 to 1980. Then, this paper measures the contribution of capital formation to the growth of these sectors, the effects of the Great Leap Forward of 1958-62 and of the Cultural Revolution of

Gregory C. Chow

1993-01-01

42

Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions.

Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

2007-01-01

43

Economic reforms and health insurance in China.  

PubMed

During the 1990s, Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and collective enterprises continually decreased coverage of public health insurance to their employees. This paper investigates this changing pattern of health insurance coverage in China using panel data from the China Nutrition and Health Survey (1991-2000). It is the first attempt in this literature that tries to identify precisely the effects of specific policies and reforms on health insurance coverage in the transitional period of China. The fixed effects linear model clustering at the province level is used for estimation, and results are compared to alternative models, including pooled OLS, random effects GLS model and fixed effects logit model. Strong empirical evidence is found that unemployment as a side effect of the Open Door Policy, and the deregulation of SOE and collective enterprises were the main causes for the decreasing trend. For example, urban areas that were highly affected by the Open Door Policy were associated with 17 percentage points decrease in the insurance coverage. Moreover, I found evidence that the gaps between SOE and non-SOE employees, collective and non-collective employees, urban and rural employees have considerably decreased during the ten years. PMID:19520475

Du, Juan

2009-08-01

44

Some Economic Aspects of the Language Situation in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a cost-benefit analysis of English language education in China and explores the market value of languages through comparisons of Chinese and Japanese, English and Russian, and Putonghua and Cantonese. It is suggested that the economic strength of a language can be measured by its popularity or its frequency of use among language users.…

Wanjin, Zhu; Jianmin, Chen

1991-01-01

45

Human Capital, Economic Growth, and Regional Inequality in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the dispersion in rates of provincial economic- and TFP growth in China. Our results show that regional growth patterns can be understood as a function of several interrelated factors, which include investment in physical capital, human capital, and infrastructure capital; the infusion of new technology and its regional spread; and market reforms, with a major step forward occurring

Belton M. Fleisher; Haizheng Li; Min-Qiang Zhao

2007-01-01

46

The Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examine the short and long terms causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP in China through vector error correction model, which can avoid the false causal relationship. The results of the VECM reveal the co-integration relationship between real GDP and electricity consumption and the presence of unidirectional causality from electricity consumption to economic growth in the short-run and long-run, which is subsequently verified in two different sub-phases. And then we come up with some suggestions that China should modulate the supply structure of electric power and pick up speed to adjust industry structures.

Shengfeng, Xiao; sheng, Xu ming; tianxing, Zhu; xuelli, Zhang

47

Designation of acid rain and SO2 control zones and control policies in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has become the largest producer of SO2 emissions in the world. Thus effective SO2 emission and acid rain controls are urgently needed. This paper designated the priority control zones for both SO2 emission and acid precipitation in China. The Control Zones were identified as an area of 1.09xl0 km, about 11.4% of the China's territory and about 14 Million

Jiming Hao; Shuxiao Wang; Bingjiang Liu; Kebin He

2000-01-01

48

The Decline of Township-and-Village Enterprises in China’s Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — A paradoxical phenomenon in China's transitional economy is that markets devel- oped under predominant public ownership, which nevertheless has declined with the development of markets. Previous studies reveal that initial political and economic conditions of reform and fis- cal decentralization gave rise to local public enterprises' leading role in early marketization. This paper explains the subsequent fall of

James Kai-sing Kung; Yi-min Lin

2007-01-01

49

Machinery and China's nexus of foreign trade and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an interpretation of China's nexus of foreign trade and economic growth that centres around technological development. Evidence, mainly related to the performance of the machinery sector, is presented indicating that the phenomenal export expansion is not reducible to a market-centred trade regime, and that the standard thesis of export-led growth would not apply-the contribution of trade to

Dic Lo; Thomas M. H. Chan

1998-01-01

50

China's coastal population and economic development: summary of the symposium.  

PubMed

China's coastal areas have led the rest of China in economic development and low fertility rates; migration from inland areas and urbanization are well advanced. A symposium on China's coastal population and economic development was conducted in 1990 by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Liaoning Population Institute, and the Dalian Population Institute at the request of the China Population Institute. There were 50 people in attendance representing major research institutes and family planning associations and media organizations. 26 papers were submitted. The opening speaker addressed developing the economy as a positive cycle of population and development, and accelerating change. Discussion focused on the following topics: the relationship between fertility rate changes and coastal economic development, population mobility and migration to coast areas, population urbanization, and related problems. In the summation by Professor Tian Xueyuan, 7 trends were identified: continued coastal population growth, a two-directional change in natural population growth, an increase in the rate of coastal population migration, rapid urban population growth, productive age population growth and changes in the employment structure, improvements in economic and technological progess and quality of life, and rapid population aging. The symposium was considered particularly timely in highlighting the current problems and strengths, integrating theorists with field workers, and maintaining an open exchange of ideas and information. Problems were identified as regional open areas in Heihai in Guangxi, Heihe in Heilongjiang, and Dalian in Liaoning Province. Although the population is considered professionally better qualified than in other regions, there is still a lack of technicians and skilled workers and an excess of untrained workers. Development is being slowed and mismanaged due to deficiencies in the job allocation and personnel selection systems; as a consequence, there has been a "slump" in the demand for qualified personnel; skilled persons are unable to make good use of their abilities. PMID:12317925

Song, R

1992-01-01

51

Fulbright Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1990. China's Economic Development: Research Essays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of nine research papers concerning aspects of the economy of China were written by U.S. college and university professors who traveled to China as part of the Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program. The papers include: "The Impact of Economic Reforms on the Status of Women in China" (M. Eysenbach); "China's Agricultural…

National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

52

Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.  

PubMed

Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan?=?1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary. PMID:23604726

Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

2013-10-01

53

Economic Reconnaissance of Selected Heavy Mineral Placer Deposits in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is one of two concerning selected deposits within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. The objective of the study and the companion sand and gravel study is to aid the Minerals Management Service in their selection of specific offshore areas for c...

1987-01-01

54

MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE ATLANTIC EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potential mineral resources of the Atlantic Exclusive Economic Zone (including the Gulf of Mexico and US Caribbean areas) include petroleum, sand and gravel, phosphorite, placer deposits of heavy mineral sands, ferromanganese nodules, and fresh water. Although major efforts have been made to search for petroleum, the oil and gas resources of the region are well known only in the western Gulf Shelf and more exploration is under way. Heavy-mineral placer deposits, which may be sources of titanium, gold, rare earths, etc. , have been sampled, but the extent and, therefore, economic value of the deposits have not been identified. Sand and gravel, phosphorite, and ferromanganese nodules all are represented by fairly well established deposits, and only modified market conditions would be necessary to cause detailed exploration and mining.

Dillon, William, P.

1984-01-01

55

Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China*  

PubMed Central

Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants’ accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

2013-01-01

56

Economic instruments for mitigating carbon emissions: scaling up carbon finance in China’s buildings sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relevance and cost-effectiveness are key criteria for policymakers to select appropriate policy and economic instruments\\u000a for reducing carbon emissions. Here we assess the applicability of carbon finance instruments for the improvement in building\\u000a energy efficiency by adopting the high efficiency standards as well as advanced energy supply systems, building on a case\\u000a study in a northern city in China.

Jun Li; Michel Colombier

2011-01-01

57

Globalization, Institutional Change, and Industrial Location: Economic Transition and Industrial Concentration in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

He C., Wei Y. D. and Xie X. Globalization, institutional change, and industrial location: economic transition and industrial concentration in China, Regional Studies. Marketization and globalization in China may stimulate industrial clustering, while decentralization may lead to protectionism and industrial dispersion. This paper examines industrial distribution in China during 1980–2003. While Chinese industries have been increasingly concentrated geographically, the study

Canfei He; Yehua Dennis Wei; Xiuzhen Xie

2008-01-01

58

Economic Transition and New Patterns of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence in Urban China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses national data from the 1996 Life History and Social Change in Contemporary China survey (N= 3,087) to gauge the effect of the economic transition on parent-adult child coresidence in urban China. Previous studies find that, thanks to state actions, traditional patterns in co-residence persisted in post-Mao urban China. This study…

Forrest Zhang, Qian

2004-01-01

59

Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…

Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

2011-01-01

60

Spatial distribution of inter-layer shear zones at Gaobazhou dam site, Qingjiang River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of inter-layer shear zones is studied, based on the fully mapped inter-layer shear zones at the Gaobazhou dam site on the Qingjiang River in Hubei province, China. The field observations revealed that two types of inter-layer shear zone, under-developed and well-developed, are distributed differently. The former are associated with the incompetent rock layers, and the latter are

Y. J. Xiao; C. F. Lee; S. X. Wang

2000-01-01

61

Seismic investigation of an ocean-continent transition zone in the northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rifted continental margins and basins are mainly formed by the lithospheric extension. Thined lithosphere of passive continental margins results in decompression melt of magma and created oceanic crust and thined ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone. Two refraction profiles used ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the broad continental shelf and three multi-channel seismic reflection lines in the northern South China Sea, acquired by the ship "Shiyan 2" of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010, are processed and interpreted in this study. Seismic reflection lines cut through the Dongsha rise, Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression within a Tertiary basin, Pear River Mouth basin (called as Zhujiangkou basin). These tectonic features are clear imaged in the seismic reflection records. Numerous normal faults, cutted through the basement and related to the stretch of the northern South China Sea margin, are imaged and interpreted. Reflection characteristics of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone are summaried and outlined. The COT zone is mainly divided into the northern syn-rift subsidence zone, central volcano or buried volcano uplift zone and tilt faulted block near the South Chia Sea basin. Compared to the previous seismic reflection data and refraction velocity models, the segmentation range of the OCT zone is outlined, from width of about 225 km in the northeastern South China Sea , of 160 km in the central to of 110 km in the north-central South China Sea. Based on the epicenter distribution of sporadic and large than 6 magnitude earthquakes, it suggests the OCT zone in the northern South China Sea at present is still an active seismic zone.

Zhu, J.; Qiu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhan, W.; Sun, Z.

2011-12-01

62

Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005.

Di, X. H.; Wang, Y. D.; Hou, X. Y.

2014-03-01

63

Application of geographic information technology in economic space evolution in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the vast regional areas in China are confronted with spatial restructuring and problems aroused by rapid economic development, and uneven development between regions is in desperate need of solution in particular. Base on the annual economic development statistic data in the Yangtze River Delta city group, this paper uses GeoDA and Arcgis to generate thematic map for economic spatial

Yi Hu; Jingxiang Zhang; Yanhua Chen

2010-01-01

64

Economic transition and maternal health care for internal migrants in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic migration and growth in informal employment in many of the major cities of developing countries, combined with health sector reforms that are increasingly relying on insurance and out-of-pocket payment, are raising concerns about equity and sustainability of economic and social development. In China, the number of internal migrants has dramatically grown since economic transition started in 1980, and maternal

ZHAN SHAOKANG; SUN ZHENWEI; ERIK BLAS

2002-01-01

65

Relationships between economic growth, foreign direct investment and trade: evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the causal links between trade, economic growth and inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in China at the aggregate level. The integration and cointegration properties of quarterly data are analysed. Long-run relationships between growth, exports, imports and FDI are identified in a cointegration framework, in which this paper finds bi-directional causality between economic growth, FDI and exports. Economic

Xiaohui Liu; Peter Burridge; P. J. N. Sinclair

2002-01-01

66

Particle swarm optimizer for constrained economic dispatch with prohibited operating zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practically, not all the operating zones of generation units are available always for load allocation due to some physical operation limitations. Accordingly, these prohibited zones divide the operating region between the minimum and the maximum generation limits into disjoint convex subsets. Units with prohibited operating zones transform the ordinary economic dispatch to a nonconvex optimization problem where the conventional Lagrangian

A. El-Gallad; M. El-Hawary; A. Sallam; A. Kalas

2002-01-01

67

Economic Reform, the Floating Population, and CrimeThe Transformation of Social Control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1950s, China has structured social relationships by limiting the population's mobility and separating the urban and rural populations. In the 1980s and 1990s, changes in China's economic strategy and its system of household registration contributed to the growth of a large transient “floating” population. This article argues that rising crime is linked to the floating population and that

DANIEL J. CURRAN

1998-01-01

68

The place of FDI in China's regional economic development: Emergence of the globalized delta economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's remarkable economic development and sustainable high growth rates since the 1980s have stimulated much discussion in recent literatures. Among the augments of China's rapid growth, voluminous recent literatures have emphasized that foreign direct investment (FDI) may best explain its recent growth record at both national and regional level. To understand how such sustained rapid regional growth happened in a

Chyau Tuan; Linda Fung-Yee Ng

2007-01-01

69

Economic Growth and Transition in Vietnam and China and its Consequences for their Agricultural Sectors: Policy and Agricultural Adjustment Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary data are used to discuss and compare the consequences for agriculture of economic growth and transition in Vietnam and China. It is found that China and Vietnam have experienced similar adjustments in their agricultural sectors and face at this time, similar agricultural policy problems. China began its economic reforms in 1979 and Vietnam followed in 1986. Since then both

Clement A. Tisdell

2010-01-01

70

Fluctuations of the Semi-Arid Zone in China, and Consequences for Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein, we calculate an aridity index, D, based on annual precipitation, P, and measured evaporation, PET, from ?20 evaporation pans: D = P\\/PET. The data were collected between 1951 and 1999 at 295 meteorological stations operated by the Chinese Meteorological Administration. On the basis of the index, three climatic regions are recognized in China: an arid zone in which D

Jianping Yang; Yongjian Ding; Rensheng Chen; Lianyou Liu

2005-01-01

71

The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

1995-01-01

72

Global solar radiation estimation based on sunshine duration at plateaus zone, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 12 models in linear quadratic, cubic, exponential and power forms using only sunshine hours, latitude, and altitude were developed and compared to estimate the daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for 6 weather stations at plateaus zone, China. The models were compared on the basis of statistical error tests using the root mean square error

Longyun Kang; Shiqiong Zhou; Kaijiang Yu

2009-01-01

73

Economic Liberalism and Regional Security in East Asia: A Case Study on the Impact of China's Accession to the WTO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China gained formal accession to the WTO in December 2001 after fifteen years of negotiations and domestic economic reforms. Since then, China's economy has been on an upward trajectory, surpassing Germany and Japan to become the second largest economy in...

F. Choo

2010-01-01

74

Economic Aspects of the Fishing Industry in Mainland China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of the fishing industry in China resulted from a survey of the available information published by Chinese, Russian and western sources on the fisheries of China. The report covers mainly the period from 1949 to the present, with a brief survey ...

J. J. Solecki

1966-01-01

75

Landscape Urbanization and Economic Growth in China: Positive Feedbacks and Sustainability Dilemmas  

PubMed Central

Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China’s policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.

2011-01-01

76

77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...12 to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...Management Council's (Council's) salmon management policy and to comply with...

2012-04-11

77

75 FR 68325 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...SUMMARY: NMFS, Alaska Region, will present a workshop...management agencies for Federal and State fisheries off Alaska, and 2011 recordkeeping and...

2010-11-05

78

77 FR 70150 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...SUMMARY: NMFS, Alaska Region, will present a workshop...management agencies for Federal and State fisheries off Alaska, and 2013 recordkeeping and...

2012-11-23

79

76 FR 65500 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements...SUMMARY: NMFS, Alaska Region, will present a workshop...management agencies for Federal and State fisheries off Alaska, and 2012 recordkeeping and...

2011-10-21

80

Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic

Chang, Ho-Jun

2009-01-01

81

The correlations between intellectual capital investment and economic growth: Evidence from 20 provinces & cities of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Cobb-Douglas production function, this paper estimated the roles of intellectual capital investment and fixed assets investment in economic growth of 20 provinces and cities in China during 1990-2005. A system of indicators measuring the intellectual capital investment and fixed assets investment were designed and the intellectual capital investment was calculated. Their impacts on economic growth were analyzed via

Tong-shui Xia

2011-01-01

82

Persistence of Coastal Vegetation in Supratidal Zones of Northern China  

PubMed Central

Coastal vegetation comprises a number of coastal specialists and terrestrial generalists. It remains unclear how they persist on disturbed and undisturbed coastal conditions. We tested the hypothesis that coastal specialists may be superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, but their superiority can be influenced by human disturbances. Eight separate sandy coasts of the Shandong Peninsula were sampled, representing for disturbed and undisturbed sandy coasts. Plants growing on their supratidal zones were surveyed. On this basis, we compared the relative dominances, niche widths, and commonness of all species, and also analyzed species diversities of the coasts. Coastal specialists were found to be more common and widespread on supratidal zones of the sandy coasts than terrestrial generalists haphazardly invading from hinterlands. Coastal specialists exhibited lower Sørensen dissimilarities than terrestrial generalists among the coasts. Tourist trampling seemed more detrimental than pond fishery to coastal vegetation. Relative to terrestrial generalists, coastal specialists responded to human disturbances more deterministically, with steady decreases in species diversities. These evidences verify that coastal specialists are intrinsically superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, especially of undisturbed coasts, because their dispersal among coasts adapts well to local storm surge regime. They also validate that human disturbances can depress the superiority of coastal specialists, partly by inducing invasion of terrestrial generalists.

Yang, Hongxiao; Chu, Jianmin

2013-01-01

83

Evaluating the Consistency of Remote Sensing Based Snow Depth Products in Arid Zone of Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover is a sensitive indicator of global climate change. Among various snow cover parameters, snow depth which can indicate snow accumulation is essential for retrieving snow water equivalent. In arid zone of western China, based on different inversion models, snow depth products retrieved from passive microwave remote sensing sensors have been issued. However, none of them can promise a high accuracy due to the spatial heterogeneity of snow cover especially in mountain areas with complex terrain. This study aims to analyse the reliability of existing long-term snow depth products in arid zone of western China. Two datasets are compared including GlobSnow snow water equivalent (SWE) product and snow depth dataset provided by Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China. Statistical techniques like regression and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) models are employed to examine the consistency of these two remote sensing based snow depth products in a selected sampling site. More than 260 samples during three years are tested covering from snow falling to snow melting periods. Result shows that there is a discrepancy between the two datasets. Accordingly, remote sensing based snow depth measurement is not reliable in mountain areas in arid zone of western China. This study gives an awareness of the stabilities of current snow depth detection models. A further study is expected to calibrate snow depth products based on in-situ observation and measurements from ground monitoring stations.

Zhou, Q.; Sun, B.

2012-08-01

84

Middle Oligocene oceanic crust of South China Sea jammed into Mindoro collision zone (Philippines)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mindoro Island, south of Luzon (Philippines), is a complex junction between the Manila Trench and the collision zone of the North Palawan block with the western Philippines mobile belt. Middle Oligocene ophiolites recognized in this suture are coeval with the oldest magnetic anomalies of the South China Sea basin. These ophiolites are part of a complex pile of terranes thrust above the North Palawan block at the lower middle Miocene boundary. These ophiolites are interpreted as fragments of South China Sea oceanic crust jammed between two distinct continental blocks during the counterclockwise rotation of Luzon.

Rangin, C.; Stephan, J. F.; Müller, C.

1985-06-01

85

Economic Management in Taiwan and Mainland China: Why and How They Have Been Politicized  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the causes and consequences of politicized economic management in the cross strait. The first half of the paper briefly reviews the cross-strait political and economic environment. The passage of the anti-secession law by Mainland China in March 2005 marked a new high in the political tension in the cross strait. From the economic standpoint, cross-strait relation has

Choon Yin Sam

2007-01-01

86

China.  

PubMed

This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

1983-12-01

87

Economic development, paddy field loss and rice output in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice, mainly concentrated in southeast, south-middle, southwest and northeast region, is the most important grain crops in China. From 1985 to 2004, with rice sown area decreased, the rice output fluctuated; the share of rice output in total China rice output decreased from 31.99% to 23.82% in southeast region and from 46.04% to 45.45% in south-middle region; that of northeast

Pinghui Liu; Ziping Wu

88

Towards the comparison of competence of typical Chinese economic development zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewing the history and background of 4 typical Chinese economic development zone (new area), this paper reveals the 4 new areas' differences in the regional economic growth and its driving factors based on Shift-Share model, as well compares the competitive advantages and disadvantages of the 4 cities' new area. Moreover, based on the processed data, we have offer corresponding conclusions

Yonghong Zhan; Yanchao Xiong

2011-01-01

89

Chinese accession to the WTO: Economic implications for China, other Asian and North American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, using a dynamic, multi-sector and multi-country Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model, analyses the combined economic impact of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers on textiles and apparel by the industrialized countries in China and North America and other major economies. The combined impacts of these two policy initiatives

Madanmohan Ghosh; Someshwar Rao

2010-01-01

90

The on-ranch economics of riparian zone cattle grazing management.  

PubMed

A simulation model of a cattle ranch based in southern Alberta, Canada was developed to evaluate the on-ranch economics of adopting different grazing management strategies to improve riparian grazing capacity in natural grass rangeland. Under low-cost scenarios, there are positive economic incentives to adopt strategies to maintain riparian zones that already have high grazing capacity. However, riparian zones that have declined to moderate or low grazing capacity may require additional economic incentives to encourage ranches to adopt more costly management strategies to improve the grazing capacity. The economic incentives to adopt costly management strategies are highly sensitive to the size and shape of the riparian zone and rates of grazing capacity decline or improvement. PMID:15107946

Unterschultz, James R; Miller, Jamie; Boxall, Peter C

2004-05-01

91

The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India.  

PubMed

We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980. PMID:20419074

Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

2010-03-01

92

The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India  

PubMed Central

We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980.

Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

2010-01-01

93

Institutional innovations, asymmetric decentralization, and local economic development: a case study of Kunshan, in post-Mao China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides an understanding of the concept of institutional innovations for local economic development in post-Mao China. With Kunshan, one of the most dramatically developed regions in Yangtze Delta, used as a case study, the aim is to understand how, under what circumstances, and by whom, locally initiated projects can be institutionalized and evolved in the context of China’s

Shiuh-Shen Chien

2007-01-01

94

Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

Ozturgut, Osman

2008-01-01

95

Statistical Analysis of the Economic Level of Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the data of economic development in Beijing from the year 1995 to 2007, relevant economic indices are selected to analyze the economic development level of Beijing by the Principal Component Analysis Method. Result shows that the national economy maintains high, sustainable and stable development in the years 1995-2007. Both the primary and secondary industry output values have increased

Chun-xu Hao; Li-fei Yang; Ya-li Wen

2009-01-01

96

[Dynamics and combined injuries of main pest species in rice cropping zones of Yunnan, Southwest China].  

PubMed

A series of rice pest injuries (due to pathogens, insects, and weeds) were surveyed in 286 farmers' fields for major rice varieties of three rice cropping zones of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The composition and dynamics of main pest species were analyzed, and the trend of rice pest succession in Yunnan was discussed based upon landmark publications. The results showed that the three rice cropping zones had different pest characteristics as regard to main species, dynamics and combined injuries. Sheath rot, bacterial leaf blight, rice stripe, leaf hoppers, armyworms and stem borers were serious in the japonica rice zone. Sheath blight and rice stripe were serious in the japonica-indica interlacing zone. Leaf blast, sheath blight, leaf folders and weeds above rice crop canopy were serious in the indica rice zone. False smut, plant hoppers and weeds below rice crop canopy were ubiquitous and serious in the three kinds of rice cropping zones. Many kinds of weed infestation emerged in the whole rice cropping seasons. Echinochloa crusgalli, Sagittaria pygmaea, Potamogeton distinctus and Spirodela polyrhiza were the main species of weeds in the rice cropping zones of Yunnan. Overall, levels of combined injuries due to pests in the japonica rice zone and the indica rice zone were higher than that in the japonica-indica interlacing zone. In terms of the trend of rice pest succession in Yunnan, injuries due to false smut, sheath blight and plant hoppers seemed to be in a worse tendency in all rice cropping zones of Yunnan, while dominants species of weeds in the paddy fields are shifting from the annual weeds to the perennial malignant weeds. PMID:24765862

Dong, Kun; Dong, Yan; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Li-Min; Zan, Qing-An; Chen, Bin; Li, Zheng-Yue

2014-01-01

97

Factor Analysis of the Northeast Economic Zone's Logistics Competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the expanding regional logistics network, the area's logistics competition is very important because it enhances the entire area's economy. This paper is based on both the domestic and foreign theories and methods used with related subjects to study the content of the area's logistics competition. According to the level of economic development in Northeast region, the scale of logistics demand, the situation of logistics supply as well as the level of development of information, all establish the urban logistics competitiveness index system using the factor analysis method through the SPSS system to evaluate the competitiveness of the urban logistics which is very representative of the Northeast economic area. Finally, this paper uses the fore mentioned system to calculate the scores of 27 city's separated into 3 categories: The first including 4 cities (Shenyang, Harbin, Dalian, Changchun), the second having 3 cities (Jilin, Daqing, Anshan) and the final category has 20 cities (Fushun, Songyuan, Qiqihar, Baotou etc.).

Shen, Wei; Wang, Jiaxin; Li, Tingting

98

Economic Costs Attributable to Smoking in China: Update and an 8-year Comparison, 2000-2008  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the health-related economic costs attributable to smoking in China for persons aged 35 and older in 2003 and in 2008 and to compare these costs with the respective results from 2000. Methods A prevalence-based, disease-specific approach was used to estimate smoking-attributable direct and indirect economic costs. The primary data source was the 2003 and 2008 China National Health Services Survey, which contains individual participant’s smoking status, healthcare utilization, and expenditures. Results The total economic cost of smoking in China amounted to $17.1 billion in 2003 and $28.9 billion in 2008 (both measured in 2008 constant US dollars). Direct smoking-attributable healthcare costs in 2003 and 2008 were $4.2 billion and $6.2 billion, respectively. Indirect economic costs in 2003 and 2008 were $12.9 billion and $22.7 billion, respectively. Compared to 2000, the direct costs of smoking rose by 72% in 2003 and 154% in 2008, while the indirect costs of smoking rose by 170% in 2003 and 376% in 2008. Conclusion The economic burden of cigarette smoking has increased substantially in China during the past decade and is expected to continue to increase as the national economy and the price of healthcare services grow. Stronger intervention measures against smoking should be taken without delay to reduce the health and financial losses caused by smoking.

Yang, Lian; Sung, Hai-Yen; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-wei; Rao, Keqin

2013-01-01

99

Regional Income Inequality and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an augmented Solow growth model with cross section and panel data, we find evidence of conditional convergence of per capita production across China's provinces from 1978 to 1993. Convergence is conditional on physical investment share, employment growth, human-capital investment, foreign direct investment, and coastal location. We project that, in the near term, overall regional inequality as measured by the

Jian Chen; Belton M. Fleisher

1996-01-01

100

The Impact of China's Economic Reforms on Agricultural Productivity Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for assessing the relative importance of price increases and strengthened individual incentives due to the introduction of the responsibility system for the post-1978 increase in China's agricultural productivity. Data on post-1978 Chinese agricultural performance suggest that a little over three-quarters of the measured productivity increase is due to payment system changes and the remainder to

John McMillan; John Whalley; Lijing Zhu

1989-01-01

101

POPULATION AGEING, HUMAN CAPITAL ACCUMULATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a Computable General Equilibrium model to explore the macroeconomic impact of growth in the human capital stock for a given ageing profile of the population in China, during the first half of this century. It examines whether the projected reduction in the total dependency ratio for the period 2000 to the 2030s can be exploited for energetic

Xiujian Peng

2005-01-01

102

Human capital, economic growth, and regional inequality in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how regional growth patterns in China depend on regional differences in physical, human, and infrastructure capital as well as on differences in foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. We also evaluate the impact of market reforms, especially the reforms that followed Deng Xiaoping's “South Trip” in 1992 those that resulted from serious hardening of budget constraints of state enterprises

Belton Fleisher; Haizheng Li; Min Qiang Zhao

2010-01-01

103

The state and economic involution: Russia through a China lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why has the Russian economy declined at the rate the Chinese economy has grown? In China the party-state has made possible the decentralization of property relations and the hardening of budget constraints whereas in Russia the disintegration of the party-state has led to privatization and soft budget constraints. Whereas the former combination entailed accumulation, the latter combination entailed “involution,” that

Michael Burawoy

1996-01-01

104

A correlation analysis between the foreign trade of non-governmental enterprises and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the sustainable development of Chinese foreign trade has been playing a very important role in boosting China's economic growth, and the non-governmental enterprises (NGEs) have been making great contribution to the development of Chinese foreign trade. By conducting an empirical study, this paper analyzes the relationship between the foreign trade of Chinese NGEs and China's economic growth.

Wang Fei

2007-01-01

105

Distribution and logistics development in China : The revolution has begun  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the economic reform movement, China’s centrally planned, three-tier system dominated the distribution sector. After the 1980s, this system gradually shifted away from the socialist mode to the free market mode. Today, China’s distribution system lies somewhere between these two modes. Since the reform, China’s government has been encouraging export-oriented foreign firms’ investments in free trade zones along the

Bin Jiang; Edmund Prater

2002-01-01

106

Fuzzy Model of Regional Economic Competitiveness in GIS Spatial Analysis: Case Study of Gansu, Western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After more than 20 years of impressive development since the economic reforms in 1978, today western China is facing an increasing\\u000a development gap between its regions, particularly between urban and rural areas. Using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation\\u000a model, this paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of the economic competitiveness levels base on two categories of geographical\\u000a unity in the province of

Shengquan Ma; Jing Feng; Huhua Cao

2006-01-01

107

Environmental Policy Issues for Sustainable Economic Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central pillar of the sustainability movement is the call to include environmental accounting in standard measures of economic performance. This increased transparency would, in principle, mitigate the temptation of economic managers and policy makers to increase growth in material consumption at the expense of the environment. Moreover, as Repetto (1989) and others have argued, deducting depreciation of produced capital

Kimberly M. Burnett; James A. Roumasset

2006-01-01

108

Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies of regional disparity in China have focused on the preferential policies received by the coastal provinces. We decomposed the location dummies in provincial growth regressions to obtain estimates of the effects of geography and policy on provincial growth rates in 1996–99. Their respective contributions in percentage points were 2.5 and 3.5 for the province-level metropolises, 0.6 and 2.3

Sylvie DEMURGER; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye WOO; Shu Ming Bao; Gene Hsin Chang; Andrew D. Mellinger

2001-01-01

109

Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies of regional disparity in China have focused on the preferential policies received by the coastal provinces. We decomposed the location dummies in provincial growth regressions to obtain estimates of the effects of geography and policy on provincial growth rates in 1996-99. Their respective contributions in percentage points were 2.5 and 3.5 for the province-level metropolises, 0.6 and 2.3

Sylvie Demurger; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Shuming Bao Gene Chang; Andrew Mellinger

2002-01-01

110

Ethnobotany and the economic role of the cucurbitaceae of china  

Microsoft Academic Search

China, as one of the ancient centers for diversity of domesticated plants, has a rich germplasm resource in vegetable and\\u000a fruit crops. The Cucurbitaceae is one of the three most important families in that country as sources of vegetables. In a\\u000a continuing effort to inform the West on Chinese uses of the Cucurbitaceae, we update a 1989 description of cucurbits

Si-Lin Yang; Terrence W. Walters

1992-01-01

111

Municipal solid waste management in small towns : an economic analysis conducted in Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste management continues to be a major challenge for local governments in both urban and rural areas across the world, and one of the key issues is their financial constraints. Recently an economic analysis was conducted in Eryuan, a poor county located in Yunnan Province of China, where willingness to pay for an improved solid waste collection and

Hua Wang; Jie He; Yoonhee Kim; Takuya Kamata

2011-01-01

112

Review paper An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give

C. Z. Wu; H. Huang; S. P. Zheng; X. L. Yin

113

An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give

C. Z Wu; H Huang; S. P Zheng; X. L Yin

2002-01-01

114

Economic Markets and Higher Education: Ethical Issues in the United States and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational values in both the United States and in China have suffered from the social and political reach of economic markets in each society. The models for counteracting the marketization of values in higher education can however be found in each country's past educational traditions. Surprisingly, the developmental values inherent in…

Keenan, Barry C.

2014-01-01

115

The role of human capital in China's economic development: Review and new evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carefully utilize empirical methods and measurement, and find that the effect of human capital on China's economic growth may be indirect through physical capital investment. This result is different than that found for OECD countries and has not been suggested by previous studies. In addition, in determining physical capital investment, workers with college education play a more significant role

Wei CHI

2008-01-01

116

ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

117

Indigenous Innovation and Economic Development: Lessons from China's Leap into the Information Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to furthering our understanding of the process of indigenous innovation and its impact on economic development, this paper summarizes case studies of the evolution, from their origins to the late 1990s, of four of China's leading computer electronics companies: Stone, Legend, Great Wall, and Founder. The original case studies constitute the body of the late Qiwen Lu's

William Lazonick

2004-01-01

118

SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

1975-01-01

119

76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea...NMFS proposes to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for...

2011-07-18

120

77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...a final rule to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program, which will evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for the...

2012-02-03

121

Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Security Review Commission. The National Security Implications of the Economic Relationship between the United States and China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Congress created the U.S.-China Security Review Commission to assess 'the national security implications and impact of the bilateral trade and economic relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China' and to report its conclu...

