Sample records for economic zone china

  1. Stressors of dual-qualification nursing teachers in the ChengDu-ChongQing economic zone of China--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Youfeng; Liu, Hui; He, Hongyan

    2013-12-01

    Nursing and teaching are considered risk professions with high levels of stress and burnout. Dual-qualification nursing teachers (DQNT) are nurses who both teach and practise. These nurses face additional stress. This study explored the stressors of DQNT in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. This qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended interviews. The interview responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The participants in this study included 21 DQNT from 5 teaching hospitals in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. The results indicated that heavy workload, personal safety, inadequate pay, role overload, and poor working environment are stressors of DQNT. Furthermore, Chinese DQNT face violence from patients and students. The study provides a theoretical basis to help DQNT to cope with stress. PMID:23702488

  2. Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

    2014-09-01

    In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters. PMID:24788859

  3. Research on the development strategy of economic development zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoping Ji

    2011-01-01

    Compared with foreign research history, the theoretical study and practical exploration on economic development zone in China has only been engaged for 20 years, and is still at a preliminary stage. Relative to the important role and the status of economic and technological development zone, the theory research results in this area are relatively lacking, and the research depth, study

  4. Simulation and evaluation on the eco-industrial system of Changchun economic and technological development zone, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Shang, Jin-cheng; Chen, Chong; Wu, He-nan

    2008-04-01

    Reasonable structure, adaptive patterns and effective regulation of society, economy and environment subsystems should be taken into account in order to obtain harmonious development of urban eco-industrial system. We simulated and evaluated a redesigned eco-industrial system in Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone (CCETDZ) in the present work using system dynamics and grey cluster methods. Four typical development strategies were simulated during 2005-2020 via standard system dynamic models. Furthermore, analytic hierarchy process and grey cluster allowed for the eco-industrial system evaluation and scenarios optimizing. Our dynamic simulation and statistical analysis revealed that: (1) CCETDZ would have different development scenarios under different strategies. The total population in scenario 2 grew most rapidly and reached 3.28 x 10(5) in 2020, exceeding its long-term planning expected population. And the GDP differences among these four scenarios would amount to 6.41 x 10(10) RMB. On the other hand, environmental pollution would become serious along with economy increasing. As a restriction factor, positive or negative increment of water resource will occur according to the selected strategy. (2) The fourth strategy would have the best efficiency, which means that the most efficiently development of CCETDZ required to take science, technology, environment progress and economy increase into account at the same time. (3) Positive environment protection measures, such as cleaner production, green manufacture, production life cycle management and environment friendly industries, should be attached great importance the same as economy development during 2005-2020 in CCETDZ. PMID:17657575

  5. Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hualin; Liu, Zhifei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guiying; Lu, Fucai

    2013-01-01

    Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05). The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model. PMID:24384778

  6. Understanding china's economic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

    2001-01-01

    Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are claimed to be successful in (a) agriculture where land is not owned by the fanners; (b)

  7. Current status of coastal zone issues and management in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenzhi; Wong, Ming H

    2007-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines social-economic and environmental issues recently emerged in China's coastal zone. Evaluation of management scheme and progress in perspectives of coordinated legislation, institutional arrangement, public participation, capacity building, and scientific research (mainly coastal planning and functional zoning) in China's coastal zone are made. The Chinese government has made a significant effort in developing legislation for the coastal zone. Jurisdictional and zoning boundaries, and allocating use rights for coastal and marine resources have been established. State Oceanic Administration is the leading agency responsible for China's ocean policymaking and overall management of ocean and coastal affairs. A demonstrated project for integrated coastal management in Xiamen has been implemented, and is characterized as "decentralization" approach in decision-making process. In view of the above, comprehensive coastal management in China is a big challenge, facing with many difficulties. Finally, recommendations are raised for tackling these issues for China's coastal zone management. PMID:17532045

  8. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30 Section 2.30 Navigation...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to...States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward...

  9. The Shenzhen Special Economic Zone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    Landsat Thematic Mapper views Shenzhen, China, located on the Pearl River, in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 432. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1396, 1397, and 1398.

  10. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  11. Fixed Investment and Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy C. C. Kwan; Yangru Wu; Junxi Zhang

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate empirically the investment-growth relationship in China. Using the exogeneity framework pioneered by Engle et al. (1983) and Engle and Hendry (1993), we find that fixed investment is a key determinant of China's economic growth, which, surprisingly, has not been rigorously examined in the literature. The super exogeneity test results suggest that there exists a robust

  12. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC REFORMS ON THE URBAN ECONOMY OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yichun Xie; Frank J. Costa

    1991-01-01

    The impact of recent economic reforms in China on Chinese cities has influenced both the rate and spatial pattern of their development. In this research, three groups of cities are analyzed: those in special economic zones, opened coastal cities, and inland provincial level capital cities. Eighteen variables were selected to determine the impact of the reforms. Major conclusions of the

  13. Marine biodiversity conservation based on integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)—A case study in Quanzhou Bay, Fujian, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Bin; Huang Hao; Yu Weiwei; Zheng Senlin; Wang Jinkeng; Jiang Jinlong

    2009-01-01

    Marine biodiversity conservation is a common issue in the world. Due to rapid economic development in coastal area in China, marine biodiversity conservation faces great pressure. In this paper, the idea of the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) was applied as a framework in marine biodiversity conservation. At first, the relationship between integrated coastal zone management and the marine biodiversity

  14. A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

    2014-03-01

    Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

  15. The economics of population aging in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, X

    1996-01-01

    This article relies on a Marxist framework for discussing the relationship between economic development and population aging in China. China places value on correctly understanding the causes, processes, trends, and socioeconomic consequences of population aging during the development of its socialist market economy. Many policies have an impact on the aged. Marxist theories of economic operations identify four key features--production, distribution, exchange, and consumption--which are affected by human activity. The age structure of population affects socioeconomic operations. An increase in accumulated capital means a decrease in consumption capital. China must maintain its high level of annual economic growth (6.0%-6.5%). 30% of China's national income must be used for accumulation of capital and investment, but the increase in the aged has led to growth in consumption capital. By 2050, it is expected that there will be over 100 million retirees needing about 800 billion RMB in pensions (20 times the amount in 1993). As the number of elderly grows, savings decline. The growth of the elderly will place demands on social security funds, which will in turn rely on an increased proportion of consumption capital. The increased labor force and the increased number of aged will both vie for a share in the national economy until about 2020, and then the problem will be declines in productivity in some areas. It is generally believed that support of the elderly should not rise above 10% of national income. In 1993, the elderly's share was 3.7%, and at the present rate of growth, it is expected that the share will be above 10% by 2030. Working families will have to carry a heavy domestic burden of care for their aged. Productivity will have to increase in order to offset the decline in per capita consumption capital due to aging. The author offers countermeasures at the macro- and microlevel for dealing with the demographic changes. PMID:12291971

  16. Economic impacts and challenges of China’s petroleum industry: An input–output analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tang Xu; Zhang Baosheng; Feng Lianyong; Marwan Masri; Afshin Honarvar

    2011-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the petroleum industry plays an important role in China’s national economic and social development. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of China’s petroleum industry are analyzed in this study by using the Input–Output approach. The study also considers the main challenges that China’s economy might face in the future. The research results suggest the following:

  17. On the long-term seismic hazard analysis in the Zhangjiakou–Penglai seismotectonic zone, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengxiang Fu; Jie Liu; Guiping Liu

    2004-01-01

    The Zhangjiakou–Penglai seismotectonic zone (ZPSZ) lies in the northern part of North China and extends along the Zhangjiakou–Beijing–Tianjin–Bohai Bay–Penglai–Yellow Sea. It is about 900 km long and some 250 km wide in a northwest direction. The great Sanhe-Pinggu (MS=8.0) earthquake occurred on September 1679 and the Tangshan (MS=7.8) earthquake on July 1976 caused serious economic and life losses. According to

  18. China, India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and

    E-print Network

    Coxhead, Ian

    China, India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and Environmental Implications for Low of Life Sciences and 2 La Trobe University 1. INTRODUCTION THE emergence of China and India as major. When China first began to attract large-scale foreign investment and expand its export- oriented labour

  19. China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

  20. Economic Liberalization with Rising Segmentation in China's Urban Labor Market*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Economic Liberalization with Rising Segmentation in China's Urban Labor Market* Sylvie Démurger the evolution of labor market segmentation in urban China, by applying an extended version of Oaxaca- Blinder-up in the late 1970s, both rural and urban labor markets in China have changed dramatically. By allowing market

  1. 2013 China Latin America Economic Bulletin Rebecca Ray and Kevin P. Gallagher

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    2013 China ­ Latin America Economic Bulletin Rebecca Ray and Kevin P. Gallagher The China-Latin America Economic Bulletin is an annual note that summarizes and synthesizes trends in the burgeoning China-Latin America economic

  2. China’s higher education expansion and the task of economic revitalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyan Wang; Jian Liu

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China’s economic development.\\u000a These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China’s economy,\\u000a and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a description of key changes in the Chinese

  3. Redevelopment of development zones: The smart growth of cities in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xingping; Yuan Xinguo; Zhu Kai

    2012-01-01

    Development zones are the important carriers of China’s promoting industrialization and attracting international investment in the past 30 years and act as the primary means of city expansion. In this article, we analyse the low efficiency of land use problem existing in China’s current development zones. Comparing with the general old city update phenomenon, we make a detailed illustration on

  4. Window on the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    Landsat Thematic Mapper views Shenzhen, China, located on the Pearl River, in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 432. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1396, 1397, and 1399.

  5. Contemporary Approaches to Economic Development: The Special Economic Zone Programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gopinath

    2009-01-01

    Of considerable interest within policy and academic circles, is the emergence of India's status as a new economic powerhouse in Asia. This development can be linked to its recent advocacy of 'effective' local economic development policies, particularly in attempting to create 'new economic spaces' as a model for economic development. In this regard, in 2005, the Indian central government passed

  6. Economic Restructuring and Income Inequality in Urban China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Meng

    2004-01-01

    Economic transition from a planned to a market oriented economy is often associated with a widening of income inequality. The nature of this change, however, may differ during different stages of the economic transition. This paper investigates the increase in income inequality in urban China during two phases of economic reform: a moderate reform era (1988–95) and a radical reform

  7. Innovation capacity and economic development: China and India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peilei Fan

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing the GDP growth from 1981 to 2004, this paper finds that innovation capacity has contributed significantly to the\\u000a economic growth of China and India, especially in the 1990 s. Outputs of the national innovation system, measured by patents\\u000a and high-tech\\/service exports, demonstrate the considerable progress China and India have made in innovation capacity. The\\u000a enhanced innovation capacity of China and

  8. Flow vorticity in Zhangbaling transpressional attachment zone, SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Teyssier, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Plagioclase porphyroclasts with well-preserved idiomorphic shapes and zoning, and showing limited clast interaction, are ubiquitous in the flat-lying Zhangbaling schist that is exposed east of the Tan-Lu fault in southeast China. Plagioclase porphyroclasts define rigid particles whose distribution be related to the kinematic vorticity of the schist using the methods of porphyroclast hyperbolic distribution (PHD) and modified Rf/? (Passchier/Wallis plot). The kinematic vorticity numbers calculated from this approach range from Wk = 0.72 to 0.82, increasing progressively from south to north along the Zhangbaling belt. Such a Wk distribution indicates that the Zhangbaling schist was deformed uniformly under simple-shear dominated general shear, and that the Zhangbaling ductile crust experienced relatively even crustal thinning deformation. The subhorizontal Zhangbaling schist is considered a mid-crustal attachment zone that coupled the rigid upper crust to a subvertical, wrench shear zone in the lower crust.

  9. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa

    2005-03-01

    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

  10. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  11. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

  12. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

  13. Fiscal decentralization, public spending, and economic growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

    1998-01-01

    This study of China demonstrates how the allocation of fiscal resources between the central and local governments has affected economic growth since reforms began in the late 1970s. We find that a higher degree of fiscal decentralization of government spending is associated with lower provincial economic growth over the past fifteen years. This consistently significant and robust result in our

  14. China at the crossroads: the economics of tobacco and health

    PubMed Central

    Hu, T?W; Mao, Z; Ong, M; Tong, E; Tao, M; Jiang, H; Hammond, K; Smith, K R; de Beyer, J; Yurekli, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse economic aspects of tobacco control policy issues in China. Methods Published and collected survey data were used to analyse economic consequences of smoking. Economic analysis was used to address the role of tobacco farmers and the cigarette industry in the Chinese economy. Results In the agricultural sector, tobacco has the lowest economic rate of return of all cash crops. At the same time, the tobacco industry's tax contribution to the central government has been declining. Conclusion Economic gains become less important as the negative health impact of smoking on the population garners more awareness. China stands at a crossroads to implement the economic promises of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and promote the health of its population. PMID:16723674

  15. Towards a sustainable coast: an integrated coastal zone management framework for Shanghai, People's Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Shi; S. M Hutchinson; L Yu; S Xu

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) framework in the context of the current pressures and management problems of the coastal zone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The main issues in the coastal zone caused by human activities are addressed and the drawbacks of the present coastal zone management are identified. The proposed ICZM framework is developed

  16. 100a climate change and its impact on vegetation ecological zoning in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiqiang Gao; Meng Ran; Wei Gao

    2009-01-01

    The temporal and spatial characteristics of climate change in China during the recent 100 years were analyzed using CRU05 climate data. We studied the impacts of climate change during the recent 100 years on vegetation ecological zones in China by using Holdridge Life Zone Classification Model and Center-of-Gravity Model. It is concluded that the precipitation and temperature increased and climate

  17. Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

    2011-01-01

    The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth. PMID:21094300

  18. Reserve constrained economic dispatch with prohibited operating zones

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.N.; Breipohl, A.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes a method for solving the reserve constrained economic dispatch problem when some of the on-line generating units have prohibited operating zone(s). For a unit with prohibited zone(s), the zone(s) divide the operating region between the minimum generation limit (Pmin) and the maximum generation limit (Pmax) into disjoint convex sub-regions. These disjoint sub-regions form a non-convex decision space and the associated economic dispatch problem is thus a non-convex optimization problem. As a result, the conventional Lagrangian relaxation (LR) approach cannot be applied directly. The method proposed in this paper decomposes the non-convex decision space into a small number of subsets such that each of the associated dispatch problems is either infeasible or one that can be directly solved via the conventional LR approach. Based on the decomposition, the optimal solution is the least cost one among all the feasible solutions of the associated dispatch problems. In the paper examples are also given to illustrate the proposed method.

  19. Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Mark

    Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam Lisa D the Indochina and South China blocks, exhibit clear evidence of left- lateral, ductile deformation. Assuming that the South China Sea represents a pull-apart basin formed at the southeastern termination of the RRSZ, it has

  20. Employment Restructuring during China's Economic Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Ming; Fan, Jianyong; Liu, Shejian; Yan, Yan

    2002-01-01

    As in developed countries, China's service sector has become the main job creator, the country's labor force is better educated, and the average age of the employed is rising. Driving those phenomena are a fast-paced employment restructuring and a growing private enterprise at the expense of state and collective ownership. (Author)

  1. China's economic growth in an international context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas R. Lardy

    1999-01-01

    China is widely regarded as the most rapidly growing economy in the world over the past two decades. A growing number of studies, however, suggest that the official growth rate of 9.4 per cent for the years from 1978 through 1995 is biased upwards. No consensus has yet emerged on the degree of overstatement. Estimates range from as little as

  2. Capital Formation and Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Chow

    1993-01-01

    First, production functions are estimated for China's aggregate economy and for the five sectors--agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, and commerce--using annual data (some constructed by the author) from 1952 to 1980. Then, this paper measures the contribution of capital formation to the growth of these sectors, the effects of the Great Leap Forward of 1958-62 and of the Cultural Revolution of

  3. Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ying Chu

    2004-01-01

    Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…

  4. Economic returns to schooling in urban China, 1988 to 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junsen Zhang; Yaohui Zhao; Albert Park; Xiaoqing Song

    2005-01-01

    This study provides estimates of the returns to schooling in urban China over an extended period of economic reforms. We find a dramatic increase in the returns to education, from only 4.0 percent per year of schooling in 1988 to 10.2 percent in 2001. Most of the rise in the returns to education occurred after 1992 and reflected an increase

  5. Economic welfare impacts from renewable energy consumption: The China experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiping Fang

    2011-01-01

    Over the last years renewable energy sources have increased their share on electricity generation of China due to environmental and security of supply concerns. In this work author assesses the role of both the amount and share of renewable energy consumption in economic welfare using Cobb–Douglas type production functions. This assessment is carried out by multivariate OLS and SPSS software

  6. Economic Stress, Quality of Life, and Mortality for the Oldest-Old in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, W. Jean; Xu, Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    China's oldest old population is estimated to quadruple by 2050. Yet, poverty rate for the oldest old has been the highest among all age groups in China. This paper investigates the relationship between economic stress, quality of life, and mortality among the oldest-old in China. Both objective economic hardships and perceived economic strain are…

  7. Exhumation of the Ailao Shan shear zone recorded by Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, Yunnan Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay M. Schoenbohm; B. Clark Burchfiel; Chen Liangzhong; Yin Jiyun

    2005-01-01

    The role of strike-slip faults, such as the Ailao Shan shear zone in southwestern China, in accommodating the India-Eurasia collision remains controversial. Cenozoic sedimentary rocks preserved along the northeast side of the Ailao Shan shear zone, however, record the nature and timing of exhumation of shear zone rocks. Field mapping shows that the lower strata consist of early Oligocene lacustrine

  8. 100a climate change and its impact on vegetation ecological zoning in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Ran, Meng; Gao, Wei

    2009-08-01

    The temporal and spatial characteristics of climate change in China during the recent 100 years were analyzed using CRU05 climate data. We studied the impacts of climate change during the recent 100 years on vegetation ecological zones in China by using Holdridge Life Zone Classification Model and Center-of-Gravity Model. It is concluded that the precipitation and temperature increased and climate became wetter and warmer in most areas of China during the study period with an exception in the subtropical area to the south of Qinhuai River where climate changed toward more precipitation and lower temperature (wetter and colder). The climate change during recent 100 years had strong impacts on vegetation ecological zones in China. It was shown by the variations of spatial distributions of vegetation ecological zoning in three time periods in China and the space displacements of the centers of the gravity that the boreal type and cool temperate zone type in the vegetation ecological zone in China had expanded toward south; wet, moist, and rain forest types had moved forward to the west; the climate change in China during the recent 100 years had improved environmental quality and made the environment in China more suitable for plants to live and grow.

  9. Europe / Finance & Economics / Focus Article Parsing the Euro Zone Crisis

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Europe / Finance & Economics / Focus Article Parsing the Euro Zone Crisis 8 N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 1 S H A W N D O N N E L L Y Analysis on the three different scenarios that could result in Europe within, Greece has created a lot of trouble for Europe. The process of trying to prevent the country from

  10. The Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengfeng, Xiao; sheng, Xu ming; tianxing, Zhu; xuelli, Zhang

    This paper examine the short and long terms causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP in China through vector error correction model, which can avoid the false causal relationship. The results of the VECM reveal the co-integration relationship between real GDP and electricity consumption and the presence of unidirectional causality from electricity consumption to economic growth in the short-run and long-run, which is subsequently verified in two different sub-phases. And then we come up with some suggestions that China should modulate the supply structure of electric power and pick up speed to adjust industry structures.

  11. Fulbright Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1990. China's Economic Development: Research Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of nine research papers concerning aspects of the economy of China were written by U.S. college and university professors who traveled to China as part of the Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program. The papers include: "The Impact of Economic Reforms on the Status of Women in China" (M. Eysenbach); "China's Agricultural…

  12. Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-03-01

    SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

  13. Economic instruments for mitigating carbon emissions: scaling up carbon finance in China’s buildings sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Li; Michel Colombier

    2011-01-01

    The relevance and cost-effectiveness are key criteria for policymakers to select appropriate policy and economic instruments\\u000a for reducing carbon emissions. Here we assess the applicability of carbon finance instruments for the improvement in building\\u000a energy efficiency by adopting the high efficiency standards as well as advanced energy supply systems, building on a case\\u000a study in a northern city in China.

  14. Do you have an interest in U.S.-China affairs? The U.S.-China Economic & Security Review Commission (USCC) is currently

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    .S.-China Economic & Security Review Commission (USCC) is currently looking for motivated Research Interns to assist to the Commission have included cyber security, China's 12th five-year plan, outward foreign direct investmentDo you have an interest in U.S.-China affairs? The U.S.-China Economic & Security Review Commission

  15. The Enterprise Co-Evolution Model of Industrial Chain in Economics Development Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Youfu

    2010-01-01

    Based on detailed discussion of enterprise ecological relationships in economics development zone, this paper fully described the relationships and evolution processes between enterprises, and established a dynamic co-evolution model for enterprises in economics development zone by reference of Lotka-Volterra model to analyze the co-evolution motion and mechanism for enterprises in economics development zone. The objective is to provide a reliable

  16. Economic burden of disease-associated malnutrition in china.

    PubMed

    Linthicum, Mark T; Thornton Snider, Julia; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Wu, Yanyu; LaVallee, Chris; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Benner, Jennifer E; Philipson, Tomas J

    2015-05-01

    Disease-associated malnutrition (DAM) is a well-recognized problem in many countries, but the extent of its burden on the Chinese population is unclear. This article reports the results of a burden-of-illness study on DAM in 15 diseases in China. Using data from the World Health Organization (WHO), the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the published literature, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost because of DAM were calculated; a financial value of this burden was calculated following WHO guidelines. DALYs lost annually to DAM in China varied across diseases, from a low of 2248 in malaria to a high of 1 315 276 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The total burden was 6.1 million DALYs, for an economic burden of US$66 billion (Chinese ¥ 447 billion) annually. This burden is sufficiently large to warrant immediate attention from public health officials and medical providers, especially given that low-cost and effective interventions are available. PMID:25301845

  17. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhjem, Henrik [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)]. E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy of the State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1 Yuhuinanlu, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu [College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

  18. Comparing China and India: Is the dividend of economic reforms polarized?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudip Ranjan Basu

    2009-01-01

    The paper compares the economic performance of China and India during the period of their ongoing reform policies. It develops a new measure of development, namely, a development quality index (DQI), to compare performance of China and India. The results show that national-level development quality grew three times faster in China than in India. Conversely, the health quality index grew

  19. Environmental and Resource Economics Household Energy Demand in Urban China: Accounting for regional prices and rapid

    E-print Network

    Environmental and Resource Economics Household Energy Demand in Urban China: Accounting Energy Demand in Urban China: Accounting for regional prices and rapid income change Article Type® and ProduXion Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation #12;Household Energy Demand in Urban China: Accounting

  20. Geology, fluid inclusions, isotope geochemistry, and geochronology of the Paishanlou shear zone-hosted Gold Deposit, North China Craton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Hui Zhang; Qing Liu; Ying-Jun Ma; Hui Wang

    2005-01-01

    The Paishanlou gold deposit lies along the northern margin of North China Craton gold province, the third largest Au province in China. The deposit is mainly hosted in Archean metamorphic rocks of the Jianping Group and is structurally controlled by two sets of ductile shear zones. Gold mineralization is closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration along the ductile shear zones,

  1. Economic dispatch with prohibited operating zones using fast computation evolutionary programming algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Somasundaram; K. Kuppusamy; R. P. Kumudini Devi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient and simple approach for solving the economic dispatch (ED) problem with units having prohibited operating zones. The operating region of the units having prohibited zones is broken into isolated feasible sub-regions which results in multiple decision spaces for the economic dispatch problem. The optimal solution will lie in one of the feasible decision spaces and

  2. Evaluative research on AHP-based blue economic zone human resource plan dynamic capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Human resource planning and construction, is related to the construction and development fundamental problems of blue economic zone. This article selects the AHP method, and constructs dynamic capability evaluation index system of blue economic zone human resource planning, which helps diagnose their human resource planning dynamic capabilities, and finds out the key factors affecting the ability, thus science formulation and

  3. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, X. H.; Wang, Y. D.; Hou, X. Y.

    2014-03-01

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005.

  4. The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

    1995-01-01

    The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

  5. Middle Oligocene oceanic crust of South China Sea jammed into Mindoro collision zone (Philippines)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Rangin; J. F. Stephan; C. Müller

    1985-01-01

    Mindoro Island, south of Luzon (Philippines), is a complex junction between the Manila Trench and the collision zone of the North Palawan block with the western Philippines mobile belt. Middle Oligocene ophiolites recognized in this suture are coeval with the oldest magnetic anomalies of the South China Sea basin. These ophiolites are part of a complex pile of terranes thrust

  6. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...75 FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that...

  7. Spatial distributions of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei-Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Hidayah Shahar

    2010-01-01

    The studies of 137Cs and 239+240Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia’s marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large

  8. Persistence of coastal vegetation in supratidal zones of northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongxiao; Chu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Coastal vegetation comprises a number of coastal specialists and terrestrial generalists. It remains unclear how they persist on disturbed and undisturbed coastal conditions. We tested the hypothesis that coastal specialists may be superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, but their superiority can be influenced by human disturbances. Eight separate sandy coasts of the Shandong Peninsula were sampled, representing for disturbed and undisturbed sandy coasts. Plants growing on their supratidal zones were surveyed. On this basis, we compared the relative dominances, niche widths, and commonness of all species, and also analyzed species diversities of the coasts. Coastal specialists were found to be more common and widespread on supratidal zones of the sandy coasts than terrestrial generalists haphazardly invading from hinterlands. Coastal specialists exhibited lower Sørensen dissimilarities than terrestrial generalists among the coasts. Tourist trampling seemed more detrimental than pond fishery to coastal vegetation. Relative to terrestrial generalists, coastal specialists responded to human disturbances more deterministically, with steady decreases in species diversities. These evidences verify that coastal specialists are intrinsically superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, especially of undisturbed coasts, because their dispersal among coasts adapts well to local storm surge regime. They also validate that human disturbances can depress the superiority of coastal specialists, partly by inducing invasion of terrestrial generalists. PMID:24224026

  9. Middle Oligocene oceanic crust of South China Sea jammed into Mindoro collision zone (Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, C.; Stephan, J. F.; Müller, C.

    1985-06-01

    Mindoro Island, south of Luzon (Philippines), is a complex junction between the Manila Trench and the collision zone of the North Palawan block with the western Philippines mobile belt. Middle Oligocene ophiolites recognized in this suture are coeval with the oldest magnetic anomalies of the South China Sea basin. These ophiolites are part of a complex pile of terranes thrust above the North Palawan block at the lower middle Miocene boundary. These ophiolites are interpreted as fragments of South China Sea oceanic crust jammed between two distinct continental blocks during the counterclockwise rotation of Luzon.

  10. Comparing China and India: Is dividend of economic reforms polarized?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudip Ranjan Basu

    2007-01-01

    The paper develops a new measure of development, namely, development quality Index (DQI), to compare performance of China and India. The results show that national level development quality grew three times faster in China than in India. Conversely, the health quality grew three times as fast in India than China over the period 1980-2004. The overall regional development quality level

  11. Enterprising China: Business, Economic, and Legal Developments since 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Yueh

    China has undergone a remarkable transition over the past thirty years from a centrally-planned economy to a more market oriented one. The transformation of business in China has been correspondingly evident. This book gives an interdisciplinary analysis of the evolution of business development in China and the 'marketization' of industry during this period within a complex framework of legal, political,

  12. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...12 to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...Fishery Management Council's (Council) salmon management policy and to comply with...

  13. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...12 to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...Management Council's (Council's) salmon management policy and to comply with...

  14. 75 FR 53873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels Participating...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch for vessels participating...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch allocated to vessels...

  15. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-print Network

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  16. Introduction Urban China has witnessed sweeping economic and social changes in the past two

    E-print Network

    and sectoral changes in the urban economy have further shaped the evolution of the labor market in ChineseIntroduction Urban China has witnessed sweeping economic and social changes in the past two decades of migrants from rural areas, the young urban labor market in China appears to be evolving toward a market

  17. The role of foreign direct investment in China's post-1978 economic development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Zhang; Lawrence Chang

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of China's policy toward foreign direct investment (FDI) during the post-1978 period is reviewed and the volume, sources, geographic distribution and composition of FDI are analyzed. It is found that FDI has been positively associated with economic growth, and the increase of total fixed asset investment in China. Foreign direct investment has also forced an increasing number of

  18. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

  19. Society and sustainable use of mineral resources in the Exclusive Economic Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan H. Stel; Tjerk Homminga; Henk van Muijen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the SoCial, Environmental and Economic sustainability-capital (SCENE) model is applied for a number of selected Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) around the world. The SCENE model or triangular model builds on system thinking, focusing on ecological, economic and social-cultural aspects that are discussed in terms of stocks and flows. The visions of stakeholders, governments, and companies with respect

  20. Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ho-Jun

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic

  1. Chapter 5. Income Distribution in Urban China During the Period of Economic Reform and Globalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azizur Rahman Khan; Keith Griffin; Carl Riskin

    2000-01-01

    This chapter addresses three issues that are central to understanding the effects of the transition in China from central planning to a more market-oriented economic system. First, what have been the consequences of the economic reforms for the distribution of income in urban areas? Second, what has happened to the incidence of urban poverty? Third, have government policies helped to

  2. Coastal Zone Management in the People's Republic of China - An Assessment of Structural Impacts on Decision-making Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren Lau

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) forms a generally accepted concept to ensure sustainable development in the coastal zone. The implementation of the ICZM framework as formulated, e.g. by the World Coast Conference, is often constrained by the political system within it should be applied. This is the case in the People's Republic of China. This study takes a theoretical political

  3. An assessment of China's PM10-related health economic losses in 2009.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qing; An, Xingqin; Wang, Yu; Tao, Yan; Sun, Zhaobin

    2012-10-01

    Using GIS software and based on exposure-response functions, this paper estimated the health-related economic losses that China suffered in 2009 due to the presence of particulate matter (PM(10)). The results show that China suffered a health-related economic loss due to PM(10) of US$ 106.5 billion, or 2.1% of China's GDP, for the year 2009. Some urban areas, including Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Changsha, reported large health-related economic losses due to PM(10), with a value of US$ 1.5 million per square kilometre or greater. Some parts of Beijing, Ji'nan, and Chongqing reported health-related economic losses due to PM(10) as being greater than 4% of the 2009 GDP. PMID:22846764

  4. Economic Management in Taiwan and Mainland China: Why and How They Have Been Politicized

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choon Yin Sam

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the causes and consequences of politicized economic management in the cross strait. The first half of the paper briefly reviews the cross-strait political and economic environment. The passage of the anti-secession law by Mainland China in March 2005 marked a new high in the political tension in the cross strait. From the economic standpoint, cross-strait relation has

  5. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization. PMID:22103244

  6. Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  7. Assessing the economic impacts of the China-Brazil resources satellite program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Tosi Furtado; Edmilson Jesus Costa Filho

    2003-01-01

    This article evaluates and analyzes economic impacts of Brazilian space activities in the local equipment suppliers, taking the case of the international cooperation program between Brazil and China for the development of two medium-sized remote sensing satellite CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite). This program was a landmark for the satellite's industrial capability-building policy conducted by the INPE (National Space Research

  8. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Li; Andreas Oberheitmann

    2009-01-01

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's

  9. Factor Analysis of the Northeast Economic Zone's Logistics Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Jiaxin; Li, Tingting

    Along with the expanding regional logistics network, the area's logistics competition is very important because it enhances the entire area's economy. This paper is based on both the domestic and foreign theories and methods used with related subjects to study the content of the area's logistics competition. According to the level of economic development in Northeast region, the scale of logistics demand, the situation of logistics supply as well as the level of development of information, all establish the urban logistics competitiveness index system using the factor analysis method through the SPSS system to evaluate the competitiveness of the urban logistics which is very representative of the Northeast economic area. Finally, this paper uses the fore mentioned system to calculate the scores of 27 city's separated into 3 categories: The first including 4 cities (Shenyang, Harbin, Dalian, Changchun), the second having 3 cities (Jilin, Daqing, Anshan) and the final category has 20 cities (Fushun, Songyuan, Qiqihar, Baotou etc.).