2002-01-01

122

Study on Relationship of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is one of the most basic materials of the national economy, which plays an important role in national productin and life. The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been a fascinating question since energy crisis in 70s of last century. This paper analyzes the relationship between energy consumption and economic development based on the VAR model using temporal series of China from 1990 to 2009, then uses impulse response function and variance decomposition to portray the correlations between economic growth and energy consumption. The result shows that there exists a unidirectional causality from energy consumption to gross domestic product and energy consumption can observably promote the development of economy.

Zhang-wei, Li; Xun-gang, Zheng

123

75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish...be a novel approach to managing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery...combines a limit on the amount of Chinook salmon that may be caught incidentally with...

2010-02-18

124

The role of free economic zones in global supply chains—a case of reverselogistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schengen border crossings are moving from former European borders southeastwards. These changes influence some socioeconomic positions of regions and availability of human resources in the nodes of global supply chains. Free Economic Zone (FEZ) has been considered as a tool to make the flow of goods and the flow of human resources less exposed to risk. Considering the production function

David Bogataj; Marija Bogataj

2011-01-01

125

75 FR 6180 - Mission Statement; Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; May 16-21, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to its size, its political and economic importance. Thanks to Beijing's...China, it operates as a distinct economic zone, rendering the island city...2009 with the onset of the global economic crisis. However, by the third...

2010-02-08

126

Mommy, Buy Me a China Doll: A Kindergarten Economics Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monthlong interdisciplinary, award winning project was designed to help kindergarten children in Kentucky understand basic economic principles that affect their daily lives. The children study about the poverty-stricken people of the Appalachian mountain area of the state. Through the operation of a classroom coal mine and company store, the…

Wehmeyer, Mary M.

127

75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...that pertain to the management of Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea subarea of...

2010-09-24

128

A thinned lithospheric image of the Tanlu Fault Zone, eastern China: Constructed from wave equation based receiver function migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the newly proposed wave equation-based receiver function poststack migration method to the Northern China Interior Structure Project broadband data to image the lithospheric structure of the Tanlu Fault Zone area in eastern China. Our migration result reveals a 60- to 80-km-thick present-day lithosphere beneath the study region, significantly thinned from the Paleozoic lithosphere of >180 km. The lithosphere-asthenosphere

Ling Chen; Tianyu Zheng; Weiwei Xu

2006-01-01

129

Fine crustal structure and seismogenic tectonic system of Tanlu fault zone midpiece area in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, based on the studying related data involved in tectonic geology, earthquake geology, gravity and magnetism of Tanlu fault zone midpiece area of China, multi-scale wavelet method is used to separate gravity and magnetism field in different deeps, and crustal density and magnetic structure feature are understood. Moho topography of this area is inversed using 3D Parker density interface inversion method and variable density model, constrained by deep seismic data and others. And at last, three typical gravity profiles are modeled. Results indicate that rebuilt by multi-tectonic movement crustal structure of this area is very complicated, the faults appear in profiles, ones of which control hollow structure and another ones break lower crust, only Tanlu fault zone cut off earthcrust and upper mantle, and there is upwelling material had high density from upper mantle and asthenosphere along fault zone, which show a dense gravity stair zone in the Bouguer anomaly approximate image. Besides, relocation data of earthquakes in this area are used and 3D fine structure pattern near seismic resource area is rebuilt and 2 clear dominant earthquakes distributions are found in 10km and 16km deeps. The relationship between the tectonics and strong earthquake is studied and symbol and feature of strong earthquake in this area is found. Research conclude that the cause of 1668 Tancheng Ms8.5 earthquake is probably related to especialy fault morphology and upwelling material had high density from asthenosphere.

Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Hualin; Jiang, Wenliang; Wang, Xin; Tian, Tian

2013-04-01

130

Geographic Patterns of Air Passenger Transport in China 1980–1998: Imprints of Economic Growth, Regional Inequality, and Network Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes the geographic patterns of domestic air passenger transport in China from 1980 to 1998, with three foci: (1) impacts of economic reforms, (2) regional inequality in air transport development, and (3) network development. Accessibility to air transport improved significantly as China expanded its air transport system, 1980–1998. The dominance of major airports declined as the air transport

Fengjun Jin; Fahui Wang; Yu Liu

2004-01-01

131

Environmental and economic challenges to coal`s future in China  

SciTech Connect

Coal accounts for approximately 75% of China`s total primary energy consumption, and is by far the largest contributor to air pollution. The highest growth sector for coal consumption is the power sector, accounting for about 36 percent of total coal consumption in 1993. Over the 1994--2010 period most new, large power plants are expected to be coal-fired. Therefore, the availability and price of coal, as well as environmental constraints will be critical to foreign investors evaluating coal and power projects in China. The purpose of this paper is to provide useful technical, economic and environmental information and analysis on coal and the power sectors of China. The target audiences are potential investors and government energy and environmental policy people. This paper suggests a number of important energy and environmental policy issues that need to be addressed in a timely fashion in order to promote adequate levels of investment in coal and power developments in China. Although this paper highlights problems faced by foreign investors in coal and power, it is important to balance these problems against the large investment opportunities developing in these sectors.

Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

1994-11-01

132

Controlling Mercury Emission for China's Coal Fired Electricity Plants: an Economic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify the least-cost strategy for controlling the emission of mercury from coal-fired electricity generation plants in China, which helps to provide technical guidance to firms and decision making basis for designing mercury control strategy and policy for the government. Based on the analysis and evaluation of technical and economic features of the available technologies\\/alternatives, this study

Dan Wu; Shiqiu Zhang; Tong Zhu

2011-01-01

133

The Impact of Bank and NonBank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides evidence on the relationship between finance and growth in a fast growing country, such as China. Employing\\u000a data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995–2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types\\u000a of financial institutions — banks and non-banks — have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth. Our findings\\u000a indicate that

Xiaoqiang Cheng; Hans Degryse

2010-01-01

134

International economic activities and skilled labour demand: evidence from Brazil and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two new firm-level datasets, this article investigates the impact of three international economic activities?–?the use of imported inputs, exports and foreign direct investment?–?on skilled labour demand in Brazil and China. We find that Brazilian firms that engage in these activities exhibit a higher skilled labour demand than firms that do not. In contrast, Chinese firms that engage in these

Pablo Fajnzylber; Ana M. Fernandes

2009-01-01

135

Water Scarcity and Water Use in Economic Systems in Zhangye City, Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water has traditionally been considered a physically scarce resource in Northwestern China, and most investigations of water\\u000a scarcity focus on the finite nature of water supplies. Based on the input–output analysis, this paper establishes a number\\u000a of indicators of water consumption to analyze the structural relationships between economic activities and their physical\\u000a relationships with the water resources. These indicators allow

Yong Wang; Hong-lang Xiao; Rui-fang Wang

2009-01-01

136

A Great Leap Forward, the Second Time Around: Thirty Years of Economic Reforms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

December of 2008 marks the 30th year of the beginning of China's economic opening.The country's rapid development since 1978 is without historical precedent.Yet this growth is even more impressive when one surveys the entire period from the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 to present. Although the years from1949 to 1978 were close to catastrophic, and the basis for

Alfred Steinherr

2009-01-01

137

Seasonal and spatial character of PCBs in a chemical industrial zone of Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

As one of China's great metropolises, Shanghai is suffering from the impact of manufacture and the use of chemical industrial products, and it faces serious pollution from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Therefore, in this study, in order to assess the seasonal and spatial character of contamination from chemical industrial zones, the concentrations of PCBs have been measured in various environmental media, including soil, leaves, and atmospheric particulate samples collected in a chemical industrial zone of Shanghai and compared with samples from presumably unpolluted sites of rural areas. In soils, the PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 ng g(-1) (unpolluted site) to 586.85 ng g(-1) (chlor-alkali industry site). The concentrations of PCBs in evergreen leaves ranged from 0.3 ng g(-1) to 32.46 ng g(-1), and more chlorinated biphenyls congeners, such as penta-biphenyls and hexa-biphenyls, were the dominant contributors in winter and spring. Seasonal differences and the constitution patterns of congeners might be affected by the temperature and industrial activities. The PCB concentrations in the leaves of deciduous trees increase over time as the leaves grow. The PCB concentration in atmospheric particulates was in the range of 9.22-14.15 x 10(3)pg m(-3), which might be the result of influence from climate and industrial activities. The relativity of PCB contents among the environmental media was discussed. The results in this paper provide an important profile of the current contamination status of a key chemical industrial zone in China. PMID:17786567

Ma, Jing; Cheng, Jinping; Xie, Haiyun; Hu, Xiaofang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua

2007-12-01

138

SO2 emission cap planning for Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone.  

PubMed

The SO2 emission sources of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone were divided into 556 emissions units according to four different categories, which are city, industry, point sources, and area sources. The CALPUFF model was used to calculate the contribution of each unit, and consequently obtain an influence-transferring matrix. To ensure that the SO2 concentrations of 46 cities and counties in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone meet air quality standards, an emission optimization model was developed to calculate optimal emissions of each emission unit under different development scenarios. The result showed the optimal emissions of SO2 by different provinces and industries. To achieve the target of restricting and optimizing development, corresponding planning programs were developed for every district. PMID:22783625

Yi, Peng; Duan, Ning; Chai, Fahe; Xu, Yaxuan; He, Youjiang

2012-01-01

139

Formation mechanism of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin, NW China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonate cemented zones are normally adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin, NW China. Stable\\u000a carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and petrological investigations of carbonate cements in the carbonate cemented zones\\u000a indicate that: (1) carbonate cements are composed dominantly of ferrocalcite, ferroan dolomite, and ankerite; (2) carbonate\\u000a cements are formed under a high temperature circumstance in

Zhi Yang; CaiNeng Zou; Sheng He; QiYan Li; ZhiLiang He; HengZhi Wu; Feng Cao; XianLong Meng; FuRong Wang; Qilin Xiao

2010-01-01

140

Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China.  

PubMed

Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions. PMID:21805230

Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

2012-07-01

141

Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions.

Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

2012-07-01

142

Socio-economic driving forces of land-use change in Kunshan, the Yangtze River Delta economic area of China.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes characteristics, major driving forces and alternative management measures of land-use change in Kunshan, Jiangsu province, China. The study used remote sensing (RS) maps and socio-economic data. Based on RS-derived maps, two change matrices were constructed for detecting land-use change between 1987 and 1994, and between 1994 and 2000 through pixel-to-pixel comparisons. The outcomes indicated that paddy fields, dryland, and forested land moderately decreased by 8.2%, 29% and 2.6% from 1987 to 1994, and by 4.1%, 7.6% and 8% from 1994 to 2000, respectively. In contrast, the following increased greatly from 1987 to 1994: artificial ponds by 48%, urban settlements by 87.6%, rural settlements by 41.1%, and construction land by 511.8%. From 1994 to 2000, these land covers increased by 3.6%, 28.1%, 23.4% and 47.1%, respectively. For the whole area, fragmentation of land cover was very significant. In addition, socio-economic data were used to analyze major driving forces triggering land-use change through bivariate analysis. The results indicated that industrialization, urbanization, population growth, and China's economic reform measures are four major driving forces contributing to land-use change in Kunshan. Finally, we introduced some possible management measures such as urban growth boundary (UGB) and incentive-based policies. We pointed out that, given the rapidity of the observed changes, it is critical that additional studies be undertaken to evaluate these suggested policies, focusing on what their effects might be in this region, and how these might be implemented. PMID:16824673

Long, Hualou; Tang, Guoping; Li, Xiubin; Heilig, Gerhard K

2007-05-01

143

Study of changes in life zone distribution in north-east China by climate–vegetation classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life zones and their changes in distribution in north-east China were studied based on climate–vegetation relationships. The warmth index (WI) and aridity index (the ratio of evaporation [evaporation rate, ER] to precipitation) were used to represent the site condition. The typical site condition of each vegetation type was determined as the classification criterion. The boundaries of the four potential vegetation

Qi-Jing Liu; Akihiko Kondoh; Nobuo Takeuchi

1998-01-01

144

Transition zone structure beneath NE China from 3D waveform modelling: Subduction related plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic tomography is currently used to image deep structure on global and local scales. However, tomography inversions usually underestimate amplitudes and likely cannot resolve narrow slow anomalies in the deep mantle. Careful modelling of waveform distortions has the potential to provide better constraints on small scale anomalies in the mantle. We observed strong waveform distortions from several earthquakes that propagated through a low velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone beneath the Changbaishan volcanic center, Northeast China. The slow anomaly was recently found by tomography results using the NECESSArray. For each earthquake, there exists a cluster of stations whose S-wave amplitude is substantially higher than the other stations. Also, at the stations near the edges of the cluster, the recorded S waves become more complex, usually featuring two pulses with smaller amplitude. We used the spectral-element method (SPECFEM3D) to construct 3D waveforms using the tomographic model as a starting input model. Synthetic modeling indicated that the observed large amplitude and double arrivals for each cluster can be explained by a strong low velocity anomaly with a diameter of ~200 km surrounded by high velocities in the transition zone. The velocity contrast between the slow anomaly and the surrounding medium is at least 8%, which is double that found in the original tomographic model. The large velocity contrast (8%) cannot be the velocity contrast between the slab and normal transition zone mantle because if this were the case a travel time misfit with observed data to the west would result in. We speculate that the slow anomaly is a manifestation of a return flow upwelling through a slab gap in the mantle transition zone that feeds Changbaishan volcanism. The upwelling mantle is likely hot, and the heat source may come from warm, buoyant sub-lithospheric mantle entrained with the sinking lithosphere that requires an opening to rise.

Tang, Y.; Grand, S. P.; Niu, F.

2013-12-01

145

Syn-collisional transform faulting of the Tan-Lu fault zone, East China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Origin of the continental-scale Tan-Lu fault zone (TLFZ), East China, remains controversial. About 550 km sinistral offset of the Dabie orogenic belt (DOB) and Sulu orogenic belt (SOB) is shown along the NE-NNE-striking TLFZ. Syn-collisional, sinistral ductile shear belts in the TLFZ have been identified. Thirteen phengite bulk separates from the mylonites were dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method. They gave cooling ages of the 198-181 Ma for the shear belts along the eastern margin of the DOB and 221-210 Ma from the western margin of the SOB. Distribution of the foreland basin deposits suggests that sinistral offset of the DOB and SOB by the TLFZ took place prior to deposition of the Upper Triassic strata. The marginal structures around the DOB and SOB support syn-collisional faulting, and indicate anticlockwise rotation of the DOB during the displacement. The folding and thrust faulting related to crustal subduction, coeval with the Tan-Lu faulting, is older than the foreland basin deposition related to the orogenic exhumation. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that the TLFZ was developed as a syn-collisional transform fault during latest Middle to earliest Late Triassic time when the DOB and SOB experienced crustal subduction of the South China Block (SCB). Eastward increase of the crustal subduction rates is believed to be responsible for the sinistral transform faulting.

Zhu, Guang; Liu, Guo Sheng; Niu, Man Lan; Xie, Cheng Long; Wang, Yong Sheng; Xiang, Biwei

2009-02-01

146

Evaluation on the Eco-Economic Benefits of Rural Energy Construction Project in West Qinling Mountains Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive consumption of firewood is the important driving factor of forest degeneration in west Qinling Mountains region, China. Based on the investigated data, this paper evaluated the eco-economic benefits of rural energy construction project in this region. The results show: the ecological and economic benefits that using the solar stove and the biogas is remarkable. The quantity of heat, a

Xiaodong Guo; Guozhu Li; Shuwen Niu

2007-01-01

147

Direct economic burden of hepatitis B virus related diseases: evidence from Shandong, China  

PubMed Central

Background Although the expenses of liver cirrhosis are covered by a critical illness fund under the current health insurance program in China, the economic burden associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) related diseases is not well addressed. In order to provide evidence to address the economic disease burden of HBV, we conducted a survey to investigate the direct economic burden of acute and chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by HBV-related disease. Methods From April 2010 to November 2010, we conducted a survey of inpatients with HBV-related diseases and who were hospitalized for seven or more days in one of the seven tertiary and six secondary hospitals in Shandong, China. Patients were recorded consecutively within a three-to-five month time period from each sampled hospital; an in-person survey was conducted to collect demographic and socio-economic information, as well as direct medical and nonmedical expenses during the last month and last year prior to the current hospitalization. Direct medical costs included total outpatient, inpatient, and self-treatment expenditures; direct nonmedical costs included spending on nutritional supplements, transportation, and nursing. Direct medical costs during the current hospitalization were also obtained from the hospital financial database. The direct economic cost was calculated as the sum of direct medical and nonmedical costs. Our results call for the importance of implementing clinical guideline, improving system accountability, and helping secondary and smaller hospitals to improve efficiency. This has important policy implication for the on-going hospital reform in China. Results Our data based on inpatients with HBV-related diseases suggested that the direct cost in US dollars for acute hepatitis B, severe hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and primary liver cancer was $2954, $10834, $4552, $7400.28, $6936 and $10635, respectively. These costs ranged from 30.72% (for acute hepatitis B) to 297.85% (for primary liver cancer) of the average annual household income in our sample. Even for patients with health insurance, direct out-of-pocket cost of all HBV-related diseases except acute hepatitis B exceeded 40.00% of the patient’s disposable household income, making it a catastrophic expenditure for the household. Conclusion Hepatitis B imposes considerable economic burden on a family. Our findings will help health policy makers’ understanding of the magnitude of the economic burden of HBV-related diseases in China. Evidence from our study also contributes to our understanding of potential benefits to society from allocating more resources to preventing and treating HBV infection, as well as increasing insurance coverage in China. These findings have important policy implications for health care reform efforts currently underway in China focusing on how to reduce the burden of catastrophic disease for its citizens.

2013-01-01

148

78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total allowable...

2013-04-25

149

75 FR 38430 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...the initial total allowable catch of Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

2010-07-02

150

75 FR 38940 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Greenland turbot total allowable catch...

2010-07-07

151

62 FR 17749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fishery Off Alaska; Scallop Vessel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fishery Off Alaska; Scallop Vessel Moratorium AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...moratorium on the entry of additional vessels into the scallop fishery off Alaska. This action implements...

1997-04-11

152

62 FR 34182 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fisheries Off Alaska; 1997-98...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fisheries Off Alaska; 1997-98 Harvest...Commerce. ACTION: Final 1997-98 scallop harvest specifications; closure...and crab bycatch limits (CBLs) for the scallop fishery off Alaska during the period...

1997-06-25

153

61 FR 67990 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fishery Off Alaska; Scallop Vessel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fishery Off Alaska; Scallop Vessel Moratorium AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...moratorium on the entry of additional vessels into the scallop fishery off Alaska. This action would...

1996-12-26

154

76 FR 17034 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest...groundfish fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). Two...Pollock............. 150 150 Aleutian Islands subarea........

2011-03-28

155

75 FR 50716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program...quota (IPQ) issued for the Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery from...designation. Under the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization...

2010-08-17

156

76 FR 45219 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access...for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP) would amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program to...

2011-07-28

157

75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and ``Other Flatfish...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish...bycatch allowance specified for the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other...

2010-06-03

158

Updating China's international economic policy after 30 years of reform and opening: what position on regional and global economic architecture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 30 years of reform and opening have brought great material progress to China. By becoming a big country, China's actions created huge spillovers on other countries. The result has been a rise in trade tension between China and its trade partners. Recently, some have claimed that China's prolonged large trade surpluses have undermined global financial stability and tilted the

Wing Thye Woo

2009-01-01

159

A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.  

PubMed

Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated water that is ineligible for any uses. PMID:17719717

Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

2008-09-01

160

The structure of the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Xingcheng-Taili area (western Liaoning Province in China), and is tectonically located in the eastern section of the northern margin of the North China craton (NCC). This area is dominantly comprised of various types of granitic rocks. Based on, formation age, texture and mineral assemblage, the granitic rocks can be divided into three main types, which reflect the evolutionary history during the geological history of the NCC. Neoarchean granitic rocks with emplacement ages of ca. 2500 Ma, previously termed "Suizhong granite", are mainly exposed in the middle part of the study area. The Neoarchean granitic rocks are composed of granitic gneiss, biotite-hornblende-plagioclase gneiss and leucosomes. The granitic gneiss exhibits gneissic texture and S-C fabrics and contains a large number of biotite-hornblende-plagioclase gneiss and leucosomes enclaves with a similar gneissosity and anatectic characteristics. The steep gneissosity and banded structures trend nearly E-W, consist with the regional structures of the NCC, and indicate a tectonic setting of the NCC deep crust. Upper Triassic porphyritic granitic gneiss, granite aplite and quartz diorite with U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 220 Ma intruded Neoarchean gneisses. Their formation ages are considered to relate with the NCC destruction in the early Mesozoic times. A sinistral shear zone was developed within the porphyritic granitic gneiss and quartz diorite, with steep foliation, augen structure, and NE-ENE stretching lineation. Upper Triassic rocks have different deformation characteristics from the Neoarchean granitic rocks, which may indicate a deformation event in Late Triassic times, ductile deformation structures superimposed on Neoarchean granitic rocks. Biotite adamellite with a 150 Ma-age is located in the north and south of the study area. These rocks show the massive structure in the south, a gneissic structure in the north. The Late Jurassic magmatism reflects apparent thinning of NCC continental crust. The strongly deformed biotite adamellite developed a gneissosity structure with S-C fabrics, sinistral shear zones with NE trending, and show the deformation characteristics of shallow crustal level reflecting decratonization of NCC continental crust. Neoarchean granitic rocks and Late Triassic rocks were deformed again, generated mylonitic fabric, previous deformation structures have been transformed. The attitude of the foliation is ca. 316 357/88 with the stretching lineation of 240/5. The angle between S- and C-planes is between 10 and 20°. In strongly deformed portions, the two groups of foliation are almost parallel. The sharp angle between S- and C-foliation clearly indicates NE-NEE sinistral strike-slip characteristics of the ductile shear zone. Crystal preferred orientations of quartz determined by electron back scatter diffraction from three types of granitic rocks suggest sinistral strike-slipping and a deformation temperature at about 400°C. Quartz mainly shows low-temperature fabrics with dominant {0001}-slip system. All of the structural characteristics indicate that the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone represents a NE-ENE sinistral strike-slip ductile deformation event after intrusion of the Upper Jurassic biotite adamellite and transformed and superimposed previous deformation structures. This deformation event might have occurred in Early Cretaceous times related to the change of the motion direction from WNW to NNW of the West Pacific Izanagi plate, which obliquely subducted under the Eurasian plate.

Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Jin, Wei; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei; Li, Weimin

2013-04-01

161

The role of taxation in tobacco control and its potential economic impact in China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify key economic issues involved in raising the tobacco tax and to recommend possible options for tobacco tax reform in China. Methods Estimated price elasticities of the demand for cigarettes, prevalence data and epidemiology are used to estimate the impact of a tobacco tax increase on cigarette consumption, government tax revenue, lives saved, employment and revenue loss in the cigarette industry and tobacco farming. Results The recent Chinese tax adjustment, if passed along to the retail price, would reduce the number of smokers by 630?000 saving 210?000 lives, at a price elasticity of ?0.15. A tax increase of 1 RMB (or US$0.13) per pack of cigarettes would increase the Chinese government's tax revenue by 129 billion RMB (US 17.2 billion), decrease consumption by 3.0 billion packs of cigarettes, reduce the number of smokers by 3.42 million and save 1.14 million lives. Conclusion The empirical economic analysis and tax simulation results clearly indicate that increasing the tobacco tax in China is the most cost-effective instrument for tobacco control.

Mao, Zhengzhong; Shi, Jian; Chen, Wendong

2010-01-01

162

Economics, cultural transmission, and the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth in China  

PubMed Central

In rural China, the ratio of newborn boys to newborn girls [sex ratio at birth (SRB)] has been rising for several decades, to values significantly above its biological norm. This trend has a number of alarming societal consequences, and has attracted the attention of scholars and politicians. The root of the problem lies in a 2,500-year-old culture of son preference. This culture is intricately linked with the economic reality of each couple's life, so that there are financial and psychological repercussions to parents who have no sons. To bring greater clarity and understanding to this issue, we present a quantitative framework that describes the interaction between economics and cultural transmission. We start with an explicit mechanism by which economic incentives can change cultural beliefs of a given individual, and go on to include a mechanism of cultural inheritance from generation to generation. We then show how economic conditions can affect the dynamics of cultural change in an entire society, and may lead to a decrease in the country's sex ratio at birth.

Lipatov, Mikhail; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.

2008-01-01

163

Late Paleozoic strike-slip shear zones in eastern central Asia (NW China): New structural and geochronological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

New structural studies and 40Ar\\/39Ar dating in northwest China provide information about late Paleozoic strike-slip motions subsequent to accretional events, which built eastern central Asia during the Paleozoic. Two principal areas were affected by these large transcurrent motions. First, in the Tianshan range, main east-west ductile shear zones are dextral and coeval with an eastward decreasing greenschist retrograde metamorphism. Associated

Sébastien Laurent-Charvet; Jacques Charvet; Patrick Monié; Liangshu Shu

2003-01-01

164

Seismic discontinuities in the mantle transition zone and at the top of the lower mantle beneath eastern China and Korea: Influence of the stagnant Pacific slab  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed broadband data to identify and determine mantle discontinuities in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath eastern China, where the Pacific slab is stagnant. The depths of the 410 and 660km discontinuities are generally shallower and deeper, respectively, than the global averages in and near the Pacific slab beneath eastern China. The MTZ is thicker in the slab

Mark Jellinek; Daisuke Suetsugu; Yoshio Fukao; Masayuki Obayashi; Yutao Shi; Ruifeng Liu; Craig Bina; Toru Inoue; Douglas Wiens

2010-01-01

165

When are no-take zones an economically optimal fishery management strategy?  

PubMed

Discussions on the use of marine reserves (no-take zones) and, more generally, spatial management of fisheries are, for the most part, devoid of analyses that consider the ecological and economic effects simultaneously. To fill this gap, we develop a two-patch ecological-economic model to investigate the effects of spatial management on fishery profits. Because the fishery effects of spatial management depend critically on the nature of the ecological connectivity, our model includes both juvenile and adult movement, with density dependence in settlement differentiating the two types of dispersal. Rather than imposing a reserve on our system and measuring its effect on profits, we ask: "When does setting catch levels to maximize system-wide profits imply that a reserve should be created?" Closing areas to fishing is an economically optimal solution when the value derived from spillover from the reserve outweighs the value of fishing in the patch. The condition, while simple to state in summary form, is complex to interpret because it depends on the settlement success of the dispersing organisms, the nature of the costs of the fishing, the economic and ecological heterogeneity of the system, the discount rate, and growth characteristics of the fish population. The condition is more likely to be satisfied when the closed area is a net exporter of biomass and has higher costs of fishing, and for fish populations with density-independent settlement ("adult movement") than with density-dependent settlement ("larval dispersal"). Rather surprisingly, there are circumstances whereby closing low biological productivity areas, and even sometimes low cost areas to fish, can result in greater fishing profits than when both areas are open to fishing. PMID:17069360

Sanchirico, James N; Malvadkar, Urmila; Hastings, Alan; Wilen, James E

2006-10-01

166

Economic transition and maternal health care for internal migrants in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Economic migration and growth in informal employment in many of the major cities of developing countries, combined with health sector reforms that are increasingly relying on insurance and out-of-pocket payment, are raising concerns about equity and sustainability of economic and social development. In China, the number of internal migrants has dramatically grown since economic transition started in 1980, and maternal health care for these is a pressing issue to be addressed. To provide information for policy-makers and health administrators, a medical records review, a questionnaire survey and qualitative interviews were carried out in Minhang District, Shanghai. This paper describes important inequities in main maternal health outcomes and utilization indicators relating to economic and social transformation of the Chinese society. Analysis of the data collected clarifies that insufficient antenatal care is one of the main determinants for poor maternal health outcomes and that migrants are using antenatal care services significantly less than permanent residents. The data suggest that there is no single explanatory factor, but that migrants are faced with a package of obstacles to accessing health care services, and that health systems may need to rethink and redesign their delivery approaches to specifically target those groups that are faced with such multi-faceted packages of obstacles to service-access. Although the study addresses a specific Chinese phenomenon related to internal migration and registration of residency, parallels can be drawn to other settings where a combination of economic and social transitions of the society and a reform of health care financing are potentially creating the same conditions of significant inequalities. PMID:12477741

Shaokang, Zhan; Zhenwei, Sun; Blas, Erik

2002-12-01

167

Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.  

PubMed

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

2011-03-01

168

Granger causality tests among openness to international trade, human capital accumulation and economic growth in China: 1952–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines Granger causality among openness to international trade, human capital accumulation and economic growth in China using time series data over the period from 1952 to 1999 and a sub-period, i.e. a period from 1978 to 1999. For the 1952–1999 period, economic growth is found to Granger cause human capital accumulation and not vice versa. For the 1978–1999

Wong Hock Tsen

2006-01-01

169

Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery Based on Spatial Correlation Analysis in Guangxi Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Methods Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. Results The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

2014-01-01

170

Malaria surveillance-response strategies in different transmission zones of the People's Republic of China: preparing for climate change  

PubMed Central

Background A sound understanding of malaria transmission patterns in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China) is crucial for designing effective surveillance-response strategies that can guide the national malaria elimination programme (NMEP). Using an established biology-driven model, it is expected that one may design and refine appropriate surveillance-response strategies for different transmission zones, which, in turn, assist the NMEP in the ongoing implementation period (2010–2020) and, potentially, in the post-elimination stage (2020–2050). Methods Environmental data obtained from 676 locations across P.R. China, such as monthly temperature and yearly relative humidity (YRH), for the period 1961–2000 were prepared. Smoothed surface maps of the number of months suitable for parasite survival derived from monthly mean temperature and YRH were generated. For each decade, the final malaria prediction map was overlaid by two masked maps, one showing the number of months suitable for parasite survival and the other the length of YRH map in excess of 60%. Results Considering multiple environmental factors simultaneously, the environmental variables suitable for malaria transmission were found to have shifted northwards, which was especially pronounced in northern P.R. China. The unstable suitable regions (transmission periods between five and six months) showed increased transmission intensity due to prolonged suitable periods, especially in the central part of the country. Conclusion Adequate and effective surveillance-response strategies for NMEP should be designed to achieve the goal of malaria elimination in P.R. China by 2020, especially in the zones predicted to be the most vulnerable for climate change.

2012-01-01

171

Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (<50 m) coincide with the highest mean particulate organic carbon values indicating a clear relationship with a reduction of light penetration in the water column. Inspection of the standard deviation maps shows greatest variability of particulate organic carbon from December to February in the Gulf of California, the coast of Colima and the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California greater variability of particulate organic carbon occurs from June to December. In the oceanic domain beyond the continental shelf, particulate organic carbon values are very low (<25 mg m-3) and are not found associated to low temperatures and/or low depths of the euphotic zone. The oceanic region shows maximum values for both sea surface temperatures and depth of the euphotic zone as is to be expected in oligotrophic regions of the sea. Anomalies for all three variables will also shown to discuss the interannual variability of this 10-years period of study.

Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

2013-05-01

172

Strain and shear types of the Louzidian ductile shear zone in southern Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Louzidian ductile shear zone at the south of Chifeng strikes NE-SW and dips SE at low-medium-angles. This ductile shear\\u000a zone is mainly composed of granitic mylonite, which grades structurally upward into a chloritized zone, a microbreccia zone,\\u000a a brittle fault and a gouge zone. All these zones share similar planar attitudes, but contain different linear attitudes and\\u000a kinematic indicators.

XinShe Wang; YaDong Zheng; Tao Wang

2007-01-01

173

Sowing and Reaping a Revolution: Economic Change and Growth in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, intended for use with secondary students, presents background information on the Chinese economy. The subject warrants serious consideration because Sino-American trade has grown remarkable in the last decade and economic events occurring in China have the capacity to affect events in this country. The unit contains a six part narrative…

Taylor, Jeffrey R.

174

Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China  

EPA Science Inventory

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

175

Emergy and economic evaluations of four fruit production systems on reclaimed wetlands surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The goal of this study was to apply ecological engineering principles to fruit production system designs to maximize total emergy benefits

Hong-Fang Lu; Wen-Ling Kang; Daniel E. Campbell; Hai Ren; Yao-Wen Tan; Rui-Xiang Feng; Jin-Tang Luo; Fei-Peng Chen

2009-01-01

176

Spanish economic exclusive zone (zeee) project: valencia trough and balearic sea (western mediterranean) results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 1993, the Spanish Government decided to perform a systematic hydrographic/oceanographic study of the so called "Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone" (ZEEE), that is, the marine area surrounding Spanish coast within the 200 nm limit. To achieve it, the oceanographic ship "Hespérides" would be at disposal of the Defense Ministry during one moth a year. A "ZEEE-Plan" was established on 1994 with the main objective to improve cartography of the ZEEE zone and acquire different geophysical parameters to characterize it. A "ZEEE-group" was conformed by personnel coming from the Hydrographic Institute of the Spanish Navy (IHM) and the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), the Institutions responsible of the campaigns, as well as San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), University Complutense of Madrid (UCM), and others. From 1995 to 1997 systematic marine campaigns were carried out at the Valencia Trough and Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean), complemented by two additional campaigns, carried out on 1999 and 2000. As a result of those campaigns maps of Bathymetry, Geomagnetic Anomalies and Free Air/Bouguer Gravity Anomalies have been published, six maps of 1:200.000 scale and one additional map, of 1:500.000 scale, for the whole area (the maps are available at IEO: Juan.acosta@md.ieo.es, fax: +34 914135597, and IHM: fax: +34 956599396). In this work the above mentioned results will be presented, together with the main characteristics of the surveys.