  10. Privately owned public space attached to office buildings in Manhattan : economic and urban perspectives of incentive zoning

    E-print Network

    Cai, Hongyu.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the Incentive Zoning Policy of New York City from economic and urban perspectives. In the first part, it evaluates empirically the economic contribution of privately owned public space to the value of ...

  11. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea...NMFS proposes to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for...

  12. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...a final rule to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program, which will evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for the...

  13. A Hopfield network approach to economic dispatch with prohibited operating zones

    SciTech Connect

    Su, C.T.; Chiou, G.J. [National Chung Cheng Univ., Chiayi (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a Hopfield model to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem with some of the units having prohibited operating zones. In the proposed method, the authors introduce an equilibrium point, lying in the interior of a prohibited zone, which will divide the prohibited zone into the left and the right prohibited zones referred to this point. In this way, in order to prevent the unit from operating into prohibited zone, the authors will incorporate the novel countermeasures into the proposed Hopfield model. Through case studies of a system with 15 units, they have proven the possibility of application of the Hopfield model to a practical ED problem mentioned above. Computer simulations manifest that not only this proposed model itself is much simpler but also its computation results are very close to those of the conventional methods.

  14. Institutional innovations, asymmetric decentralization, and local economic development: a case study of Kunshan, in post-Mao China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiuh-Shen Chien

    2007-01-01

    The author provides an understanding of the concept of institutional innovations for local economic development in post-Mao China. With Kunshan, one of the most dramatically developed regions in Yangtze Delta, used as a case study, the aim is to understand how, under what circumstances, and by whom, locally initiated projects can be institutionalized and evolved in the context of China’s

  15. Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilley, Lisa D.; Harrison, T. Mark; Leloup, P. H.; Ryerson, F. J.; Lovera, Oscar M.; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2003-02-01

    Exposures of high-grade, midcrustal rocks within the Red River shear zone (RRSZ), which separates the Indochina and South China blocks, exhibit clear evidence of left-lateral, ductile deformation. Assuming that the South China Sea represents a pull-apart basin formed at the southeastern termination of the RRSZ, it has been argued that seafloor magnetic anomalies constrain the timing of sinistral slip accommodated by the RRSZ between ˜32 and 17 Ma at a rate of ˜4 cm/yr. While 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry indicates that left-lateral slip occurred along the RRSZ between 25 and 17 Ma, the timing of earlier high-temperature deformation has not been directly constrained. In situ Th-Pb ion microprobe dating of monazite inclusions in garnets allows direct assessment of the timing of amphibolite-grade metamorphism and synchronous left-lateral shearing. Results from northern segments of the RRSZ in Yunnan, China, indicate that synkinematic garnet growth occurred between 34 and 21 Ma and are the first to document late Oligocene metamorphism and left-lateral shearing. Data from the southern RRSZ within Vietnam are complicated by Tertiary overprinting of rocks that experienced amphibolite facies metamorphism during the Indosinian orogeny (˜220 Ma). The period during which sinistral deformation is now constrained to have occurred along the RRSZ (i.e., 34-17 Ma) is essentially coincident with spreading of the South China seafloor (32-17 Ma). This temporal and kinematic link between left-lateral shearing along the RRSZ and opening of the South China Sea supports the view that Indochina was extruded from Asia as a block along lithospheric-scale strike-slip faults.

  16. China's Economic and Political Rise: Implications for Global Terrorism and U.S.–China Cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Smith

    2009-01-01

    As a rising power in the international system, China is discovering that, like many states before it, the ascendancy to great power status sometimes entails significant terrorism risks. Recent attacks against Chinese nationals (or commercial interests) in Africa, Central Asia, and South Asia appear to reflect this trend. In addition, since the early 1990s, China has endured a series of

  17. The state and economic involution: Russia through a China lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Burawoy

    1996-01-01

    Why has the Russian economy declined at the rate the Chinese economy has grown? In China the party-state has made possible the decentralization of property relations and the hardening of budget constraints whereas in Russia the disintegration of the party-state has led to privatization and soft budget constraints. Whereas the former combination entailed accumulation, the latter combination entailed “involution,” that

  18. Regional Income Inequality and Economic Growth in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chen; Belton M. Fleisher

    1996-01-01

    Using an augmented Solow growth model with cross section and panel data, we find evidence of conditional convergence of per capita production across China's provinces from 1978 to 1993. Convergence is conditional on physical investment share, employment growth, human-capital investment, foreign direct investment, and coastal location. We project that, in the near term, overall regional inequality as measured by the

  19. The Impact of China's Economic Reforms on Agricultural Productivity Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John McMillan; John Whalley; Lijing Zhu

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for assessing the relative importance of price increases and strengthened individual incentives due to the introduction of the responsibility system for the post-1978 increase in China's agricultural productivity. Data on post-1978 Chinese agricultural performance suggest that a little over three-quarters of the measured productivity increase is due to payment system changes and the remainder to

  20. Geophysics Characteristic on Gas Hydrates Zone in Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Zhibin

    2015-04-01

    Gas hydrates are very important because of their vast resources potential, their roles as submarine geohazard, and their effects on global climate in the word. In China, the research of gas hydrates was initiated further later ?but the South China Sea has found a number of geophysical anomalies of gas hydrate by researching of almost 10 years. In order to determine the nature and distribution of marine gas hydrate, a series of geophysical techniques are used. By using the traditional seismic data processing, purpose seismic data processing, wave impedance inversion techniques and geophysical well logging data processing based on Self-organizing feature map neural network, a great deal of useful information are abstracted to determine the gas hydrate zone beneath the seabed. The results show (1) Conventional multi-channel seismic reflection processing data from the SCS reveal various seismic indicators of gas hydrate and associated gas, such as the BSR, enhanced reflections below the BSR, Weak reflection or blanking zone above the BSRs.;(2) special processing techniques, such as attribute extraction and wave impedance inversion, is necessary so as to mine more effective data, they could compensate the shortage of conventional seismic data processing techniques used for distinguishing gas-bearing reservoirs;(3) as a kind of intelligent information processing technology, SOFM neural network is feasible for lithologic identification by logging data and has a high rate of identification of gas hydrate. In the end, the author hopes it may provide some useful clues to the exploration of gas hydrate.

  1. A thinned lithospheric image of the Tanlu Fault Zone, eastern China: Constructed from wave equation based receiver function migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Chen; Tianyu Zheng; Weiwei Xu

    2006-01-01

    We apply the newly proposed wave equation-based receiver function poststack migration method to the Northern China Interior Structure Project broadband data to image the lithospheric structure of the Tanlu Fault Zone area in eastern China. Our migration result reveals a 60- to 80-km-thick present-day lithosphere beneath the study region, significantly thinned from the Paleozoic lithosphere of >180 km. The lithosphere-asthenosphere

  2. Preliminary study on the eco-economic regionalization: a case of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuansheng; Fan, Zhenjun; Dong, Suocheng

    2004-11-01

    Northwest China includes six provincial districts of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Shaanxi Province, Gansu Province, Qinghai Province, Ningxia Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Autonomous Region. This region is located in the alpine frigid region, arid region and the loess plateau, therefore, its eco-environment is frail and the economy is under-developed. Based on climate data, land use data, and socio-economic statistic data, this article analyzed the data of precipitation, air temperature, humidity, population, GDP, industrial structure, land use changes, designed water-heat condition, and integrated human activity pressure. By utilizing ArcGIS 8, we divided the eco-economic region into three-level categories according to the environment condition and human activities in a county scale in Northwest China, and analyzed the basic characteristics and main eco-economic problems of each eco-economic region.

  3. Impact of Special Economic Zones on Employment, Poverty and Human Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aradhna Aggarwal

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at examining the impact of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) on human development and poverty reduction in India. It identifies three channels through which SEZs address these issues : employment generation, skill formation (human capital development), and technology and knowledge upgradation. It examines how the impact of SEZs is passed through each of these channels. The study finds

  4. Genetic and meristic variation in black and smooth oreos in the New Zealand exclusive economic zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Smith; P. J. McMillan; B. Bull; S. M. McVeagh; P. M. Gaffney; S. Chow

    2002-01-01

    Meristic and genetic methods were used to determine the stock relationships of black Allocytus niger (James, Inada & Nakamura, 1988) and smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus (Gilchrist, 1906) in the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Samples were collected from four management areas—OEO 1 (south?west), OEO 3A (Chatham Rise west), OEO 4 (Chatham Rise east), and OEO 6 (subantarctic) during the

  5. 61 FR 37041 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Allow Longline Pot Gear

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-07-16

    ...Economic Zone off Alaska; Allow Longline Pot Gear AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...proposed rule to allow the use of longline pot gear in the directed sablefish fishery in the...killer whales. The use of longline pot gear would effectively prevent such...

  6. 61 FR 49076 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allow Longline Pot Gear

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-09-18

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allow Longline Pot Gear AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...final rule to allow the use of longline pot gear by vessels engaged in directed fishing...killer whales. The use of longline pot gear will effectively prevent such...

  7. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...to the Fishery Management Plan for the Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of...update the FMP to reflect the Council's salmon management policy and Federal law....

  8. 75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish...be a novel approach to managing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery...combines a limit on the amount of Chinook salmon that may be caught incidentally with...

  9. 75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...that pertain to the management of Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea subarea of...

  10. Triassic sedimentation and postaccretionary crustal evolution along the Solonker suture zone in Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan; Wilde, Simon A.; He, Zhengjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Liu, Renyan; Zhao, Lei

    2014-06-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb dating of the Xingfuzhilu Formation in southern Inner Mongolia yields a maximum depositional age of around 220 Ma. The predominantly Permian and Triassic zircons are characterized by oscillatory zoning and euhedral shapes, with mostly positive zircon ?Hf(t) values (+2.0 to +16.4), indicating that they were derived from a proximal magmatic source. Early-Middle Paleozoic zircons have variable zircon ?Hf(t) values from -6.2 to +11.2 and are characterized by weak oscillatory zoning and subhedral-subrounded shapes, suggesting that the sources are a proximal magmatic arc, possibly mixed with components of the Ondor Sum magmatic arc and the magmatic arc at the northern margin of the North China Craton. The remnants of Precambrian blocks in the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and the North China Craton may also have been a minor source region for the Xingfuzhilu succession. These results, combined with regional data, indicate that a closing remnant ocean basin or narrow seaway possibly existed in the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) immediately prior to final collision of the CAOB and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Subsequent collision resulted in the crustal uplift and thickening along the Solonker suture zone, accompanied by possible slab break-off and lithospheric delamination during the Latest Permian to Middle Triassic. The resultant orogen in the Late Triassic underwent exhumation and denudation of rocks in response to the postorogenic collapse and regional extension. Vertical crustal growth in the Triassic is documented by detrital zircons from the Xingfuzhilu Formation and appears to have been widespread across entire eastern CAOB.

  11. Seasonal and spatial character of PCBs in a chemical industrial zone of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Cheng, Jinping; Xie, Haiyun; Hu, Xiaofang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua

    2007-12-01

    As one of China's great metropolises, Shanghai is suffering from the impact of manufacture and the use of chemical industrial products, and it faces serious pollution from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Therefore, in this study, in order to assess the seasonal and spatial character of contamination from chemical industrial zones, the concentrations of PCBs have been measured in various environmental media, including soil, leaves, and atmospheric particulate samples collected in a chemical industrial zone of Shanghai and compared with samples from presumably unpolluted sites of rural areas. In soils, the PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 ng g(-1) (unpolluted site) to 586.85 ng g(-1) (chlor-alkali industry site). The concentrations of PCBs in evergreen leaves ranged from 0.3 ng g(-1) to 32.46 ng g(-1), and more chlorinated biphenyls congeners, such as penta-biphenyls and hexa-biphenyls, were the dominant contributors in winter and spring. Seasonal differences and the constitution patterns of congeners might be affected by the temperature and industrial activities. The PCB concentrations in the leaves of deciduous trees increase over time as the leaves grow. The PCB concentration in atmospheric particulates was in the range of 9.22-14.15 x 10(3)pg m(-3), which might be the result of influence from climate and industrial activities. The relativity of PCB contents among the environmental media was discussed. The results in this paper provide an important profile of the current contamination status of a key chemical industrial zone in China. PMID:17786567

  12. Geography, Economic Policy and Regional Development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie DEMURGER; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye WOO; Shu Ming Bao; Gene Hsin Chang; Andrew D. Mellinger

    2001-01-01

    Many studies of regional disparity in China have focused on the preferential policies received by the coastal provinces. We decomposed the location dummies in provincial growth regressions to obtain estimates of the effects of geography and policy on provincial growth rates in 1996–99. Their respective contributions in percentage points were 2.5 and 3.5 for the province-level metropolises, 0.6 and 2.3

  13. Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Demurger; Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Shuming Bao Gene Chang; Andrew Mellinger

    2002-01-01

    Many studies of regional disparity in China have focused on the preferential policies received by the coastal provinces. We decomposed the location dummies in provincial growth regressions to obtain estimates of the effects of geography and policy on provincial growth rates in 1996-99. Their respective contributions in percentage points were 2.5 and 3.5 for the province-level metropolises, 0.6 and 2.3

  14. The Coast–Noncoast Income Gap, Productivity, and Regional Economic Policy in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belton M. Fleisher; Jian Chen

    1997-01-01

    We postulate that inferior factor productivity in China's noncoastal provinces is a principal reason for their lower economic growth despite high investment rates relative to provincial GDP. We find that total factor productivity is roughly twice as high in the coastal provinces and estimate that investment in higher education and foreign direct investment helps explain the productivity gap. We speculate

  15. Economic Markets and Higher Education: Ethical Issues in the United States and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Educational values in both the United States and in China have suffered from the social and political reach of economic markets in each society. The models for counteracting the marketization of values in higher education can however be found in each country's past educational traditions. Surprisingly, the developmental values inherent in…

  16. Municipal solid waste management in small towns : an economic analysis conducted in Yunnan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Wang; Jie He; Yoonhee Kim; Takuya Kamata

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste management continues to be a major challenge for local governments in both urban and rural areas across the world, and one of the key issues is their financial constraints. Recently an economic analysis was conducted in Eryuan, a poor county located in Yunnan Province of China, where willingness to pay for an improved solid waste collection and

  17. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  18. The impact of the global economic slowdown on enterprises and employees in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Tian; Xiulan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    After the outbreak of the global economic slowdown, the export of products made in China, particularly the labour-intensive ones, has dramatically dropped. Drawing upon a questionnaire survey on 439 employees and 55 enterprises specialized in electronics, toys, furniture and textile and interviews with industrial associations and local governments in two coastal cities, Shenzhen and Wenzhou, we have a number of

  19. The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Lacassin, Robin; Tapponnier, Paul; Schärer, Urs; Zhong, Dalai; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Liangshang; Ji, Shaocheng; Trinh, Phan Trong

    1995-12-01

    The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (< 20 km wide) high-grade gneiss ranges that together form the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) metamorphic belt: the Day Nui Con Voi in Vietnam, and the Ailao, Diancang and Xuelong Shan in Yunnan. The Ailao Shan, the longest of those ranges, is fringed to the south by a strip of low-grade schists that contain ultramafic bodies. The ASRR belt has thus commonly been viewed as a suture. A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic gneisses. The foliation is usually steep and the lineation nearly horizontal, both being almost parallel to the local trend of the gneissic cores. Numerous shear criteria, including asymmetric tails on porphyroclasts, C-S or C'-S structures, rolling structures, asymmetric foliation boudinage and asymmetric quartz axis fabrics, indicate that the gneisses have undergone intense, progressive left-lateral shear. P-T studies show that left-lateral strain occurred under amphibolite-facies conditions (3-7 kb and 550-780°C). In both ranges high-temperature shear was coeval with emplacement of leucocratic melts. Such deformed melts yield {U}/{Pb} ages between 22.4 and 26.3 Ma in the Ailao Shan and between 22.4 and 24.2 Ma in the Diancang Shan, implying shear in the Lower Miocene. The mylonites in either range rapidly cooled to ? 300°C between 22 and 17 Ma, before the end of left-lateral motion. The similarity of deformation kinematics, P-T conditions, and crystallization ages in the aligned Ailao and Diancang Shan metamorphic cores, indicate that they represent two segments of the same Tertiary shear zone, the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone. Our results thus confirm the idea that the ASRR belt was the site of major left-lateral motion, as Indochina was extruded toward the SE as a result of the India-Asia collision. The absence of metamorphic rocks within the 80 km long "Midu gap" between the gneissic cores of the two ranges results from sinistral dismemberment of the shear zone by large-scale boudinage followed by uplift and dextral offset of parts of that zone along the Quaternary Red River Fault. Additional field evidence suggests that the Xuelong Shan in northern Yunnan and the Day Nui Con Voi in Vietnam are the northward and southward extensions, respectively, of the ASRR shear zone, which therefore reaches a length of nearly 1000 km. Surface balance restoration of amphibolite boudins trails indicates layer parallel extension of more than 800% at places where strain can be measured, suggesting shear strains on the order of 30, compatible with a minimum offset of 300 km along the ASRR zone. Various geological markers have been sinistrally offset 500-1150 km by the shear zone. The seafloor-spreading kinematics in the South China Sea are consistent with that sea having formed as a pull apart basin at the southeast end of the ASRR zone, which yields a minimum left-lateral offset of 540 km on that zone. Comparison of Cretaceous magnetic poles for Indochina and South China suggests up to 1200 ± 500 km of left-lateral motion between them. Such concurrent evidence implies a Tertiary finite offset on the order of 700 ± 200 km on the ASRR zone, to which several tens of kilometers of post-Miocene right-lateral offset should probably be added. These results significantly improve our quantitative understanding of the finite deformation of Asia under the thrust of the Indian collision. While being consistent with a two-stage extrusion model, they demonstrate that the great geological discontinuity that separates Indochina from China results from Cenozoic strike-slip strain rather than more ancient suturing. Furthermore, they suggest that this narrow zone acted like a continental transform plate boundary in the Oligo-Miocene, governing much of the motion and tectonics o

  20. Analysis of farmland fragmentation in China Modernization Demonstration Zone since “Reform and Openness”: a case study of South Jiangsu Province

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Xia, Nan; Jiang, Penghui; Zhong, Lishan; Pian, Yuzhe; Duan, Yuewei; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2015-01-01

    Farmland is a fundamental resource for human survival and development. However, farmland fragmentation has become a serious problem, causing ecological damage and low crop production efficiency in many parts of the world. Based on remote sensing and socioeconomic data, we used landscape pattern indices, Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA), and Markov chain models to analyze the temporal and spatial pattern changes in farmland in South Jiangsu Province (the first “Modernization Demonstration Zone” in China) during 1985–2010. Our results demonstrated that the total farmland area decreased by ca. 24% and the farmland pattern became fragmented during 1985–2008: core farmland decreased and islet farmland increased. Additionally, the farmland patch density (PD) increased and three other landscape indices (NLSI, MESH, and COHESION) showed significant decreases. Although the fragmentation rate slowed after 2008, the convergence rate to a stationary farmland distribution became faster, and transitions tended to be less deterministic after 2000. Economic and population growth and policy changes positively contributed to this phenomenon. Therefore, the primary task of farmland protection should be to preserve contiguous farmlands and reduce scattered patches in order to promote farmland connectivity. PMID:26135496

  1. Analysis of farmland fragmentation in China Modernization Demonstration Zone since "Reform and Openness": a case study of South Jiangsu Province.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Xia, Nan; Jiang, Penghui; Zhong, Lishan; Pian, Yuzhe; Duan, Yuewei; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2015-01-01

    Farmland is a fundamental resource for human survival and development. However, farmland fragmentation has become a serious problem, causing ecological damage and low crop production efficiency in many parts of the world. Based on remote sensing and socioeconomic data, we used landscape pattern indices, Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA), and Markov chain models to analyze the temporal and spatial pattern changes in farmland in South Jiangsu Province (the first "Modernization Demonstration Zone" in China) during 1985-2010. Our results demonstrated that the total farmland area decreased by ca. 24% and the farmland pattern became fragmented during 1985-2008: core farmland decreased and islet farmland increased. Additionally, the farmland patch density (PD) increased and three other landscape indices (NLSI, MESH, and COHESION) showed significant decreases. Although the fragmentation rate slowed after 2008, the convergence rate to a stationary farmland distribution became faster, and transitions tended to be less deterministic after 2000. Economic and population growth and policy changes positively contributed to this phenomenon. Therefore, the primary task of farmland protection should be to preserve contiguous farmlands and reduce scattered patches in order to promote farmland connectivity. PMID:26135496

  2. Transition zone origin of potassic basalts from Wudalianchi volcano, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuritani, T.; Kimura, J.; Ohtani, E.; Miyamoto, H.; Furuyama, K.

    2012-12-01

    In northeast China, Cenozoic intraplate volcanic products are widely distributed, and magmatism in some volcanic fields is still active. The stagnant slab of the subducted Pacific plate has accumulated in the underlying mantle transition zone at depths of 410-660 km, and recent geophysical studies suggest that the transition zone under NE China is remarkably hydrous. On the basis of these geophysical observations, the Pacific slab stagnation and its relation to the intraplate magmatism has received growing attention. The Cenozoic intraplate basalts have characteristic EM1-like isotopic signature, and they constitute one of the largest expressions of the DUPAL anomaly in the Northern Hemisphere. Among them, the basalts from the Wudalianchi volcanic field show extreme geochemical features, characterized by high K2O and incompatible trace element contents, as well as high 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/206Pb ratios, and low 143Nd/144Nd ratios. A number of geochemical studies have been carried out to elucidate the origin, source mantle characteristics, and magma generation processes for the basalts, and these studies have suggested that the basalts were generated in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Unfortunately, however, the basalts have not fully been investigated from a petrological approach, although this approach has a potential to test the hypothesis of the SCLM origin of the magmas. In this study, we carried out a petrological study on the historical eruption products of 1719-1721 AD basalts from the Wudalianchi volcanoes. The samples examined in this study are aphyric, and contain ~5 vol.% olivine microphenocrysts. Geochemical analyses of the samples, along with published data of the 1719-1721 AD eruption products, show that the basalts exhibit linear compositional trends in whole-rock variation diagrams, and are characterized by K2O enrichment (>4 wt.%) and an EM1-like isotopic signature. By using thermodynamic calculations with the observed petrological features of the basalts, the eruption temperatures of the magmas are estimated to have been about 1250-1260°C. Because the estimated temperatures are significantly higher than the estimated maximum temperature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Wudalianchi volcanic field, the magmas have plausibly been derived from the asthenospheric mantle. We suggest that both the potassic- and EM1-like natures of the basalts originated from the mantle transition zone which was metasomatized by K-rich sediment fluids at ~1.5 Ga ago through a stagnation of an ancient slab. The linear whole-rock compositional trends of the basalts primarily reflect the geochemical heterogeneity in the mantle transition zone, with variable but coupled contributions of ~1.5 Ga ago sediments in the ancient stagnant slab, recent sediments of the stagnant Pacific slab, and peridotites in the stagnant Pacific slab. We infer that the Wudalianchi magmatism was caused by an upwelling of a hydrous mantle plume from the mantle transition zone which has been remarkably hydrated through stagnation of the ancient subducted slab and the recent Pacific slab. The hydration of the mantle transition zone through the ancient slab stagnation suggests that transportation of sea-water to the mantle transition zone might have already started as old as ~1.5 Ga ago.

  3. Air movement preferences observed in naturally ventilated buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2009-11-01

    Occupants' preferences for air movement in naturally ventilated buildings have been extracted from a database of three thermal comfort surveys conducted in the humid subtropical climate zone in China, during winter, spring, and summer seasons. The distribution of draft sensation shows that only 25.7, 38.5, and 28.7% of the subjects in winter, spring, and summer, respectively, felt that the available air movement was just right, suggesting that indoor air velocity may be a big problem in naturally ventilated buildings in humid subtropical China. Air movement preferences show that 15.8, 61.3, and 80.6% of subjects in winter, spring, and summer, respectively, wanted more air movement. Only a handful of subjects wanted less air movement than they were actually experiencing in any season, suggesting that draft was not much of an issue for thermal comfort. Occupants' preference for air movement is strongly related to thermal sensation, showing that people want to control air movement as a means of improving their comfort. The demand for less air movement under cool sensation is much smaller than the overwhelming demand for more air movement when the sensation was warm. The above results indicate that air movement might have a significant influence over the respondents' comfort sensation and that people required a high level of air movement in order to be comfortable during the summer season. Thus, one efficient way to improve the thermal environment in summer in humid subtropical China could be to provide occupants with effective natural ventilation and allow personal control of the air movement. Our findings are also applicable to other buildings, to encourage designers to provide air movement as a low energy cooling strategy and to ensure that sufficient levels of air movement are available. PMID:19618217

  4. SO2 emission cap planning for Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peng; Duan, Ning; Chai, Fahe; Xu, Yaxuan; He, Youjiang

    2012-01-01

    The SO2 emission sources of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone were divided into 556 emissions units according to four different categories, which are city, industry, point sources, and area sources. The CALPUFF model was used to calculate the contribution of each unit, and consequently obtain an influence-transferring matrix. To ensure that the SO2 concentrations of 46 cities and counties in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone meet air quality standards, an emission optimization model was developed to calculate optimal emissions of each emission unit under different development scenarios. The result showed the optimal emissions of SO2 by different provinces and industries. To achieve the target of restricting and optimizing development, corresponding planning programs were developed for every district. PMID:22783625

  5. Coal use in the People`s Republic of China, Volume 2: The economic effects of constraining coal utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.; Benavides, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics; Tompkins, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. The dominance of coal in China`s energy balance has come at a high price to the environment. With the recent attention given to global warming issues, China`s energy consumption and production practices have become the subject of much concern. Of particular concern is China`s ability to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by constraining coal use and the impact such policies will likely have on the Chinese economy. The study is divided into two reports. Volume 1 focuses on the full coal fuel cycle, emissions, and environmental effects. This report (Volume 2) analyzes various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies and determines their effect on economic growth. Contrary to what some analysts have claimed, the current work suggests that it would not be costly for the Chinese to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, some strategies were accompanied by increases in China`s energy and economic efficiency, which actually stimulated economic growth.

  6. Epidemics in Ming and Qing China: Impacts of changes of climate and economic well-being.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Li, Guodong; Winterhalder, Bruce; Lee, Harry F

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the mechanism of epidemics with the impacts of climate change and socio-economic fluctuations in the Ming and Qing Dynasties in China (AD 1368-1901). Using long-term and high-quality datasets, this study is the first quantitative research that verifies the 'climate change ? economy ? epidemics' mechanism in historical China by statistical methods that include correlation analysis, Granger causality analysis, ARX, and Poisson-ARX modeling. The analysis provides the evidences that climate change could only fundamentally lead to the epidemics spread and occurrence, but the depressed economic well-being is the direct trigger of epidemics spread and occurrence at the national and long term scale in historical China. Moreover, statistical modeling shows that economic well-being is more important than population pressure in the mechanism of epidemics. However, population pressure remains a key element in determining the social vulnerability of the epidemics occurrence under climate change. Notably, the findings not only support adaptation theories but also enhance our confidence to address climatic shocks if economic buffering capacity can be promoted steadily. The findings can be a basis for scientists and policymakers in addressing global and regional environmental changes. PMID:25989000

  7. Benefits of swath mapping for the identification of marine habitats in the New Caledonia Economic Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina Van De Beuque; Jean-Marie Auzende; Yves Lafoy; René Grandperrin

    1999-01-01

    The ZoNéCo programme is devoted to the evaluation of the marine resources of the Economic Zone of New Caledonia. The results are essentially dependent on the quality of the seafloor mapping. From 1993 to 1996, four geological and geophysical surveys using the EM12 DUAL multibeam echosounder provided swath-mapping and acoustic imagery data of the seafloor of selected sites on the

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mariculture zones of China's northern Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Zong, Humin; Ma, Xindong; Na, Guangshui; Huo, Chuanlin; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2014-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in water and sediment samples collected from three mariculture zones in China's northern Yellow Sea. In these samples, total PAH concentrations ranged from 110.8 ng/L to 997.2 ng/L and 142.2 ng/gdry weight (dw) to 750.2 ng/gdw, respectively. The log KOC values of the various PAH compounds examined in this study increased with the log KOW values, which is consistent with the prediction regarding PAH behavior in the environment. However, these KOC values were lower than the predicted values as a result of the effects of organic matters, which were abundant in the mariculture water. The isomeric ratios of the PAHs in sediment indicated that the source of the PAHs in the mariculture zones were mainly pyrolytic. The TEQ(carc) values of PAHs ranged from 7 ng TEQ/gdw to 92 ng TEQ/gdw, and only a few samples met the safe criterion with respect to individual PAH concentrations. PMID:24952456

  9. Geographic Patterns of Air Passenger Transport in China 1980–1998: Imprints of Economic Growth, Regional Inequality, and Network Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengjun Jin; Fahui Wang; Yu Liu

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzes the geographic patterns of domestic air passenger transport in China from 1980 to 1998, with three foci: (1) impacts of economic reforms, (2) regional inequality in air transport development, and (3) network development. Accessibility to air transport improved significantly as China expanded its air transport system, 1980–1998. The dominance of major airports declined as the air transport

  10. A Market Economics Approach to Taxation and Regulation of Non-Profit Organizations Analyses and Recommendations for China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SOHYUNG KIM; KIN LO

    2007-01-01

    There is little disagreement that tax laws and regulations relating to non-profit organizations in China need to be changed. In this paper, we recommend comprehensive, not marginal, changes to China's tax laws for non-profit organizations (NPOs). The fundamentals of the sector and market economics suggest that the government should regulate the sector according to these principles: allowing people to make

  11. A Great Leap Forward, the Second Time Around: Thirty Years of Economic Reforms in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Steinherr

    2009-01-01

    December of 2008 marks the 30th year of the beginning of China's economic opening.The country's rapid development since 1978 is without historical precedent.Yet this growth is even more impressive when one surveys the entire period from the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 to present. Although the years from1949 to 1978 were close to catastrophic, and the basis for

  12. Grey relation analysis of economics, energy consumption and environment in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Yan-ping; Liu Chang-bin

    2008-01-01

    The rapid growth of the economy has brought great benefits to Chinese socio-economic levels during the past several decades. However, it also increases the risk of energy security and environmental problems. This paper explores the inter-relationships among economy, energy consumption and CO2 emission in China in order to provide sustainable development policy making. Grey relation analysis was used to analyze

  13. 75 FR 71045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the...

  14. 75 FR 38940 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Greenland turbot total allowable catch...

  15. 75 FR 38430 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...the initial total allowable catch of Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

  16. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total allowable...

  17. 63 FR 23261 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gear Allocation of Shortraker and Rougheye...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-04-28

    ...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gear Allocation of Shortraker and Rougheye Rockfish...Islands subarea (AI) between vessels using trawl gear and vessels using non-trawl gear. This action is necessary to prevent the...

  18. 79 FR 49487 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Pot Gear Fishing Closure in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-08-21

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Pot Gear Fishing Closure in the Pribilof Islands Habitat...directed fishing for Pacific cod with pot gear. Prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod with pot gear in the PIHCZ would reduce the bycatch...

  19. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and ``Other Flatfish...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish...bycatch allowance specified for the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other...

  20. 77 FR 34262 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian...exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated...

  1. 75 FR 42337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch allocated to...

  2. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian...exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated...

  3. 77 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory...NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western...

  4. 75 FR 38936 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher...

  5. 76 FR 43934 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch allocated to...

  6. 78 FR 39631 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory...2013 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch in the Western...

  7. 77 FR 39649 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western...

  8. 75 FR 69600 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian...exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated...

  9. 78 FR 44465 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat...

  10. 76 FR 40838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher...

  11. 78 FR 42718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated...

  12. 76 FR 65972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian...exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated...

  13. 75 FR 39183 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western...

  14. 76 FR 46207 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher...

  15. 75 FR 41999 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...reopening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher...

  16. 76 FR 45709 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat...