Pérez Carrillo, F.; Palomo, C.; Martín Davila, J.; Carbó, A.; Acosta, J.; Catalán, M.; Herranz, P.; Muñoz Martín, A.; Muñoz Recio, A.; Marín, J. A.

2003-04-01

177

The economic burden of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in rural South-West China.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases attributed to smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a given year (2011) in rural southwest China. Methods: A prevalence-based, disease-specific attributable-risk approach was used to estimate the economic burden of chronic diseases attributable to both smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 17?158 consenting adults aged ?18 years was used to derive prevalence of smoking and exposure to SHS, as well as direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases. Results: In the study population, the prevalence rates of smoking and exposure to SHS are 73.1 and 38.2% for males and 1.4 and 43.4% for females, respectively. The total costs of illness are $25.85 million for COPD, $18.80 million for asthma, $37.25 million for CHD, $17.91 million for stroke, $264.35 million for hypertension and $17.11 million for peptic ulcer. The estimated costs attributable to smoking and exposure to SHS are $95.51 million and $79.35 million, accounting for 7.15 and 5.94% of local healthcare costs, respectively. Of the total costs of tobacco, direct costs and indirect costs are $94.66 million and $0.85 million for smoking, and $78.22 million and $1.36 million for exposure to SHS. Smoking contributes more cost of illness than exposure to SHS in men, whereas exposure to SHS contributes more cost of illness than smoking in women. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to SHS produce substantial economic burden as well as have a considerable public health impact in rural southwest China. PMID:24517111

Cai, Le; Cui, Wenlong; He, Jianhui; Wu, Xinan

2014-06-01

178

Delineation of site-specific management zones based on soil properties for a hillside field in central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, efficient and cost-efficient methods are needed to manage fields in order to maximize economic return, minimize environmental impact, and improve soil and crop site-specific management. Management zones (MZs) of uniform production potential may offer a solution to the problems associated with grid soil sampling while still effectively describing variability in soil properties. In this study, a hillside field of

Hou-Long Jiang; Guo-Shun Liu; Shu-Duan Liu; En-Hua Li; Rui Wang; Yong-Feng Yang; Hong-Chao Hu

2012-01-01

179

Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China  

SciTech Connect

The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs). The results of these efforts contributed, in part, to the implementation of the objectives of Annex II-A to the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Fossil Energy Technology Development and Utilization. The Annex II-A objectives are defined so as “to jointly investigate and discuss key factors, analyses, data, processes, and technologies leading to the preparation and utilization of coal and mixed feedstock that includes coal as” environmentally and economically viable for alternative transportations fuels, additives, chemicals, as feedstock for the production of power and a source of energy to the industrial sector. Specific areas of cooperation addressed under this project include: 1. Coal Conversion (including use of feedstock mixtures such as coal/biomass) 2. Advanced Separation Processes (i.e., innovative coal preparation technologies) 3. Co-Production of Alternative Fuels, Chemicals and/or Power 4. Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels, to Include Hydrogen, and Carbon Recycle for Integrated Fuels and Chemical Production 5. Carbon Sequestration Technology Related to Coal Use 6. Technical Training, Workshops, and Meetings Of equal importance to the successful completion of the tasks of the project is the impact these results have had individually and collectively in the increased level of cooperation between, and participation of, US-China entities. The growing regional impact of these efforts are evident in: ? The growing interest in and applications of environmental technology by the Chinese industrial sector in reducing the environmental footprint of their facilities (e.g., carbon capture, utilization and storage); ? The expansion in the number of cooperative activities enabled by the use of established long-term relationships and developed common frames of reference (e.g., technology exchange cooperative contracts); ? The growth of interest in and use of U.S. technology by the Chinese coal conversion industry (e.g., the market for U.S. components of gasification systems); ? Confirmation of the potential, recently established, of the merits of exchange programs for US-Chinese professionals and administrators (e.g., the Global Knowledge Network Program).

Fletcher, Jerald

2013-12-31

180

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

2013-01-01

181

Psychological Traces of China's Socio-Economic Reforms in the Ultimatum and Dictator Games  

PubMed Central

Can traces of rapid socio-economic changes within a society be reflected in experimental games? The post-Mao reforms in China provide a unique natural quasi-experiment to study people from the same society who were raised with radically different values about distribution of wealth and altruistic behavior. We tested whether the size of offers in the ultimatum and dictator games are an increasing function of the number of years Chinese citizens experienced of the Mao era (“planned economy”). For the cohort that lived throughout the entire Mao era, we found that mean offers in the two games were substantially higher than what is typically offered in laboratory studies. These offers were also higher than those of two younger Chinese cohorts. In general, the amount offered decreased with less time spent under Mao, while in the oldest group in which every member spent the same amount of time under Mao, the younger members tended to offer more, suggesting an additional effect of early education under Mao and contradicting the alternative hypothesis that generosity increases with age. These results suggest that some of the observed individual differences in the offers made in experimental games can be traced back to the values of the socio-economic era in which individuals grew up.

Zhu, Liqi; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Huangfu, Gang

2013-01-01

182

Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.  

PubMed

A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy. PMID:12288639

Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

1994-01-01

183

Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the He and H2 anomalies occurred mostly at the same place and the amplitudes of the anomalies significantly decreased simultaneously with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found three times at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity. Keyword: Soil gas; Seismic rupture; Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake; China

Zhou, X.; Du, J.

2010-12-01

184

75 FR 3875 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent...component in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to...

2010-01-25

185

76 FR 5718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent...component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to...

2011-02-02

186

76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska...the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). NMFS would...action also would require full retention of salmon in the Central and Western GOA...

2011-11-23

187

78 FR 24707 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska: Fixed-Gear Commercial Halibut and Sablefish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska: Fixed-Gear Commercial Halibut and Sablefish...Fishing Quota Program (IFQ Program) for the fixed-gear commercial Pacific halibut and sablefish...for management of the IFQ Program for the fixed-gear commercial fisheries for...

2013-04-26

188

78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

2013-09-17

189

76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

2011-09-28

190

76 FR 71269 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...the initial total allowable catch of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea...

2011-11-17

191

78 FR 54591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...NMFS is opening directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of...

2013-09-05

192

78 FR 24361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total allowable...

2013-04-25

193

78 FR 76245 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total allowable...

2013-12-17

194

76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering...Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY...The Program includes a cost recovery provision to...to recover the actual costs directly related to the...Program. NMFS developed the cost recovery provision...

2011-07-21

195

78 FR 14076 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Central...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska...fee percentage for cost recovery under the...recover the actual costs directly related...equal to the actual costs directly related...collection (management costs). Section 304...MSA also limits the cost recovery fee so...

2013-03-04

196

78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering...Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY...The Program includes a cost recovery provision to...to recover the actual costs directly related to the...Program. NMFS developed the cost recovery provision...

2013-08-01

197

77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering...Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY...The Program includes a cost recovery provision to...to recover the actual costs directly related to the...Program. NMFS developed the cost recovery provision...

2012-07-27

198

75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering...Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY...The Program includes a cost recovery provision to...to recover the actual costs directly related to the...Program. NMFS developed the cost recovery provision...

2010-07-23

199

63 FR 18863 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fishery off Alaska; Amendment 3  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fishery off Alaska; Amendment 3 Agency...to the Fishery Management Plan for the Scallop Fishery off Alaska (FMP), which would...authority to manage all aspects of the scallop fishery, except limited access....

1998-04-16

200

63 FR 38501 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fishery off Alaska; Amendment 3  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallop Fishery off Alaska; Amendment 3 AGENCY...to the Fishery Management Plan for the Scallop Fishery off Alaska (FMP), which delegates...authority to manage all aspects of the scallop fishery, except limited access....

1998-07-17

201

76 FR 49417 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access...for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). This...proposed rule would amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program to...

2011-08-10

202

75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...the projected unused amount of the 2010 rock sole total allowable catch (TAC) specified...allow the 2010 total allowable catch of rock sole to be fully harvested. DATES:...

2010-08-19

203

76 FR 12606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA271 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using Jig or Hook-and-Line Gear...

2011-03-08

204

Heavy metal concentrations and their possible sources in paddy soils of a modern agricultural zone, southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a typical modern agricultural Zone of southeastern China, Haining City, 224 topsoil samples were collected from paddy fields\\u000a to measure the total concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic\\u000a (As) and cobalt (Co). The total concentrations ranged from 15.30 to 78.40 mg kg?1 for Cu, 20.10 to 41.40 mg kg?1 for Pb, 54.98 to 224.4 mg kg?1

Chunfa Wu; Limin Zhang

2010-01-01

205

[Landscape regionalization of agro-pastoral transitional zone using self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) network: a case study of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China].  

PubMed

Taking the agro-pastoral transitional zone of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, which has the most extrusive landscape differentiation in Northern China, as the object, a landscape spatial differentiation index was established based on the NDVI, integrated index of land use degree, and aridity index, and the characteristics of the landscape spatial differentiation were quantitatively identified by using SOFM network. The study area could be divided into six landscape zones, i. e., forest zone, forest-steppe transitional zone, agro-steppe mixed zone, typical steppe zone, steppe-desert transitional zone, and desert zone. As compared with the traditional schemes of physical geographical regionalization, our landscape regionalization could quickly regionalize the large scale landscape spatial differentiation in a quantitative way, and the regionalization results were basically in accordance with the original landscape characteristics and the landscape spatial differentiation pattern of the study area. PMID:24015537

Han, Yi-Nan; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yang-Lin

2013-05-01

206

GLORIA II Sonograph Mosaic of the Western U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1983 the United States declared sovereign rights and jurisdiction over living and nonliving resources in an area extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) seaward from its shores. In response to the establishment of this Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented a program, called EEZ-Scan, to systematically map the EEZ, using the Geological Long- Range Inclined ASDIC (GLORIA) II longrange side scan sonar system developed by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) of Great Britain [Somers et al, 1978]. The first part of the EEZ-Scan field program was completed in the summer of 1984, when USGS and IOS scientists surveyed the EEZ off the western conterminous United States aboard the British research vessel Farnella (Figure 1). The west coast survey, requiring 96 days of ship time and four separate legs, has resulted in virtually total sonograph coverage of the sea floor from the continental shelf break to the 200-nautical mile limit between the Mexican and Canadian borders, an area of about 850,000 km2 . Other data collected on the cruises included two-channel digital seismic reflection and 3.5-kHz highresolution and 10-kHz bathymetric profiles, as well as towed magnetometer data along approximately 20,000 km of trackline spaced nominally at 30-km intervals.

Cacchione, D. A.; Drake, D. E.; Edwards, B.; Field, M.; Gardner, J.; Hampton, M.; Karl, H.; McCulloch, D.; Kenyon, N.; Masson, D.

207

Morphology of the Andaman outer shelf and upper slope of the Thai exclusive economic zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the devastating 2004 tsunami that hit the southwestern coast of Thailand, the need for detailed bathymetric data of the Andaman Sea outer shelf became evident in order to better predict tsunami wave propagation and coastal impact. Bathymetric data and subbottom profiler records covering the outer shelf and upper slope of the Thai exclusive economic zone (EEZ) were collected onboard Thai RV Chakratong Tongyai in 2006 and 2007. The data cover an area of approximately 3000 km2 between 500 and 1600 m water depth. The soundings allowed generating a final bathymetric grid with 50 m grid cell spacing. The outer shelf is rather smooth and slightly inclined southward, while the upper slope is strongly dissected by gullies. Several previously unknown features are identified including mud-domes, pockmarks, three large plateaus surrounded by moats, gas-charged sediment on subbottom profiler records, and only few indications for small submarine landslides on the upper slope. The largest of these possibly translational submarine landslides involved 2.2 × 107 m3 of sediment. This slide would have generated a tsunami wave of less than 0.12 m wave height. Considering the entire data, there is no evidence that landslides have been the source of tsunami waves in recent geological time.

Jintasaeranee, Pachoenchoke; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Klaucke, Ingo; Snidvongs, Anond; Flueh, Ernst R.

2012-03-01

208

Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from the Polish exclusive economic zone, southern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of 59 surface sediment samples from the Polish exclusive economic zone (EEZ) shows that Szczecin Lagoon sediments are the most polluted by heavy metals and that the degree of heavy-metal pollution decreases substantially on passing from the Szczecin Lagoon to the Pomeranian Bay and the inner shelf area and then on passing to the Bornholm Deep and S?upsk Furrow. Heavy-metal pollution in the sediments of the western part of the Polish EEZ therefore appears to follow the dispersion of the Oder River. Fluffy material from the Oder estuary appears to be the main source of heavy metals in the muddy sediments of the Bornholm Deep. The formation of sulphides is therefore not the principal factor controlling the enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments of this anoxic basin, although it may be responsible for the uptake of Mo, Sb and As. Two main factors control the distribution of the rare earth elements (REE) in sediments of the Polish EEZ: the input of Fe-organic colloids from rivers and the presence of detrital material in the sediments.

Szefer, P.; Glasby, G. P.; Geldon, J.; Renner, R. M.; Björn, E.; Snell, J.; Frech, W.; Warzocha, J.

2009-04-01

209

China's Foreign Trade in the Perspective of a More Balanced Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global crisis is forcing China’s economy to become less dependent on foreign markets. Manufacturing industry has to adjust to changes in international demand. Foreign affiliates’ processed exports are vulnerable to the slow-down of Western demand, while Chinese exporting firms are better placed to switch to dynamic emerging markets. China’s ordinary imports have risen fast. Asia has enlarged its share

Guillaume Gaulier; Francoise Lemoine; Deniz Unal

2011-01-01

210

Analysis of the development and economical benefit of biomass energy industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next decade, China's demand for energy is still in rapid growth. Energy conservation and emission reduction requirement to our country with coal dominating energy production and consumption structure brings the severe challenge, to develop the low carbon, clean, efficient of the fossil energy become China's energy structure optimization of main direction. China is a large agricultural nation, biomass

Mei Song; Zhiyuan Gao

2011-01-01

211

Empirical analysis on determinants of the county level economic growth in China's central region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The county level economies play an important role in China. In the central region of China, these economies account for a large share though their development is slow. To some extent, the difference between the central and eastern regions of China is mainly due to the disparity between the county level economies. Hence, growth in the county level economies is

Lin Shou-fu; Zhao Ding-tao

2009-01-01

212

The rise of Coastal China and inter-regional relations among core economic regions of East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the changing industrial landscape of East Asia by focusing on the eight core economic regions (Kanto,\\u000a Kinki and Chubu of Japan, Zhujiang, Changjiang and Jing-Jin-Ji of China, and Korea’s Seoul capital and Yeongnam region). The\\u000a three Japanese regions have been leading the formation of industrial geography of East Asia in the past three decades. Since\\u000a the reform

Won Bae Kim

2012-01-01

213

A study on legislative and policy tools for promoting the circular economic model for waste management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circular economy has been developing rapidly in recent years in China. A legislative system has been created to provide\\u000a legal protection for the development of a circular economy, including a series of price and tax measures in the waste management\\u000a area. These measures form the basic foundation for promoting better waste management under the circular economic model. Many\\u000a challenges,

Jinhui Li; Keli Yu

214

Research on the contribution of human capital accumulation to the economic growth in three provinces of Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the model of Cobb-Douglas production function, this paper measures the contribution rate of human capital accumulation by education (Ce) and higher education (Ch) for the economic growth in three provinces of Northeast China during 1990-2005. The estimation value of Ce for Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning is 11.80%, 10.26% and 10.12% respectively, and Ch is 1.40%, 1.25% and 1.55%

Zhang Li-xin; Wang Ya-lin

2008-01-01

215

Socioeconomic driving forces of land-use change in Kunshan, the Yangtze River Delta economic area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes characteristics, major driving forces and alternative management measures of land-use change in Kunshan, Jiangsu province, China. The study used remote sensing (RS) maps and socio-economic data. Based on RS-derived maps, two change matrices were constructed for detecting land-use change between 1987 and 1994, and between 1994 and 2000 through pixel-to-pixel comparisons. The outcomes indicated that paddy fields,

Hualou Long; Guoping Tang; Xiubin Li; Gerhard K. Heilig

2007-01-01

216

Evaluation of indirect loss from hypothetical catastrophes in two regions with different economic development levels in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates and compares the indirect economic loss (IEL) resulting from two hypothetical catastrophes occurring in China - in developed Shanghai and in less-developed Sichuan - to provide new measures of disaster reduction. IEL was divided into indirect economic loss due to the disruption of production process (IEL I) and indirect economic loss induced by the disturbance of industrial lines (IEL II). An input-output model was used to assess these two types of IEL. The study showed that (1) developed regions may be more vulnerable with respect to IEL; (2) IEL II is the primary factor contributing to total IEL; (3) decision makers need to focus on IEL II beside IEL I which is usually the main disaster-reduction target after a disaster; and (4) tradeoff between economic growth and disaster prevention is needed to achieve regional sustainable development.

Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Liu, X.-Q.

2012-11-01

217

The effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality: an epidemiologic study in four climatic zones in China  

PubMed Central

Background Little evidence is available about the association between temperature and cerebrovascular mortality in China. This study aims to examine the effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality in different climatic zones in China. Method We obtained daily data on weather conditions, air pollution and cerebrovascular deaths from five cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou) in China during 2004-2008. We examined city-specific associations between ambient temperature and the cerebrovascular mortality, while adjusting for season, long-term trends, day of the week, relative humidity and air pollution. We examined cold effects using a 1°C decrease in temperature below a city-specific threshold, and hot effects using a 1°C increase in temperature above a city-specific threshold. We used a meta-analysis to summarize the cold and hot effects across the five cities. Results Beijing and Tianjin (with low mean temperature) had lower thresholds than Shanghai, Wuhan and Guangzhou (with high mean temperature). In Beijing, Tianjin, Wuhan and Guangzhou cold effects were delayed, while in Shanghai there was no or short induction. Hot effects were acute in all five cities. The cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. The hot effects were followed by mortality displacement. The pooled relative risk associated with a 1°C decrease in temperature below thresholds (cold effect) was 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.020, 1.053). The pooled relative risk associated with a 1°C increase in temperature above thresholds (hot effect) was 1.014 (95% CI: 0.979, 1.050). Conclusion Cold temperatures are significantly associated with cerebrovascular mortality in China, while hot effect is not significant. People in colder climate cities were sensitive to hot temperatures, while people in warmer climate cities were vulnerable to cold temperature.

2014-01-01

218

Plotting of Acid Rain and Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Control Zones and Integrated Control Planning in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and characteristics of acid rain and SO2 pollution were presented, indicating that the areas with sulfur deposition over critical loads reached 21.9% of the territory in 1995. In order to control the acid rain and SO2 pollution effectively, the Acid Rain Control Zone and SO2 Pollution Control Zone (Two Control Zones for short) were designated based on the

Jiming Hao; Shuxiao Wang; Bingjiang Liu; Kebin He

2001-01-01

219

Ecological and economic dynamics of the Shunde agricultural system under China's small city development strategy.  

PubMed

The agricultural and industrial development of small cities is the primary environmental management strategy employed to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development strategy will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of the Chinese landscape. In this study, we examined the agricultural development of Shunde, a small city in Guangdong Province, over the period 1978 until 2000. Our analysis of the ecological and economic dynamics of the agricultural system revealed the dominant role of labor in the intensification of agricultural production, even though the use of fuels, fertilizers and machines also increased during this time. The Shunde agricultural system was examined from both biophysical or donor-based and human utility or receiver-based perspectives, using emergy and economic methods, respectively. After 22 years of urbanization, the Shunde agricultural system was still able to fill 96% of the local demand for agricultural products using only 6% of its total yield compared to using 14% of the total yield in 1978. Aquaculture developed quickly during the study period as grain production decreased. In 2000, the production of fish, pork, and vegetables accounted for 92% of the total emergy output of the system; however, the emergy buying power of the money received in exchange was lower than the emergy contained in the products exported. The excess emergy exported is the basis for a high quality diet delivered to city dwellers at a relatively low price. In the 1980s, the productivity of both land and labor increased; but after 1992 the productivity of labor decreased, causing the efficiency of the whole agricultural system to decrease. We recommend that processing plants be established for the main agricultural products of Shunde to decrease the emergy loss in trading and to increase employment. The effect of including monetized ecosystem services in the balance between the emergy delivered to the markets in agricultural products and the emergy buying power of the money received was to decrease the emergy gained by the Shunde agricultural system. PMID:19246149

Lu, Hongfang; Campbell, Daniel E

2009-06-01

220

China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

Semaan, Leslie

221

China's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Report examines both improvements and problems in China's relations with neighboring countries in different parts of Asia. John W. Garver of the Georgia Institute of Technology argues that China's core interest is to maintain the status quo of non- Islamist and non-democratic states in post-Soviet Central Asia, and to uphold the existing balance of power between India and

JOHN W. GARVER; DENNIS V. H ICKEY; MICHAEL R. CHAMBERS

222

Optimization of geometry, material and economic parameters of a two-zone subcritical reactor for transmutation of nuclear waste with SERPENT Monte Carlo code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimization study of a subcritical two-zone homogeneous reactor was carried out, taking into consideration geometry, material, and economic parameters. The advantage of a two-zone subcritical system over a single-zone system is demonstrated. The study investigated the optimal volume ratio for the inner and outer zones of the subcritical reactor, in terms of the neutron-physical parameters as well as fuel cost. Optimal geometrical parameters of the system are suggested for different material compositions.

Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

2014-06-01

223

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-10-01

224

Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

Not Available

1986-01-01

225

An Analytical Solution of Groundwater Evapotranspiration in Arid Riparian Zone: A Case Study for the Tarim River in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET) constitutes a major component of the water balance in arid riparian zone. Most of groundwater ET studies depend on numerical models but it is not easy to discuss the controling factors of groundwater ET in riparian zone. A two-dimension conceptal framework was set up to understand the groundwater ET in arid riparian zone. We deduced an analytical solution and its simplification of riparian ET based on a negative exponential relation between groundwater ET and groundwater depth. The groundwaer ET is controlled by soil type (soil hydraulic condontivity and parameter in the negative exponential relation), aquifer thickness, potential ET and river water table. Three soil types (sand, sandy loam and loam) with different soil texture were selected to discuss the riparian ET and it was found that the riaprian ET is similar for different soil type. The framework and analytical solution are applied in Tarim River in China where a river restoration project had been put into practice. The discussions are helpful to design water supply pattern of river restoration.

Cong, Z.; Dang, Q.; Wang, L.

2012-12-01

226

Environmental determinants and ecologic selectivity of benthic faunas from nearshore to bathyal zones in the end-Permian mass extinction: Brachiopod evidence from South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South China the Changhsingian brachiopods are extraordinarily abundant and diverse, comprising 447 species in 143 genera. They were widespread in nearshore, shallow sea, reef, carbonate platform, shelf basin, and bathyal zones. Brachiopod attachment modes were also highly diversified and include burrowing, body cementation, pedicle attaching on substratum, body spines anchoring on substratum, pedicle attaching on objects, and clasping spines

Jing Chen; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Jinnan Tong

2011-01-01

227

Occurrence of soluble salts and moisture in the unsaturated zone and groundwater hydrochemistry along the middle and lower reaches of the Heihe River in northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation, over-development of water resources and population growth have contributed to degeneration of vegetation in the Heihe River Basin in northwest China. Salts and water contents are the most important factors affecting the growth of vegetation in this arid area. This study was conducted to determine soluble salt levels of soils in the unsaturated zone and the hydrochemistry of groundwater

Xun Zhou; Bin Fang; Li Wan; Wenbing Cao; Shengjun Wu; Weidong Feng

2006-01-01

228

Can China afford to commit itself an emissions cap? An economic and political analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world’s second largest carbon emitter, China has long been criticised as a ‘free-rider’ enjoying benefits from other countries’ efforts to abate greenhouse gas emissions but not taking due responsibilities of its own. China has been singled out as one of the major targets at the subsequent negotiations after the Kyoto curtain had fallen. By analysing the historical contributions

ZhongXiang Zhang

2000-01-01

229

Urban Transport Trends and Policies in China and India: Impacts of Rapid Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comparative overview of urban transport in the world’s two most populous countries: China and India. Cities in both countries are suffering from severe and worsening transport problems: air pollution, noise, traffic injuries and fatalities, congestion, parking shortages, energy use, and a lack of mobility for the poor. The urban transport crisis in China and India results

John Pucher; Neha Mittal; Yi Zhu; Nisha Korattyswaroopam

2007-01-01

230

Corporate Governance in China: Current Practices, Economic Effects and Institutional Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a preliminary survey of the burgeoning literature on the Chinese listed firms' corporate governance. We structure the existing research around three themes: (1) What are the current corporate governance practices in China? (2) How do these corporate governance practices affect the Chinese listed firms' valuation and various corporate decisions? (3) How does China's unique institutional setting pre-determine

Qiao Liu

2006-01-01

231

Postsecondary Faculty in China: Current Economic and Socio-Political Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an introductory examination of the current situation among postsecondary faculty in China. It begins by sketching the intellectual structure as it has waxed and waned during the 40-year history of New China. The bulk of the paper then addresses the current conditions of life and work for those intellectuals who are college and…

Smith, Harold A.; Smith, Pheny Zhou

232

Niche Partitioning of Marine Group I Crenarchaeota in the Euphotic and Upper Mesopelagic Zones of the East China Sea?†  

PubMed Central

Marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGI) represents a ubiquitous and numerically predominant microbial population in marine environments. An understanding of the spatial dynamics of MGI and its controlling mechanisms is essential for an understanding of the role of MGI in energy and element cycling in the ocean. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of MGI in the East China Sea (ECS) by analysis of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, and the biotin carboxylase gene accA. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that these genes were higher in abundance in the mesopelagic than in the euphotic zone. In addition, the crenarchaeal amoA gene was positively correlated with the copy number of the MGI 16S rRNA gene, suggesting that most of the MGI in the ECS are nitrifiers. Furthermore, the ratios of crenarchaeal accA to amoA or to MGI 16S rRNA genes increased from the euphotic to the mesopelagic zone, suggesting that the role of MGI in carbon cycling may change from the epipelagic to the mesopelagic zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic profiling of the 16S rRNA genes revealed depth partitioning in MGI community structures. Clone libraries of the crenarchaeal amoA and accA genes showed both “shallow” and “deep” groups, and their relative abundances varied in the water column. Ecotype simulation analysis revealed that MGI in the upper ocean could diverge into special ecotypes associated with depth to adapt to the light gradient across the water column. Overall, our results showed niche partitioning of the MGI population and suggested a shift in their ecological functions between the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the ECS.

Hu, Anyi; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Zao

2011-01-01

233

Light-dependence in scleractinian distribution in the sublittoral zone of South China Sea Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of 64 reef-building scleractinian species was studied in turbid waters of the South China Sea. The depth limit of scleractinian distribution in the Gulf of Siam is 18 20 m with 8 2% of incident surface irradiance, which is close to the lower light limit of most corals containing zooxanthellae. Forty percent of the scleractinian species studied inhabit the entire depth range with 70 30% of incident surface irradiance. No specific “grotto” species were identified even in sites of extreme shading, though only explanate plate, corymbose and encrusting colonies were found in low light levels.

Titlyanov, E. A.; Latypov, Y. Y.

1991-09-01

234

Exploring China's Materialization Process with Economic Transition: Analysis of Raw Material Consumption and Its Socioeconomic Drivers.  

PubMed

China's rapidly growing economy is accelerating its materialization process and thereby creating serious environmental problems at both local and global levels. Understanding the key drivers behind China's mass consumption of raw materials is thus crucial for developing sustainable resource management and providing valuable insights into how other emerging economies may be aiming to accomplish a low resource-dependent future. Our results show that China's raw material consumption (RMC) rose dramatically from 11.9 billion tons in 1997 to 20.4 billion tons in 2007, at an average annual growth rate at 5.5%. In particular, nonferrous metal minerals and iron ores increased at the highest rate, while nonmetallic minerals showed the greatest proportion (over 60%). We find that China's accelerating materialization process is closely related to its levels of urbanization and industrialization, notably demand for raw materials in the construction, services, and heavy manufacturing sectors. The growing domestic final demand level is the strongest contributor of China's growth in RMC, whereas changes in final demand composition are the largest contributors to reducing it. However, the expected offsetting effect from changes in production pattern and production-related technology level, which should be the focus of future dematerialization in China, could not be found. PMID:24717125

Wang, Heming; Tian, Xin; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Chang, Miao; Hashimoto, Seiji; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Lu, Zhongwu

2014-05-01

235

Evaluation and zoning of groundwater hazards in Pingshuo No. 1 underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal mining safety has been compromised with water inrushes from aquifers either overlying or underlying the coal seams. Detailed studies of the associated hydrogeological conditions in China have led to different approaches to mitigate the water inrush risks from these two types of aquifers—the `three diagram method' for overlying-aquifer water inrushes and the `vulnerability index method' for underlying-aquifer water inrushes. The `three diagram method' consists of: (1) aquifer water-abundance distribution charts derived from a geographic information system and analytic hierarchy process based water-abundance index model; (2) a fracture height map showing mining-induced fractures above the coal seam, established with stratified numerical simulations; and (3) a comprehensive partition map identifying the overlying-aquifer water inrush risk. The `vulnerability index method' uses site-specific data to establish thematic maps for major factors that affect the underlying-aquifer water inrushes, whereas the weight of each control factor is determined by the analytic hierarchy process. The calculated vulnerability index is indicative of water inrush risks. The effectiveness of these methods is illustrated with a case study at the Pingshuo No. 1 underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China.

Wu, Qiang; Fan, Zhenli; Zhang, Zhongwen; Zhou, Wanfang

2014-05-01

236

Spatial variations of pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence co-impacted by socio-economic and geographic factors in People's Republic of China, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background The report of the fifth national tuberculosis (TB) epidemiological survey in P. R. China, 2010, roughly showed that pulmonary TB (PTB) prevalence was higher in western China than in central and eastern China. However, accurately estimating the continuous spatial variations of PTB prevalence and clearly understanding factors impacting on spatial variations of PTB prevalence are important for allocating limited resources of national TB programme (NTP) in P. R. China. Methods Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Wizard (ESRI, Redlands, CA), an evaluation was performed to decide that which kriging and cokriging methods along with different combinations of types of detrending, semivariogram models, anisotropy and covariables (socio-economic and geographic factors) can accurately construct spatial distribution surface of PTB prevalence using statistic data sampled from the fifth national TB epidemiological survey in P. R. China, 2010, and then the evaluation results were used to explore factors of spatial variations. Results The global cokriging with socio-economic and geographic factors as covariables proved to be the best geostatistical methods for accurately estimating spatial distribution surface of PTB prevalence. The final continuous surfaces of PTB prevalence distribution demonstrated that PTB prevalence were lower in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and southeastern coast China, higher in western and southwestern China, and crossed between low and high in central China. Conclusions The predicted continuous surface perspicuously illustrated the spatial variations of PTB prevalence that were co-impacted by socio-economic and geographic factors, which can be used to better allocate the always limited resources of NTP in P. R. China.

2014-01-01

237

Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

2014-07-01

238

Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

2014-06-01

239

Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban forest conversion through model urbanization in Shenzhen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southern coastal China, Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ) was established as a model city by the government of mainland China in 1979 to demonstrate the competitive edge over Hong Kong across the straight. In less than three decades, Shenzhen has become a symbolic model city and changed from an agriculture-dominated landscape to a modern industrialization urban setting. The remote

Chongfeng Gong; Jiquan Chen; Shixiao Yu

2011-01-01

240

A priliminary analysis of rural economic types in Jiangsu province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

1)There are several rural economic belts within the boundaries of Jiangsu province. Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou regions of S Jiangsu form the developed belt; rural economic levels gradually decrease towards the W and N (except suburbs of big cities like Nanjing, Xuzhou and others). Xuzhou and Huaiyin regions of NW Jiangsu from an underdeveloped belt.2)Areal differences of rural economic levels

Zeng Zungu; Lu Cheng

1990-01-01

241

Convergence tests on tax burden and economic growth among China, Taiwan and the OECD countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unfolding globalization has profound impact on a wide range of nations’ policies including tax and economy policies. This study adopts the time series and cluster analyses to examine the convergence property of tax burden and per capita gross domestic product among Taiwan, China and the OECD countries. The empirical results show that there is no significant relationship between the integration process and fiscal convergence among countries. However, the cluster analyses identify that the group of China, Taiwan, and Korea was stably moving toward one model during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. And, the convergence of tax burden is found in the group, but no pairwise convergence exists.