  17. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated...

  18. 75 FR 42338 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory...NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western...

  19. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian...exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated...

  20. 76 FR 39790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher...

  1. 75 FR 53608 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat...

  2. 75 FR 3873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas for vessels...

  3. 75 FR 53606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas by vessels...

  4. 79 FR 51520 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Pot Gear Fishing Closure in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-08-29

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Pot Gear Fishing Closure in the Pribilof Islands...directed fishing for Pacific cod with pot gear to minimize bycatch and prevent overfishing...Conservation Zone (PIHCZ) to groundfish trawl gear to protect blue king crab under...

  5. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. PMID:26141885

  6. Elemental responses to subduction-zone metamorphism: Constraints from the North Qilian Mountain, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Song, Shuguang; Davidson, Jon; Liu, Xiaoming

    2013-02-01

    Subduction zone metamorphism (SZM) and behaviors of chemical elements in response to this process are important for both arc magmatism and mantle compositional heterogeneity. In this paper, we report the results of our petrographic and geochemical studies on blueschist and eclogite facies rocks of sedimentary and basaltic protoliths from two metamorphic sub-belts with different metamorphic histories in the North Qilian Mountain, Northwest China. The protolith of low-grade blueschists is basaltic in composition and is most likely produced in a back-arc setting, while the protoliths of high-grade blueschists/eclogites geochemically resemble the present-day normal and enriched mid-oceanic ridge basalts plus some volcanic arc rocks. The meta-sedimentary rocks, including meta-graywacke, meta-pelite, meta-chert and marble, show geochemical similarity to global oceanic (subducted) sediments. Assuming that high field strength elements (HFSEs) are relatively immobile, the correlated variations of rare earth elements (REEs) and Th with HFSEs suggest that all these elements are probably also immobile, whereas Pb and Sr are mobile in rocks of both basaltic and sedimentary protoliths during SZM. Ba, Cs and Rb are immobile in rocks of sedimentary protoliths and mobile in rocks of basaltic protolith. The apparent mobility of U in rocks of basaltic protolith may be inherited from seafloor alterations rather than caused by SZM. On the basis of in situ mineral compositional analysis (both major and trace elements), the most significant trace element storage minerals in these subduction-zone metamorphic rocks are: lawsonite, pumpellyite, apatite, garnet and epidote group minerals for REEs, white micas (both phengite and paragonite) for large ion lithophile elements, rutile and titanite for HFSEs. The presence and stability of these minerals exert the primary controls on the geochemical behaviors of most of these elements during SZM. The immobility of REEs, Th and U owing to their redistribution into newly formed minerals suggests that subduction-zone dehydration metamorphism will not contribute to the enrichment of these elements in arc magmatism. These observations require the formation and contribution of supercritical fluids or hydrous melts (these can effectively transport the aforementioned incompatible elements) from greater depths to arc magmatism. In addition, the overall sub-chondritic Nb/Ta ratio retained in rutile-bearing eclogites indicates that the subducting/subducted residual ocean crust passing through SZM cannot be responsible for the missing Nb (relative to Ta) in the bulk silicate earth.

  7. An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, C Z; Huang, H; Zheng, S P; Yin, X L

    2002-05-01

    With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give a financial return owing to the low price of biomass wastes and insufficient power supply at present in some regions of China. In this work, experimental data from 1 MW-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) BGPG plants constructed recently in China were analyzed; and it was found that the unit capital cost of BGPG is only 60-70% of coal power station and its operation cost is much lower than that of conventional power plants. However, due to the relatively low efficiency of small-scale plant, the current BGPG technology will lose its economic attraction when its capacity is smaller than 160 kW or the price of biomass is higher than 200 Yuan RMB/ton. The development of medium-scale BGPG plants, with capacity ranging from 1000 to 5000 kW, is recommended; as is the demonstration of BGPG technology in suitable enterprises (e.g. rice mill and timber mill) in developing countries where large amounts of biomass wastes are available so that biomass collection and transportation can be avoided and the operation cost can be lowered. PMID:12058832

  8. Can rapid economic growth benefit more? Review of the medical care reform in Shenmu County in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huawen Liu

    2010-01-01

    Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province of China, used to be a poor county but has become rich due to rapid economic growth in recent years. This article examines whether all people living in Shenmu can rightfully benefit from this new economic prosperity and wealth. Facing various challenges, the local government adopted breakthrough social reforms, especially the ‘medical care system free for

  9. Direct economic burden of hepatitis B virus related diseases: evidence from Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the expenses of liver cirrhosis are covered by a critical illness fund under the current health insurance program in China, the economic burden associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) related diseases is not well addressed. In order to provide evidence to address the economic disease burden of HBV, we conducted a survey to investigate the direct economic burden of acute and chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by HBV-related disease. Methods From April 2010 to November 2010, we conducted a survey of inpatients with HBV-related diseases and who were hospitalized for seven or more days in one of the seven tertiary and six secondary hospitals in Shandong, China. Patients were recorded consecutively within a three-to-five month time period from each sampled hospital; an in-person survey was conducted to collect demographic and socio-economic information, as well as direct medical and nonmedical expenses during the last month and last year prior to the current hospitalization. Direct medical costs included total outpatient, inpatient, and self-treatment expenditures; direct nonmedical costs included spending on nutritional supplements, transportation, and nursing. Direct medical costs during the current hospitalization were also obtained from the hospital financial database. The direct economic cost was calculated as the sum of direct medical and nonmedical costs. Our results call for the importance of implementing clinical guideline, improving system accountability, and helping secondary and smaller hospitals to improve efficiency. This has important policy implication for the on-going hospital reform in China. Results Our data based on inpatients with HBV-related diseases suggested that the direct cost in US dollars for acute hepatitis B, severe hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and primary liver cancer was $2954, $10834, $4552, $7400.28, $6936 and $10635, respectively. These costs ranged from 30.72% (for acute hepatitis B) to 297.85% (for primary liver cancer) of the average annual household income in our sample. Even for patients with health insurance, direct out-of-pocket cost of all HBV-related diseases except acute hepatitis B exceeded 40.00% of the patient’s disposable household income, making it a catastrophic expenditure for the household. Conclusion Hepatitis B imposes considerable economic burden on a family. Our findings will help health policy makers’ understanding of the magnitude of the economic burden of HBV-related diseases in China. Evidence from our study also contributes to our understanding of potential benefits to society from allocating more resources to preventing and treating HBV infection, as well as increasing insurance coverage in China. These findings have important policy implications for health care reform efforts currently underway in China focusing on how to reduce the burden of catastrophic disease for its citizens. PMID:23368750

  10. A practical approach to real time economic dispatch considering unit's prohibited operating zones

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J.Y.; McDonald, J.D. (Advanced Control Systems, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper develops an efficient and practical approach for determining the feasible optimal solution of the economic dispatch problem when some of the on-line units have prohibited operating zones. When a unit has prohibited operating zones, its operating region will be broken into isolated sub-regions, which results in multiple decision spaces for the economic dispatch problem. For each of the decision spaces, it can be either feasible or infeasible with respect to the system demand. The feasible optimal solution for the dispatch problem can only reside in one of the feasible spaces, and can be found by performing the conventional [lambda]-[delta] iterative search based on the equal-incremental-cost criterion in each of the feasible spaces. However, for a system with a large number of decision spaces, such exhaustive search method would not be acceptable in real time operation due to high computational time requirement. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed. It defines a small and advantageous set of decision spaces, uses an efficient algorithm to determine the most advantageous space and then, utilizes the conventional [lambda]-[delta] iterative method to find the feasible optimal dispatch solution.

  11. Integrated coastal zone management in the People's Republic of China—An assessment of structural impacts on decision-making processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren Lau

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) forms a generally accepted concept to ensure sustainable development in the coastal zone. The implementation of the ICZM framework as formulated, e.g. by the World Coast Conference, is often constrained by the political system within which it should be applied. This is the case in the People's Republic of China. This study takes a political

  12. Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the People’s Republic of China – An Assessment of Structural Impacts on Decision-making Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren A. Lau

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) forms a generally accepted concept to ensure sustainable development in the coastal zone. The implementation of the ICZM framework as formulated, e.g. by the World Coast Conference, is often constrained by the political system within which it should be applied. This is the case in the People’s Republic of China. This study takes a political

  13. New attempts on increasing economic gains in the development of geothermal resources in Beijing, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, K.

    1997-12-31

    The development of geothermal resources in the city of Beijing and its surrounding suburbs has been made possible by investments from companies in the surrounding Provinces of China. The development of these geothermal deposits has created a market for hot spring real estate. The real estate has been developed into comprehensive projects for recreation and vacation resorts, in addition to, heath care centers and greenhouse farming. This new attempt to develop these geothermal resources has increased the economic growth of the area and interest in geothermal expansion.

  14. Economic Freedom and Political Control in Post-Mao China: A Perspective of Upward Accountability and Asymmetric Decentralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiuh-Shen Chien

    2010-01-01

    With post-Mao China as a case study, this article aims to examine the political economy of asymmetric decentralization in relation to development at the national, regional (inter-local) and local levels. Economically, sub-national governments have been granted greater autonomy with huge decentralized fiscal and administrative powers and competencies. Politically, however, China is still a state under Communist Party domination. Local officials

  15. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasviña-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 °C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (<50 m) coincide with the highest mean particulate organic carbon values indicating a clear relationship with a reduction of light penetration in the water column. Inspection of the standard deviation maps shows greatest variability of particulate organic carbon from December to February in the Gulf of California, the coast of Colima and the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California greater variability of particulate organic carbon occurs from June to December. In the oceanic domain beyond the continental shelf, particulate organic carbon values are very low (<25 mg m-3) and are not found associated to low temperatures and/or low depths of the euphotic zone. The oceanic region shows maximum values for both sea surface temperatures and depth of the euphotic zone as is to be expected in oligotrophic regions of the sea. Anomalies for all three variables will also shown to discuss the interannual variability of this 10-years period of study.

  16. Climate change affecting temperature and aridity zones: a case study in Eastern Inner Mongolia, China from 1960-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jinwei; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Geli; Basara, Jeffrey B.; Greene, Scott; Xiao, Xiangming

    2013-08-01

    Recent climate change is substantially affecting the spatial pattern of geographical zones, and the temporal and spatial inconsistency of climatic warming and drying patterns contributes to the complexity of the shifting of temperature and aridity zones. Eastern Inner Mongolia, China, located in the interface region of different biomes and ecogeographic zones, has experienced dramatic drying and warming over the past several decades. In this study, the annual accumulated temperature above 10 °C (AAT10) and the aridity index, two key indicators in geographical regionalization, are used to assess warming and drying processes and track the movements of temperature and aridity zones from 1960 to 2008. The results show a significant warming at the regional level from 1960 to 2008 with an AAT10 increase rate of 7.89 °C·d/year ( p < 0.001) in Eastern Inner Mongolia, while the drying trend was not significant during this period. Spatial heterogeneity of warming and drying distributions was also evident. Analysis of warming and drying via piecewise regression revealed two separate, specific trends between the first 31 years (1960-1990) and the subsequent 18 years (1991-2008). Generally, mild warming and very slight wetting occurred prior to 1990, while after 1991 both warming and drying were significant and enhanced. Continuous warming drove a northward shift of temperature zones from the 1960s to 2000s, while aridity zones displayed enhanced temporal and spatial variability. Climate change effects on temperature and aridity zones imply that the patterns of cropping systems, macro-ecosystems, and human land use modes are potentially undergoing migration and modification due to climate change.

  17. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002, documents and reports from various power industry actors, and available academic literature analyzing current developments in the industry, I analyze the process of making deregulatory policies in electric power. Specifically, I ask whether or not the developments described above resulted in a shift in the relative power of contending actors in the industry, and consequently influenced policy outcomes.

  18. Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is very complex. This paper focus on the development of a methodology to target the ESZ based on currently available tools (Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrologic Model). According to the features of the TGRR, a spatially explicit and process-based method was introduced to help plan the placement of the ESZ in the TGRR for water quality benefits. The methods presented here were based on the integration of grid-based terrain analysis and nonpoint source pollution estimates. Firstly, the contribution of nonpoint source pollution from upslope farmland and urban to the TGRR was determined by grid-based terrain analysis. The upslope contributing area beyond the ESZ was defined as a "source". The SWAT model was used to analyze the characteristics of the pollution load. Secondly, the ESZ was defined as a "sink" and the reducing pollution loads in each grid cell of the ESZ was calculated by the REMM model. Finally, the key areas in the TGRA where the ESZ have the greatest potential to improve water quality were identified and the formula of the width of the ESZ was determined. However, the method in this article considers only the function of pollutants reduction in the ESZ, the next stage of the study will involve detailed modeling for the function of ecological corridor in the ESZ.

  19. A systematic review of socio-economic assessments in support of coastal zone management (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Le Gentil, Eric; Mongruel, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between the social and natural sciences has become essential in order to encompass all the dimensions of coastal zone management. Socio-economic approaches are increasingly recommended to complement integrated assessment in support of these initiatives. A systematic review of the academic literature was carried out in order to analyze the main types of socio-economic assessments used to inform the coastal zone management process as well as their effectiveness. A corpus of 1682 articles published between 1992 and 2011 was identified by means of the representative coverage approach, from which 170 were selected by applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and then classified using a content analysis methodology. The percentage of articles that mention the use of socio-economic assessment in support of coastal zone management initiatives is increasing but remains relatively low. The review examines the links between the issues addressed by integrated assessments and the chosen analytical frameworks as well as the various economic assessment methods which are used in the successive steps of the coastal zone management process. The results show that i) analytical frameworks such as 'risk and vulnerability', 'DPSIR', 'valuation', 'ecosystem services' and 'preferences' are likely to lead to effective integration of social sciences in coastal zone management research while 'integration', 'sustainability' and 'participation' remain difficult to operationalize, ii) risk assessments are insufficiently implemented in developing countries, and iii) indicator systems in support of multi-criteria analyses could be used during more stages of the coastal zone management process. Finally, it is suggested that improved collaboration between science and management would require that scientists currently involved in coastal zone management processes further educate themselves in integrated assessment approaches and participatory methodologies. PMID:25463574

  20. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

  1. Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

    2011-03-01

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. PMID:20970243

  2. 76 FR 71269 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...the initial total allowable catch of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea...

  3. 78 FR 54591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...NMFS is opening directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of...

  4. 78 FR 24361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total allowable...

  5. 78 FR 76245 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 Greenland turbot initial total allowable...

  6. 79 FR 71344 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Pot Gear Fishing Closure in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-12-02

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Pot Gear Fishing Closure in the Pribilof Islands...directed fishing for Pacific cod with pot gear to minimize bycatch and prevent overfishing...directed fishing for Pacific cod with pot gear. Amendment 103 to the BSAI FMP is...

  7. 73 FR 69586 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-11-19

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...fishing for groundfish by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), effective...limit specified for vessels using trawl gear in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200...

  8. 76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...to the initial total allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus in the BSAI was [[Page 17361

  9. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached....

  10. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...necessary to limit incidental catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for...measures prevent overfishing. The 2011 octopus overfishing level in the BSAI is 528...

  11. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...the projected unused amount of the 2010 rock sole total allowable catch (TAC) specified...allow the 2010 total allowable catch of rock sole to be fully harvested. DATES:...

  12. 76 FR 77757 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska...the Central and Western GOA for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), which would...action also would require retention of salmon by all vessels in the Central and...

  13. 76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska...the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). NMFS would...action also would require full retention of salmon in the Central and Western GOA...

  14. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

  15. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

  16. 77 FR 60649 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the Herring Savings Areas of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the Herring Savings Areas of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...vessels using trawl gear in the Winter Herring Savings Area of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 herring bycatch allowance specified for the...

  17. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  18. 77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  19. 75 FR 8547 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...opening and closing dates of the Atka mackerel directed fisheries within the harvest...the 2010 A season HLA limits of Atka mackerel in areas 542 and 543 of the Bering...

  20. 75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

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    2010-08-13

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 B season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

  1. 76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern...the A season allowance of the 2011 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

  2. 78 FR 35771 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  3. 75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in these areas allocated to vessels...

  4. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  5. 77 FR 26212 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...the A season allowance of the 2012 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

  6. 75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY...assignments for the 2010 A season Atka mackerel fishery in harvest limit area (HLA...trawl gear for directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the HLA are required to register...

  7. 76 FR 65975 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Bering Sea subarea and Eastern...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas allocated to vessels...

  8. 75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas specified for...

  9. 78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI...the A season allowance of the 2013 Atka mackerel total allowable catch (TAC) in...

  10. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...is opening directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and...total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these areas specified for...

  11. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in the Central Aleutian District of the...the 2010 A season allocation of Atka mackerel in this area allocated to vessels...

  12. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...December 13, 2010, to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that the...distinct population segment of Steller sea lions or adversely modify its designated...

  13. 75 FR 39892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...support economic development in western Alaska...poverty and provide economic and social benefits for residents...BSAI fisheries' economic benefits to adjacent...funding economic development activities and...participants to additional costs, additional...

  14. 77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...support economic development in western Alaska...poverty and provide economic and social benefits for residents...BSAI fisheries' economic benefits to adjacent...to fund economic development activities and...participants to additional costs, to...

  15. [Evaluation of sustainable development of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone based on MuSIASEM theory].

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Xiao-qing; Zhang, Pan; Liu, Ye

    2010-10-01

    Based on the theory of multiple-scale integrated assessment of societal and ecosystem metabolism (MuSIASEM), a comprehensive evaluation was made on the human activity time, exosomatic energy input, and added value of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone in 2000-2007. During the study period, the life quality of local citizens increased year after year, while the agricultural industry dwindled. Manufacturing industry was still the main pillar industry, but its energy consumption was greater. Service industry was at its early stage, falling behind manufacturing industry. The exosomatic metabolic level of the whole zone and its various industries had an obvious increase, and the energy intensity decreased continuously. With the fact that both the human activity time and the exosomatic energy input had a ceaseless decrease, the economic added value increased steadily, and the zone was under its way towards sustainable development. PMID:21328951

  16. An Economic Analysis of the External Constraints on Reform of the Higher Education Admissions System in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of an economic analysis of the intertwined role of the educational opportunities market and the educational products market, I believe that the unified entrance exam system currently in effect in China has, in reality, assumed the role of maintaining a price ceiling for opportunities in higher education. If we abolish the…

  17. The Likely Hardware, Software and Power Supply Failures in China's Economic Growth Engine: Fiscal, Governance and Ecological Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wing Thye Woo

    The 6th Plenum of the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) concluded on October 11, 2006, with the commitment to establish a harmonious society by 2020. The obvious implication from this commitment is that the present major social, economic and political trends are not leading to a harmonious society or, at least, not leading to a

  18. Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

  19. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. PMID:25662248

  20. The Challenge of Teaching Human Resource Management in China: Enabling Effective Management Education in the Context of Economic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Shiquan; Wood, Elliot; Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of management education in the context of the continuing economic reforms occurring in the People's Republic of China, particularly its importance for state-owned and foreign-invested enterprises. Uses a multiple perspectives model to draw some conclusions for management teaching priorities. (EV)

  1. Assessment of environmental and economic costs of rural household energy consumption in Loess Hilly Region, Gansu Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guozhu Li; Shuwen Niu; Libang Ma; Xin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Due to poverty, serious soil erosion and shortage of rural household energy in Loess Hilly Region, Gansu Province, China, excessive consumption of biofuel has become a critical factor underlying eco-environment degeneration. Data on rural household energy use was obtained by questionnaires, and based on substitutable analysis, environmental and economic costs under different energy consumption structures were estimated using a quantitative

  2. Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China E of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial with conventional gasoline due to various incentives. In this paper, we examined making ethanol from the sugar

  3. Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

    2013-10-01

    Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

  4. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ?15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  5. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies. PMID:25023655

  6. Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?

    E-print Network

    Qi, Tianyu

    We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

  7. Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from the Polish exclusive economic zone, southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szefer, P.; Glasby, G. P.; Geldon, J.; Renner, R. M.; Björn, E.; Snell, J.; Frech, W.; Warzocha, J.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of 59 surface sediment samples from the Polish exclusive economic zone (EEZ) shows that Szczecin Lagoon sediments are the most polluted by heavy metals and that the degree of heavy-metal pollution decreases substantially on passing from the Szczecin Lagoon to the Pomeranian Bay and the inner shelf area and then on passing to the Bornholm Deep and S?upsk Furrow. Heavy-metal pollution in the sediments of the western part of the Polish EEZ therefore appears to follow the dispersion of the Oder River. Fluffy material from the Oder estuary appears to be the main source of heavy metals in the muddy sediments of the Bornholm Deep. The formation of sulphides is therefore not the principal factor controlling the enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments of this anoxic basin, although it may be responsible for the uptake of Mo, Sb and As. Two main factors control the distribution of the rare earth elements (REE) in sediments of the Polish EEZ: the input of Fe-organic colloids from rivers and the presence of detrital material in the sediments.

  8. Benthos and demersal fish habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Hermann; Reiss, Henning; Ehrich, Siegfried; Sell, Anne; Panten, Kay; Kloppmann, Matthias; Wilhelms, Ingo; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2013-09-01

    We compiled data from different monitoring surveys to analyse and compare community and diversity patterns of fish, epi- and infauna in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea in order to identify benthic habitats common to all faunal components. We found congruent community patterns of fish, epi- and infauna for the coastal waters, the Oysterground and the area called "Duck's Bill", which coincided with specific abiotic characteristics of these regions. The three regions were defined as special habitats for fish, epi- and infauna species in the German EEZ. The differences in the seasonal variability of abiotic factors seem to be the most important discriminating abiotic characteristic for the three habitats. The spatial distribution of fish, epifauna and infauna communities remained stable over time although habitat characteristics such as sea surface temperature increased due to climate change. However, it is expected that the coastal habitat will be more sensitive to future climate change effects in contrast to the Oysterground and Duck's Bill habitat.

  9. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services. PMID:23839061

  10. Land Use Zoning at the County Level Based on a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study from Yicheng, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can generate a corresponding optimal solution, with a different quantity structure and spatial pattern to satisfy the preference of the different decision makers; (7) the model proposed in this paper is capable of handling the land-use zoning problem, and the crossover and mutation operator can improve the performance of the model, but, nevertheless, leads to increased time consumption. PMID:23066398

  11. Land use zoning at the county level based on a multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm: a case study from Yicheng, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can generate a corresponding optimal solution, with a different quantity structure and spatial pattern to satisfy the preference of the different decision makers; (7) the model proposed in this paper is capable of handling the land-use zoning problem, and the crossover and mutation operator can improve the performance of the model, but, nevertheless, leads to increased time consumption. PMID:23066398

  12. Establishing the scientific, technical, and economic basis for coastal zone management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Russell; Allen V. Kneese

    1973-01-01

    This paper has three major aims: First, to put the problems lumped under the rubric “Coastal Zone Management,”; in perspective; second, to set out a general framework for the construction of coastal zone management models; and third, to discuss institutional problems, particularly those involved in organizing coastal zone research and in transferring the results of that research to the managers

  13. Niche Partitioning of Marine Group I Crenarchaeota in the Euphotic and Upper Mesopelagic Zones of the East China Sea?†

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Anyi; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Zao

    2011-01-01

    Marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGI) represents a ubiquitous and numerically predominant microbial population in marine environments. An understanding of the spatial dynamics of MGI and its controlling mechanisms is essential for an understanding of the role of MGI in energy and element cycling in the ocean. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of MGI in the East China Sea (ECS) by analysis of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, and the biotin carboxylase gene accA. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that these genes were higher in abundance in the mesopelagic than in the euphotic zone. In addition, the crenarchaeal amoA gene was positively correlated with the copy number of the MGI 16S rRNA gene, suggesting that most of the MGI in the ECS are nitrifiers. Furthermore, the ratios of crenarchaeal accA to amoA or to MGI 16S rRNA genes increased from the euphotic to the mesopelagic zone, suggesting that the role of MGI in carbon cycling may change from the epipelagic to the mesopelagic zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic profiling of the 16S rRNA genes revealed depth partitioning in MGI community structures. Clone libraries of the crenarchaeal amoA and accA genes showed both “shallow” and “deep” groups, and their relative abundances varied in the water column. Ecotype simulation analysis revealed that MGI in the upper ocean could diverge into special ecotypes associated with depth to adapt to the light gradient across the water column. Overall, our results showed niche partitioning of the MGI population and suggested a shift in their ecological functions between the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the ECS. PMID:21873485

  14. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen…

  15. Energy savings potential of a desiccant assisted hybrid air source heat pump system for residential building in hot summer and cold winter zone in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fenghua Ge; Xinglong Guo; Zicheng Hu; Yi Chu

    2011-01-01

    In hot summer and cold winter zone in China, air conditioning system has four running modes yearly including cooling with dehumidification, cooling, dehumidification and heating in residential buildings. The conventional air source heat pump (ASHP) system is not designed to independently control temperature and humidity, and is not very suitable for the dehumidification mode in the view of building energy

  16. JOINT WORLD BANK INSTITUTE/EPA CHINA WORKSHOP ON ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE - E&C ROLES IN DEALING WITH CURRENT AND PROJECTED MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Bank Institute (WBI) provides funding for economic development in China. Modules of this funding are specifically dedicated for environmental protection projects. One of these modules is the development of compliance and enforcement. This is broken down into identifi...

  17. Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination Using Capture Zone Delineation in Shenzhen City, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiha Aida; Aiguo Zhou; Jianwei Zhou; Shao-Gang Dong

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the large risk associated with the contamination of aquifers, it becomes imperative to protect groundwater supply areas. One of the practical methods that is projected for the protection of aquifers is to zone a boundary around current production in order to control hazardous industrial practices close to the wells supply. Nanping Highway is proposed to be

  18. A study on legislative and policy tools for promoting the circular economic model for waste management in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhui Li; Keli Yu

    The circular economy has been developing rapidly in recent years in China. A legislative system has been created to provide\\u000a legal protection for the development of a circular economy, including a series of price and tax measures in the waste management\\u000a area. These measures form the basic foundation for promoting better waste management under the circular economic model. Many\\u000a challenges,

  19. SEA on the 11th five-year plan for national economic and social development of Wuhan City in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wu; He Xu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to address a pilot case study of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) on the 11th five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of a city located in central China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A three-tiered evaluation process was adopted during this study. First, the resources and environmental capacities of the city were evaluated in terms of the

  20. Reconsidering brownfield redevelopment strategy in China's old industrial zone: a health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wanxia; Geng, Yong; Ma, Zhixiao; Sun, Lina; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Urban environmental quality in brownfield redevelopment sites is of vital importance after most of former industrial areas were replanned or changed into residential and recreational areas. Hence, it is necessary to rethink if those brownfield redevelopment sites have been cleaned up so that there will be no negative health impacts to local residents. Under such a circumstance, this paper aims to evaluate the contamination level of heavy metals within a brownfield redevelopment site in China, namely, the Tiexi old industrial zone in Shenyang. Surface soil and dust samples were collected from local industrial sites, residential/commercial sites, traffic sites, and recreational sites, respectively. Our analysis results revealed that although the soils in the brownfield redevelopment sites had been treated and remediated, heavy metal pollution still exists in certain sites, especially in the current industrial sites that will be planned into residential/commercial or recreational zones, and the current residential sites where the former industrial sites located, showing that past industrial activities did and will continue to influence the soil quality. Further health risk assessment indicates that As and Pb generated from industrial sites and traffic sites has a potential to pose serious health risks to local residents, especially children. The hotspots with more serious health risks to children are mainly concentrated in the areas close to the former Shenyang Smelting Plant. After one decade of redevelopment, the Tiexi old industrial zone has become a new urban area which is not suitable for large-scaled soil remediation efforts. Thus, the phytoremediation by trees or herbs in heavy-metal-contaminated land is more appropriate and should be embedded into urban green land planning. This study provides innovative policy insights on urban brownfield redevelopment to both governmental officials and related stakeholders so that they can make appropriate remediation actions. PMID:25205156

  1. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule...2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI. (a) Locations. The following areas, from the surface...

  2. Ecological and economic dynamics of the Shunde agricultural system under China's small city development strategy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfang; Campbell, Daniel E

    2009-06-01

    The agricultural and industrial development of small cities is the primary environmental management strategy employed to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development strategy will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of the Chinese landscape. In this study, we examined the agricultural development of Shunde, a small city in Guangdong Province, over the period 1978 until 2000. Our analysis of the ecological and economic dynamics of the agricultural system revealed the dominant role of labor in the intensification of agricultural production, even though the use of fuels, fertilizers and machines also increased during this time. The Shunde agricultural system was examined from both biophysical or donor-based and human utility or receiver-based perspectives, using emergy and economic methods, respectively. After 22 years of urbanization, the Shunde agricultural system was still able to fill 96% of the local demand for agricultural products using only 6% of its total yield compared to using 14% of the total yield in 1978. Aquaculture developed quickly during the study period as grain production decreased. In 2000, the production of fish, pork, and vegetables accounted for 92% of the total emergy output of the system; however, the emergy buying power of the money received in exchange was lower than the emergy contained in the products exported. The excess emergy exported is the basis for a high quality diet delivered to city dwellers at a relatively low price. In the 1980s, the productivity of both land and labor increased; but after 1992 the productivity of labor decreased, causing the efficiency of the whole agricultural system to decrease. We recommend that processing plants be established for the main agricultural products of Shunde to decrease the emergy loss in trading and to increase employment. The effect of including monetized ecosystem services in the balance between the emergy delivered to the markets in agricultural products and the emergy buying power of the money received was to decrease the emergy gained by the Shunde agricultural system. PMID:19246149

  3. Advancing Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Variations of Soil Nutrients in the Water Level Fluctuation Zone of China’s Three Gorges Reservoir Using Self-Organizing Map

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Yang, Yuyi; Shu, Xiao; Zhang, Jiaquan; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-01-01

    The ~350 km2 water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China, situated at the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, experiences a great hydrological change with prolonged winter inundation. Soil samples were collected in 12 sites pre- (September 2008) and post submergence (June 2009) in the WLFZ and analyzed for soil nutrients. Self-organizing map (SOM) and statistical analysis including multi-way ANOVA, paired-T test, and stepwise least squares multiple regression were employed to determine the spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients in relation to submergence, and their correlations with soil physical characteristics. Results showed significant spatial variability in nutrients along ~600 km long shoreline of the TGR before and after submergence. There were higher contents of organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), and nitrate (NO3-) in the lower reach and total phosphorus (TP) in the upper reach that were primarily due to the spatial variations in soil particle size composition and anthropogenic activities. Submergence enhanced soil available potassium (K), while significantly decreased soil N, possibly due to the alterations of soil particle size composition and increase in soil pH. In addition, SOM analysis determined important roles of soil pH value, bulk density, soil particle size (i.e., silt and sand) and nutrients (TP, TK, and AK) on the spatial and temporal variations in soil quality. Our results suggest that urban sewage and agricultural runoffs are primary pollutants that affect soil nutrients in the WLFZ of TGR. PMID:25789612

  4. Spatial distributions of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaharudin; Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah

    2010-09-01

    The studies of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of (134)Cs and (242)Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60(o)C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89Bq/m(3) and 2.3-7.9mBq/m(3), respectively. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area. PMID:20430636

  5. Evaluation and zoning of groundwater hazards in Pingshuo No. 1 underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Fan, Zhenli; Zhang, Zhongwen; Zhou, Wanfang

    2014-05-01

    Coal mining safety has been compromised with water inrushes from aquifers either overlying or underlying the coal seams. Detailed studies of the associated hydrogeological conditions in China have led to different approaches to mitigate the water inrush risks from these two types of aquifers—the `three diagram method' for overlying-aquifer water inrushes and the `vulnerability index method' for underlying-aquifer water inrushes. The `three diagram method' consists of: (1) aquifer water-abundance distribution charts derived from a geographic information system and analytic hierarchy process based water-abundance index model; (2) a fracture height map showing mining-induced fractures above the coal seam, established with stratified numerical simulations; and (3) a comprehensive partition map identifying the overlying-aquifer water inrush risk. The `vulnerability index method' uses site-specific data to establish thematic maps for major factors that affect the underlying-aquifer water inrushes, whereas the weight of each control factor is determined by the analytic hierarchy process. The calculated vulnerability index is indicative of water inrush risks. The effectiveness of these methods is illustrated with a case study at the Pingshuo No. 1 underground coal mine, Shanxi Province, China.