Wang, David Han-Min

2007-07-01

242

'Mobile men with money': the socio-cultural and politico-economic context of 'high-risk' behaviour among wealthy businessmen and government officials in urban China  

PubMed Central

China’s transition from an injection drug-driven HIV epidemic to one primarily transmitted through sexual contact has triggered concern over the potential for HIV to move into the non-drug-injecting population. Much discussion has focused on the migrant men of China’s vast ‘floating population’ who are considered a high-risk group. As a result, many men who frequently engage in high-risk behaviour but are not included in this especially vulnerable group are evading HIV prevention messages. This paper highlights the socio-cultural and politico-economic factors that motivate many of China’s wealthy businessmen and government officials, sometimes referred to as ‘mobile men with money’, to engage in such behaviour. Examination of the activities related to the work of these men reveals a situation where the confluence of a market-oriented economy operating within a socialist-style political system under the influence of traditional networking practices has engendered a unique mode of patron-clientelism that brings them together over shared social rituals including feasting, drinking and female-centered entertainment that is often coupled with sexual services. As a result, consideration of the socio-cultural factors influencing these men’s sexual practices is important for responding to the newly emerging stage of China’s HIV epidemic.

URETSKY, ELANAH

2014-01-01

243

Economic relations with regions neighbouring the euro area in the ‘euro time zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economic, monetary and financial relations between the EU and the euro area and a set of countries in a broad set of neighbouring regions. The 80 or so countries are mostly classified as transition, emerging or developing economies and belong to four main regions: the Western Balkans; the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States;

Francesco Mazzaferro; Arnaud Mehl; Michael Sturm; Christian Thimann; Adalbert Winkler

2002-01-01

244

[Size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different function zones of Guangzhou in autumn, China].  

PubMed

Size distribution of aerosol samples collected from two urban locations (Liwan and Wushan) and a suburban location (Xinken) in Guangzhou (South China) in autumn using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) were analyzed for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatography with mass selective detection (GC-MS). Bimodal distribution was found for 3- and 4-ring PAHs and unimodal for 5-, 6- and 7-ring PAHs. Different PAH size distribution models were found for urban and suburban. PAHs associated with larger particles in suburban than in urban, and different aging processes of aerosols can account for it. Adsorption behavior may be the main mechanism controlled the size distribution of PAHs in urban, and adsorption, absorption and multilayer adsorption may all play a part in suburban. For the diagnostic ratios of PAHs with the same molecular weight, large differences were found between the range of 1-2.5 microm and 0.1-0.56 microm. The concentrations of 13 PAHs were 39 ng/m3 in Xinken, 71-94 ng/m3 in Wushan and 32-154 ng/m3 in Liwan, and 5-7 ring PAHs were the most abundant. PMID:16767976

Duan, Jing-chun; Bi, Xin-hui; Tan, Ji-hua; Sheng, Guo-ying; Fu, Jia-mo; Hao, Ji-ming

2006-04-01

245

Structural records of the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic extension in Eastern China and the kinematics of the Southern Tan-Lu and Qinling Fault Zone (Anhui and Shaanxi provinces, PR China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study of the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic extension in Eastern China is a kinematic analysis of faults (? 1500 striated fault data, 175 stress solutions at 90 sites) that has permitted us to separate stress fields belonging to six tectonic events. A WNW-ESE extension (1) has affected Eastern China from the Campanian to the Late Palaeocene-Early Ypresian. Under this extension, the Qinling (QLFZ) and Southern Tan-Lu (STLFZ) Fault Zones have been dextral transtensional fault zones. A first transpressional event (2) (NNE-SSW shortening) has occurred during the Late Ypresian-Lower Lutetian; the QLFZ and the STLFZ have been dextral transpressional fault zones. A NE-SW extension (3) has affected the Weihe graben during the Palaeogene; after a second transpressional event (4), the NE-SW extension (5) has been rejuvenated during the Late Miocene and the QLFZ has been a normal fault zone again and the STLFZ a sinistral transtensional fault zone; synrift subsidence has occurred in the Weihe graben. The second transpressional event (4) (WNW-ESE shortening) has occurred during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, during a period of uplifting and exhumation. At that time, the STLFZ and the QLFZ have become sinistral transpressional fault zones. A period of extension (6) has taken place during the Late Pliocene-Quaternary; the extensional direction has trended ? NNW-SSE; during this event, the QLFZ has been a sinistral transtensional fault zone and the STLFZ a dextral transtensional fault zone. These results are compared with those previously published in order to evaluate the regional significance of these tectonic events.

Mercier, Jacques Louis; Vergely, Pierre; Zhang, Yue Qiao; Hou, Ming Jin; Bellier, Olivier; Wang, Yong Ming

2013-01-01

246

China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a China ist das drittgrößte und mit mehr als 1,3 Mrd. Einwohnern das bevölkerungsreichste Land der Erde. Die sozialistische\\u000a Volksrepublik durchläuft seit den 1980er Jahren einen Reformprozess, eine Vielzahl wirtschaftlicher, politischer und sozialer\\u000a Reformen sorgt für eine innere Umgestaltung des Landes und trägt zu einer allmählichen Öffnung des Landes bei. Im Zuge dieser\\u000a Umgestaltung haben sich auch die Rahmenbedingungen des Mediensystems

Hardy Dreier

247

Motor Vehicles in China: The Impact of Demographic and Economic Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While China's transportation sector is relatively small compared to other nations—both in absolute terms and relative to the size of the population—the nation is currently experiencing one of the highest annual motorization growth rates in the world. This rapid growth has raised both excitement among business leaders over the potentially enormous market for automobiles and concern among environmentalists over their

Kevin Riley

2002-01-01

248

Going Global: The Economic and Geopolitical Effect of China's Increasing Outward Foreign Direct Investment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since at least 2002, Beijing has emphasized a policy of 'going global' for state-owned enterprises, as well as, privately-owned domestic enterprises, that has led to over $68 billion of outward foreign direct investment from China. Outward foreign direct ...

P. L. Kiefer

2013-01-01

249

Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies have attempted to make use of scale expansion as a tool to reduce inequality of higher education among regions with different development levels by providing poor regions with preferential treatment and support. This paper analyzes…

Bickenbach, Frank; Liu, Wan-Hsin

2013-01-01

250

Heart of Economic Reform: China's Banking Reform and State Enterprise Restructuring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant market-oriented reforms carried out in China have brought tremendous changes in the real sector. However, the reform of the financial sector has lagged that of the real sector. The weakness of the financial sector and the alarm of the Asian fi...

D. Tong

1999-01-01

251

JOB SATISFACTION AND RELATIVE INCOME IN ECONOMIC TRANSITION: STATUS OR SIGNAL? THE CASE OF URBAN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use two datasets for urban China to examine whether an increase in reference group income lowers or increases job satisfaction. The former is consistent with a status effect ??? an increase in the income of others lowers my satisfaction because I feel jealous. The latter is consistent with a signal effect ??? an increase in the income of others

Wenshu Gao; Russell Smyth

2009-01-01

252

Job satisfaction and relative income in economic transition: Status or signal?: The case of urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use two datasets for urban China to examine whether an increase in reference group income lowers or increases job satisfaction. The former is consistent with a status effect -- an increase in the income of others lowers my satisfaction because I feel jealous. The latter is consistent with a signal effect -- an increase in the income of others

Wenshu GAO; Russell SMYTH

2010-01-01

253

Changes in plant species diversity along a chronosequence of vegetation restoration in the humid evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Rainy Zone of West China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species diversity has been recognized as one of the vital attributes for assessing vegetation restoration. Changes in\\u000a the diversity may be related to different stages of succession. In this study, 54 sites of humid, evergreen, broad-leaved\\u000a forest were selected in the Rainy Zone of West China. A chronosequence of the sites was used to study the successive patterns\\u000a of

Wanze Zhu; Song Cheng; Xiaohu Cai; Fei He; Jinxi Wang

2009-01-01

254

An integrative classification of vegetation in China based on NOAA AVHRR and vegetation-climate indices of the Holdridge life zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a method for integrated analysis of multi-source data for vegetation classification at the continental scale, and applied it to China. Multi-temporal 1 km NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Holdridge's life zone system and its vegetation-climate classification indices such as bio-temperature (BT), potential evapotranspiration rate (PER) and precipitation (P) correspond better with undisturbed vegetation types all over

Y. Pan; P. Gong; C. He; P. Shi; R. Pu

2007-01-01

255

Bonded Logistics Park and neighboring Bonded Zone development mode and game analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, through the analysis on currently existing bonded logistics park and bonded zone in China, the advantages and disadvantages of them are clarified. Then an effective development mode of bonded logistics park and bonded zone are discussed. During the process to set up the development mode, how to utilize the existing resource and to get the best economic

Yi He; Guojun Ji; Aihua Liu

2008-01-01

256

f max and fault zone property of Lushan earthquake of 20 April 2013, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we determined f max from near-field accelerograms of the Lushan earthquake of April 20, 2013 through spectra analysis. The result shows that the values of f max derived from five different seismography stations are very close though these stations roughly span about 100 km along the strike. This implies that the cause of f max is mainly the seismic source process rather than the site effect. Moreover, according to the source-cause model of Papageorgiou and Aki (Bull Seism Soc Am 73:693-722, 1983), we infer that the cohesive zone width of the rupture of the Lushan earthquake is about 204 with an uncertainty of 13 m. We also find that there is a significant bulge between 30 and 45 Hz in the amplitude spectra of accelerograms of stations 51YAL and 51QLY, and we confirm that it is due to seismic waves' reverberation of the sedimentary soil layer beneath these stations.

Wen, Jian; Chen, Xiaofei

2013-08-01

257

The Lag Effects and Vulnerabilities of Temperature Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Subtropical Climate Zone in China  

PubMed Central

This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha—a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0–3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10–25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0–2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ?65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%–8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%–7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and younger people.

Huang, Jixia; Wang, Jinfeng; Yu, Weiwei

2014-01-01

258

Heavy metal contamination in the water-level fluctuating zone of the Yangtze River within Wanzhou Section, China.  

PubMed

The distribution, potential ecological hazards, and homologous relativity of heavy metals in the water-level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Yangtze River within the Wanzhou Section (YRWS) were investigated. The heavy metal content (Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni) of the surface soil was analysed via atomic absorption spectroscopy. The potential ecological hazards of the heavy metals in the WLFZ soil of YRWS were also evaluated using the classical Lars Hakanson potential ecological risk index method, and the relevance of the heavy metals in the soil was investigated. The average Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations were 2.14, 35.43, 18.47, and 34.52 mg/kg, respectively. The Cd and Ni contents in the soil exceeded the reference values in China by about 28.6- and 1.1-fold, respectively. Correlation analysis shows a highly significant correlation between Cd and Cr, indicating that their sources were the same. The major pollutant was Cd, which reached a very strong ecological hazard level. The potential ecological risk individual coefficients of the four heavy metals were ranked as follows: Cd (802.61) > Cu (4.43) > Ni (4.15) > Cr (1.23). The risk levels in the different regions were ranked as follows: Zhuxi River > mainstream > Mixi valley. The potential ecological risk in the WLFZ within the Zhuxi River was the highest among the regions and poses a certain health risk. PMID:21861130

Lin, Junjie; Fu, Chuan; Zhang, Xudong; Xie, Kun; Yu, Zhiguo

2012-02-01

259

[Spatial pattern of soil moisture at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China].  

PubMed

By the methods of classic statistics and geostatistics, this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at 0-50 cm depth in different sampling grain sizes (1 m x 1 m and 2 m x 2 m) at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China. In study area, the soil moisture at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and 40-50 cm depths of cropland, grassland, and cropland-grassland boundary presented moderate variance, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of grassland was higher than that of cropland. The CV increased with soil depth, and a significant linear regression relation (P < 0.05) was observed between them in sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m. In sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m, the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at different depths was obviously higher at cropland-grassland boundary than in cropland and grassland, which had a moderate to strong spatial dependency, and the range (A0) was 7.65-30.99 m; whereas in sampling grain size 2 m x 2 m, the spatial distribution of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary had both the moderate to strong spatial dependency and the pure nugget effect, and the A0 was 4.16-18.86 m, suggesting that there existed ecological edge effect of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary. PMID:20560314

Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kun; Mi, Jia; Xie, Ying-Zhong

2010-03-01

260

Genesis of Permian granites along the Kangguer Shear Zone, Jueluotage area, Northwest China: Geological and geochemical evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permian mafic and felsic intrusions occur along the Kangguer Shear Zone (KSZ) in the Jueluotage area, Eastern Tianshan, northwest China. This study focuses on the Permian felsic intrusions (288-276.2 Ma). Systematic geological and geochemical investigations show that granite plutons in the western KSZ (Dikan, Guandao and Hongshi) have lower Al and higher alkali contents than those in the eastern KSZ (Longdong, Huangshan and Baishandong). The western granite plutons experienced higher degrees of crystal fractionation than the eastern granite plutons. Both of the western and eastern Permian granite intrusions along KSZ were derived from juvenile crust, the Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics of which exhibit mixed compositions of DM and EMII type mantles. Both of the western and eastern Permian granites along KSZ were formed within post-collision background. The Dikan, Guandao and Hongshi plutons in the west KSZ sector were formed in an extensional tectonic setting, whereas the Longdong, Huangshan and Baishandong plutons in the east KSZ formed in a compressional tectonic setting.

Zhang, Dayu; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Deng, Yufeng; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Ruofei

2014-06-01

261

Assessment of desertification in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in Northern China (1982-2006) using GIMMS NDVI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in Northern China (hereafter APTZNC) is situated in an arid/semi-arid area, and is one of the most vulnerable areas in the world subject to climate change. Annual integrated the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (hereafter GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (hereafter ?NDVI) and annual rainfall were used in this study. Meanwhile, the dynamics of ?NDVI and rain-use efficiency (hereafter RUE) were predicted during the period, through the use of the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test and linear regression temporal trend analysis. The tendency of desertification under different precipitation scenarios was also analyzed. The results showed that annual ?NDVI and rainfall were not significantly correlated in most sections of the study area, yet opposite results were observed for a smaller percentage of the study area (p<0.01). Changes in vegetation productivity may increase, whereas a significant decrease in a small pixel proportion was observed. The northeast and central sections of the study area are characterized by positive trends in RUE slope values, contrary to what was observed in the southwestern sections of the study area. The results fit well with the findings through ?NDVI and RUE. Rainfall in the range of 200-500 mm can be seen as a threshold value as the desertification trend decreases and vegetation restoration capacity is enhanced with increasing rainfall.

An, Youzhi; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chaoshun; Shi, Runhe

2013-09-01

262

Origin and tectonic implication of Triassic eclogite from the Song Ma suture zone between the Indochina and South China blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Song-Ma suture zone in northern Vietnam and Laos marks the collision of the Indochina and South China blocks, which consists of ophiolite, metamorphic sole and meta-sediments. The Song Ma ophiolite consisting of serpentinized peridotite, layered gabbro, basalt and diabase is considered to represent the relics of the Paleothyan lithosphere. In this study, we provide new petrological, geochemical and geochronological data of the Song Ma eclogite for understanding its origin and tectonic implication. The eclogite is closely associated with garnet-phengite quartz schist and garnet amphibolite in the northwestern edge of the suture zone. It consists of porphyroblastic garnet and fine-grained matrix of omphacite, garnet, phengite, quartz and rutile. The porphyroblastic garnet has a large inclusion-rich core and a thin inclusion-free rim; the identified inclusions include quartz, taramite, barroisite, zoisite, epidote and rutile. Garnet porphyroblasts exhibit pronounced compositional zoning: i.e. increase pyrope with decreasing alm, grs and sps components from core (alm53-54Sps3-4Prp18-19Grs24-28) to rim (alm42-45Sps1Prp31-36Grs18-22) suggesting a prograde metamorphic history. Omphacite (Jd33-37) and phengite (Si, 3.34-3.45 pfu) are homogeneous in composition. Most interstitial amphibole in the matrix is retrograde phase. Grt-Cpx-Ph thermobarometer yielded a peak P-T condition of 28 ± 2 kbar and 700 ± 50 oC. All eclogites have basaltic composition: SiO2 ~ 49 wt%, TiO2 ~ 0.8 wt%, MgO ~ 8.6 wt% and FeOtotal 9.4-10.2 wt%. They show flat or slightly LREE-enriched patterns with negative Eu anomaly, and negative Sr and Ti anomalies in spider diagram. Selected major and trace element contents of eclogite, garnet amphibolite and metabasite plotted in the discrimination diagrams of 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and TiO2-FeO/MgO and Th/Yb-Nb/Yb suggest that the protoliths of the Song Ma eclogite and metabasite have MORB-type geochemical affinities. Zircon separates form an eclogite sample show variable sizes of 0.03-0.1 mm, without inherited cores, and stubby internal structures in cathodoluminescence images with very low Th/U of 0.01-0.05. SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon crystals yielded a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 230.5 ± 8.2 Ma (N=25). The Th/U ratios and internal structures indicate a metamorphic zircon origin. These data imply the formation of eclogite was related to subduction of sub-ophiolite oceanic basaltic rocks. The closing of the Lao-Vietnamese branch of the Paleotethys, separating the Indochina and South China blocks, led to collision of the blocks during the Middle-Late Triassic, corresponding to the major episode of the Indochina Orogeny.

Zhang, R. Y.; Lo, C.; Grove, M.; Chung, S.; Iizuka, Y.; Tri, T.

2011-12-01

263

Spatial analysis of regional economic development based on GIS in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences in development elements lead to spatial disparities of regional economic development. The study, using principal component analysis and spatial autocorrelation method, has found that the economic development in Chongqing was featured with strong positive spatial autocorrelation. The positive spatial autocorrelation appears in two forms named \\

Jinglong Liu; Gang Xu

2011-01-01

264

Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.  

PubMed

Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities. PMID:18853224

He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

2008-12-01

265

Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

2008-12-01

266

A stagnant slab in a water-bearing mantle transition zone beneath northeast China: Implications from regional SH waveform modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) nearby the subducting slabs is fundamentally important for understanding scales of mantle circulation as well as composition of the upper mantle. Partly due to a poor sampling of the MTZ for the first-arrivals at regional distances, tomographic images obtained are typically complicated for regions around the subduction zones in the northwestern Pacific (e.g. van der Hilst et al, 1991; Fukao et al, 1992; Gorbatov and Kennett, 2003; Huang and Zhao et al, 2006). Alternatively, modeling of regional P or S waveforms is an effective approach to constrain transition zone velocity structure as triplicated phases sample various depths in the mantle. The travel time, especially the relative time between the first and later arrivals, and the amplitude of different phases are sensitive to the velocities around the mantle discontinuities. However, studies based on this method proposed correspondingly different velocity structures in the MTZ behind the Japan arc (e.g. Tajima et al, 1998; Wang, et al., 2006; Tajima and Grand, 2009; Wang et al., 2009; Wang and Niu, 2010), yielding ambiguous interpretations about the thermal and composition structure in the deep upper mantle. In this study, we modeled the triplicate SH waveforms for a dense regional seismic array to constrain the detailed shear velocity structure of the MTZ beneath northeast China. A total of 43 transverse waveforms in a very narrow range of 257-270° in back-azimuth are investigated. Our results indicate that a layer of seemingly high SH velocity anomalous lies just above the bottom of the MTZ, which might be associated with the flattening part of the stagnant Pacific slab extending further west from the Japan Sea subduction zone. The lack of obvious depression of the 660 implies a limited temperature deficit (~143-166 K) around the westward-extended flattened Pacific slab. The transition zone, as a whole, is featured by low SH velocity (0.08-0.12 km/s variation) and high Vp/Vs ratio (~1.84-1.87) relative to the iasp91 model, indicating ~0.2-0.3 wt.% H2O ((3.0-4.5)×104 ppm H/Si ) content in the MTZ. The integrated picture of the slab and the morphology of the 660-km discontinuity from previous tomography images, receiver function analysis, S-to-P converted wave studies (e.g. Fukao et al., 2001; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Li and Yuan, 2003; Li et al., 2008) and our results, supports a scenario that, the fast eastward retreat of the Japan trench result in the horizontally deflected slab when the downgoing part of the subducting oceanic lithosphere hits the bottom of the upper mantle.

Ye, L.; Li, J.; Tseng, T.; Yao, Z.

2010-12-01

267

Analysing spatio-temporal pattern of changing farmland in China's arid zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-temporal imagery has been used for landuse and land cover change detection since the very early stage of remote sensing technology. As large amount of remotely sensed data have been collected, historical land cover changes and change patterns can be reconstructed by a time series recorded by images. This paper reports a study on the methodology for quantifying spatial pattern of land cover changes in an arid zone during a 13-year period and the attempts to identify the key factors for these changes. The approach is based on the post-classification method. Multi-temporal images were independently classified to establish change trajectories for the farmland land cover type. A set of class-level metrics is then calculated on the trajectory classes, including Percentage of Landscape (PLAND), Normalized Landscape Shape Index (NLSI), Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI) and Area Weighted Fractal Dimension Index (FRAC_AM). These metrics and their relationship were shown as good indicators on the environmental impact in the fragile ecosystem due to the rapid expansion of farmland accompanied with the limited water resources. The results show that spatial pattern metrics of land cover change trajectories provide an effective measurement on landscape changes, which can further be interpreted for agriculture planning and management.

Zhou, Qiming; Sun, Bo

2008-10-01

268

Occupational injuries in Shunde City—a county undergoing rapid economic change in Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in Shunde City of Southern China to look into the occurrence of occupational injuries in the ‘township industries’ during the years 1989–1993. A total of 981 major injuries and 159 fatal injuries were recorded for 602?533 person years over the 5 years, giving a major injury rate of 1.63\\/1000 per year and a fatal injury

Tak-sun Ignatius Yu; Yi Min Liu; Jiong-liang Zhou; Tze-wai Wong

1999-01-01

269

Defensive medicine or economically motivated corruption? A confucian reflection on physician care in China today.  

PubMed

In contemporary China, physicians tend to require more diagnostic work-ups and prescribe more expensive medications than are clearly medically indicated. These practices have been interpreted as defensive medicine in response to a rising threat of potential medical malpractice lawsuits. After outlining recent changes in Chinese malpractice law, this essay contends that the overuse of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions cannot be attributed to malpractice concerns alone. These practice patterns are due as well, if not primarily, to the corruption of medical decision-making by physicians being motivated to earn supplementary income, given the constraints of an ill-structured governmental policy by the over-use of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. To respond to these difficulties of Chinese health care policy, China will need not only to reform the particular policies that encourage these behaviors, but also to nurture a moral understanding that can place the pursuit of profit within the pursuit of virtue. This can be done by drawing on Confucian moral resources that integrate the pursuit of profit within an appreciation of benevolence. It is this Confucian moral account that can formulate a medical care policy suitable to China's contemporary market economy. PMID:18027252

Chen, Xiao-Yang

2007-01-01

270

Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China.  

PubMed

Reducing the use of non-renewable fossil energy reserves together with improving the environment are two important reasons that drive interest in the use of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial scale in Brazil and the United States, respectively, and this alcohol has been able to compete with conventional gasoline due to various incentives. In this paper, we examined making ethanol from the sugar extracted from the juice of sweet sorghum and/or from the hemicellulose and cellulose in the residual sorghum bagasse versus selling the sugar from the juice or burning the bagasse to make electricity in four scenarios in the context of North China. In general terms, the production of ethanol from the hemicellulose and cellulose in bagasse was more favorable than burning it to make power, but the relative merits of making ethanol or sugar from the juice was very sensitive to the price of sugar in China. This result was confirmed by both process economics and analysis of opportunity costs. Thus, a flexible plant capable of making both sugar and fuel-ethanol from the juice is recommended. Overall, ethanol production from sorghum bagasse appears very favorable, but other agricultural residues such as corn stover and rice hulls would likely provide a more attractive feedstock for making ethanol in the medium and long term due to their extensive availability in North China and their independence from other markets. Furthermore, the process for residue conversion was based on particular design assumptions, and other technologies could enhance competitiveness while considerations such as perceived risk could impede applications. PMID:15668196

Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Wyman, C E

2005-06-01

271

Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, 2005. One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session, November 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission's third Annual Report to the Congress, pursuant to Public Law 106398 (October 30, 2000), as amended by Division P of P.L. 1087 (February 20, 2003), responding to the mandate for the Commission...

2005-01-01

272

The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings

David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H. Terpstra; Yu Kai-cheng

1997-01-01

273

The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence–divergence–crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as a theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The

David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H Terpstra; Yu Kai-Cheng

2008-01-01

274

Primary rock magnetism for the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone at Jiulong outcrop, Sichuan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary rock magnetism analysis was performed on samples from the Jiulong outcrop across the Anxian–Guanxian fault of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake rupture zone. The protolith of hanging wall of this outcrop is the upper Triassic sediments, which formed the fault breccia and gouge by repeated large earthquakes. The footwall of this outcrop contains Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. The average magnetic susceptibility value of the gouge is slightly less than that of potential protolith. Based on the primary rock magnetism, the main magnetic carriers are Fe-sulfides for the gouge, magnetite for the fault breccia, and magnetite and hematite for the Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. Possibly during or after repeated large earthquakes (just like the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake), it transformed the magnetic mineral from magnetite to Fe-sulfides by low thermal decomposition processes along the Anxian–Guanxian earthquake fault, which induces the slightly less average magnetic susceptibility values of the gouge than that of potential protolith. If this magnetic mineral changed only because of repeated large earthquake process, the heating by low velocity seismic slip friction and seismic fluid could possibly have been less than 300 °C. If this magnetic mineral of the Anxian–Guanxian earthquake fault is only induced after repeated large earthquakes, the earth surface process acts an important role for the magnetic mineral change. More other further studies should be done to verify the primary magnetic mineral phase change and discriminate the time of this magnetic mineral variation.

Liu, Dongliang; Li, Haibing; Lee, Teh-Quei; Chou, Yu-Min; Song, Sheng-Rong; Sun, Zhiming; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Si, Jialiang

2014-04-01

275

Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

2010-09-01

276

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

277

Formation mechanism of the Qiongdongnan basin northwest of the South China Sea-dating the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locating on the northwestern margin of the South China Sea, the Qiongdongnan basin is a NE-trending rift zone in general. Bounding with the NW-trending Yinggehai basin and the Red River- East Vietnam Fault Zone to the west, the evolution of the Qiongdongnan basin bears large amounts of information about the slip of the Red River Fault zone. Combined the geological analysis with analogue modeling experiments, we suggest that the evolution of the Qiongdongnan is controlled not only by the southeastward to south southeastward extension, but also by the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault zone. The central depression of the Qiongdongnan basin is controlled mainly by the southeastward to south southeastward extension, while the southern depression developed under the combined stress filed of southeastward extension and the dextral slip along the NNW-trending Red River fault zone. The northern depression was formed by the combined effect of the sinistral slip along the Red River Fault Zone and the southeastward extension. According to the age of the shear fault starting to develop in the southwest of the Qiongdongnan basin, as well as the age for the northwestern part to develop, the sinistral slip of the Red River Fault zone began around early oligocene, later than the rifting of the Qiongdongnan basin. The sinistral slip rate of the Red River Fault zone during early Oligocene may be smaller than the displacement rate of the Qiongdongnan basin, but become reversed thereafter, which in turn caused tectonic inversion and folding along the western segment of the Qiongdongnan basin, and NW- to NNW-trending Rediel faults from late Oligocene to middle Miocene. Through the deformation history of the Qiongdongnan basin, we defined the sinistral slip stage Indochina along the Red River Fault zone from about 36Ma to 16Ma, and further a rapid slip occurring after 30Ma.

Sun, Z.; Jiang, J.; Xie, W.

2010-12-01

278

Litorilituus sediminis gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment of an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, China.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, curved-rod shaped bacterium with polar or subpolar flagellum, designated strain JYr2(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of Qingdao, China. The organism grew optimally at 37 °C, pH 8-9 and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl or 3-4 % sea salts (w/v; Sigma). Salt was required for growth. The strain contained isoprenoid quinone 8 (Q-8, 100 %) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C16:0 (24.1 %) and C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c (35.8 %) as major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid (PN) and two aminolipid (AL1, AL2) were the major constituents of the phospholipids. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JYr2(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Colwelliaceae. It showed <95.0 % sequence similarities to all validly published species in the family Colwelliaceae, except 95.2 % to Thalassomonas viridans DSM 13754(T) and 95.0 % to Colwellia polaris JCM 537(T). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.7 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic study, strain JYr2(T) (= CGMCC 1.10794(T) = JCM 17549(T)) was considered to represent a novel genus and species in Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Litorilituus sediminis gen. nov. sp. nov. was proposed. PMID:23839057

Wang, Yan; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Shiqi; Li, Zhao; Yu, Tong; Li, Bingyu; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

2013-09-01

279

The Economic Situation of Agro-SMEs in the Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) Zone of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes: 1) the economic situation of agro-SMEs 2) their related economic and management obstacles of the agro-SMEs and 3) the need of agro-SMEs in the IMT-GT zone of Thailand for government support. Data from 121 agro-SMEs which produce rubber and rubber wood products, seafood, and palm oil were analyzed descriptively. The results show that agro-SMEs have operated their

Sutonya Thongrak; Parinya Cherdchom; Paratta Prommee

280

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China.  

PubMed

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases. PMID:16876953

Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

2006-11-30

281

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

282

Public Health Workers and Vaccination Coverage in Eastern China: A Health Economic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than one million deaths among children under 5 years of age every year. Public Health Workers (PHWs) are needed to provide immunization services, but the role of human resources for public health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been assessed in China. The objective of this study was to test whether PHW density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China. Methods: The vaccination coverage rates of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV), Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis combined vaccine (DTP), and Poliomyelitis Vaccine (PV) were chosen as the dependent variables. Vaccination coverage data of children aged 13–24 months for each county in Zhejiang Province were taken from the Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS). Aggregate PHW density was an independent variable in one set of regressions, and Vaccine Personnel (VP) and other PHW densities were used separately in another set. Data on densities of PHW and VP were taken from a national investigation on EPI launched by Ministry of Health of China in 2013. We controlled other determinants that may influence the vaccination coverage like Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person, proportion of migrant children aged <7 years, and land area. These data were taken from Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Statistics and ZJIIS. Results: PHW density was significantly influence the coverage rates of MCV [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR) = 4.29], DTP3(AOR = 2.16), and PV3 (AOR = 3.30). However, when the effects of VPs and other PHWs were assessed separately, we found that VP density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV AOR = 7.05; DTP3 AOR = 1.82; PV3 AOR = 4.83), while other PHW density was not. Proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant determinants for vaccination coverage, while GDP per person had no effect on vaccination coverage. Conclusions: A higher density of PHWs (VP) would improve the availability of immunization services over time and space, which may increase the possibility of achieving a higher childhood vaccination coverage rate. It was indicated that the level of GDP per person had no association with the improved vaccination coverage after controlling for other potential factors. Our findings implicated that PHW density was a major constraint on immunization coverage in Zhejiang Province.

Hu, Yu; Shen, Lingzhi; Guo, Jing; Xie, Shuyun

2014-01-01

283

Opening the Black Box on Bank Efficiency in China: Does Economic Freedom Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides, for the first time, empirical evidence on the impact of economic freedom on bank efficiency in a developing economy. We employ the Data Envelopment Analysis method to compute the efficiency of the Chinese banking sector during 2000–2008. The empirical findings indicate that the inefficiency of the Chinese banking sector stems largely from scale rather than pure technical.

Fadzlan Sufian; Muzafar Shah Habibullah

2011-01-01

284

Technical and economic evaluation of solar hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel thermochemical method for solar hydrogen production was proposed by state key laboratory of multiphase flow in power engineering (SKLMFPE) of Xi’an Jiaotong University. In this paper, a technical and economic evaluation of the new solar hydrogen production technology was conducted. Firstly, the advantages of this new solar hydrogen production process, compared with other processes, were assessed and thermodynamic

Youjun Lu; Liang Zhao; Liejin Guo

2011-01-01

285

Economic Analysis of Photovoltaic Electricity Supply for an Electric Vehicle Fleet in Shenzhen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility analysis on photovoltaic (PV) electricity-powered electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of both technological and economic considerations. The analysis is based on the fact that EVs can provide energy storage capacity for intermittent PV output low carbon electricity, thus reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption of EVs. Four models of power supply systems are

Jie Tang; Bin Ye; Qiang Lu; Dong Wang; Ji Li

2012-01-01

286

Water Shortages, Water Allocation and Economic Growth: The Case of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current projections indicate that by 2025, water scarcity will affect over one quarter of the world’s population. This suggests that the need to manage water more efficiently will become more pressing during the next few years as the demand for water increases along with the expansion of economies and their populations. This paper investigates the economic impacts of efficient intraregional

Xiangming Fang; Terry L. Roe; Rodney B. W. Smith

2006-01-01

287

Economic globalization, politico?cultural identity and university autonomy: the struggle of Tsinghua University in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of research has addressed the tension between economic globalization and local cultural identity, and the tension between convergence in global policy objectives and divergence in local practices, but research has not explored the impact of the complex interactions between these tensions on an individual university, especially in relation to university autonomy. This paper attempts to bridge this

2006-01-01

288

Highway Network Connectivity, Traffic Flow Pattern, and Economic Development of China's Hainan Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-stage economic development plan was formulated in 1987 to drive Hainan's economy to the level of ‘middle-level’ developed nations by 2007. This study is an analysis of Hainan's highway network, the chief mode of transportation of the Island's bus passengers and freight movement. A number of graph indices were used to measure connectivity of the highway network through eight

Yuk LEE

1998-01-01

289

Crustal structure of a land-ocean transitional zone in the northern South China Sea, from an onshore-offshore seismic survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The littoral fault zone(LFZ), a east-northeast-trending rupture region, which is located at an land-ocean transition area in the northern margin of South China Sea(SCS). Previous work in the northern SCS identified the LFZ as the most hazardous fault in the coastal South China, in history distribution of destructive erathquakes with magnitudes greater than 7.0 occured almost all along the LFZ. But in the maritime space off the Pearl River Mouth(PRM), the LFZ is intersected with a northwest-trending fault zone, where the seismic activity level to be significantly lower in recent hundreds of years, therefore it is very important to obtain detailed deep seismogenic structure in this potential strong earthquake zone. To investigate the crustal structure of the LFZ and the potential strong earthquake zone off the PMR, a wide-angle onshore-offshore seismic experiment and a coincident multi-channel seismic(MCS) profile were carried out in the northern SCS during July and August, 2010. The seismic source was an array of four guns and the shots were recorded simultaneously by ocean bottom seismometers and portable and permanent land stations. The preliminary processing result demonstrated good quality data, clear shallow-crustal structure is obtained from the MCS data, and the permanent seismic stations received air-gun signals over a distance of 360 km. Observed and calculated P-wave traveltimes were matched by forwad modelling prior to the inversion. Finally we got the optimal two-dimensional P-wave velocity model, and the model cross the northern margin of SCS shows the Moho depth is gradually thinned from land to sea, and the LFZ is a 10 km wide low-velocity rupture zone.

Cao, J.; Xia, S.; Xu, H.; Sun, J.

2012-12-01

290

Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

291

The Effects of Affirmative Quality Feedback on Low Socio-Economic Students' Zone of Proximal Development Reading Gains (ZPDRL): A Causal-Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore upper elementary reading classes in a low socio-economic area to determine the effects frequent praise, both academically and socially, have on the zone of proximal development in reading (ZPD[subscript RL], Renaissance Learning, 2006). A causal-comparative study was utilized by observing two groups of…

Prescott, Sharon H.

2010-01-01

292

Age, Growth and Population Structure of Jumbo Flying Squid, Dosidicus Gigas, Based on Statolith Microstructure Off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, support an important squid fishery off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean waters. However, we only have limited information about their biology. In this study, age, growth and population structure of D. gigas were studied using statoliths from 333 specimens (386 females and 147 males) randomly sampled in the Chinese squid jigging surveys from

X. J. Chen; H. J. Lu; B. L. Liu; Yong Chen

2011-01-01

293

Assessing the regional impacts of climate change on economic sectors in the low-lying coastal zone of Mediterranean East Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tekken, V., Costa, L. and Kropp, J.P., 2009. Assessing the complex impacts of climate change on economic sectors in the low-lying coastal zone of Mediterranean East Morocco. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 56 (Proceedings of the 10th International Coastal Symposium), pg - pg. Lisbon, Portugal, ISBN The Mediterranean region has been found to be specifically vulnerable to climatic variability and

V. Tekken; L. Costa; J. P. Kropp

294

Occupational injuries in Shunde City--a county undergoing rapid economic change in southern China.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out in Shunde City of Southern China to look into the occurrence of occupational injuries in the 'township industries' during the years 1989-1993. A total of 981 major injuries and 159 fatal injuries were recorded for 602,533 person years over the 5 years, giving a major injury rate of 1.63/1000 per year and a fatal injury rate of 0.26/1000 per year. Both the major injury rate and the fatal injury rate increased from 1989 to 1993. Males had a higher fatal injury rate while females had a higher major injury rate. The majority of the injuries occurred in the younger age group with the 20-29 age group taking up more than half of the total casualties. Industries having high injury rates included building and construction, furniture, paper mill and printing. Electrical appliances manufacturing, sewing and shoe making were the industries having low injury rates. Enterprises with foreign capitals and those managed by individuals also had lower injury rates. Machinery injuries were the most common type of major injuries while electrocution, being hit by heavy objects and falling from height accounted for over 60% of fatal injuries. The implications of the differential distributions of the occurrence of the injures were discussed. PMID:10384223

Yu, T S; Liu, Y M; Zhou, J L; Wong, T W

1999-07-01

295

Age, maturation, and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age, maturation and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas were studied based on random sampling of the Chinese jigging fishery off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) during 2008-2010. Estimated ages ranged from 144 to 633 days, confirming that the squid is a short-lived species with longevity no longer than 2 years. Occurrence of mature females and hatching in each month indicated that Humboldt squid spawned year-round. Back-calculated hatching dates for the samples were from January 22nd, 2008 to April 22nd, 2010 with a peak between January and March. Two size-based and two hatching date-based populations could be defined from mantle length (ML) at maturity and back-calculated hatching dates, respectively. Females matured at a larger size than males, and there was a significant difference in ML at maturity between the two hatching groups ( P <0.05). The waters adjacent to 11°S off the Peruvian EEZ may be a potential spawning ground. This study shows the complexity of the population structure and large variability in key life history parameters in the Humboldt squid off the Peruvian EEZ, which should be considered in the assessment and management of this important resource.

Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Yong; Tian, Siquan; Li, Jianhua; Fang, Zhou; Yang, Mingxia

2013-01-01

296

Multifunctional assessment and zoning of crop production system based on set pair analysis-A comparative study of 31 provincial regions in mainland China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present a multifunctional indicator system for the performance evaluation of crop production system by set pair analysis method. Five functions were summarized to represent the multifunctionality of crop production system, including production function, supply function, ecological function, security function and economic function. Setting a case study of 31 provincial regions in mainland China, this paper conducted a comparison of each function in different regions, divided into 9 groups by cluster analysis. The results show that: the levels of multifunction in most regions are under a low degree balance; the production function has a high coordination with the economic function and security function in China; the supply function is lowly correlated with the other functions, especially the economic function has negative correlation with the supply function to some extent; some relevant policies and suggestions are deduced for multifunctional improvement. It is concluded that the multifunctional indicators and the set pair analysis method can serve as an effective method for the assessment of crop production system.

Tao, Jin; Fu, Meichen; Sun, Jingjing; Zheng, Xinqi; Zhang, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingxuan

2014-05-01

297

Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on sea floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China Sea and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.

Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing

2013-01-01

298

Socio-Economic Burden of Influenza among Children Younger than 5 Years in the Outpatient Setting in Suzhou, China  

PubMed Central

Background The disease burden of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza in China has not been well described. The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology and socio-economic burden of influenza in children younger than 5 years in outpatient and emergency department settings. Methods A prospective study of laboratory-confirmed influenza among children presenting to the outpatient settings in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital with symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) was performed from March 2011 to February 2012. Throat swabs were collected for detection of influenza virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Data were collected using a researcher administered questionnaire, concerning demographics, clinical characteristics, direct and indirect costs, day care absence, parental work loss and similar respiratory illness development in the family. Results Among a total of 6,901 children who sought care at internal outpatient settings, 1,726 (25%) fulfilled the criteria of ILI and 1,537 were enrolled. Influenza was documented in 365 (24%) of enrolled 1,537 ILI cases. Among positive patients, 52 (14%) were type A and 313 (86%) were type B. About 52% of influenza outpatients had over-the-counter medications before physician visit and 41% visited hospitals two or more times. Children who attended daycare missed an average of 1.9 days. For each child with influenza-confirmed disease, the parents missed a mean of 1.8 work days. Similar respiratory symptoms were reported in 43% of family contacts of influenza positive children after onset of the child's illness. The mean direct and indirect costs per episode of influenza were $123.4 for outpatient clinics and $134.6 for emergency departments, and $125.9 for influenza A and $127.5 for influenza B. Conclusions Influenza is a common cause of influenza-like illness among children and has substantial socio-economic impact on children and their families regarding healthcare seeking and day care/work absence. The direct and indirect costs of childhood influenza impose a heavy financial burden on families. Prevention measures such as influenza vaccine could reduce the occurrence of influenza in children and the economic burden on families.

Wang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Jing; Jiang, Yanwei; Ding, Yunfang; Hua, Jun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liling; Feng, Zijian; Iuliano, Danielle; McFarland, Jeffrey; Zhao, Genming

2013-01-01

299

China's Expeditionary Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China has invested in military modernization efforts to transform its defense and logistics systems to protect its economic interests abroad. For China to execute expeditionary operations to secure its interests abroad, it needs significant expeditionary ...

D. L. Welch

2011-01-01

300

Eco-geochemical Assessment of Agroecosystems: Cd in the Chengdu Economical Region, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cadmium (Cd) in the Chengdu Economic Region was studied as an example of eco-geochemical assessment on agroecosystems. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition samples, chemical fertilizers, irrigation water, and plants were collected. The concentrations of Cd and other elements in these samples were analyzed and the fluxes of input and output of the agroecosystem were calculated. The results indicated that the Cd was more concentrated in the surface soil than in the deep soil, and Cd concentration in some rice samples exceeded the upper limit of the pollution-free agricultural products. The input of Cd into the agroecosystem was 17.8 g·hm -2·y -1 on average, which accounted for 85.2% of the total input. Infiltration (2.34 g·hm -2·y -1) and harvest (1.87 g·hm -2·y -1) were the two most important Cd outputs. The average increase of Cd content in soil was 0.006 mg·kg -1·y -1, which was a result of sources outside of the agroecosystem. In the next 20 years, the area of the grade III soil will increase 2-3 times under the current input and output condition of Cd, which will lead to significant decrease of the arable land. The decrease of the pH in the study area was 0.106 y -1 because of fertilization and acid rain, of which 89.6% was from the contribution of chemical fertilizers. The present study indicates that, even though 95% of the rice production is safe, after 20 years, 70% of the safe soil will degrade, and the area of alarming soil will increase rapidly from 4% to 27% of the total cultivated area in the region.

Yang, Zhongfang; Hou, Qingye; Yu, Tao; Chen, Jiawei; Xia, Xueqi; Huang, Yong; Li, Kuo

301

INTERPRETING CHINA'S ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is unique in covering all important topics of the Chinese economy in depth but written in a language understandable to the layman and yet challenging to the expert. Beginning with entrepreneurship that propels the dynamic economic changes in China today, the book is organized into four broad parts to discuss China's economic development, to analyze significant economic issues,

Gregory C Chow

302

Comparison and discussion of the Bill of the Quantities between the mainland China and Hong Kong Special zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the core of the Bill of Quantities of developing the project costs, this paper compares the differences in the cost of project between the mainland of China and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in details, such as the rules of the Bill of Quantities ,project codes ,project names ,measurement unit price ,project quantities ,integrated units, list co-price, measures to

Zhang Shu-guo; Yang Yu-feng

2011-01-01

303

Structures, microfabrics, fractal analysis and temperature-pressure estimation of the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ductile shear zone in Xingcheng-Taili area (western Liaoning Province in China) is tectonically located in the eastern section of the northern margin of the North China craton, and dominantly comprises deformed granitic rocks of Neoarchean and Triassic to Late Jurassic age, which were affected by shearing within middle- to low-grade metamorphic conditions. Because a high-temperature metamorphic overprint is lacking, microstructures attesting to low-temperature ductile deformation are well preserved. However, the rocks and its structures have not been previously analyzed in detail except by U-Pb zircon dating and some geochemistry. Here, we describe the deformation characteristics and tectonic evolution of the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone, in order to understand the mode of lithosphericscale reactivation, extension and thinning of the North China craton. The ductile deformation history comprises four successive deformation phases: (1) In the Neoarchean granitic rocks, a steep gneissosity and banded structures trend nearly E-W (D1). (2) A NE-striking sinistral structure of Upper Triassic rocks may indicate a deformation event (D2) in Late Triassic times, which ductile deformation structures superimposed on Neoarchean granitic rocks. (3) A gneissose structure with S-C fabrics as well as an ENE-trending sinistral strike-slip characteristic (D3) developed in Upper Jurassic biotite adamellite and show the deformation characteristics of a shallow crustal level and generated mylonitic fabrics superimposed on previous structures. (4) Late granitic dykes show different deformational behavior, and shortening with D4 folds. The attitude of the foliation S and mineral stretching lineation of three main types of rocks shows remarkable differences in orientation. The shapes of recrystallized quartz grains from three main types of granitic rocks with their jagged and indented boundaries were natural records of deformation conditions (D1to D3). Crystal preferred orientation of quartz determined by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) suggest sinistral strike-slip displacement within a temperature at about 400 to 500° C. Quartz mainly shows low-temperature fabrics with dominant {0001}-slip system. As the deformed rocks show obvious deformation overprint, we have estimated flow stresses from dynamically recrystallized grain sizes of quartz separately. But coincident fractal analysis showed that the boundaries of recrystallized grains had statistically self similarities with the numbers of fractal dimension from 1.153 to 1.196 with the range of deformation temperatures from 500 to 600° C, which is corresponding to upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies conditions. Together with published flow laws to estimated deformation rates between the region of 10-11 - 10-13 S-1depending on the temperature 500 ° C, and the paleo-stress was calculated with grain size of recrystallized quartz to be at 5.0 to 32.3 MPa. Even though the deformation history and kinematics are different, progressive microstructures and texture analysis indicate an overprint by the low-temperature deformation (D3). Typical regional-dynamic metamorphic conditions ere deduced by mineral pair hornblende-plagioclase and phengite barometry identified within the ductile shear zone. The hornblende-plagioclase pair of porphyritic granitic gneiss gives metamorphic conditions of T =450-500 ° C and p=0.39 GPa, which indicate a metamorphic grade of lower-amphibolite facies conditions and a depth of around 13 km estimated following a normal lithostatic pressure. All of the structural characteristics indicate that the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone represents a mainly ENE-striking sinistral ductile strike-slip zone, which formed after intrusion of the Upper Jurassic biotite adamellite and transformed and superimposed previous deformation structures. This deformation event might have occurred in Early Cretaceous times and was related to the lithospheric thinning and extension, due to roll-back of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern North China craton.

Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Bernroider, Manfred; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Zhao, Yingli

2014-05-01

304

Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponin

McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

2011-08-18

305

Mineralogy, geochronology and geochemistry of early Triassic blueschists in the Lancang metamorphic zone of Southwest China: fingerprints of the Paleotethyan subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean and subsequent continental collision along the Lancang tectonic belt of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt is a major tectonic event for Southwest China, but the timing of the subduction and associated thermal structure preceding the final collision are still unknown. The mafic blueschists exposed in the Lancang accretionary complex provide the crucial records of the kinematics and thermal dynamics for the subduction zone. In this paper, we present a set of new mineralogical, geochronological and geochemical data for the Xuyi blueschists and report the presence of high-pressure Na-amphibole in the Lancang metamorphic zone. The mineral assemblage of these blueschists consists of zoned sodic amphibole (25-30 %), albite (15-20 %), epidote (25-30 %), phengite (5-10 %), chlorite (~5-10 %), and minor amounts of actinolite, apatite, sphere, zircon, ilmenite, quartz and secondary limonite. They display a progressive metamorphism from ~0.5 GPa to ~0.9 GPa and retrograde metamorphic overprinting (back to ~0.6 GPa) within the temperature range 300-450°C. The glaucophane and phengite developed during progressive metamorphism yielded the Ar-Ar ages of 246-251 Ma, and the glaucophane overprinted by retrograde metamorphism gave the Ar-Ar plateau ages of 233.2 ×3.1 Ma. The Xuyi blueschists yielded the zircon U-Pb age of 254 × 3 Ma, and are compositionally identical to the subalkaline basalt with typical OIB-type REE and multi-elemental patterns and ?Nd(t) values of +3.35 to +4.85. Based on all the available data, it is inferred that the protolith originated from the basaltic seamount with shallow-marine carbonate cap in the Paleotethyan Ocean till 254 Ma. The seamounts subducted eastward down to 30-35 km depths beneath the Lincang arc and became metamorphosed to form the epidote blueschists at ~246 -251 Ma. The blueschists were subsequently transported to shallower crustal levels in response to the continuous underthrust of the subducted slab and the continent-continent collision at ~230-240 Ma. These results provide the systematic constraint on the tectonic evolution and temporal framework of the southeastern Paleotethys belt in Southwest China. This study was jointly supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41190073, 41190070).

Wang, Y.; Fan, W.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Jourdan, M.

2013-12-01

306

Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families. Methods A hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 2008–2009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The incidence of outpatient influenza cases in Zhuhai was estimated on the basis of the number of influenza patients detected by the sentinel sites. A telephone survey on the direct costs associated with illness was conducted as a follow-up. Results The incidence of influenza was estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 19.2 per 1,000 population in 2009. Children aged <5 years were the most-affected population, suffering from influenza at the highest rates (34.3 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 95.3 per 1,000 population in 2009). A high incidence of 29.2–40.9 per 1000 population was also seen in young people aged 5–24 years in 2009. ILI activity and influenza virus isolations adopted a consistent seasonal pattern, with a summer peak in July 2008 and the longest epidemic period lasting from July–December 2009. The medical costs per episode of influenza among urban patients were higher than those for rural patients. A total of $1.1 million in direct economic losses were estimated to be associated with outpatient influenza during 2008–2009 in Zhuhai community. Conclusions Influenza attacks children aged <5 years in greater proportions than children in other age groups. Seasonal influenza 2008 and Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 had different epidemiological and etiological characteristics. Direct costs (mostly medical costs) impose an enormous burden on the patient family. Vaccination strategies for high-risk groups need to be further strengthened.

Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Chan-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; He, Jian-feng; Zhang, Jin-qing

2012-01-01

307

Analyzing the non-stationary space relationship of a city's degree of vegetation and social economic conditions in Shanghai, China using OLS and GWR models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the fast urbanization process, how does the vegetation environment change in one of the most economically developed metropolis, Shanghai in East China? To answer this question, there is a pressing demand to explore the non-stationary relationship between socio-economic conditions and vegetation across Shanghai. In this study, environmental data on vegetation cover, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery in 2003 were integrated with socio-economic data to reflect the city's vegetative conditions at the census block group level. To explore regional variations in the relationship of vegetation and socio-economic conditions, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were applied to characterize mean NDVI against three independent socio-economic variables, an urban land use ratio, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population density. The study results show that a considerable distinctive spatial variation exists in the relationship for each model. The GWR model has superior effects and higher precision than the OLS model at the census block group scale. So, it is more suitable to account for local effects and geographical variations. This study also indicates that unreasonable excessive urbanization, together with non-sustainable economic development, has a negative influence of vegetation vigor for some neighborhoods in Shanghai.

Wang, Kejing; Zhang, Yuan; An, Youzhi; Jing, Zhuoxin; Wang, Chao

2013-09-01

308

Evidence for Holocene activity of the Yilan-Yitong fault, northeastern section of the Tan-Lu fault zone in Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tan-Lu fault zone (TLFZ) is the largest of the major faults in eastern China. Many strong earthquakes have occurred on its section in North China, but no quake greater than M ? 6 has been documented in history at its northeastern section, the Yilan-Yitong fault (YYF) in Northeast China. It is usually considered that this fault has been inactive since late Quaternary and incapable of generating moderate-sized quakes. This conclusion is, however, questioned by our recent work based on high-resolution satellite image interpretation and field investigation. We found a 70-km-long surface scarp near Fangzheng county in Heilongjiang province (HLJP) and a 20-km-long scarp near Shulan county in Jilin province (JLP), and both are associated with the YYF. The trenches across these two scarps reveal a 14C displacement date of 1730 ± 40 years BP at Fangzheng and of 4410 ± 30 years BP at Shulan. The dextral offsets of the Songhua River and Second Songhua River and nearly horizontal fault striations indicate that the new activity of the YYF has been dominated by dextral strike slipping with a normal component. These new data suggest that, at least for partial sections, the YYF has been active since the Holocene, implying a potential seismic hazard. However, current quake-protection standards in this region are very low due to the previous view that the YYF fault has not been active since the late Quaternary. If an M ? 7 quake takes place on this fault, it will be a devastating event. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a detailed study on the whole YYF and to reassess its future seismic risk.

Min, Wei; Liu, Yugang; Jiao, Decheng; Shen, Jian; Pan, Xiaolong

2013-05-01

309

Response of vegetation and soil carbon and nitrogen storage to grazing intensity in semi-arid grasslands in the agro-pastoral zone of northern china.  

PubMed

Overgrazing has been the primary cause of grassland degradation in the semi-arid grasslands of the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China. However, there has been little evidence regarding grazing intensity impacts on vegetation change and soil C and N dynamics in this region. This paper reports the effects of four grazing intensities namely un-grazed (UG), lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG) on vegetation characteristics and soil properties of grasslands in the Guyuan county in the agro-pastoral transition region, Hebei province, northern China. Our study showed that the vegetation height, canopy cover, plant species abundance and aboveground biomass decreased significantly with increased grazing intensity. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in the 0-50 cm were highest under UG (13.3 kg C m-2 and 1.69 kg N m-2) and lowest under HG (9.8 kg C m-2 and 1.22 kg N m-2). Soil available nitrogen (SAN) was significantly lower under HG (644 kg N hm-2) than under other treatments (725-731 kg N hm-2) in the 0-50 cm. Our results indicate that the pasture management of "take half-leave half" has potential benefits for primary production and livestock grazing in this region. However, grazing exclusion was perhaps the most effective choice for restoring degraded grasslands in this region. Therefore, flexible rangeland management should be adopted in this region. PMID:24819162

Xu, Min-Yun; Xie, Fan; Wang, Kun

2014-01-01

310

Response of Vegetation and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Storage to Grazing Intensity in Semi-Arid Grasslands in the Agro-Pastoral Zone of Northern China  

PubMed Central

Overgrazing has been the primary cause of grassland degradation in the semi-arid grasslands of the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China. However, there has been little evidence regarding grazing intensity impacts on vegetation change and soil C and N dynamics in this region. This paper reports the effects of four grazing intensities namely un-grazed (UG), lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG) on vegetation characteristics and soil properties of grasslands in the Guyuan county in the agro-pastoral transition region, Hebei province, northern China. Our study showed that the vegetation height, canopy cover, plant species abundance and aboveground biomass decreased significantly with increased grazing intensity. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in the 0–50 cm were highest under UG (13.3 kg C m?2 and 1.69 kg N m?2) and lowest under HG (9.8 kg C m?2 and 1.22 kg N m?2). Soil available nitrogen (SAN) was significantly lower under HG (644 kg N hm?2) than under other treatments (725–731 kg N hm?2) in the 0–50 cm. Our results indicate that the pasture management of “take half-leave half” has potential benefits for primary production and livestock grazing in this region. However, grazing exclusion was perhaps the most effective choice for restoring degraded grasslands in this region. Therefore, flexible rangeland management should be adopted in this region.

Xu, Min-yun; Xie, Fan; Wang, Kun

2014-01-01

311

High-resolution 3D seismic waveform imaging of the fault zone structure in southwest China using double-difference seismic tomography and generalized Radon transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan-Yunnan region in southwestern China lies in the transition zone between the uplifted Tibetan plateau to the west and the Yangtze continental platform to the east. This region has a very complicated geological structure and is one of the most active areas of continental earthquakes in the world. We collected 3-component waveforms recorded by 26 Yunnan provincial stations for ~5000 events in the period of 1999 to 2004 and calculated waveform cross-correlation delay times using the BCSEIS algorithm of Du et al. (2004). The double-difference seismic tomography method is used to determine event locations and the velocity structure. Clear velocity contrasts are associated with some faults, such as the Lancangjiang Fault, the Red River Fault and the Xiaojiang Fault. Seismic tomography can, however, only resolve the smooth variations in elastic properties in Earth's interior. To better characterize the structure discontinuities, the scattered seismic waveforms need to be used. The generalized Radon transform (GRT), an inverse scattering method, was recently successfully applied to the local earthquake data around the SAFOD site, California and revealed several vertical reflectors, similar to the imaging results from an active source survey (Zhang et al., 2009). We will apply the GRT to the seismic waveform data in the Yunnan region to better understand the fault geometry in depth. This research is partly supported by SinoProbe-2 Project of Ministry of Land and Resources of China.

Zhang, Haijiang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Weijun

2010-05-01

312

Seismic Velocity Imaging of the Aftershock Zone of the 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan Earthquake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On April 20, 2013, an Mw6.6 earthquake occurred in the Lushan, Sichuan area, about 80 km southwest of the epicenter of the catastrophic 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. To monitor aftershocks, we installed a temporary seismic network consisting of 29 short period seismic stations in the aftershock zone. Within 3 weeks of operation, ~4000 events were detected and located. To characterize the seismogenic zone, we applied the double-difference seismic tomography method to determine the detailed Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models of the aftershock zone. Both catalog and cross-correlation differential times are included when using double-difference tomography. In this study, we used a so-called multiscale method to improve the velocity model step by step. The grid intervals of 5, 2 and 1 km are used sequentially with the velocity models from coarser grids used as the starting models for finer grids. Overall, the earthquake relocations clearly show a 'Y' like distribution, indicating a thrust faulting system with the conjugate fault. The mainshock of the Lushan earthquake occurred on a blind, high-angle thrust fault dipping to the west. In the northwest of the aftershock zone, aftershocks are located on the back thrust fault of the thrust fault system. Majority of aftershocks are located between 6 km and 20 km, in the brittle zone of the crust. The velocity models clearly show that there is a velocity contrast at a depth of ~8 km, below which the velocity is much higher than the above zone. The high velocity anomaly zone with a Vp of ~6.2 km/s and a Vs of ~3.6 km/s corresponds very well with the high slip zone (Hao et al., 2013), where most of earthquakes are located. In fact, for the region from the surface to 8 km depth, the slip is very weak. The weak slip zone is associated with low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/Vs anomalies and very few earthquakes, indicating the materials are too weak to accommodate stress accumulation. For the thrust fault where the mainshock is located, a clear velocity contrast can be seen across the fault above 8 km with the velocity lower to the west.

Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Wang, H.; Pei, S.

2013-12-01

313

Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China  

PubMed Central

The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the magnitudes of the He and H2 anomalies of three surveys declined significantly with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found in three replicates at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity.

2010-01-01

314

76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). If approved...would amend the Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program by...

2011-02-15

315

78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). These regulations amend the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

2013-05-15

316

76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). Amendment 30 amends the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

2011-11-04

317

76 FR 68354 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited...Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP...regulations amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program...

2011-11-04

318

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

319

China Report, Economic Affairs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcr...

1985-01-01

320

Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-06-01

321

The Hengshan low-angle normal fault zone: Structural and geochronological constraints on the Late Mesozoic crustal extension in South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We document in this paper a significant low-angle normal fault, namely the Hengshan detachment fault, which extends more than 150 km long in NNE orientation and bounds an elongated Early Cretaceous basin in Hunan Province, central South China. Detailed structural and geochronological analyses have been conducted along its southern segment, where a well exposed, ~ 3 km thick, flat ductile shear zone develops along the western margin of the Hengshan granitic massif. This zone is featured by shallow-dipping foliations of varied trend from NE to NW, which bear penetrative stretching lineations varying from NW to SW trend. Shear sense criteria indicate top-to-the-NW and top-to-the-SW motions along its northern and southern parts, respectively. Quartz c-axis orientations of mylonitic rocks from the shear zone exhibit asymmetric single or crossed girdle patterns, and the distributions of fabric point maxima suggest a simultaneous operation of basal and prism slips, indicating a deformation temperature ranging from 400 °C to 550 °C. One zircon U-Pb age of the sheared albitite and three muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages of the mylonitic rocks indicate that the ductile shearing initiated at 136 Ma and lasted till 97 Ma. The zircon U-Pb dating results of five granitic samples from the Hengshan granitic pluton yield two phases of crystallization ages of 232-228 Ma and 150-151 Ma respectively, indicating two preceding magmatic events prior to the ductile shearing in the lower plate. Our structural and geochronological data allow defining the Hengshan massif as an extensional dome, rather than a metamorphic core complex as previously predicted, due to the lack of syn-tectonic plutonism and the origin of detachment fault associated with the reactivation of the inherited thrust. This study provides crucial evidence for understanding how the mid-upper crust deformed during the process of extension, which testifies to a coeval occurrence of non-coaxial deformation of the ductile flow in the middle crust and brittle faulting in the upper crust. It also sheds new insights into the timing of the regional crustal extension in South China, and permits to constrain its onset time to be ca. 136 Ma.

Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Su, Jinbao; Li, Yong; Cui, Jianjun; Shi, Wei

2013-10-01

322

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COASTAL WEB ATLAS (CWA) FOR THE INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT OF JIANGSU, CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Section 1, the background of the research is introduced. The Jiangsu Coastal Web Atlas is a project that has the ambitious goal of being a useful resource for the various audiences that make up the management constituency of the Jiangsu Coastal Zone. The project is a depot for traditional and digital information which can be used to inform decision-making

J. YAO; X. Zhang; F. Zheng; C. Zhu

323

[Distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches, Shandong Province of East China].  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted on the abundance, group composition, and distribution of meiofauna at the Second Beach of Taiping Bay and the Shilaoren Beach in Qingdao in January, April, July, and October 2008, aimed to analyze the distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in the intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches. The measurements of environmental factors, including sediment grain size, interstitial water salinity, interstitial water temperature, organic matter content (TOC), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, were made simultaneously. There existed obvious seasonal differences in the environment factors, which could be clustered into two groups, i. e. , spring-winter group (January and April) and summer-autumn group (July and October). At the Second Beach of Taiping Bay, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1167.3 +/- 768.3) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the most dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 91% of the total. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance at the Second Beach differed horizontally, with the abundance ranked as high tide zone < middle tide zone < low tide zone. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance also varied seasonally, with high values in spring/winter and low values in summer/autumn (spring > winter > autumn > summer). The vertical distribution of the meiofauna in the high and middle tide zones of the Second Beach varied seasonally too. The meiofauna migrated downward with increasing temperature, concentrated in surface layer in winter and migrated downward in summer. At the Shilaoren Beach, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1130.2 +/- 1419.1) ind x 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda accounted for 85% of the total. There was a great similarity of the environmental factors in the middle tide zone of the Second Beach and Shilaoren Beach, which led to no differences in the meiofaunal group composition and abundance. However, the vertical distribution of the meiofauna differed between the two beaches. When the temperature decreased, the meiofauna at Shilaoren Beach migrated downward. The ANOVA and BIOENV analyses showed that the TOC and MD phi were most responsible for the distribution of meiofauna among the tidal zones, the interstitial water temperature, MD phi, and TOC were the main causes of the seasonal variation of meiofaunal group composition and abundance, whereas the sediment Chl a affected the vertical migration of meiofauna. Tourism-induced sediment variation was another factor affecting the meiofaunal abundance, group composition, and distribution. PMID:23479891

Li, Ha; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

2012-12-01

324

Molecular data and ecological niche modeling reveal population dynamics of widespread shrub Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae) in China's warm-temperate zone in response to climate change during the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Background Despite its high number of endemic deciduous broad-leaved species in China’s warm-temperate zone, far less attention has been paid to phylogeographic studies in this region. In this work, the phylogeographic history of Forsythia suspensa endemic to China’s warm-temperate zone was investigated to explore the effect of climate change during the Pleistocene on the distribution of this deciduous broad-leaved species in China. Results The cpDNA data revealed seven phylogeographical groups corresponding to geographical regions. By contrast, the nrDNA data supported the samples clustered into three groups, which was inconsistent with separate geographical regions supported by cpDNA data. Ecological niche modeling showed that the climatically suitable area during the cold period was larger than that during the warm period. Conclusions Both molecular data and ecological niche modeling indicated that F. suspensa expanded to nearby low-elevation plains in the glacial periods, and retreated to mountaintops during interglacial warmer stages. This study thus supported that F. suspensa persisted in situ during the glacial of the Pleistocene with enlarged distribution area, contrary to the hypothesis of long distance southward migration or large-scale range contraction.

2014-01-01

325

Rn and CO2 geochemistry of soil gas across the active fault zones in the capital area of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is proposed to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of soil gas Rn and CO2 across the active faults in the capital area of China, for the understanding of fault activities and the assessment of seismic hazard. A total of 342 soil gas sampling sites were measured twice in 2011 and 2012 along seven profiles across four faults. The results of soil gas surveys show that in each profile, due to the variation of gas emission rate, the concentrations of Rn and CO2 changed in the vicinity of faults. Spatial distributions of Rn and CO2 in the study areas were different from each other, which was attributed to soil types affecting the existence of Rn and CO2. Compared with 2011 soil gas survey, the increases of Rn and CO2 concentrations in 2012 were related to the enhancement of seismic activities in the capital area of China. Our results indicate that special attention for seismic monitoring should be paid to Xinbaoan-Shacheng Fault and the north east segment of Tangshan Fault in the future.

Han, X.; Li, Y.; Du, J.; Zhou, X.; Xie, C.; Zhang, W.