  6. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

  7. Eutrophication and nutrient limitation in the aquatic zones around Huainan coal mine subsidence areas, Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qitao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Tingting; Qu, Xijie; Xie, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The eutrophication of three small lakes in the aquatic zones at the Huainan coal mine subsidence areas, designated as east site (ES), central site (CS), and west site (WS), were studied. Nutrient content, species, and nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios were obtained through water quality analyses. Nutrient limitation was evaluated by nutrient enrichment bioassays (NEBs) in the autumn of 2012 and spring of 2013. Average annual concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) were 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 mg/L, and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were 0.77, 1.95, and 2.06 mg/L in the water column at CS, ES, and WS, respectively. All of the three lakes exhibited 'meso-eutrophic' states and the TN:TP ratio ranged from 25:1 to 74:1 with variability between seasons and sites. NEBs verified that primary productivity in the lakes at ES and WS were mainly limited by P, while N limitation or N and P co-limitation was present in the aquatic zones at CS due to unavailable dissolved inorganic nitrogen. In the studied lakes, the blue-green algae, which comprised 70% of all identified species, was the predominant taxa, while the micro-zooplankton taxa was dominant, indicating a typical trophic structure of eutrophic lakes. PMID:25225936

  8. Forthcoming in the inaugural issue of Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies China's Economic Growth After WTO Membership

    E-print Network

    the convergence school. The fact that China has sought WTO membership voluntarily and with great tenacity assess the possibility of a WTO-induced macroeconomic shock that would generate such great political: a flood of imports that would cause widespread unemployment; and the entry of foreign banks that would

  9. Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the coastal zone: the LOICZ approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Talaue-mcmanus; S. v. Smith; R. w. Buddemeier

    Abstract The Land–Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere– Biosphere Programme,focused on quantifying the role of the global coastal zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for site-specific and global assessments,of coastal processes and their drivers. Indicators used in coastal assessments,include the contribution,of

  10. The effects of urbanization on temperature trends in different economic periods and geographical environments in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Feng; Guo, Junqin; Sun, Landong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xinping

    2014-04-01

    Using data collected from 22 urban and 65 rural meteorological stations in northwestern China between 1961 and 2009, this paper presents a study concerning the effects of urbanization on air temperature trends. To distinguish among the potential influences that stem from the economic development levels, population scales, and geographic environments of the cities in this region, the 49-year study period was divided into two periods: a period of less economic development, from 1961 to 1978, and a period of greater economic development, from 1979 to 2009. Each of the cities was classified as a megalopolis, large, or medium-small, depending on the population, and each was classified as a plateau, plain, or oasis city, depending on the surrounding geography. The differences in the air temperature trends between cities and the average of their rural counterparts were used to examine the warming effects of urbanization. The results of this study indicate that the magnitude of warming effects due to urbanization depends not only on a city's economic level, but also on the population scale and geographic environment of the city. The urbanization of most cities in northwestern China resulted in considerable negative warming effects during 1961-1978 but evidently positive effects during 1979-2009. The population scale of a city represents a significant factor: a city with a larger population has a stronger warming influence, regardless of whether the effect is negative or positive. Among the three geographic environments of the cities considered, plateaus and plains more significantly enhance warming effects than oases. The urban population trend has a very significant logarithm relationship with the urban temperature effect, but no clear relationships between urban temperature effects and city elevation were detected. The majority of the temperature trends, accounting for more than 60 % of the trends during 1961-2009, can be explained by natural factors, although urbanization has had some obvious effects on temperatures in northwestern China.

  11. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  12. The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-zhong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion. Ecological engineering approaches can therefore reduce environmental impacts of LZTGR and optimize ecological services. In view of the current situation and existing ecological problems of LZTGR, according to function demands such as environmental purification, biodiversity conservation, and vegetation carbon sink enhancement, we should explore the eco-friendly utilization mode of resources in LZTGR. Ecological engineering approaches might minimize the impacts or optimize the ecological services. Natural regeneration and ecological restoration in LZTGR are valuable for soil erosion decrease, pollutant purification, biodiversity conservation, carbon sink increase, and ecosystem health maintenance in TGR. PMID:23296972

  13. Bonded Logistics Park and neighboring Bonded Zone development mode and game analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi He; Guojun Ji; Aihua Liu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, through the analysis on currently existing bonded logistics park and bonded zone in China, the advantages and disadvantages of them are clarified. Then an effective development mode of bonded logistics park and bonded zone are discussed. During the process to set up the development mode, how to utilize the existing resource and to get the best economic

  14. Cultural and economic influences on current accounting standards in the People's Republic of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynford E. Graham; Chunyan Li

    1997-01-01

    Accounting Principles in the People's Republic of China have undergone dramatic reform since the 1970s. In moving toward a more market driven economy, the market structures and accounting rules have changed to the point that today many of the concepts and principles familiar in the most advanced economies are part of the Chinese regulations and laws. While China has forged

  15. Economic Development, Enlightenment and Creative transformation: Creative Industries in the New China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin O’Connor

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines some of the implications for China of the creative industries agenda as drawn by some recent commentators. The creative industries have been seen by many commentators as essential if China is to move from an imitative low-value economy to an innovative high value one. Some suggest that this trajectory is impossible without a full transition to liberal

  16. Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Ye; Michael H. Glantz; Lianchun Song; Guowu Sun; Xiaoling Pan

    2003-01-01

    A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related

  17. Water use and yield responses of cotton to alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation in the arid area of north-west China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taisheng Du; Shaozhong Kang; Jianhua Zhang; Fusheng Li

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out over 2 years to investigate the effect of partial root-zone irrigation applied using drip\\u000a irrigation on the water use and yield of cotton (Gossypium\\u000a hirsutum) in oasis fields of arid north-west China. Two irrigation treatments, i.e., conventional drip irrigation (CDI, both sides\\u000a of plant row watered) or alternate drip irrigation (ADI, both sides of plant

  18. Age and nature of eclogites in the Huwan shear zone, and the multi-stage evolution of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, central China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Bao Wu; John M. Hanchar; Shan Gao; Paul J. Sylvester; Mike Tubrett; Hua-Ning Qiu; Jan R. Wijbrans; Fraukje M. Brouwer; Sai-Hong Yang; Qi-Jun Yang; Yong-Sheng Liu; Hong-Lin Yuan

    2009-01-01

    In situ LA-ICPMS U-Pb, trace element, and Hf isotope data in zircon demonstrate a Carboniferous age for eclogite-facies metamorphism in Siluro-Devonian protoliths in the Huwan shear zone, Dabie Mountains, Central China. This age contrasts with the more prevailing Triassic age for high- to ultrahigh pressure (HP to UHP) metamorphism in the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen. Metamorphic zircon in two eclogite samples from

  19. Options for radioactive- and other hazardous-waste siting within the US exclusive economic zone. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Manheim, F.T.; Vine, A.

    1987-03-01

    The long-term storage and disposal of concentrated, high-level radioactive and other highly toxic wastes remains a difficult and controversial issue. In the United States most of the funded effort applied to disposal siting has been on land sites, with only a small scientific effort devoted to research and development on disposal beneath the deep ocean bottom. As a part of a continuing effort to find reliable and politically and economically satisfactory solutions for the disposal problem, the authors suggest that some geographic segments of the new U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) offer technical and political options that may complement constructively the existing approaches to waste storage final disposal.

  20. Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in municipal wastewater treatment plants in economically developed areas of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yating; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yeung, Leo W Y; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Jianshe; Li, Xinhai; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

    2013-05-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a significant source for poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) entering the environment. The presence of PFASs in twenty-eight municipal WWTPs from eleven cites in economically developed areas of China were screened. Overall, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge, and were not effectively removed during wastewater treatment. Elevated influent concentration ratios of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) to PFOA and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) to PFOS in some WWTPs suggested that short chains substitution were adopted in these cities. Cluster analysis showed treatment processes had important impacts on PFASs profiles in effluent and sludge. Average concentration of total PFCAs in influent from each city and its gross domestic product (GDP) had significant positive correlation. This study provides a snapshot of both domestic and industrial discharges of PFAS to WWTPs as well as PFAS discharge from WWTPs to the aquatic environment in China. PMID:23410673

  1. The lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease mortality in a subtropical climate zone in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jixia; Wang, Jinfeng; Yu, Weiwei

    2014-04-01

    This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha--a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0-3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10-25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0-2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ?65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%-8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%-7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and younger people. PMID:24733034

  2. The Lag Effects and Vulnerabilities of Temperature Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Subtropical Climate Zone in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jixia; Wang, Jinfeng; Yu, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha—a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0–3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10–25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0–2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ?65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%–8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%–7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and younger people. PMID:24733034

  3. Biogenic nitric oxide emission of mountain soils sampled from different vertical landscape zones in the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junbao; Meixner, Franz X; Sun, Weidong; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Xia, Chuanhai; Xie, Wenjun

    2010-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important component in nitrogen biogeochemical cycling produced through biological processes of nitrification and denitrification in soils, but the production and the consumption processes of NO in temperate mountain soil are less understood. Through laboratory experiments focusing on NO biogenic emissions from six kinds of mountain soils sampled from different vertical landscape zones, that is, coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest (CBF), fir forest (FF), spruce forest (SF), Erman's birch forest (EBF), alpine tundra (AT), and volcanic ash (VA), in the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China, we found that the optimum water-filled pore space (WFPS) for NO production varies between 22.5% and 35% for a range of mountain soils. The optimum soil moisture for the maximum NO emission for a certain soil type, however, was constant and independent of soil temperature. The NO emission potential for forest soils was about 7-50-fold higher than tundra soil and volcanic ash, indicating that it is strongly influenced by nutrient contents in soils. On the basis of laboratory results and field monitoring data, the average NO fluxes from these mountain soils were estimated to be 0.14-29.56 ng N m(-2) s(-1) for an entire plant growth period. NO emissions mainly occur in wet season for CBF and FF, but in dry season for other soil types. PMID:20450189

  4. Origin and tectonic implication of Triassic eclogite from the Song Ma suture zone between the Indochina and South China blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Lo, C.; Grove, M.; Chung, S.; Iizuka, Y.; Tri, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Song-Ma suture zone in northern Vietnam and Laos marks the collision of the Indochina and South China blocks, which consists of ophiolite, metamorphic sole and meta-sediments. The Song Ma ophiolite consisting of serpentinized peridotite, layered gabbro, basalt and diabase is considered to represent the relics of the Paleothyan lithosphere. In this study, we provide new petrological, geochemical and geochronological data of the Song Ma eclogite for understanding its origin and tectonic implication. The eclogite is closely associated with garnet-phengite quartz schist and garnet amphibolite in the northwestern edge of the suture zone. It consists of porphyroblastic garnet and fine-grained matrix of omphacite, garnet, phengite, quartz and rutile. The porphyroblastic garnet has a large inclusion-rich core and a thin inclusion-free rim; the identified inclusions include quartz, taramite, barroisite, zoisite, epidote and rutile. Garnet porphyroblasts exhibit pronounced compositional zoning: i.e. increase pyrope with decreasing alm, grs and sps components from core (alm53-54Sps3-4Prp18-19Grs24-28) to rim (alm42-45Sps1Prp31-36Grs18-22) suggesting a prograde metamorphic history. Omphacite (Jd33-37) and phengite (Si, 3.34-3.45 pfu) are homogeneous in composition. Most interstitial amphibole in the matrix is retrograde phase. Grt-Cpx-Ph thermobarometer yielded a peak P-T condition of 28 ± 2 kbar and 700 ± 50 oC. All eclogites have basaltic composition: SiO2 ~ 49 wt%, TiO2 ~ 0.8 wt%, MgO ~ 8.6 wt% and FeOtotal 9.4-10.2 wt%. They show flat or slightly LREE-enriched patterns with negative Eu anomaly, and negative Sr and Ti anomalies in spider diagram. Selected major and trace element contents of eclogite, garnet amphibolite and metabasite plotted in the discrimination diagrams of 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and TiO2-FeO/MgO and Th/Yb-Nb/Yb suggest that the protoliths of the Song Ma eclogite and metabasite have MORB-type geochemical affinities. Zircon separates form an eclogite sample show variable sizes of 0.03-0.1 mm, without inherited cores, and stubby internal structures in cathodoluminescence images with very low Th/U of 0.01-0.05. SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon crystals yielded a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 230.5 ± 8.2 Ma (N=25). The Th/U ratios and internal structures indicate a metamorphic zircon origin. These data imply the formation of eclogite was related to subduction of sub-ophiolite oceanic basaltic rocks. The closing of the Lao-Vietnamese branch of the Paleotethys, separating the Indochina and South China blocks, led to collision of the blocks during the Middle-Late Triassic, corresponding to the major episode of the Indochina Orogeny.

  5. Some economic considerations on the importance of proactive integrated coastal zone management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. J. Tol; R. J. T Klein; H. M. A. Jansen; H. Verbruggen

    1996-01-01

    The view is widely held that proactive integrated management of coastal zones is a rewarding strategy in the long run. It appears, however, rather difficult to substantiate this claim, both theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, first of all because the concepts of ‘proactive’ and ‘integrated’ still await their proper definitions and second, because the role of seemingly important variables and their

  6. Efficiency, economics, and environmental implications of phosphorus resource use and the fertilizer industry in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifeng Zhang; Wenqi Ma; Yuexiu Ji; Mingsheng Fan; Oene Oenema; Fusuo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for crop production and is often in short supply. The necessary P fertilizers are\\u000a derived from deposits in the lithosphere, which are limited in size and nonrenewable. China is one of the world’s largest\\u000a consumers and producers of P fertilizers. Thus, P resource use efficiency in China has an important impact on the worldwide

  7. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3°C and 27.7°C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0˜31.6°C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1˜30.3°C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9°C and 27.3°C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4°C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like “slightly cool” to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants’ comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26°C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making people comfortable, which supports the regulation in China that in public and office buildings the set-point temperature of air-conditioning system should not be lower than 26°C.

  8. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3 degrees C and 27.7 degrees C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0-31.6 degrees C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1-30.3 degrees C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9 degrees C and 27.3 degrees C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4 degrees C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like "slightly cool" to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants' comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26 degrees C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making people comfortable, which supports the regulation in China that in public and office buildings the set-point temperature of air-conditioning system should not be lower than 26 degrees C. PMID:18074157

  9. Economic statecraft with Chinese characteristics : the use of commercial actors in China's grand strategy

    E-print Network

    Norris, William J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This study is about Chinese economic statecraft: what it is, how it works and why it is more or less effective. The study builds a theory of economic statecraft that provides an explanation of how states use firms to pursue ...