2014-02-01

326

Carbon Embedded in China's Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large fraction of China's greenhouse gas emissions are incurred in order to satisfy final demand of consumers in other countries; in effect, carbon emissions are embedded in China's exports. This paper explores the economic context and policy implications of carbon embedded in China's trade. China is a net exporter of embedded carbon because its entire economy is carbon-intensive; if

Frank Ackerman

327

The chemical composition and source identification of soil dissolved organic matter in riparian buffer zones from Chongming Island, China.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) that is derived from the soil of riparian buffer zones has a complex chemical composition, and it plays an important role in the transport and transformation of pollutants. To identify the source of DOM and to better understand its chemical and structural properties, we collected 33 soil samples from zones with fluctuating water levels along the major rivers on Chongming Island, evaluated the DOM contents in riparian soil, analyzed the chemical composition and functional groups and traced DOM origins by using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with clustering analysis. All sampling sites were divided into four groups by principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the DOM molecules. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the DOM contents between every two groups; however, the DOM fractions differed significantly among the different site groups in the following order: ? lipids and ? proteins>? sugars and ? fatty acids>? amino acids, ? indoles and ? alkaloids. DOM in the riparian buffer zones originated from riparian plants, domestic sewage and agricultural activities, and the hydrophobic and amphiphilic fractions accounting for over 60% of the identified molecules were the dominant fractions. Our study has confirmed the heterogeneous properties of DOM, and it is of vital importance to isolate and characterize the various DOM fractions at the molecular level for a better understanding of the behavior and roles of DOM in the natural environment. PMID:24997959

Wang, Yulai; Yang, Changming; Li, Jianhua; Shen, Shuo

2014-09-01

328

Cumulative environmental impacts and integrated coastal management: the case of Xiamen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts and the implementation of integrated coastal management within the harbour of Xiamen, China, an urban region in which the coastal zone is under increasing pressure as a result of very rapid economic growth. The first stage of analysis incorporates components of a cumulative effects assessment, including (a) identification of sources of

Xiongzhi Xue; Huasheng Hong; Anthony T. Charles

2004-01-01

329

78 FR 40638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for dusky rockfish in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of dusky rockfish in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES:...

2013-07-08

330

78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY...Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI FMP), and amend...Area 4B) and the sablefish Aleutian Islands regulatory area that is similar to...

2013-11-14

331

76 FR 11139 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest Specifications...fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action...to the BSAI Atka mackerel and Aleutian Islands subarea Pacific cod fisheries to...

2011-03-01

332

78 FR 13813 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and 2014 Harvest Specifications...fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action...yellowfin sole, Pacific cod, and Aleutian Islands Pacific ocean perch), 10.7...

2013-03-01

333

77 FR 10669 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2012...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2012 and 2013 Harvest Specifications...fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action...the Bering Sea subarea and the Aleutian Island subarea. This split depends on NMFS...

2012-02-23

334

76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). This proposed...would amend the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

2011-08-10

335

78 FR 6279 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). If approved...regulations will amend the Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

2013-01-30

336

78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY...Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI FMP) for review...Program for sablefish in the Aleutian Islands regulatory area. The proposed CQE...

2013-11-01

337

75 FR 76372 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed 2011 and 2012 Harvest Specifications...fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area. This action...Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area. The intended...

2010-12-08

338

Extreme Climatic Events Modelling and Economic Impacts Under Different Climate Change Scenarios: a Risk Management Application to the Rural Sector in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing body of literature has shown the increase of frequency of occurrence of extreme weather events such as heat waves or heavy precipitation events across the world. Several economic systems and networks present high levels of vulnerability to weather variability and extreme weather events. This research proposes a methodological framework to characterize the cascading climate-to-economy risk profiles of economic systems to weather variability in different global warming scenarios. A weather-index and machine learning-based approach is introduced to encode and characterize the studied systems vulnerability to weather variability. The latter is enclosed in a "weather-within-climate" stochastic downscaling approach in order to characterize the interaction of low and high frequency climate variability and project risk profiles into future climate scenarios. The probabilistic weather-driven physical loss risk profiles are finally used to model supply shock-driven economic direct and indirect economic losses in the studied region or country. Given the acute vulnerability of the rural population to weather variability and global warming, this probabilistic risk assessment-based methodology is applied to the study the risk profile of weather-driven loss in the rural sector in a developing country, China. Province-level weather-to-economy risk profiles results of weather-driven staple crops loss under different technological and climate scenarios are presented. Implications for the design of risk management policy mixes are finally discussed.

Chavez, E.; Ghil, M.

2013-05-01

339

Structures in the transition zone of the northeast South China Sea: serpentinite dome vs mantle exhumation, or evidence of Mesozoic active subduction transferring to Cenozoic passive extension?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete sedimentary sequences and weak erosion make the transition zone of the South China Sea the optimal place to study the entire evolution history of marginal sea basins, as well as the transition mechanism from active subduction to passive extension. 2D long cable seismic profiles revealed that both Baiyun and Liwan sag in the northeast South China Sea margin were lack of large controlling faults, especially in Liwan sag, syn-rift sequences waved above the basement. Dome-like uplifts(serpetinite uplifts?) or diapirs(?) came from below the basement, caused the syn-rift sequences pushed up around 36Ma(T80). Gravity inversion based on seismic reflection indicated that the dome has a lower density and a lower layer velocity than normal crust. Also around the Continent-Ocean Boundary (COB), a small segment similar to the lower crust was exposed. Between this exposed segment and the Cenozoic oceanic crust, mantle seems to be exhumed along the breakup point. Between the COB and roughly the shelf break, high velocity lower crust was discriminated in the northeast continental margin. Structures in northeast South China Sea seems having many similarities with Newfoundland-Iberia margin, by serpentinite(?) dome and exhumed mantle, although spreading rate here is intermediate. In fact, regional background suggests that there might be another interpretation: transition from Mesozoic subduction to Cenozoic extension occurred through paleo oceanic crust breakup in the northeast, which in turn retained Mesozoic subduction system beneath the northeast continental margin. Confined with magnetic anomaly, Bouguer gravity gradient anomaly, and well drilling lithological evidences, Cenozoic Baiyun sag developed upon Mesozoic fore-arc, while Cenozoic Liwan sag developed upon Mesozoic accretionary prism. The high velocity lower crust was caused by both remnant subducted slab and by Oceanic-Continent interaction due to subduction. There might also be serpentinite dome and exhumed mantle, but may be caused by extension and breakup of paleo oceanic slab, not the depth-dependent extension. IODP drillings are needed to test all these scientific conjectures.

Sun, Z.; Zhou, D.

2013-12-01

340

Progress, influence and perspectives of emergy theories in China, in support of environmentally sound economic development and equitable trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergy Accounting and Synthesis, developed by Howard Odum in the 1980s, accounts for both the work of nature and that of humans as part of it in generating products and services. Since the 1990s, when Odum's system theories and emergy approach were introduced to China, a great attention was paid to them, since they appeared to Chinese scholars very important,

Xiaobin Dong; Sergio Ulgiati; Maochao Yan; Wangsheng Gao

2008-01-01

341

Biogas programs in India and China, an ecologically appropriate technology in two highly contrasting socio-economic settings  

SciTech Connect

The biogas programs of India and the Peoples Republic of China are compared and contrasted. Cultural, geographic, religious and social factors are used to explain the degree of success of one program in relation to the other. General conclusions, based on the data of the study, are presented. (Refs. 33).

Thery, D.

1981-10-01

342

Economic Development and the Market Place for Education: Dynamics of the International Schools Sector in Shanghai, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To some extent, all schools operate in a market place; but the interaction with the market place may be particularly evident in the international schools sector, since many such schools are operated by foundations or private companies which charge fees. This article focuses on the distinctive market place of Shanghai, China, which has undergone…

Yamato, Yoko; Bray, Mark

2006-01-01

343

Sedimentary record of hydrophobic organic compounds in relation to regional economic development: A study of Taihu Lake, East China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores taken from Taihu Lake, East China were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The results showed a general sharp increase of HCH, DDT, PAH and PBDE concentrations in the surface layers, corresponding to a sedimentation time of 1980 and 1990 onward in the Meiliang Bay and Xukou Bay, respectively. The

Guoqing Liu; Gan Zhang; Zhangdong Jin; Jun Li

2009-01-01

344

Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

Liu, Ye

2013-01-01

345

Application of eco-economy regionalization in western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological economics crossed extensively with some disciplines such as ecology, geography, economics, etc in China. And it is promoting the relevant disciplines to develop effectively in depth fields. The key research direction of eco-economic regionalizing is eco-economic space pattern, rule of territorial differentiation and eco-economic topological optimization. Based on GIS spatial analyze, the article elaborates the main characteristics and the problems of every eco-economic zones, districts and regions with the comprehensive geographical statistic data. The western eco-economic regionalizing was delimited by analyzing the superposition for ecological environment value and human actives value, refer to the topography and administrative boundary between provinces and the cities, the attachment of the regionalizing plans and territorial the continuity. There have several main indexes used in the regionalizing and the results to show the main character of each region, which comprise precipitation, temperature, primary production potential, while the population carrying capacity, and the index of water resources, land resources, landscape degradation, urbanization, and economic development, etc. To each type of eco-economic region, there are other analyzes respectively from the social, economic, and natural environment aspects. The result shows that there does now have serious economic development in western China, while the environmental problem still cannot be ignored.

Zhang, Xiaojun; Dong, Suocheng; Weihong, Yin

2008-08-01

346

The diagnosis of the economic security of basic services in the Arctic zone of the Republic of Sakha (Iakutia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed is an approach to federal standards of basic services in dispersed Arctic settlements and forms of state aid to them based on indicators of economic security. The analysis has shown that the orientation to the old transport scheme of early delivery and remote suppliers can be very dangerous, while the shift to direct deliveries can considerably improve the provision

V. N. Kharitonova; I. A. Vizhina

2002-01-01

347

Refined Description of Essential Fish Habitat for Pacific Salmon Within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone in Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005 the North Pacific Fishery Management Council used an improved analytical approach to identify essential fish habitat (EFH) for most species of groundfish and crab, however, due to the lack of available information, the entire U.S. Exclusive Econom...

E. Farley J. Orsi K. Echave M. Eagleton

2012-01-01

348

76 FR 35772 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...other fisheries. Because the Bering Sea snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) and many economically...flexibility for recipients of Bering Sea snow crab quota share (QS) could give them...groundfish fisheries to prevent Bering Sea snow crab QS recipients from increasing...

2011-06-20

349

76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...flexibility for recipients of Bering Sea snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) QS could give...fisheries. Historically, the Bering Sea snow crab fishery and many economically valuable...fully participate in either the Bering Sea snow crab fishery or the GOA groundfish...

2011-03-28

350

U Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: Implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction-zone UHP metamorphism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the Zhimafang ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) peridotite from pre-pilot drill hole PP-1 of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. The peridotite occurs as lens within quartofeldspathic gneiss, and has an assemblage of Ol + Opx + Cpx + Phl + Ti-clinohumite (Ti-Chu) + Grt (or chromite) ± magnesite (Mgs). Zircons were separated from cores at depths of 152 m (C24, garnet lhezolite), 160 m (C27, strongly retrograded phlogopite-rich peridotite) and 225 m (C50, banded peridotite), and were dated by SHRIMP mass spectrometer. Isometric zircons without inherited cores contain inclusions of olivine (Fo 91-92), enstatite (En 91-92), Ti-clinohumite, diopside, phlogopite and apatite. The enstatite inclusions have low Al 2O 3 contents of only 0.04-0.13 wt.%, indicating a UHP metamorphic origin. The weighted mean 206Pb / 238U zircon age for garnet lherzolite (C24) is 221 ± 3 Ma, and a discordia lower intercept age for peridotite (C50) is 220 ± 2 Ma. These ages are within error and represent the time of subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. A younger lower intercept age of 212 ± 3 Ma for a foliated wehrlite (C27) was probably caused by Pb loss during retrograde metamorphism. The source of zirconium may be partially attributed to melt/fluid metasomatism within the mantle wedge. Geochronological and geochemical data confirm that the mantle-derived Zhimafang garnet peridotites (probably the most representative type of Sulu garnet peridotites) were tectonically inserted into a subducting crustal slab and subjected to in situ Triassic subduction-zone UHP metamorphism.

Zhang, R. Y.; Yang, J. S.; Wooden, J. L.; Liou, J. G.; Li, T. F.

2005-09-01

351

Effects of storm runoff on the thermal regime and water quality of a deep, stratified reservoir in a temperate monsoon zone, in Northwest China.  

PubMed

Jinpen Reservoir is a deep, stratified reservoir in Shaanxi province, located in a warm temperate zone of Northwest China. Influenced by a temperate monsoon climate, more than 60% of the annual precipitation is concentrated from late summer to autumn (July-September). In recent years, extreme rainfall events occurred more frequently and strongly affected the thermal structure, mixing layer depth and evolution of stratification of Jinpen Reservoir. The reservoir's inflow volume increased sharply after heavy rainfall during the flooding season. Large volumes of inflow induced mixing of stratified water zones in early autumn and disturbed the stratification significantly. A temporary positive effect of such disturbance was the oxygenation of the water close to the bottom of the reservoir, leading to inhibition of the release of nutrients from sediments, especially phosphate. However, the massive inflow induced by storm runoff with increased oxygen-consuming substances led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate. After the bottom water became anaerobic again, the bottom water quality would deteriorate due to the release of pollutants from sediments. Heavy rainfall events could lead to very high nutrient input into the reservoir due to massive erosion from the surrounding uninhabited steep mountains, and the particulate matter contributed to most nutrient inputs. Reasonably releasing density flow is an effective way to reduce the amounts of particulate associated pollutants entering the reservoir. Significant turbid density flow always followed high rainfall events in Jinpen Reservoir, which not only affected the reservoir water quality but also increased costs of the drinking water treatment plant. Understanding the effects of the storm runoff on the vertical distributions of water quality indicators could help water managers to select the proper position of the intake for the water plant in order to avoid high turbidity outflow. PMID:24485908

Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim; Ma, Weixing; Sun, Xin; Xu, Jinlan

2014-07-01

352

Isolation and characterization of a marine magnetotactic spirillum axenic culture QH-2 from an intertidal zone of the China Sea.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. Because of their fastidious requirements for growth conditions, only very few axenic MTB cultures have been obtained worldwide. In this study, we report a novel marine magnetotactic spirillum axenic culture, designated as QH-2, isolated from the China Sea. It was able to grow in semi-solid or liquid chemically defined medium. The cells were amphitrichously flagellated and contained one single magnetosome chain with an average number of 16 magnetosomes per cell. Phosphate and lipid granules were also observed in the cells. Both rock magnetism and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy characterizations indicated that the magnetosomes in QH-2 were single-domain magnetites (Fe(3)O(4)). QH-2 cells swam mostly in a straight line at a velocity of 20-50 microm/s and occasionally changed to a helical motion. Unlike other magnetotactic spirilla, QH-2 cells responded to light illumination. As a consequence of illumination, the cells changed the direction in which they swam from parallel to the magnetic field to antiparallel. This response appears to be similar to the effect of an increase in [O(2)]. Analysis of the QH-2 16S rRNA sequence showed that it had greater than 11% sequence divergence from freshwater magnetotactic spirilla. Thus, the marine QH-2 strain seems to be both phylogenetically and magnetotactically distinct from the freshwater Magnetospirillum spp. studied previously. PMID:20178843

Zhu, Kailing; Pan, Hongmiao; Li, Jinhua; Yu-Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Sheng-Da; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Zhou, Ke; Yue, Haidong; Pan, Yongxin; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei

2010-05-01

353

Rhizosphere dynamics of two riparian plant species from the water fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir, P.R. China - pH, oxygen and LMWOA monitoring during short flooding events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River in China, the reservoir management created a new 30m water fluctuation zone 45-75m above the original water level. Only species well adapted to long-time flooding (up to several months) will be able to vegetate the river banks and replace the original vegetation. To investigate how common species of

Christina M. Schreiber; Ulrich Schurr; Bo Zeng; Agnes Höltkemeier; Arnd J. Kuhn

2010-01-01

354

Social, economic, political and health system and program determinants of child mortality reduction in China between 1990 and 2006: A systematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Between 1990 and 2006, China reduced its under-five mortality rate (U5MR) from 64.6 to 20.6 per 1000 live births and achieved the fourth United Nation’s Millennium Development Goal nine years ahead of target. This study explores the contribution of social, economic and political determinants, health system and policy determinants, and health programmes and interventions to this success. Methods For each of the years between 1990 and 2006, we obtained an estimate of U5MR for 30 Chinese provinces from the annual China Health Statistics Yearbook. For each year, we also obtained data describing the status of 8 social, 10 economic, 2 political, 9 health system and policy, and six health programmes and intervention indicators for each province. These government data are not of the same quality as some other health information sources in modern China, such as articles with primary research data available in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wan Fang databases, or Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance system. Still, the comparison of relative changes in underlying indicators with the undisputed strong general trend of childhood mortality reduction over 17 years should still capture the main effects at the macro-level. We used multivariate random effect regression models to determine the effect of 35 indicators individually and 5 constructs defined by factor analysis (reflecting effects of social, economic, political, health systems and policy, and health programmes) on the reduction of U5MR in China. Results In the univariate regression applied with a one-year time lag, social determinants of health construct showed the strongest crude association with U5MR reduction (R2?=?0.74), followed by the constructs for health programmes and interventions (R2?=?0.65), economic (R2?=?0.47), political (R2?=?0.28) and health system and policy determinants (R2?=?0.26), respectively. Similarly, when multivariate regression was applied with a one-year time lag, the social determinants construct showed the strongest effect (beta?=?11.79, P?economic growth alone may all fail to achieve the desired reduction in child mortality when improvement of the key social determinants of health is lagging behind. To accelerate progress toward MDG4, low- and middle-income countries should undertake appropriate efforts to promote maternal education, reduce fertility rates, integrate minority populations and improve access to clean water and safe sanitation. A cross-sectoral approach seems most likely to have the greatest impact on U5MR.

Feng, Xing Lin; Theodoratou, Evropi; Liu, Li; Chan, Kit Yee; Hipgrave, David; Scherpbier, Robert; Brixi, Hana; Guo, Sufang; Chunmei, Wen; Chopra, Mickey; Black, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Guo, Yan

2012-01-01

355

Zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and granitoids in the coastal tectonic zone of SE China: Constraints on the timing of Late Mesozoic orogeny  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal Changle-Nan'ao tectonic zone of SE China contains important geological records of the Late Mesozoic orogeny and post-orogenic extension in this part of the Asian continent. The folded and metamorphosed T3-J1 sedimentary rocks are unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks or occur as amphibolite facies enclaves in late Jurassic to early Cretaceous gneissic granites. Moreover, all the metamorphic and/or deformed rocks are intruded by Cretaceous fine-grained granitic plutons or dykes. In order to understand the orogenic development, we undertook a comprehensive zircon U-Pb geochronology on a variety of rock types, including paragneiss, migmatitic gneiss, gneissic granite, leucogranite, and fine-grained granitoids. Zircon U-Pb dating on gneissic granites, migmatitic gneisses, and leucogranite dyke yielded a similar age range of 147-135 Ma. Meanwhile, protoliths of some gneissic granites and migmatitic gneisses are found to be late Jurassic magmatic rocks (ca. 165-150 Ma). The little deformed and unmetamorphosed Cretaceous plutons or dykes were dated at 132-117 Ma. These new age data indicate that the orogeny lasted from late Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) to early Cretaceous (ca. 135 Ma). The tectonic transition from the syn-kinematic magmatism and migmatization (147-136 Ma) to the post-kinematic plutonism (132-117 Ma) occurred at 136-132 Ma.

Cui, Jianjun; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Xianbing; Ma, Licheng

2013-01-01

356

Receiver function images of the mantle transition zone beneath NE China: new constraints on intraplate volcanism, deep subduction and their potential link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better understand the intraplate volcanism and the subduction geometry of the Pacific plate, we installed 127 broadband seismic stations across northeast China between 2009 and 2011. The NorthEast China Extended SeiSmic Array (NECESSArray) covers an area ~1800 km and ~600 km in the EW and NS directions, respectively, with a station spacing of ~70-80 km. While seismic tomography offers a direct way to map a descending cold slab and a hot mantle upwelling with a high and low seismic velocity, respectively, receiver function data provides an indirect approach to image them when they interact with the 410-km and 660-km seismic discontinuities. The two discontinuities, which define the upper and lower bounds of the mantle transition zone, are believed to be associated with the phase transitions from olivine to wadsleyite and from ringwoodite to perovskite plus magnesiowustite that have a positive and negative Clapeyron slope, respectively. Lateral variations in the transition-zone thickness, as well as variations in the depths of the two discontinuities thus can be used to indirectly map out a descending cold slab and an uprising hot plume. We collected a total of ~50,000 receiver-function data from ~800 teleseismic events, and employed a common-conversion-point stacking (CCP) method to generate a 3D reflectivity volume beneath the study area. To position the P-to-S conversions to the correct depths, we utilized 3D crustal and mantle models as the reference velocity model to make the time-depth conversion. The 3D reflectivity volume was generated in an area between 115-135°E and 40-49°N, in the depth range of 200 to 1000 km. We found significant topographic relief on both the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities across the study area. In particular, the 660-km discontinuity is depressed by as much as ~30-40 km in the western end of the deep seismicity. The depression is elongated along the strike of the deep seismicity and is limited within less than 200 km in the E-W subduction direction. To the west of this depression, the 660-km discontinuity rises suddenly by as much as 20 km in a circular area with a radius of ~100 km centered at 123.5°E and 42.5°N. The depression and uplift correspond well with a high and low velocity anomaly, respectively, in the P- and S-wave tomographic velocity maps at the same depth. Our results thus suggest that stagnant subducted slab may not be the extensive feature of deep subduction in this region, and the origin of the Changbaishan volcano located in the border between China and North Korea may not be derived from dehydration of the flat-lying Pacific plate. The low velocity mantle upwelling arising at the tip of the subducting slab may be the eventual source that feeds the enigmatic volcano.

Liu, Z.; Niu, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Grand, S.; Kawakatsu, H.; Ning, J.; Tanaka, S.; Obayashi, M.; Ni, J. F.

2012-12-01

357

China’s Changing Economic Structures and Its Implications for Regional Patterns of Trade Production and Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is tremendous momentum for economic and financial integration in East Asia today. Partly inspired by the formation of the European Union and partly as a response to the 1997\\/98 Asia financial crisis, many East Asian countries are showing greater commitment to regional economic cooperation. A number of bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have either been concluded or are being

Tan Kim Song; Khor Hoe Ee

2005-01-01

358

Decadal to millennial deformation in the Pamir - Tian Shan collision zone, NW China and surface expression of active tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision between the Pamir and the Tian Shan is a type example of intracontinental collision. GPS studies show that in Northwest China, at the junction between the Tarim basin, the Pamir and the Tian Shan, 7-9 mm/y of north-south shortening are presently accommodated across the boundary between the two orogens. Here, the deformation has mostly stepped out from the high mountain front into the foreland and has formed a complex array of compressional structures. We compare rates of decadal deformation in the area with 104- to 106-year estimates and investigate the extent to which stream profiles and topography reflect the active tectonics in this setting. A dataset of decadal deformation rates around the Tarim-Tian Shan-Pamir junction in Northwest China is obtained from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time-series analysis. We use the StaMPS/MTI package to combine small-baseline and persistent-scatterer techniques and obtain results that show no significant residual topographic phase correlation. Our data show that deformation has stepped away from the high mountain front and is concentrated on a few structures in the foreland of the Pamir and Tian Shan. Line-of-sight deformation of up to 2-4 mm/y on the Pamir Frontal Thrust (PFT) and the Kashi detachment anticline are observed. No significant displacement of the Main Pamir Thrust can be detected. Within error, the modern deformation rates agree with previously published millennial to million-year estimates along the PFT. However, decadal deformation rates deviate from million-year shortening and rock-uplift rates of anticlines in the foreland of the Tian Shan. It remains unclear whether the discrepancy arises from a recent change to a new persistent uplift rate, or merely from short timescale fluctuation of uplift rate, for example within an earthquake cycle. In an additional step, we extract stream profiles and normalized steepness index (ksn) values for rivers with drainage areas larger than 9 km2 using an SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Stream profiles of large catchments (drainage area of > 1000 km2) draining the Pamir and the Tian Shan are straight or slightly convex across the entire foreland with consequent downstream increases in ksn values. However, no significant changes in stream profiles or ksn values are observed where channels cross presently active structures in the foreland. We note exceptions from this observation at locations of strong litholgic contrasts. The analysis of many small streams with headwaters in the active structures is limited by the resolution of the DEM. A few channels that are large enough to be resolved do not consistently have higher ksn values than equivalently sized streams on presently inactive structures. Our observations, therefore, show that the stream profiles and steepness indices of streams with drainage areas > 9 km2 do not clearly indicate the locus of active deformation in this area despite rock-uplift rates of 1-4 mm/y. Possible reasons for this result include the dry climate of the Tarim basin leading to an overestimation of contributing drainage area in the foreland, the rapid erosion of weak lithologies exposed in many of the active structures, and the possible role of sediment load in rivers and aggradation in the foreland in smoothing of any steepening that was due to uplift.

Bufe, A.; Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Bekaert, D. P.; Hussain, E.

2013-12-01

359

Seismic reflection imaging of a paleo-strike-slip zone: Permain-Jurassic structures and implications for the evolution of the NW Junggar Basin, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of inactive paleo-strike-slip faults can be difficult, especially when their fault-related structures have been buried by several kilometers of sediments. However, the subsurface seismic data are able to identify the characteristics of the structures in these areas. In this study, we focus on the geometry and evolution of the strike-slip fault zones in the Northwest Junggar Basin, by using both 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data. Based on the results of our analysis, we characterized the Dalabute and Hong-Che Domains, whose structures are both fitting for the Riedel shear model. In the Dalabute domain, the observed structures are mainly composed of en echelon folds and main P and R faults with other secondary reverse faults, while the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ) is oriented to Northeast-Southwest. However, the structures in Hong-Che domain are characterized by main strike-slip faults with a narrow deformation zone along the straight fault traces, and compressional faults and folds within their restraining bends. As well, the orientation of the PDZ changes to North-South. Meanwhile, the extensional structures observed in both Dalabute and Hong-Che domains suggest the regional extension in the Early to Middle Permian. The growth strata associated with en echelon folds indicates the onset of strike-slip fault in Dalabute domain is Late Permian, whereas a few data show the onset of strike-slip fault in Hong-Che region is no later than Middle Triassic. The deformation in Northwest Junggar baisn lasted untill Late Jurassic. The Dalabute domain reactived and inversed to sinitral strike-slip during the Cenzoic time, whereas the Hong-Che domain was almost inactive then. We proposed that the observed Dalabute and Hong-che dextral strike-slip system might be a part of sinistral shear system in the Altaid orogenic collage in central Asia during the Late Permian to Jurassic time, which also helps to better understand the evolution of the NW Junggar Basin, NW China.

Yu, Y.; Wang, X.; Wang, R.

2013-12-01

360

Economic evaluation of methadone maintenance treatment in HIV\\/AIDS control among injecting drug users in Dehong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost and cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China. The cost-effectiveness analysis used process data retrospectively collected from the MMT clinics in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, from July 2005 to December 2007, a 30-month period available at the time of the study. Alternative estimates of

Yan Xing; Jiangping Sun; Weihua Cao; Liming Lee; Haoyan Guo; Hui Li; Song Duan

2012-01-01

361

Economic evaluation of methadone maintenance treatment in HIV\\/AIDS control among injecting drug users in Dehong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost and cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China. The cost-effectiveness analysis used process data retrospectively collected from the MMT clinics in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, from July 2005 to December 2007, a 30-month period available at the time of the study. Alternative estimates of

Yan Xing; Jiangping Sun; Weihua Cao; Liming Lee; Haoyan Guo; Hui Li; Song Duan

2011-01-01

362

A review of the most economically important poisonous plants to the livestock industry on temperate grasslands of China.  

PubMed

The majority of the literature on poisonous plant species in China is published in Chinese and not available to the majority of interested researchers and grassland managers in other countries. Therefore, a review of the Chinese literature was conducted to summarize the occurrence of poisonous plant species on temperate grasslands in China. We reviewed the literature to obtain general information on poisonous species but focus on locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.), drunken horse grass [Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng ex Tzvelev] and langdu (Stellera chamaejasme L.) for information on their toxins, distribution and ecology, control methods and alternate uses. Of the almost 1300 poisonous species found on grasslands in China, these species are responsible for an estimated 80% of all livestock losses. This includes loss of performance as well as mortality. The locoweeds are a complex made up of Oxytropis and Astragalus species. The toxic principle in this complex, as well as in drunken horse grass, is the result of an endophyte fungus whereas in langdu it is produced by the plant. All these species are native to the grasslands, which suggest they have been a problem ever since herding began. Over that period of at least several millennia, herders would have learned and adapted to the presence of poisonous species. Strategies were developed and therapies employed to allow the animals to cope before and after poisoning. Nevertheless, grazing management could still be refined that would allow the use of the toxic legumes, while preventing poisonous symptoms, as has been tested elsewhere. PMID:23015535

Zhao, Mengli; Gao, Xinlei; Wang, Jing; He, Xiaolei; Han, Bing

2013-01-01

363

Develop the economy, initiate changes and promote the benign cycle of population and economic development: implications of the development of population and economy in the coastal areas of China.  

PubMed

The level of economic activity and social productivity have increased markedly in much of China over the past 10 years. Progress in these areas has impacted upon population norms and dynamics in the country. Theory holds that increases in educational quality lead to growth in labor productivity and lower fertility. This phenomenon has been observed especially in 12 coastal regions of China; the challenge is to replicate and extend this phenomenon throughout the country. Manual labor is absorbed as economies grow in countries in the most formative stages of economic development and technological advancement. Accordingly, parents value have significant numbers of children to help ensure familial economic advancement and personal old-age security. As economies develop, however, the productivity of labor increases and skilled workers grow in demand. Parents may therefore be better served by bearing fewer, but more highly educated. While fertility has declined overall in China as a result of strict population policy, fertility has declined at a comparatively greater extent in the more developed coastal regions of the country. These findings point to the combined influence of population policy and economic factors in shaping the fertility of China. To best encourage the transfer of parental interest from the number of offspring to the quality of offspring, this paper recommends adhering to national population policy, raising fines for those who bear unplanned children, raising benefits for those bearing only one child, and developing technology and the economy. PMID:12286122

Tian, X

1992-01-01

364

Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

Samuel F. Law

2008-01-01

365

Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.  

PubMed

Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

2014-02-01

366

An Analysis on Spatial Differentiation and Spatial Expansion of County Economic Development in Hebei Province of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The article analyzes development of county economic in Hebei, in order to find spatial expansion direction of the region.\\u000a By factor analysis and cluster analysis, it classifies 136 counties into four groups: developed, middle, lower-middle and\\u000a less developed counties. Results show that county economic has no enough competition, significant differentiation between\\u000a the southern and the northern, developed counties distributes along

HaiLong Ma

367

China’s cultural and intellectual rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has emerged as a new economic power and its impacts are felt in many parts of the world. However, the rise of China\\u000a is likely to make an even more enduring contribution to the world if its economic growth is accompanied by a cultural and\\u000a intellectual rejuvenation. Such kind of rejuvenation has happened before in Chinese history and the

Siam-Heng Heng

2008-01-01

368

Response of the turbidity maximum zone to fluctuations in sediment discharge from river to estuary in the Changjiang Estuary (China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Changjiang Estuary, interactions between the sea and the river result in the development of a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Riverine sediments are an important source for TMZ formation. Since the 1960s, sediment discharge from the river basin to the estuary has decreased due to dam construction, water and soil conservation, and water diversion projects. Thirty-two Landsat images of the estuary, covering the period from 1979 to 2008, were collected to identify the TMZ response to sediment decline. A threshold value of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of 0.7 kg/m3, corresponding to a spectrum reflectance of 5% of Landsat MSS band 7 and 7% of Landsat TM/ETM band 4, was used to identify the Changjiang Estuary TMZ. The TMZ area was then extracted from each image to investigate its temporal and spatial variations during the past 30 years. The images were grouped into five time series; the average TMZ area of each series was estimated. The results show that the TMZ area declined 23% from series (a) to series (e), responding to a 77% reduction in riverine sediment discharge. In addition, the TMZ had strong seasonal and tidal variations; it was generally larger during flood seasons than during dry seasons and during spring tides compared to neap tides. The spring/neap tidal cycle played a more important role in TMZ change than did the seasonal cycle. Due to the continued reduction of sediment discharge to the estuary resulting from dams already constructed and to those that will be constructed upstream in the Changjiang River, it is predicted that the TMZ area will continue decreasing and that the re-suspension of local sediments will play a more important role in the formation of the TMZ.

Jiang, Xuezhong; Lu, Bing; He, Yuhong

2013-10-01

369

Genetic structure and gene flow in the endangered aquatic economic crop Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmel. (Nymphaeaceae) in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to measure the levels of genetic variation and patterns of population structure within and among five extant populations of Brasenia schreberi, an endangered aquatic plant in China. Six primers selected from sixty ISSR primers were used in the study which amplified 49 reproducible bands with 22 (44.9%) being polymorphic, indicating low levels of genetic diversity at the species level. AMOVA analysis revealed that most genetic variation (85.64%) is present among populations. The low level of gene flow (Nm = 0.1) is estimated among five remaining populations. A Mantel test show significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance (r = 0.91). Several factors including clonal growth, habitat fragment, population isolation, restricted gene flow among populations and agricultural practices, might have played an important role in maintaining the genetic structure of B. schreberi populations in China. In view of the limited genetic information currently available for B. schreberi, we recommend in situ preservation of the remaining population.

Dong, Yuan-Huo; Wahiti Gituru, Robert

370

Total and inorganic arsenic concentrations in different species of economically important algae harvested from coastal zones of Chile.  

PubMed

Chile is one of the major producers of phytocolloids extracted from seaweed. Multicellular algae are considered to be primary accumulators of arsenic. We analyzed 14 species of algae belonging to the groups Rhodophyceae (10), Phaeophyceae (3) and Chlorophyceae (1) from different coastal zones of Chile in 2003-2004. Dry ashing mineralization (for total As) and acid digestion (for inorganic As) together with quantification by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) were employed. In general, total arsenic concentrations varied between 3.0 and 68 mg kg(-1), whereas inorganic arsenic concentrations ranged between 0.15 and 1.06 mg kg(-1). The algal species Durvillaea antarctica and Porphyra columbina, used for direct human consumption, did not have inorganic arsenic levels that represent a health risk to consumers. Among species used for phytocolloids production, such as Macrocystis piryfera, Gracilaria chilensis and Gigartina skottsbergii, observed levels of inorganic arsenic were greater than 1 mg kg(-1), the limit value established by the regulations of some countries. Among the 14 species of algae tested, inorganic arsenic levels were between 0.8% and 13% of the total arsenic concentrations; that is, arsenic present in these algae was found primarily as organic arsenic. PMID:22138359

Díaz, Oscar; Tapia, Yasna; Muñoz, Ociel; Montoro, Rosa; Velez, Dinoraz; Almela, Concepción

2012-03-01

371

Ordovician appinites in the Wugongshan Domain of the Cathaysia Block, South China: Geochronological and geochemical evidence for intrusion into a local extensional zone within an intracontinental regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeozoic mafic igneous rocks are potentially significant in constraining the tectonic nature and evolution of the Kwangsian Orogeny in the eastern South China Block, yet they have received little attention because of their limited outcrop. Geochemistry and geochronology was carried out on newly identified Ordovician ultramafic-mafic appinites in the Wugongshan Domain of the Cathaysia Block. Seven appinite samples yielded 206Pb/238U crystallisation ages ranging from 452 ± 4 Ma to 473 ± 3 Ma. Abundant 480-500 Ma zircon xenocrysts and/or inherited zircons were found in the appinites, possibly indicating an earlier magmatism episode in the early Palaeozoic period. The Wugongshan appinites are ultramafic to mafic in composition, and the ultramafic rocks display features of cumulates (high concentrations of MgO, Fe2O3t, Cr, Ni, and low concentrations of total alkali and total rare earth elements [REE]). The appinite geochemistry displays: relatively flat chondrite normalised REE patterns with slight enrichment in light REE and weak negative Eu anomalies; enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (such as Rb, K), and weak depletion in Nb-Ta in primitive mantle normalised trace element patterns. We suggest that the Wugongshan appinites likely originated from an ancient metasomatised mantle, and that crustal assimilation, fractional crystallisation (AFC), magma mingling and hydration were involved in the petrogenetic process, based on the combination of geochemistry, crust-like bulk Sr, Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions (?Nd (t) = - 8.2 to - 3.2, initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7067-0.7144, zircon ?Hf (t) values peaking at - 9 to - 3) and regional geological data. Further considering the alignment and chronology of the appinites, we suggest that the appinitic magmas probably were emplaced along the Jiangshan-Shaoxing Fault in a local extensional zone in an intracontinental regime in the early Palaeozoic.

Zhong, Yufang; Ma, Changqian; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Junhong; Zheng, Jianping; Nong, Junnian; Zhang, Zejun

2014-06-01

372

Seasonal succession of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental factors of North Temperate Zone water of the Zhalong Wetland, in China.  

PubMed

A data set of phytoplankton community and environmental parameters in a hydrological integrity period, i.e. a poor water term, a medium term and a rich water term of North Temperate Zone climate, was analyzed in order to describe seasonal variation of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental variables in the Zhalong Wetland of China. The algal population of the Zhalong Wetland was not abundant, with a mean density of 5.08 × 10(7) cell/L (ranged from 4.54 × 10(7) cell/L in a poor term to 5.56 × 10(7) cell/L a medium term). However, its diversity was essentially limited to Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta being the group with highest densities. There were considerable seasonal variations in phytoplankton composition. In general, the dominance of Bacillariophyceae was found in a medium term, which was higher than the other period (p < 0.05). The rich water period also showed Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyta dominance while the phytoplankton was dominated by Cryptophyta erosa in a poor water term. 10 environmental variables, which were significant (p < 0.05) during the studied periods in one-way analysis of covariance, were selected to explore the relationship between phytoplankton structure and environmental factors by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results of the CCA applied to the environmental factors indicated that water temperature (WT) and ammonia (NH3-N) significantly influenced the phytoplankton community (p < 0.05; Monte Carlo test of first constrained axis). Besides WT and NH3-N, the most discriminate physic-chemical variables were nitrite (NO2-N), suspend solid, nitrate (NO3-N), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and all the 10 physical-chemical parameters had a higher marginal effect and ?A in the series of constrained CCAs though they were not significant. PMID:24756328

Ma, Yun; Li, Guibai; Li, Jing; Zhou, Hao; Jiang, Bing

2014-05-01

373

A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector.  

PubMed

China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments. PMID:24945700

Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark

2014-11-01

374

Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, an integrated damage from floods in Russia was about 1 billion euros, floods have caused the death of over 200 people. It is one of the most pressing scientific topics, but most of the works devoted to natural risks assessment. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the influence of dangerous hydrological phenomena (e.g. floods, underflooding and surges) on society, using vulnerability and damage assessment techniques. The objectives are to examine domestic and foreign methodologies, to integrate them and to test on specific Russian territory. Foreign training was organized at UNU-EHS (Bonn, Germany). Three different methods were used for each stage of research. The first part of the research was devoted to estimation of potential damage for population and economy of the Baltic Sea coastal zones. The authors used a model, which takes into account direct damage (loss of life, destruction of buildings, etc.) as well as indirect effects of the first, second, etc. orders (loss of profits, loss of the budget, etc.). A database, based on satellite images, maps, yearbooks of Russian Statistical Service and reports of entities, has been prepared. The database is a matrix, in which the rows are coastal zones, and the columns are given indicators: number of people in port areas (people), cost of fixed assets (million rubles), investment (million rubles.), revenue / profit (million rubles.), etc. The authors identified zones with different depth of flooding, using satellite images, and calculated the direct and indirect costs, using the methodology of EMERCOM. Maximum direct potential damage for the Baltic coast is about 15,7 billion euros, but indirect damage is more than 25,5 billion euros. The second part of research was devoted to vulnerability assessment of coastal municipalities of Krasnodar Region. A database, as a matrix of 252 parameters from 2007 to 2009 for 14 coastal municipalities, was developed. The parameters were divided into several blocks according to UNU-EHS methodology: 'exposure' and 'vulnerability', consisting of 'susceptibility', 'coping capacity' and 'adaptive capacity'. Relevant indicators for each block were selected and verified by statistical methods. The authors estimated the share of people potentially exposed to flooding with the help of geographic information system. The authors, using the technique of World Risk Index (2011), calculated sub-indices for each block, and made the maps. Areas with the highest socio-economic risks were identified on the Azov and the Black sea coast: Slavyansky, Krymsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Temryuksky and Primorsko-Akhtarsky municipal districts. On the third stage, the main purpose was to integrate and use both approaches in evaluation of socio-economic risks on micro-geographical level for different categories of the population and different industries (agriculture, utilities, etc.), using 'field' data. Field study was conducted in Slavyansky municipal district of Krasnodar region and included opinion polls, special interviews with businessmen and authorities, collection of municipal statistics and data from companies, etc. Vulnerability maps, speed evacuation maps, maps of possible locations of warning systems and maps of high insurance risks were developed. Proposals for improvement of legislation for coastal zones were prepared. The conducted research has shown the importance of both social ('vulnerability'), and economic ('damage') components of risk assessment. Using the previously discussed methods individually does not bring desired results because of deficiencies of Russian statistics. It is essential for accurate risk assessment to use an 'ensemble' of methods (statistical, field observations, etc.) on micro geographic level. The work has a practical importance for improving safety of local communities.

Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

2013-04-01

375

China's Japonica Rice Market: Growth and Competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rice economy is among the world's most diverse with respect to both the number of varieties grown and the different climatic conditions under which rice is produced. China has six agro-climatic zones for producing rice, ranging from the warm and humid tropics in the south, to the cooler subtropics of central China, and to northern China with its much

James Hansen; Frank Fuller; Frederick Gale; Frederick Crook; Eric Wailes; Michelle Moore

2002-01-01

376

Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: A health-based economic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies.

Changhong Chen; Bingheng Chen; Bingyan Wang; Cheng Huang; Jing Zhao; Yi Dai; Haidong Kan

2007-01-01

377

Exploratory analysis of health-related quality of life among the empty-nest elderly in rural China: An empirical study in three economically developed cities in eastern China  

PubMed Central

Background Along with rapid economic development, the aging process in China is gradually accelerating. The living conditions of empty-nest rural elderly are worrisome. As a more vulnerable group, empty-nest elderly are facing more urgent health problems. This study explores the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of empty-nest elderly in rural China and aims to arouse more social concern for their HRQOL. Methods Research subjects were empty-nest rural elderly from three cities: Nanjing, Suzhou, and Wenzhou (ages???60, n?=?967). This study used the five-dimensional European quality of health scale (EQ-5D) and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure the HRQOL of the respondents. Spearman correlation coefficient, stereotype logistic regression, ordered probit regression and multinomial logistic regression, and Structural equation model (SEM) methods are employed to study the relationship. Results (1) The Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the correlations of similar domains between the SF-12 and the EQ-5D scales are relatively strong. (2) Men’s scores are higher than that of women’s in general health (GH) and anxiety/depression (AD) models. (3) The scores of physical component summary (PCS), physical functioning (PF), mental health (MH), and usual activities (UA) decline with age. (4) Apart from PCS, vitality (VT), and role-emotional (RE) as dependent variables, the education passes all the significance tests. The higher the education is, the higher the scores of physical or psychological health are. (5) The scores of PCS and bodily pain (BP) of empty-nest elderly are divorced or higher in other marital status. (6) In SEM analysis, the effect of basic information of empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scale is more significant. Conclusions First, the frequency histograms of EQ-5D show that the scores of empty-nest elderly in rural China are generally low. Second, in all SF-12 items, the HRQOL is low. Third, men’s scores are higher than that of women’s. The elderly with higher education reported higher scores than those with lower education. Fourth, the effect of socio-demographic variables of the rural Chinese empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scores is more significant, whereas the effect on EQ-5D scores is less significant.

2014-01-01

378

China's National Security Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China has experienced a phenomenal economic success in the last 25 years and it has had a significant impact on its often competitive, and occasionally cooperative, relationship with the United States. China has seen its economy grow over nine percent ann...

A. K. Gray P. J. Bolt

2007-01-01

379

China Briefing, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight essays on Chinese affairs comprise this document. Compiled in response to the China Council's objective of making available to the public materials which meet the steadily rising demand for information about contemporary China, the document focuses on Chinese art, literature, politics, foreign policy, literature, society, and economic

Oxnam, Robert B., Ed.; Bush, Richard C., Ed.

380

Transmission planning in China  

SciTech Connect

Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

2009-07-15

381

Continental vertical growth in the transitional zone between South Tianshan and Tarim, western Xinjiang, NW China: Insight from the Permian Halajun A1-type granitic magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Tianshan Collisional Belt (STCB) and northern margin of the Tarim Block (NTB) are key areas for understanding the prolonged tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Halajun region in Xinjiang province, NW China is located within the tectonic transition zone between STCB and Tarim Blocks. Several granitic intrusions and one mafic-ultramafic complex (Piqiang complex) are exposed in this region. Zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock major oxide, trace element and Nd isotopic data are presented for the Huoshibulake, Tamu, Kezi'ertuo and Halajun II granitic intrusions in this area. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age for Kezi'ertuo intrusion, coupled with previously published SHIRMP U-Pb ages for Huoshibulake and Halajun II intrusions and Piqiang complex, reveals that all the igneous rocks in the Halajun region are coeval (~ 275 Ma). Geochemically, the four granitic intrusions show high contents of SiO2, K2O and total alkalis and possess trace element patterns characterized by Rb, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf enrichment and significantly negative Ba, Sr, P, Eu and Ti anomalies. These features strongly favor an A1-type affinity for the Halajun granitic intrusions. Among the four intrusions, the Kezi'ertuo, Tamu and Halajun II intrusions possess positive to slightly negative ?Nd(t) values ranging from - 0.9 to + 0.6, whereas the Huoshibulake intrusion displays less depleted ?Nd(t) values of - 2.6 to - 2.9. Our new elemental and isotopic data suggest that the four granitic intrusions were generated by the partial melting of a common Neoproterozoic gabbroic source, probably as a result of the ~ 275 Ma underplating of the asthenosphere mantle-derived magmas. The variable involvement of the mantle components accounts for the range of ?Nd(t) values. After the generation of the parental magma, alkali feldspar, arfvedsonite, biotite, Fe-Ti oxides and zircon seem to have fractionated prior to the final emplacement of the granitic magmas. In combination with the regional geological history, we propose that the ~ 275 Ma A1-type granitic magmatism in the Halajun region and other areas of the NTB provides a good proxy record for the vertical continental crustal growth in the southern margin of the CAOB during the Permian. Our study, in combination with other geological evidence, indicates that these A1-type felsic and OIB-like mafic-ultramafic rocks, with ages from ~ 282 Ma to ~ 275 Ma, in the southern margin of the CAOB are parts of the Permian Tarim large igneous province and could be genetically related to the Tarim mantle plume.

Huang, He; Zhang, Zhaochong; Kusky, Timothy; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Dongyang; Liu, Junlai; Zhao, Zhidan

2012-12-01

382

Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

2004-01-01

383

Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

2008-12-01

384

Fluid inclusion, rare earth element geochemistry, and isotopic characteristics of the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic Ore district, northwestern Yunnan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baiyangping Cu-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the northern part of the Lanping-Simao foreland fold belt, which lies between the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan and Lancangjiang faults in western Yunnan Province, China. The source of ore-forming fluids and materials within the eastern ore zone were investigated using fluid inclusion, rare earth element (REE), and isotopic (C, O, and S) analyses undertaken on sulfides, gangue minerals, wall rocks, and ores formed during the hydrothermal stage of mineralization. These analyses indicate: (1) The presence of five types of fluid inclusion, which contain various combinations of liquid (l) and vapor (v) phases at room temperature: (a) H2O (l), (b) H2O (l) + H2O (v), (c) H2O (v), (d) CmHn (v), and (e) H2O (l) + CO2 (l), sometimes with CO2 (v). These inclusions have salinities of 1.4-19.9 wt.% NaCl equivalents, with two modes at approximately 5-10 and 16-21 wt.% NaCl equivalent, and homogenization temperatures between 101 °C and 295 °C. Five components were identified in fluid inclusions using Raman microspectrometry: H2O, dolomite, calcite, CH4, and N2. (2) Calcite, dolomitized limestone, and dolomite contain total REE concentrations of 3.10-38.93 ppm, whereas wall rocks and ores contain REE concentrations of 1.21-196 ppm. Dolomitized limestone, dolomite, wall rock, and ore samples have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with ores in the Huachangshan, Xiaquwu, and Dongzhiyan ore blocks having large negative ?Ce and ?Eu anomalies, which may be indicative of a change in redox conditions during fluid ascent, migration, and/or cooling. (3) ?34S values for sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite sulfide samples range from -7.3‰ to 2.1‰, a wide range that indicates multiple sulfur sources. The basin contains numerous sources of S, and deriving S from a mixture of these sources could have yielded these near-zero values, either by mixing of S from different sources, or by changes in the geological conditions of seawater sulfate reduction to sulfur. (4) The C-O isotopic analyses yield ?13C values from ca. zero to -10‰, and a wider range of ?18O values from ca. +6 to +24‰, suggestive of mixing between mantle-derived magma and marine carbonate sources during the evolution of ore-forming fluids, although potential contributions from organic carbon and basinal brine sources should also be considered. These data indicate that ore-forming fluids were derived from a mixture of organism, basinal brine, and mantle-derived magma sources, and as such, the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic ore deposit should be classified as a “Lanping-type” ore deposit.

Feng, Caixia; Bi, Xianwu; Liu, Shen; Hu, Ruizhong

2014-05-01

385

Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21??21???N, 111??11???E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982-2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas. The correlation coefficients among the metals and climatic and economic factors indicate that the metals Ni, Zn, and Cd behave similarly. Copper and Mn are positively correlated, and cobalt is negatively correlated with Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd. Lead is not correlated with any other metals but is correlated with sea surface water temperature, air temperature, GDP and industrial-agricultural production in Dianbai County. Lead in corals is related to the enhanced pollution level of ocean waters as a result of increased industrial activities.

Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

2006-01-01

386

Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to be reversed. At least two factors contribute to the dichotomy between huge investment and limited results. First, the majority of the efforts have been limited to engineering approaches to water pollution control, ignoring the important roles of non-engineering approaches and stakeholder participation. Second, the complex hydrological regime of the basin may aggravate the impacts of various pollutant sources. Using the Yincungang canal, one major tributary to the Lake Tai, as an example, we discuss our work on both hydrological and socio-economic factors affecting the water quality of the canal, as well as the grand challenges of coupling hydrological systems and socio-economic systems in the region. Keywords non-point source pollution, rural sewage, agricultural pollution, spatio-temporal pattern, stakeholder participation

Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

2012-04-01

387

Assessment of population exposure to PM10 for respiratory disease in Lanzhou (China) and its health-related economic costs based on GIS  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter) is very important for protecting human health and establishing pollution control policy. Population exposure estimation is the first step in formulating exposure data for quantitative assessment of harmful PM10 pollution. Methods In this paper, we estimate PM10 concentration using a spatial interpolation method on a grid with a spatial resolution 0.01° × 0.01°. PM10 concentration data from monitoring stations are spatially interpolated, based on accurate population data in 2000 using a geographic information system. Then, an interpolated population layer is overlaid with an interpolated PM10 concentration layer, and population exposure levels are calculated. Combined with the exposure-response function between PM10 and health endpoints, economic costs of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution are analyzed. Results The results indicate that the population in Lanzhou urban areas is distributed in a narrow and long belt, and there are relatively large population spatial gradients in the XiGu, ChengGuan and QiLiHe districts. We select threshold concentration C0 at: 0 ?g m-3 (no harmful health effects), 20 ?g m-3 (recommended by the World Health Organization), and 50 ?g m-3 (national first class standard in China) to calculate excess morbidity cases. For these three scenarios, proportions of the economic cost of PM10 pollution-related adverse health effects relative to GDP are 0.206%, 0.194% and 0.175%, respectively. The impact of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations in 2000 is also analyzed. Sandstorm weather in spring, inversion layers in winter, and precipitation in summer are important factors associated with change in PM10 concentration. Conclusions The population distribution by exposure level shows that the majority of people live in polluted areas. With the improvement of evaluation criteria, economic damage of respiratory disease caused by PM10 is much bigger. The health effects of Lanzhou urban residents should not be ignored. The government needs to find a better way to balance the health of residents and economy development. And balance the pros and cons before making a final policy.

2013-01-01

388

Anonymous Banking and Financial Repression: How Does China's Reform Limit Government Predation without Reducing Its Revenue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's economic performance of the past two decades presents a puzzle for the economics of transition and development: Enormous private business incentives were unleashed that have fueled rapid economic growth despite the fact that China has had very weak \\

Chong-En Bai; David Daokui Li; Yingyi Qian; Yijiang Wang

1999-01-01

389

Localized strong syn-rifting magmatism that might caused localized multi-oriented folding in the continent-ocean transition zone of northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advance of petroleum exploration to the deepwater northern South China Sea, a small region with strong multiple-directional folding was found within the Liwan Sag (LWS) near the continent-ocean boundary. It is puzzling as how such folds can be formed in the generally extensional passive margin. Based on a study of newly collected long-cable and 3D seismic data and previous potential field data, this paper proposes that together with other factors such as gravity sliding and syn-rifting tectonics, a strong but localized syn-rifting magmatism might be the key. The LWS has special structures inconsonant to any other sag in the SCS margins. This small sag (~128 k km2 in area) is characterized by domes and folds of multiple orientations (NS-, EW, NE, NW). The deformations are most strong in the Paleogene strata limited from north and south by large listric faults and blanket by less deformed Neogene. The Paleogene strata are of relatively constant total thickness of 1~1.5s and 2.5~4.0 interval velocity. As indicated by generally low-amplitude and high frequency reflections and smoothly curved short-wavelength folds, these strata are made of very soft materials, perhaps fine lacustrine or lagoonal mud. Magmatic activities identified in seismic sections include intrusions, sills, and fuzzy zones. The intrusions that hogged and broke the basement are seen underneath most domes. Sills are widely seen but most abundant within Paleogene. Fuzzy and chaotic reflections appear above faults, but mostly above magmatic intrusions or forming segments of stratigraphic layers. These may indicate the presence of various percentages of volcanic materials (pyroclasts, fluid, or gas) within the Paleogene sediments. By rough estimation along a NS-running seismic line, the fuzzy reflectors occupies >50% of the total area of Paleogene between the two boundary faults. If in average 50% of the fuzzy materials are of volcanic origin, the volcanic addition would reach 25%. There were multiple episodes of magmatic activities, strong in the course of rifting, most strong during in Late Oligocene forming the breakup unconformity, and continued in Neogene as local breakup. We suggest that the intensive syn-rifting magmatism not only have generated domes, but also provide significant quantity of additional materials and heat to ambient strata. The doming redirected gravity sliding; the addition of heat and volcanic ash further softened the strata; and the additional materials need more space that was compensated by folding. Thus the Paleocene strata were preferentially deformed as multi-oriented folds. Attempt is being made to explain the origin of this localized strong syn-rifting magmatism and its implications on the breakup process of the SCS. This study is funded by CNSF #40976033.

Zhou, D.; Sun, Z.; Pang, X.; Shen, J.; Li, Y.; Qiu, N.

2012-12-01

390

Determination of 16 selected trace elements in children plasma from china economical developed rural areas using high resolution magnetic sector inductively coupled mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1?mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1? ? g/L, 0-10? ? g/L and 0-100? ? g/L. Correlation coefficients (R (2)) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02? ? g/L (Rb) to 1.89? ? g/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3-12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002. PMID:24701366

Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

391

Determination of 16 Selected Trace Elements in Children Plasma from China Economical Developed Rural Areas Using High Resolution Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A rapid, accurate, and high performance method of high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) combined with a small-size sample (0.1?mL) preparation was established. The method was validated and applied for the determination of 16 selected plasma trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, B, Al, Se, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Mo, Cd, and Pb). The linear working ranges were over three intervals, 0-1??g/L, 0–10??g/L and 0–100??g/L. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9957 to 0.9999 and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02??g/L (Rb) to 1.89??g/L (Se). The trueness (or recovery) spanned from 89.82% (Al) to 119.15% (Se) and precision expressed by the relative standard deviation (RSD %) for intra-day ranging from 1.1% (Zn) to 9.0% (Se), while ranged from 3.7% (Fe) to 12.7% (Al) for interday. A total of 440 plasma samples were collected from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey Project 2002 (CNNHS 2002), which represented the status of plasma trace elements for the children aged 3–12 years from China economical developed rural areas. The concentrations of 16 trace elements were summarized and compared by age groups and gender, which can be used as one of the basic components for the formulation of the baseline reference values of trace elements for the children in 2002.

Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Huang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Li, Weidong; Tian, Yuan; Yang, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

392

Landscape change and desertification development in the Mu Us Sandland, Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to document the status and causes of desertification development in the Mu Us Sandland located in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in northern China, we interpreted and analysed satellite images, historical maps, meteorological and socio-economic data to assess landscape change from the 1950s to the 1990s. During the intervening 35-year period, landscapes have changed significantly in this area. The

Bo Wu; Long J Ci

2002-01-01

393

Problems relating to the fracturing of deep wells in the North China region  

SciTech Connect

The oil and gas fields of the Tertiary Sand formation in north China are of complicated structure. The permeability of the pay zone ranges from 0.1 to 50 md, and the porosity approaches 13%. During development, hydraulic fracturing is necessary to stimulate well productivity to achieve satisfactory economic benefit. This paper discusses fracturing fluids and solid leakoff additives, proppants and types of propping, fracture height and diverting fractures, and fracturing pressure for the formation in this area.

Guo-Cal, Li (Inst. of Production Technology (CN)); Zhao-Ming, Z. (Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploratioin and Development (CN))

1988-11-01

394

Shallow seismic structure of Kunlun fault zone in northern Tibetan Plateau, China: Implications for the 2001 M s8.1 Kunlun earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shallow seismic velocity structure of the Kunlun fault zone (KLFZ) was jointly deduced from seismic refraction profiling and the records of trapped waves that were excited by five explosions. The data were collected after the 2001 Kunlun M s8.1 earthquake in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Seismic phases for the in-line record sections (26 records up to a distance of 15 km) along the fault zone were analysed, and 1-D P- and S-wave velocity models of shallow crust within the fault zone were determined by using the seismic refraction method. Sixteen seismic stations were deployed along the off-line profile perpendicular to the fault zone. Fault-zone trapped waves appear clearly on the record sections, which were simulated with a 3-D finite difference algorithm. Quantitative analysis of the correlation coefficients of the synthetic and observed trapped waveforms indicates that the Kunlun fault-zone width is 300 m, and S-wave quality factor Q within the fault zone is 15. Significantly, S-wave velocities within the fault zone are reduced by 30-45 per cent from surrounding rocks to a depth of at least 1-2 km, while P-wave velocities are reduced by 7-20 per cent. A fault-zone with such P- and S-low velocities is an indication of high fluid pressure because Vs is affected more than Vp. The low-velocity and low-Q zone in the KLFZ model is the effect of multiple ruptures along the fault trace of the 2001 M s8.1 Kunlun earthquake. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

Wang, C. -Y.; Mooney, W. D.; Ding, Z.; Yang, J.; Yao, Z.; Lou, H.

2009-01-01

395

Production of Perennial Vegetation in an Oasis-desert Transition Zone in NW China - Allometric Estimation, and Assessment of Flooding and Use Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

River oases at the southern fringe of the Taklamakan desert in NW China are surrounded by belts of spontaneous vegetation that protect the oases from sand drift. As an important source of forage, fuel and construction wood, this foreland vegetation is also a component part of the agricultural system of the oases but has been, and still is, destroyed through

Dirk Gries; Andrea Foetzki; Stefan K. Arndt; Helge Bruelheide; Frank M. Thomas; Ximing Zhang; Michael Runge

2005-01-01

396

Spatial-Temporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Land Use Changes in Xiamen 1 1 Project supported by the Fujian Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. D0210010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Landsat TM data of 1988, 1998 and 2001, the dynamic process of the spatial-temporal characteristics of land use changes during 13 years from 1988 to 2001 in the special economic zone of Xiamen, China was analyzed to improve understanding and to find the driving forces of land use change so that sustainable land utilization could be practiced. During the

Bin QUAN; Jian-Fei CHEN; Hong-Lie QIU; M. J. M. RÖMKENS; Xiao-Qi YANG; Shi-Feng JIANG; Bi-Cheng LI

2006-01-01

397

What shapes Americans' opinion of China? Country characteristics, public relations and mass media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at the effect of China's political freedom, economic development and public relations efforts on the US media's coverage of China, and on Americans' opinions of China in the past 30 years. China's political freedom was found to be significant in predicting US media coverage of China and Americans' opinion of China, with more freedom leading to more

Xiuli Wang; Pamela J. Shoemaker

2011-01-01

398

Timing of initiation of left-lateral shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone: microstructural and geochronological constraints from high temperature mylonites in Diancang Shan, SW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high grade metamorphic massifs (e.g. Xuelong Shan, Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan in China and Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic massif in Vietnam) along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone in Southwestern China bear much information on the large-scale left-lateral strike-slip shearing in eastern Tibet during Indian-Eurasian plate collision and post-collisional accommodation process in late Oligocene-early Miocene. The metamorphic massifs are narrow zones bounded by brittle faults. Low-grade metamorphic rocks are lying on the west and sedimentary rocks to the east. Rocks in these massifs are partly sheared with widespread occurrence of high temperature mylonites that have subhorizontal stretching lineations. Left-lateral shearing is indicated by mesoscale and microscale shear indicators in the mylonites. Debates exist on the timing of initiation and duration of left-lateral shearing, and mechanism of exhumation of the high grade metamorphic rocks along Ailao Shan Red River shear zone. The Diancang Shan complex, a typical metamorphic massif, is constituted by three units, i.e. a central high strain shear zone, a western low-grade metamorphic volcanic-sedimentary sequence in the Lanping basin, and an eastern superimposed retrograde metamorphic belt. The central high grade metamorphic complex consists of metamorphic rocks of amphibolite facies conditions. High-grade metamorphic mineral assemblages and structural elements indicate a deep level crustal metamorphism and deformation of the rocks. L-tectonites are typical indicators of high-temperature deformation in the highly sheared granitic mylonites. Widespread occurrence of different shear criteria (e.g. sheared veins, sigmoid and delta -porphyroclasts) suggests that these gneisses experienced very intensive high-temperature progressive left-lateral strike-slip shearing. A large synkinematic augen monzogranitic intrusion is recognized in the central belt by the present work. The intrusion has an obvious porphyritic texture, in which very huge crystals (up to 3 cm in diameter) of feldspars occur as phenocrysts in a fine grained matrix of quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + mica. The monzogranites are sheared and form high temperature mylonites. Their well-developed lineation and inter-layering with paragneisses resulted from high-temperature shearing during or subsequent to emplacement. Macrostructural analysis revealed that the high temperature granitic mylonites are mainly confined to the shear zone, experienced shear deformation and extended along the shear zone. Feldspar phenocrysts in the monzogranite intrusions have different shapes like sigmoid, delta and S-C fabrics indicating left-lateral shearing. A sequential and progressive process from magmatic crystallization, through late-crystallization metasomatism, to crystalline plasticity is evidenced by rock microstructures. Early crystallization is characterized by porphyritic structures, especially by growth zoning in feldspar grains. Evidences for late magmatic metasomatism are widespread in the mylonitic rocks. An early phase of K-metasomatism is indicated by the replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar, which is best documented by plagioclase left-over grains in marginal zones of K-feldspar megacrysts. Patches of these left-over grains are often optically continuous and hence can be related to originally larger plagioclase grains. K-feldspar grains are further metasomatized by relatively potassium-rich plagioclase to form myrmekite structure. In some cases, myrmekites seem to be stress-induced because their distribution and orientation can be attributed to bulk left-lateral shearing. The granitic intrusion and its wall rocks are highly sheared by late- or post intrusive high temperature plastic deformation. Quartz grains often have irregular grain boundaries implying high temperature grain boundary migration. Rectangular quartz ribbons, augen-shaped grain aggregates, quartz sigmoid, and quartz grains with straight boundaries and triple junctions are also indicative of intensive high temperature deformation. Feld

Cao, S.; Liu, J.; Leiss, B.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2009-04-01

399

Influence of farming system on the floristic composition of paddy landscapes: a case study in a rural hilly zone in Zhejiang province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two contrasting farming systems on the floristic composition and vegetation structure that make up the Yatoda\\u000a landscape were investigated. The experimental field was set up at Yatoda in a hilly district in Zhejiang province, China.\\u000a Vegetation surveys were done in summer 2002 and 2003. Vegetation was divided into four types based on species composition:\\u000a grassland formerly used

Masayuki Nemoto; Hiroo Otsuka

400

Distribution patterns of nitroaromatic compounds in the water, suspended particle and sediment of the river in a long-term industrial zone (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitroaromatic compounds are known to be hazardous to ecological and human health. To assess the status of nitroaromatic compounds\\u000a contamination in the main rivers in the important industrial bases of the northeastern China, we collected water, suspended\\u000a particulate matter (SPM) and sediment samples from 28 sites in the Daliao River watershed and analysed them for eight nitroaromatic\\u000a compounds by gas

Bin Men; Haozheng Wang; Mengchang He; Chunye Lin; Xiangchun Quan

2011-01-01

401

Harmonious Society -- Rise of the New China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China and its political leaders have been managing change at a voracious pace since Deng Xiaoping led the nation on its new course of economic growth and openness. Chinese leaders' inclination to promote economic liberalization while retaining authoritari...

B. Holt I. J. Geis

2009-01-01

402

Spread of English across Greater China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely different societies, an emphasis is placed on mainland China

Anwei Feng

2012-01-01

403

China's Statistical System and Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the People's Republic of China plays an increasingly important role in international politics and trade, countries with economic interests there find they need to know more about this nation. Access to primary information sources, including official statistics from China, however, is very limited, as little exploration has been done into this…

Xue, Susan

2004-01-01

404

Living with the Dragon: China's Ascent and the ROK-US Alliance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

China's extraordinary economic success also has enabled an extensive military build-up. Despite Chinese public pronouncements that China pursues peaceful development and growth, the United States and other regional countries worry about China's military m...

B. H. Choi

2008-01-01

405

Tectonic Plates of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report we will give an overall description on the basic tectonic elements of China the subduction and collision fault zones and the available geophysical information. Then we will make a plausible tectonic subdivision from the point of view of sur...

N. C. Sun T. L. Teng

1977-01-01

406

Distribution patterns of nitroaromatic compounds in the water, suspended particle and sediment of the river in a long-term industrial zone (China).  

PubMed

Nitroaromatic compounds are known to be hazardous to ecological and human health. To assess the status of nitroaromatic compounds contamination in the main rivers in the important industrial bases of the northeastern China, we collected water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment samples from 28 sites in the Daliao River watershed and analysed them for eight nitroaromatic compounds by gas chromatography. The total concentrations of eight nitrobenzenes in the water column including aqueous and SPM phases ranged from 740 to 15,828 ng L(?-?1), with a mean concentration of 3,460 ng L(?-?1). The total concentrations of eight nitrobenzenes in the sediment were 7.47 to 8,185.76 ng g(?-?1), with a mean concentration of 921.98 ng g(?-?1), and several times higher than those found from the Yellow River in China. 4-Nitrotoluene was the predominant contaminant in the water and sediment of the three rivers of the Daliao River watershed. 2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroaniline was generally dominant in the SPM. The levels of nitroaromatic compounds were different among different sites in the Daliao River watershed, mainly caused by the distribution of pollution sources. No obvious correlation was found between the total concentrations of eight nitrobenzenes concentrations and TOC or the slit-clay content of the sediments. PMID:20711858

Men, Bin; Wang, Haozheng; He, Mengchang; Lin, Chunye; Quan, Xiangchun

2011-06-01

407

China, the WTO, and implications for the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was predicted that membership to the WTO in 2001 would bring China not only economic and political benefits, but significant environmental rewards. This article assesses how these environmental projections have panned out: it analyses the theoretical literature and China's pre-WTO historical context, then reviews China's recent industrial and agricultural development trajectories. On balance, factors related to China's WTO membership

Abigail R. Jahiel

2006-01-01

408

JPRS Report, China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: 1) POLITICAL --- Intellectual Circles Say Democracy Inevitable, Discussion of Wang Shuo Short Story; 2) ECONOMIC --- NATIONAL AFFAIRS, POLICY - State Council Approves 25 High-Tech Development Zones, Futures Markets To Converge With Inter...

1993-01-01

409

Family division in China's transitional economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a longitudinal data-set (the China Health and Nutrition Survey) we explored the effect of various economic factors, including household wealth, employment sector, and involvement in a household business on the division of extended families in China's transitional economy. Results from event history analyses suggest that these economic factors act as either a dividing or a unifying force on the

Feinian Chen

2009-01-01

410

The rise of China: Marx's solution or Adam Smith's? On China's rise in Adam Smith in Beijing by Giovanni Arrighi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adam Smith in Beijing offers a subversive analysis of China's rise, an analysis which has provoked a strong reaction in the academic world outside China. Based on Adam Smith's economic principles and world systems analysis, the book comprehensively explores China's reform and opening up and its market economy, as well as the role they have played in China's rise. In

Wu Yuanhua

2011-01-01

411

China-U.S. Trade Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. Total U.S.-China trade, which totaled only $5 billion in 1980, rose to $387 billion in 2007. China overtook Japan to become the third largest U.S. export market, and overtook Canada to become the largest source of U.S. imports.\\u000aWith a huge population and a rapidly expanding economy, China

Wayne M Morrison

2008-01-01

412

The influence of technological innovation resources on high-tech product export performance: Evidence from national hi-tech zones in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the influence of R&D funds input and personnel quality on high-tech products export from the perspective of technological innovation resources. Based on the panel data of 52 national hi-tech zones in three consecutive years (2005-2007), we found that R&D fund input positively relates to high-tech products export performance, while personnel quality has a significantly negative effect on high-tech

Yang Zheng-pei; Xu Er-ming; Xie Wen-jie

2010-01-01

413

The possibilities and realities on the remanagement of desertified lands in the transitional zone between the dry-farming area and the grazing area in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desertification process is rapidly developing at present and 61.5% of the land area in the zone are already desertified.Among\\u000a the desertified lands, 26.9% are seriously desertified, 25% most seriously desertified and 47.4% are the lands where desertification\\u000a is under way. They are caused by over- reclamation for farming, over-grazing, unreasonable collection of firewood, the destruction\\u000a of vegetation and the

Zhenda Zhu; Shu Liu; Youlin Yang

1991-01-01

414

Groundwater response to leakage of surface water through a thick vadose zone in the middle reaches area of Heihe River Basin, in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of groundwater response to leakage of surface water in the middle reaches area of Heihe River Basin is significantly influenced by a thick vadose zone. The groundwater regime is a result of two recharge events due to leakage of Heihe River and irrigation water with different delay time. A nonlinear leakage model is developed to calculate the monthly leakage of Heihe River in considering changes of streamflow, river stage and agricultural water utilization. Numerical modeling of variable saturated flow is carried out to investigate the general behaviors of leakage-recharge conversion through a thick vadose zone. It is found that the recharge pattern can be approximated by simple reservoir models of leakages under a river and under an irrigation district with different delay-time and recession coefficient. A triple-reservoir model of relationship between surface water, vadose zone and groundwater is developed. It reproduces the groundwater regime during 1989-2006 with variable streamflow of Heihe River and agricultural water utilization. The model is applied to interpret changes of groundwater level during 2007-2008 that observed in the Watershed Airborne Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER).

Wang, X.-S.; Ma, M.-G.; Li, X.; Zhao, J.; Dong, P.; Zhou, J.

2010-04-01

415

Groundwater response to leakage of surface water through a thick vadose zone in the middle reaches area of Heihe River Basin, in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of groundwater response to leakage of surface water in the middle reaches area of Heihe River Basin is significantly influenced by a thick vadose zone. The variation of groundwater level is a result of two recharge events corresponding to leakage of Heihe River and irrigation water with different delay time. A nonlinear leakage model is developed to calculate the monthly leakage of Heihe River in considering changes of streamflow, river stage and agricultural water utilization. Numerical modeling of variable saturated flow is carried out to investigate the general behaviors of leakage-recharge conversion through a thick vadose zone. It is found that the variable recharge can be approximated by simple reservoir models for both leakage under a river and leakage under an irrigation district but with different delay-time and recession coefficient. A triple-reservoir model of relationship between surface water, vadose zone and groundwater is developed. It reproduces the in situ water table movement during 1989-2006 with variable streamflow of Heihe River and agricultural water utilization. The model is applied to interpret groundwater dynamics during 2007-2008 that observed in the Watershed Airborne Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER).

Wang, X.-S.; Ma, M.-G.; Li, X.; Zhao, J.; Dong, P.; Zhou, J.

2009-12-01

416

Integrated Emergy, Energy and Economic Evaluation of Rice and Vegetable Production Systems in Alluvial Paddy Fields: Implications for Agricultural Policy in China  

EPA Science Inventory

China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation...

417

Economic analysis of CO 2 separation from coal-fired flue gas by chemical absorption and membrane absorption technologies in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two typical CO2 chemical absorption processes using MEA and aqueous ammonia (AA) solutions to act as absorbents and one novel process using hollow fiber membrane contactors (HFMCs) to act as absorber and MEA as absorbent were analyzed in this study to find out what CO2 capture process may be more suitable for China. An ultra supercritical PC power plant with

Shuiping Yan; Mengxiang Fang; Zheng Wang; Junli Xue; Zhongyang Luo

2011-01-01

418

RIGHTS CONSCIOUSNESS, ECONOMIC INTERESTS, AND THE 2003 DISTRICT-LEVEL PEOPLE'S CONGRESS ELECTIONS IN CHINA: MIDDLE CLASS MOTIVATIONS AND DEMOCRATIC IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the motivations of the Chinese middle class members to run for District-level people's congress (DPC) elections in Shenzhen and Beijing in 2003. It is interested in exploring why the middle class members wanted to run for the DPC positions that do not have real political power in China, and how their behavior can influence political change in

XINSONG WANG

419

Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: Implications for agricultural policy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are,

Hongfang Lu; Yu Bai; Hai Ren; Daniel E. Campbell

2010-01-01

420

Environmental Security and its Implications for China’s Foreign Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s emerging standing in the world demands a major rethinking of its diplomatic strategies. Given its population size, geographical scale, economic power and military presence, China is poised to play a larger political role in the twenty-first century, and is thus perceived by the international community to have greater capacities, capabilities and responsibilities. At the same time, environmental stresses caused

Junko Mochizuki; ZhongXiang Zhang

2011-01-01

421

Burial diagenetic geothermometer and the classifying characteristics of the burial diagenetic zones of Tertiary clastic rocks in Shengli oil field, east China  

SciTech Connect

It is very important to study burial diagenesis for reservoir assessment. During the Cenozoic Era, the studied area was a downfaulted depression basin with continuous subsidence that was filled by thick clastic sediments. Based on the petrological data from 66 wells in this basin, the present geotemperature corresponding to the occurring depth of the burial diagenetic event approximates or is equal to the initial temperature of the diagenetic event. Therefore, the initial temperature of the burial diagenetic event can be calculated by this equation: T = G(H {minus} h) + 14.5C, where T is the initial temperature of the burial diagenetic even; G is geothermal gradient; H is the shallowest depth for this diagenesis occurrence; and h is the depth of constant temperature zone. The annual average surface temperature of the studied area is 14.5C. The different burial diagenetic geothermometers calculated by the equation are as follows: 65 {plus minus} 5C for minor quartz overgrowth; 90 {plus minus} 5C for intensive quartz overgrowth; 75 {plus minus} 5C for epidote dissolution; 92 {plus minus} 5C for authigenic garnet; 95 {plus minus} 5C for late carbonate cement; 140 {plus minus} 10C for transformation from kaolinite to illite. Based on all the burial diagenetic geothermometers, the burial diagenetic sequence can be divided into shallow (< 75C), moderate (75-90C), deep (90-130C), and deeper (> 130C) zones. It is demonstrated that these zones can be used to classify and assess the reservoir rocks and source rocks.

Zhou Zili; Zhengmou Lu (Shengli Petroleum Administration, Shandong (China))

1991-03-01

422

Zoning Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study analyzes existing zoned properties in the Shreveport Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area to determine if current development justifies the amount of such zoning. It reviews administrative procedures and policies used in carrying out zoning ch...

1968-01-01

423

The stability of sapphirine + quartz in magnetite-bearing high oxygen fugacity granulites: a case study of the Madurai Block (Southern India) and the Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (North China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sapphirine has been the focus of many petrological investigations for the last two decades as the mineral often occurs in Mg-Al rich and pelitic rocks formed at high temperature to ultrahigh temperature (UHT). Particularly, sapphirine coexisting with quartz is considered as one of the most diagnostic mineral assemblages of UHT metamorphism. It is also known that sapphirine often occurs in magnetite-bearing high oxygen fugacity rocks, and, in such cases, the mineral can incorporate considerable quantity of ferric iron as well as Fe2+. It is therefore important to evaluate the effect of Fe3+ content on the stability of sapphirine-bearing assemblages for estimating peak conditions as well as constructing P-T paths. In this study, we evaluated the stability of sapphirine + quartz in magnetite-bearing high-oxygen fugacity rocks in UHT granulites from India (Madurai Block in the southern granulite terrane) and China (Inner Mongolia Suture Zone) using mineral equilibrium modeling technique, and constructed P-T paths of the areas. The calculations have been done in NCKFMASHTO system using THERMOCALC 3.33 with an updated version of the internally consistent data set. The Madurai Block is the largest granulite block in the Southern Granulite Terrane, India, which was formed by collisional orogeny related to the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent. The block contains granulites with various UHT mineral assemblages including sapphirine + quartz, orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz, and Al-rich orthopyroxene. Quartzo-feldspathic garnet-sillimanite granulites from Rajapalaiyam area in the southern part of the block, for example, contain sapphirine + quartz inclusion in garnet as a stable mineral assemblage at the peak of metamorphism. The calculated T-X pseudosections suggest that the stability temperature of sapphirine + quartz is lowered from 1000°C at reduced condition (XFe2O3 = 0.02) to 910°C at oxidized condition (XFe2O3 = 1.0). The Inner Mongolia Suture Zone within the North China Block rarely contains sapphirine-bearing UHT granulites. Tuguiwula area within the suture zone contains coarse-grained sapphirine granulites. Although both sapphirine and quartz occur quartzo-feldspathic layers of the rocks, the two minerals are separated by thin film of sillimanite. This indicates sapphirine was in equilibrium with quartz at prograde or peak metamorphic conditions and separated during retrograde metamorphism. The T-X pseudosection of the rocks indicate that the stability field of sapphirine + quartz lowered in more oxidized condition (T > 1050°C at XFe2O3 = 0.1 to T > 920°C at XFe2O3 = 0.9). The results of this study demonstrated that the occurrence of sapphirine + quartz in UHT rocks is strongly controlled by the oxidation state of the rocks. Lowering of the stability field of sapphirine + quartz by increasing XFe2O3 ratio was also confirmed for UHT granulites from the Madurai Block and the Inner Mongolia Suture Zone.

Shimizu, H.; Tsunogae, T.; Santosh, M.

2012-04-01

424

Cochlear implants in China.  

PubMed

China has approximately 6 million totally deaf people according to an official survey conducted in 1990, although the actual number is probably higher. A primary cause of deafness is the use of ototoxic drugs. There does not appear to be any emergent deaf culture in China at present. As the only available medical device that can restore partial hearing to a totally deaf person, the cochlear implant has been in development in China since 1979. This paper provides an overview of cochlear implants in China and is based on a review of published materials, visits to research institutes and hospitals, and personal communication with Chinese colleagues. As of 1993, about 1,000 deaf people, including 50 children below age 12 years, have received four types of single-electrode cochlear implants that were developed and fabricated by institutions in China. These single-electrode devices have provided an aid to lip reading, but are no longer in use due to their inability to produce open-set speech recognition. Present implant research in China focuses on development of multi-electrode devices. Basic research in electrical stimulation is relatively lacking and standardized audiological evaluation for cochlear implant effectiveness needs to be developed. The present economic growth and legal system reform in China, combined with advances in implant technology, may make it possible to produce an affordable yet effective cochlear implant system. This paper discusses cochlear implants only in China, but the social and economic factors are similar in many developing countries in Asia, South America, Eastern Europe, and Africa, where a low-cost, high-performance cochlear implant system is also needed. PMID:8561684

Zeng, F G

1995-01-01

425

Plant communities in relation to flooding and soil characteristics in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

With the filling of the Three Gorges Reservoir, original vegetation in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) between the elevations of 145 and 175 m disappeared due to the reversal of submergence time (winter flooding) and prolonged inundation duration (nearly half a year). To better understand the relationships between the environmental factors and recovered plant communities for reconstructing floristically diverse riparian zone, we conducted a field survey in 11 sites in the WLFZ in June 2010, and vegetation composition, flooding characteristics, heavy metals, and soil major nutrients were determined. Consequently, the canonical correspondence analysis was used to investigate the relationships between plant species composition and flooding characteristics, heavy metal contamination, and soil nutrients. Results demonstrated that vegetation in the WLFZ was dominated by annuals, i.e., Echinochloa crusgalli and Bidens tripartita, and perennials including Cynodon dactylon, and plant species richness and diversity were negatively associated with flooding duration, heavy metal contamination, and nutrients including total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and nitrate. Our results suggest that plant species, recovering mainly through soil seed bank and regeneration of remnant individuals, have been influenced by the combined effects of environmental factors. PMID:22968672

Ye, Chen; Zhang, Kerong; Deng, Qi; Zhang, Quanfa

2013-03-01

426

Comparative studies on species identification of Noctuoidea moths in two nature reserve conservation zones (Beijing, China) using DNA barcodes and thin-film biosensor chips.  

PubMed

Rapid and accurate identification of species is required for the biological control of pest Noctuoidea moths. DNA barcodes and thin-film biosensor chips are two molecular approaches that have gained wide attention. Here, we compare these two methods for the identification of a limited number of Noctuoidea moth species. Based on the commonly used mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (the standard DNA barcode for animal species), 14 probes were designed and synthesized for 14 species shared by two national nature reserves in Beijing and Hebei, China. Probes ranged in length from 18 to 27 bp and were designed as mismatch probes to guarantee that there were at least three base differences between the probe and nontarget sequences. The results on the chip could be detected by the naked eye without needing special equipment. No cross-hybridizations were detected although we tested all probes on the 14 target and 24 nontarget Noctuoidea species. The neighbour-joining tree of the 38 species based on COI sequences gave 38 highly supported independent groups. Both DNA barcoding and thin-film biosensor chips, based on the COI gene, are able to accurately identify and discriminate the 14 targeted moth species in this study. Because of its speed, high accuracy and low cost, the thin-film biosensor chip is a very practical means of species identification. Now, a more comprehensive chip will be developed for the identification of additional Noctuoidea moths for pest control and ecological protection. PMID:24103324

Yang, F; Shi, Z Y; Bai, S L; Ward, R D; Zhang, A B

2014-01-01

427

Plant community characteristics and their responses to environmental factors in the water level fluctuation zone of the three gorges reservoir in China.  

PubMed

The annual water level regulating of the Three Gorges Reservoir prolonged the submerged duration (from 2 to 8 months) and resulted in the reversal of natural flood rhythms (winter submerged). These changes might alter plant community characteristics in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). The aim of this study was to determine the plant community characteristics in the WLFZ and their responses to the environmental factors (i.e., annual hydrological regulation, topographic characteristics, soil physical properties and soil nutrients). The height, coverage, frequency and biomass of each plant species and the soil properties at each elevation zone (150, 155, 160, 165 and 170 m) were measured from March to September in 2010. Univariate two-factor analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the community characteristics and identify the key environmental factors influencing vegetation. We found that 93.2 % of the species analysed were terrestrial vascular plants. Annual herbs made up the highest percentage of life forms at each altitude. The differences in the species number per square metre, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the biomass of vegetation demonstrated statistical significance with respect to sampling time but not elevation. The most dominant species at altitudes of 150, 155, 160, 165 and 170 m were Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria viridis and Daucus carota, respectively. The concentrations of soil nutrients appeared to be the lowest at an altitude of 150 m, although the differences with respect to elevation were not significant. The results of the RDA indicated that the key factors that influenced the species composition of vegetation were elevation, slope, pH and the concentration of soil available phosphorus. PMID:23589274

Zhang, Zhiyong; Wan, Chengyan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Hu, Lian; Feng, Kun; Chang, Jianbo; Xie, Ping

2013-10-01

428

China's (uneven) progress against poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the incidence of extreme poverty fell dramatically in China over 1980–2001, progress was uneven over time and across provinces. Rural areas accounted for the bulk of the gains to the poor, though migration to urban areas helped. Rural economic growth was far more important to national poverty reduction than urban economic growth; agriculture played a far more important role

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

2007-01-01

429

Spatial-temporal dynamics of NDVI and Chl-a concentration from 1998 to 2009 in the East coastal zone of China: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components.  

PubMed

Annual normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration are the most important large-scale indicators of terrestrial and oceanic ecosystem net primary productivity. In this paper, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor level 3 standard mapped image annual products from 1998 to 2009 are used to study the spatial-temporal characters of terrestrial NDVI and oceanic Chl-a concentration on two sides of the coastline of China by using the methods of mean value (M), coefficient of variation (CV), the slope of unary linear regression model (Slope), and the Hurst index (H). In detail, we researched and analyzed the spatial-temporal dynamics, the longitudinal zonality and latitudinal zonality, the direction, intensity, and persistency of historical changes. The results showed that: (1) spatial patterns of M and CV between NDVI and Chl-a concentration from 1998 to 2009 were very different. The dynamic variation of terrestrial NDVI was much mild, while the variation of oceanic Chl-a concentration was relatively much larger; (2) distinct longitudinal zonality was found for Chl-a concentration and NDVI due to their hypersensitivity to the distance to shoreline, and strong latitudinal zonality existed for Chl-a concentration while terrestrial NDVI had a very weak latitudinal zonality; (3) overall, the NDVI showed a slight decreasing trend while the Chl-a concentration showed a significant increasing trend in the past 12 years, and both of them exhibit strong self-similarity and long-range dependence which indicates opposite future trends between land and ocean. PMID:22367366

Hou, Xiyong; Li, Mingjie; Gao, Meng; Yu, Liangju; Bi, Xiaoli

2013-01-01

430

What keeps China's migrant workers going? Expectations and happiness among China's floating population  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rural-urban migrants have been the engine room that has driven China's high rate of economic growth; however, their living and working conditions are poor. This paper addresses the question: What keeps China's migrant workers going? We seek to answer this question through examining the determinants of the happiness of China's rural-urban migrants, drawing on a large-scale survey administered across

Wenshu Gao; Russell Smyth

2011-01-01

431

Seismic Source Characteristics of Nine Strong Earthquakes from 1988 to 1990 and Earthquake Activity since 1970 in the Sichuan-Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Zone of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Qinghai and Xizang (Tibet) are situated in a very active seismic zone. From 1988 to 1990, nine strong earthquakes (M > 5.9) occurred in these provinces. A method of analyzing seismic waveforms using apparent source time functions (aSTF) and apparent time differences (aTD) is adopted to derive rupture characteristics for the strong earthquakes. Combining the source characteristics with aftershock data, regional tectonics and geology, this paper examines the migration of strong earthquakes. The Qinghai earthquakes in this study were found to have strong reverse-slip faulting, which is different from the strike-slip focal mechanisms of past earthquakes in the region. The steepness of compressional axes of Sichuan earthquakes is related to the local complicated tectonics. Finally, the single-link cluster (SLC) method is used to analyze the spatial-temporal behavior of the all strong earthquakes that occurred in the region since 1970. The SLC analysis suggests that the patterns of earthquake activity can be identified well and that continental earthquakes occur seemingly with basic regularity.

Gao, Y.; Wu, Z.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, H.

432

Transforming Markets for Energy Efficiency Buildings in China  

SciTech Connect

Program involved active support and participation in the development and implementation of a residential building energy consumption standards for the ''Transition Zone'' and ''Cooling Zone'' of China, with an implementation emphasis on Chongqing Municipality in southwestern China and, later, Shanghai Municipality. Beyond-code policies and programs, such as green building standards were also promoted.

Robert K. Watson; Barbara A. Finamore

2002-09-30

433

Ecological economic evaluation of the degraded natural vegetation restoration after water transfer to the lower Tarim River, Xinjiang region of northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergency ecological water transfer has been implemented for 12 years since 2000 in the lower Tarim River with the goal of restoring the impaired ecosystem and protected habitat environment. It is necessary to evaluate the ecological economic benefits of the vegetative system in order to measure the success of the rehabilitated ecosystem. Based on a hypothesis that the growth of the natural vegetation has a hysteresis with increased groundwater level, this paper suggests that the ecological economic value of the natural vegetation response to groundwater level elevation theoretically includes two parts: the direct value resulting from the increased aboveground biomass of the natural vegetation and the potential value resulting from the natural vegetative restoration in the future. The ecological economic analysis method is applied to calculate assess the ecological economic benefits of the natural vegetative restoration in Kaogan area. The total investment cost of increased groundwater level after seven years is 867 US Dollars in the 100-metre-wide, 2000-metre-long sample belt. The direct value is 1491 US Dollars and the direct input-output ratio is 1:1.7. While the potential value is 4989 US Dollars and the total input-output ratio is 1:7.5. The results indicate that the ecological economic benefits of natural vegetative response are significant after seven years of groundwater level elevation in the lower Tarim River. It also provides a theoretical reference for quantifying the benefits of the degraded ecosystem restoration. Keywords: The lower reaches of Tarim River; ecological water transfer project; ecological economic value; the potential value

Mao, Ye; Hailiang, Xu

2013-04-01

434

Building China’s Soft Power for a Peaceful Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its rapid economic growth and deepening integration into the global system, Chinese leaders see the first 20 years of\\u000a the 21st century as an ‘important period of strategic opportunity’ for China. China under Hu Jintao’s leadership has chosen\\u000a a new path of peaceful rise. To facilitate such a peaceful rise, Chinese Communist Party has gradually adopted a soft power\\u000a strategy.

Xin Li; Verner Worm

2011-01-01

435

Tectonics of China: Continental scale cataclastic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic, structural, and earthquake evidence indicates that cataclastic flow, that is, flow by brittle mechanisms (e.g., fracture and slip), was dominant in China from late Paleozoic. This process has operated over a range of scales including the continental scale. China is made up of large brittle basement elements immersed in ductile zones which are analogous to porphyroclasts (large, often brittle fragments) surrounded by fluxion (foliation or flow) structures in cataclastic rocks, respectively. This basement fabric for China is seen on Landsat imagery and on tectonic maps and is comparable to cataclastic rock fabrics seen in fault zones, on outcrops, and in thin sections. Brittle basement elements are broken into two or more large rigid blocks, and the dimensions of elements and blocks are within 1 order of magnitude of each other. Ductile zones are made up of fragments which are many orders of magnitude smaller than the ductile zones. Rigid blocks and fragments are identified, and their dimensions are measured through earthquake, fault, and fracture patterns. Rigid basement blocks are surrounded by earthquakes. The sedimentary rocks over the basement faults at the block boundaries seem to be affected by fault movements because they are characterized by facies changes, thickness changes, high-angle faults, and forced folds. Ductile basement zones are earthquake prone, and deformation of the ductile basement affects the overlying sedimentary rocks, as is demonstrated by unconformities and by a wide variety of structures. Thrust faults, buckle folds, and strike slip faults are common in and adjacent to western ductile zones. Structures are most intensely developed where ductile zones abut brittle elements. Both brittle elements and ductile zones are rifted and cut by strike slip faults in eastern China. The mechanical fabric of China and the boundary conditions acting on China are now and always have been determined by its plate tectonic history. This inference is made from recently published plate tectonic interpretations. Geologic maps show that there are six elements and that each element has a Precambrian, crystalline core which is surrounded by upper Paleozoic continental margin suites of rocks, including subduction complexes, among others. Geologic data on ophiolites demonstrate that the brittle elements and their margins were juxtaposed and then welded together along suture zones during Permian and Triassic time to make China. Cenofcoic plate motions affecting China resulted in the collision with India where it converges with southwest China and the extension in eastern China where island arcs move away from the mainland and where grabens are actively forming. The juxtaposition to Siberia, which acts as a buttress against northern China, explains the compression of western China, and the absence of a buttress in the Pacific Ocean explains why eastern China can extend. Furthermore, laboratory data on the mechanical behavior of rock under conditions analogous to the shallow crustal conditions of interest in China show that all rocks are weaker in extension than they are in compression. Basement rock in western China is strong because it is compressed, but this same basement rock is weak in eastern China because it is in extension. The tectonics of China or, in mechanistic terms, the way in which the mechanical framework of China responds to Cenozoic boundary forces was a result of China's previous plate tectonic history. Crystalline cores are the rigid blocks that form brittle elements. Both the continental margin suites and the sutures are the ductile zones. The sutures and sediment patterns seen in the basins and ranges of China can be explained in terms of this tectonic scenario.

Gallagher, John J., Jr.

436

Reaction zone between pre-UHP titanite and host rock: insights into fluid-rock interaction and deformation mechanisms during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust (Dabie Shan UHP unit, China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhumed crustal UHP rocks may occur as relict blocks in strongly metasomatized matrix rocks. Due to variations in competence between the mm to km sized blocks and their ductile matrix, the largely undeformed blocks may preserve the pre-subduction and the prograde history, whereas the matrix rocks have been ductilely deformed to high magnitudes and record successive stages of deformation. The reaction zones between blocks and matrix, however, provide insights into the fluid-rock interaction, deformation and the deformation mechanisms active during the exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust in the subduction channel. We investigate a titanite megacryst (3 cm in diameter) in a calc-silicate marble from the UHP unit in the Dabie Shan, China. The core of the titanite megacryst grew prograde during subduction. Its U-Pb system remained closed and yields a maximum age for UHP metamorphism. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in the core demonstrate that the titanite megacryst precipitated from a homogeneous fluid source. During metamorphism in the subduction zone, infiltration of external fluids resulted first in Sr-loss from the marbles and then introduction of Sr with unusually low 87Sr/86S values (Romer et al., 2003), leading to the contrasting 87Sr/86Sr values in the titanite megacryst and the hosting UHP marbles (Wawrzenitz et al., 2006). Related to deformation in the calc-silicate marble matrix, the rim of the titanite megacryst has been replaced during the following dissolution-precipitation reactions: (i) Pseudomorphic replacement of the old titanite megacryst by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Fluid migrated into the old grain producing a sharp boundary of the replacement front. (ii) New small titanite grains grew with their long axes parallel to the foliation of the marble matrix, reflecting the activation of dissolution precipitation creep. In the matrix, the foliation is defined by the orientation of the basal planes of phengitic white mica. The new titanite grains are patchy zoned and replace, along with rutile, calcite, quartz, and apatite, the old titanite megacryst. This reaction reflects the changing CO2 versus fluorine activity in the available fluid phase, rather than changing P-T conditions. The Sr isotope composition of the phases formed by these fluid-mediated reactions is variable and depends on the reaction-history and origin of the fluids. (iii) Brittle deformation of the titanite megacryst induced the formation of fractures, enhancing fluid transport and precipitation of new titanite, allanite, calcite ± rutile, and albite (locally anorthite), as well as Zn(Fe) - and Cu - sulphides along the vein walls. Dislocation creep is indicated by subgrains in local zones of high differential stress within the rim of the titanite megacryst. However, dissolution precipitation creep has been much more effective in changing the (isotope)chemical composition of titanite compared to dislocation creep. Romer, R.L., Wawrzenitz, N., Oberhänsli, R., 2003. Terra Nova 15, 5, 330-336. Wawrzenitz, N., Romer, R.L., Oberhänsli, R., Dong, S., 2006. Lithos 89, 1-2, 174-201.

Wawrzenitz, N.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Morales, L. F. G.

2012-04-01

437

China's energy outlook  

SciTech Connect

Economic reform in China has given a major boost to the development of China's energy industries. Demand for energy has risen steadily in response to the rapid expansion of the economy over the past ten years, while economic liberalization and deregulation have stimulated energy output as the energy industries found new sources of capital, labor, and investment opportunities. In the first half of 1980s, the coal, oil, and electric power industries all experienced accelerating rates of growth. After mid-decade, however, an overheating economy, rising inflation, and lower international oil prices had a serious impact on the vitality of the energy industries. At a time when energy demand was soaring, the state-owned energy industries faced a decline in the real value of their output, excessive debt, falling productivity, and sharply higher costs of production. These trends have continued into 1990 despite the economic slowdown engineered in late 1988 and, if left unmanaged, will constrain the ability of the domestic energy industries to meet the energy needs of China's modernization program. This in turn could lead to progressively higher imports of energy, particularly oil, and could limit the speed and scope of economic expansion in the 1990s and beyond. 2 figs., 18 tabs.

Fridley, D.

1991-03-01

438

Aeration Zone Symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Symposium on Recent Investigations in the Zone of Aeration (RIZA) was organized by the Institute for Hydrogeology and Hydrochemistry of the Technical University of Munich and held October 1-5, 1984, in the lecture halls of the Grosshadern Klinik in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). P. Udluft, B. Merkel, and K.-H. Prüsl, all of the university, were responsible for the organization of the symposium, which was under the patronage of K.-E. Quentin. There were over 200 participants from 22 different countries, among them Australia, Canada, China, India, and the United States. The topics of the symposium were the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes in the unsaturated zone, the region between the surface and the groundwater level. Here a number of complex processes occur that on the one hand are of natural origin and on the other hand are influenced by human activities in a number of ways.

Merkel, B.

439

Review of water pollution control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

2008-01-01

440

China’s Indochina policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has made virtually all the gains it can expect from the war in Cambodia. These include its regional influence, its relations\\u000a with Thailand and the superpowers, and its punishment of Vietnam. Continued support for the universally condemned Khmer Rouge\\u000a risks undermining China’s regional standing for no certain gain. It could forestall new possibilities for China in Phnom Penh\\u000a and

Gary Klintworth

1989-01-01

441

Rural Households’ Attitude and Economic Strategies Toward the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFG): A Case Study in Qira, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFG), which was initiated by the Chinese government in 1999,\\u000a is a cropland retirement program with integrated objectives for ecological preservation and local development. The purpose\\u000a of this article was to study the influencing factors of attitude and economic strategies in rural households toward the CCFG.\\u000a Rural households’ knowledge, attitude and

Hua Ma; Yonglong Lu; Ying Xing; Guizhen He; Yamei Sun

2009-01-01

442

CHINA, GMOS AND WORLD TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL AND TEXTILE PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rapid industrialization and recent accession to the WTO makes it difficult for the country to maintain self-sufficiency in agricultural products. Genetic modification technology could ease the situation, but is not without controversy. This paper focuses on the implication of GMO controversy for China. It explores the potential economic effects of China's not adopting versus adopting GMOs when some of

Kym Anderson; Shunli Yao

2003-01-01

443