  10. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  11. Spatial variations of pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence co-impacted by socio-economic and geographic factors in People’s Republic of China, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The report of the fifth national tuberculosis (TB) epidemiological survey in P. R. China, 2010, roughly showed that pulmonary TB (PTB) prevalence was higher in western China than in central and eastern China. However, accurately estimating the continuous spatial variations of PTB prevalence and clearly understanding factors impacting on spatial variations of PTB prevalence are important for allocating limited resources of national TB programme (NTP) in P. R. China. Methods Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Wizard (ESRI, Redlands, CA), an evaluation was performed to decide that which kriging and cokriging methods along with different combinations of types of detrending, semivariogram models, anisotropy and covariables (socio-economic and geographic factors) can accurately construct spatial distribution surface of PTB prevalence using statistic data sampled from the fifth national TB epidemiological survey in P. R. China, 2010, and then the evaluation results were used to explore factors of spatial variations. Results The global cokriging with socio-economic and geographic factors as covariables proved to be the best geostatistical methods for accurately estimating spatial distribution surface of PTB prevalence. The final continuous surfaces of PTB prevalence distribution demonstrated that PTB prevalence were lower in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and southeastern coast China, higher in western and southwestern China, and crossed between low and high in central China. Conclusions The predicted continuous surface perspicuously illustrated the spatial variations of PTB prevalence that were co-impacted by socio-economic and geographic factors, which can be used to better allocate the always limited resources of NTP in P. R. China. PMID:24629032

  12. Research on the Quantitative Relationship Between China's Railway Transportation Industry and National Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weidong Li

    2008-01-01

    Railway transportation industry plays an important role in national economic development. Domestic and foreign scholars have studied on the relationship between railway transportation industry and national economic development with qualitative methods and obtained some useful conclusions. But the quantitative research about the relation of railway transportation industry and national economic development is still a little. In this paper cointegration theory

  13. Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    Variation in seed weight is common within and among plant species, but few studies have attempted to document the pattern of seed weight and germination attributes for aquatic macrophytes at a large scale. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China. Our results showed that the average seed weight was 0.24 g per 100 seeds with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 28.4% among the eight P. pectinatus populations. The total germination fraction of seeds of P. pectinatus was relatively poor, less than 35% in seven P. pectinatus populations, and the lowest germination percentage found was only 2%. There were significant differences in seed weight, time to onset of germination, and total germination fraction among the eight different populations. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed a strongly positive correlation between seed weight and water temperature and pH. Seed weight and the maternal environmental factors significantly affected both time to initiation of germination and total germination fraction. Our results suggest that (1) seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seeds are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion. PMID:25897389

  14. Maintaining Economic Value of Ecosystem Services Whilst Reducing Environmental Cost: A Way to Achieve Freshwater Restoration in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mingli; Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Jiashou; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Lek, Sovan; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries are central to food security in China and this remains one of the most important priorities for the growing human population. Thus, combining ecosystem restoration with economics is pivotal in setting successful conservation in China. Here, we have developed a practical management model that combines fishery improvement with conservation. For six years, a ban on fertilizer and a reduction of planktivorous fish stocking along with the introduction of both mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was apparent in Wuhu Lake, a highly eutrophic lake located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Annual fish yield decreased slightly after the change in management, whereas fisheries income increased 2.6 times. Mandarin fish and Chinese mitten crab accounted for only 16% of total fisheries production but for 48% of total fisheries income. During this six year period, water clarity increased significantly from 61 cm to 111 cm. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll decreased significantly from 1.14 to 0.84 mg/L, 0.077 to 0.045 mg/L, and 21.45 to 11.59 ?g/L respectively, and macrophyte coverage increased by about 30%. Our results showed that the ecological status of shallow lakes could be rapidly reversed from eutrophic to oligotrophic using simple biomanipulation, whilst maintaining fisheries economic value. It also offers a better approach to shallow fisheries lake management in Asia where traditionally the stocking of Chinese carp and use of fertilizers is still popular. PMID:25803696

  15. Maintaining economic value of ecosystem services whilst reducing environmental cost: a way to achieve freshwater restoration in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingli; Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Jiashou; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Lek, Sovan; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries are central to food security in China and this remains one of the most important priorities for the growing human population. Thus, combining ecosystem restoration with economics is pivotal in setting successful conservation in China. Here, we have developed a practical management model that combines fishery improvement with conservation. For six years, a ban on fertilizer and a reduction of planktivorous fish stocking along with the introduction of both mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was apparent in Wuhu Lake, a highly eutrophic lake located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Annual fish yield decreased slightly after the change in management, whereas fisheries income increased 2.6 times. Mandarin fish and Chinese mitten crab accounted for only 16% of total fisheries production but for 48% of total fisheries income. During this six year period, water clarity increased significantly from 61 cm to 111 cm. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll decreased significantly from 1.14 to 0.84 mg/L, 0.077 to 0.045 mg/L, and 21.45 to 11.59 ?g/L respectively, and macrophyte coverage increased by about 30%. Our results showed that the ecological status of shallow lakes could be rapidly reversed from eutrophic to oligotrophic using simple biomanipulation, whilst maintaining fisheries economic value. It also offers a better approach to shallow fisheries lake management in Asia where traditionally the stocking of Chinese carp and use of fertilizers is still popular. PMID:25803696

  16. Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the People’s Republic of China – An Assessment of Structural Impacts on Decision-making Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren A. Lau

    2004-01-01

    Global sea-levels are rising due to climate change. Latest estimates expect a rise of up to 88 cm within the next 100 years. In China the three main river deltas are considered most vulnerable to sea-level rise and a number of mega-cities, e.g. Shanghai, with high economic importance are perticularly at risk. The natural changes in sea-level are often accelerated

  17. A Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming Model for Uncertainty-Based Environmental Economic Optimization in the Lake Fuxian Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Rui; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yajuan

    2013-01-01

    The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP) method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP) and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers' preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of “low risk and high return efficiency” in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management. PMID:24191144

  18. Crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the north and south china collision zone by joint inversion of receiver functions and ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Shen, W.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Xiong, X.

    2014-12-01

    The collision zone between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB) is one of the most important tectonic boundaries in the eastern part of China. There are several characteristics in this collision zone, including the exposure of high pressure and ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (HPM/UHPM) rocks. However, the detail structure under this collision zone is still uclear. In this work we try to obtain high resolution and reliable crustal and uppermost mantle structure in this collision zone. We process continuous ambient noise data collected from ~300 stations of Chinese provincial networks operating during 2010 and 2013 to extract inter-station surface wave dispersion curves. Then we generate Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity maps at 5-60 sec periods. In order to improve the precision of Moho depth and shear wave structure, we further collect teleseismic data to calculate receiver functions for all of the stations, and do a joint inversion with receiver function and surface wave dispersion curves to construct a 3D isotropic Vsv model. The 3D Vsv model reveals detailed crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structures which help to decipher the tectonic mechanisms of the SCB and NCB collision zone. Two belts with thin Moho thickness are observed: one belt starts from south part of the Yangtze block and extends to Sulu Basin along the Tancheng-Lujiang Fault (TLF), the other one starts from the south part of Yangtze block and extends to the west part of the eastern North China Craton. There is a dramatic crustal thickness gradient along the North-South gravity Lineament (NSGL), which means that the NSGL is the consequence of the variation of crustal thickness. The shear wave velocity structure of the Qinling-Dabie orogen (QDO) is different from the surrounding NCB and SCB, there is a deep rooted high velocity anomaly in east end of the QDO this region, which may be the residuals of the exhumation of the UHPM rocks. The upper mantle velocity under the Subei Basin is much lower than that of Sulu Belt and the west side of TLF, which may be resulted from the thinning of the lithosphere in the east side of TLF, arguing for significant extension of the Subei Basin during the collision process of the NCB and the SCB blocks.

  19. Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian; Glantz, Michael H.; Song, Lianchun; Sun, Guowu; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related hotspots must be determined based on different regions and economic sectors.

  20. ‘Mobile men with money’: the socio-cultural and politico-economic context of ‘high-risk’ behaviour among wealthy businessmen and government officials in urban China

    PubMed Central

    URETSKY, ELANAH

    2014-01-01

    China’s transition from an injection drug-driven HIV epidemic to one primarily transmitted through sexual contact has triggered concern over the potential for HIV to move into the non-drug-injecting population. Much discussion has focused on the migrant men of China’s vast ‘floating population’ who are considered a high-risk group. As a result, many men who frequently engage in high-risk behaviour but are not included in this especially vulnerable group are evading HIV prevention messages. This paper highlights the socio-cultural and politico-economic factors that motivate many of China’s wealthy businessmen and government officials, sometimes referred to as ‘mobile men with money’, to engage in such behaviour. Examination of the activities related to the work of these men reveals a situation where the confluence of a market-oriented economy operating within a socialist-style political system under the influence of traditional networking practices has engendered a unique mode of patron-clientelism that brings them together over shared social rituals including feasting, drinking and female-centered entertainment that is often coupled with sexual services. As a result, consideration of the socio-cultural factors influencing these men’s sexual practices is important for responding to the newly emerging stage of China’s HIV epidemic. PMID:18975228

  1. Flood hazard in Hunan province of China: an economic loss analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Huang; Hongzhuan Tan; Jia Zhou; Tubao Yang; Abuaku Benjamin; Shi Wu Wen; Shuoqi Li; Aizhong Liu; Xinhua Li; Shuidong Fen; Xinli Li

    2008-01-01

    Natural and man-made disasters have been increasing and affecting millions of people throughout the world. Floods are the\\u000a most common natural disasters affecting more people across the globe than all other natural or technological disasters and\\u000a also are the most costly in terms of human hardship and economic loss. In order to explore the total economic loss, components\\u000a of economic

  2. This article highlights current economic conditions in China and analyzes existing obstacles to improving

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    and safety. INT J OCCUP ENVIRON HEALTH 2003;9:378­385 B arreling down the highway from Shenzhen to Guangzhou, through the heart of China's Pearl River delta, past hillsides turned into gravel quarries, rice fields in Beijing1 might now be amended to ask whether the world's health and safety standards, working hours

  3. Sustainability and Management Education in China and India: Enabling a Global Green Economic Transition

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Paul N.

    America and the European Union. We argue in this article that this gap in our understanding a greener economy on the global level. In order to examine current and future trends in sustainability management education in China and India and how those trends impact the important transition towards

  4. Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Bickenbach; Wan-Hsin LIU

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies attempted to make use of the scale expansion as a tool to reduce the inequality of higher education among different regions with different development levels through providing the poor regions preferential treatment and support in this regard. This paper analyses a provincial dataset

  5. Can domestication of wildlife lead to conservation? The economics of tiger farming in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brant Abbott; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2011-01-01

    Tigers are a threatened species that might soon disappear in the wild. Not only are tigers threatened by deteriorating and declining habitat, but poachers continue to kill tigers for traditional medicine, decoration pieces and so on. Although international trade in tiger products has been banned since 1987 and domestic trade within China since 1993, tigers continue to be poached and

  6. CAN DOMESTICATION OF WILDLIFE LEAD TO CONSERVATION? THE ECONOMICS OF TIGER FARMING IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brant Abbott; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2010-01-01

    Tigers are a threatened species that might soon disappear in the wild. Not only are tigers threatened by deteriorating and declining habitat, but poachers continue to kill tigers for traditional medicine, decoration pieces and so on. Although international trade in tiger products has been banned since 1987 and domestic trade within China since 1993, tigers continue to be poached and

  7. Can Domestication of Wildlife Lead to Conservation? The Economics of Tiger Farming in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brant Abbott; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2008-01-01

    Tigers are a threatened species that might soon disappear in the wild. Not only are tigers threatened by deteriorating and declining habitat, but poachers continue to kill tigers for traditional medicine, decoration pieces and so on. Although international trade in tiger products has been banned since 1987 and domestic trade within China since 1993, tigers continue to be poached and

  8. DYNAMICS IN THE ONLINE GAME INDUSTRY OF CHINA: A POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ITS COMPETITIVENESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PEICHI CHUNG; JIANGPING YUAN

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese online game industry is one of the fastest growing interactive entertainment industries in the world. The industry now launches more than 200 game titles to the market annually. Some popular game characters have become cultural icons in China. As the market landscape expands, the industry continues to attract new ventures. The Chinese online game industry is a fast

  9. The Effect of Domestic Investment, Economic Growth and Human Development on Foreign Direct Investment into China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Paolino

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign direct investment, domestic investment, human development, and economic growth, and uses the ordinary least squared technique, and a time series analysis using data for the period 1977-2007. The analysis seeks to answer the fundamental question of what impact Chinese domestic investment, economic growth, and human development has on foreign direct investment into the

  10. Health economic evaluations of medical devices in the People’s Republic of China: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongrong; Modaresi, Farhang; Borisenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify and review the methodological quality of health economic evaluations of medical devices performed in the People’s Republic of China. To our knowledge, no such investigations have been performed to date. Methods A systematic literature review involving searches of Medline, Medline In-Process, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of the Tufts Medical Center, and the Wanfang Database was performed. The search spanned the period from 1990 to 2013. Studies on health economic evaluations of medical devices, in-vitro diagnostics, procedures, and the use of medical devices in Chinese health care settings were included. Full-text articles and conference abstracts in English and Chinese were included. Results Fifty-seven publications were included, 26 (46%) of which were in English and 31 (54%) of which were in Chinese. The included publications covered a wide range of clinical areas, such as surgery (n=23, 40%), screening (n=9, 16%), imaging use (n=6, 11%), kidney intervention (n=4, 7%), and nine other technological areas. Most of the studies (n=31, 54%) were cost analyses. Among the others, 13 (50%) studies used modeling, and another 13 (50%) were within-trial evaluations. Among studies that used modeling, eleven (85%) conducted sensitivity analyses, six of which had one-way sensitivity analysis, whereas one conducted both one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses; four of these eleven modeling-based analyses included probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was reported in ten (18%) studies, eight of which were screening studies. The remaining two modeling studies were in areas of imaging and oncology. Conclusion This study indicates that there are major limitations and deficiencies in the health economic evaluations on medical devices performed in the People’s Republic of China. Further efforts are required from different stakeholders – academic, governmental, and privatized – to improve health economic research capacity and to put it to use when informative decisions are made in the health care setting. PMID:25914551

  11. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced technologies and more efficient industries. On the other hand, institutional change (i.e., marketization) and innovation (i.e., technological progress) exerted positive impacts on AVEC improvement, as always expected in this and other studies. Finally, the model comparison indicated that SEM was capable of separating spatial effect from the error term of OLS, so as to improve goodness-of-fit and the significance level of individual determinants.

  12. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced technologies and more efficient industries. On the other hand, institutional change (i.e., marketization) and innovation (i.e., technological progress) exerted positive impacts on AVEC improvement, as always expected in this and other studies. Finally, the model comparison indicated that SEM was capable of separating spatial effect from the error term of OLS, so as to improve goodness-of-fit and the significance level of individual determinants.

  13. Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.

    PubMed

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities. PMID:18853224

  14. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  15. Relative role of transfer zones in controlling sequence stacking patterns and facies distribution: insights from the Fushan Depression, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Entao; Wang, Hua; Li, Yuan; Huang, Chuanyan

    2015-04-01

    In sedimentary basins, a transfer zone can be defined as a coordinated system of deformational features which has good prospects for hydrocarbon exploration. Although the term 'transfer zone' has been widely applied to the study of extensional basins, little attention has been paid to its controlling effect on sequence tracking pattern and depositional facies distribution. Fushan Depression is a half-graben rift sub-basin, located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. In this study, comparative analysis of seismic reflection, palaeogeomorphology, fault activity and depositional facies distribution in the southern slope indicates that three different types of sequence stacking patterns (i.e. multi-level step-fault belt in the western area, flexure slope belt in the central area, gentle slope belt in the eastern area) were developed along the southern slope, together with a large-scale transfer zone in the central area, at the intersection of the western and eastern fault systems. Further analysis shows that the transfer zone played an important role in the diversity of sequence stacking patterns in the southern slope by dividing the Fushan Depression into two non-interfering tectonic systems forming different sequence patterns, and leading to the formation of the flexure slope belt in the central area. The transfer zone had an important controlling effect on not only the diversity of sequence tracking patterns, but also the facies distribution on the relay ramp. During the high-stand stage, under the controlling effect of the transfer zone, the sediments contain a significant proportion of coarser material accumulated and distributed along the ramp axis. By contrast, during the low-stand stage, the transfer zone did not seem to contribute significantly to the low-stand fan distribution which was mainly controlled by the slope gradient (palaeogeomorphology). Therefore, analysis of the transfer zone can provide a new perspective for basin analysis. In addition, the transfer zone area demonstrated unique hydrocarbon accumulation models different from the western and eastern areas. It was not only a structural high combined with sufficient coarse-grained reservoir quality sands, but was also associated with large-scale sublacustrine fan deposits with high quality reservoirs, indicating that the recognition of transfer zones can improve the prediction of hydrocarbon occurrences in similar settings.

  16. The Roles and Performance of State Firms and Non-State Firms in China's Economic Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaomin Li; Jun Xia

    2008-01-01

    Summary. — It is commonly accepted that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are inefficient and that non-state firms drive the phenomenal growth in China. However, why SOEs are not dying out and how the non-state firms thrive in a poor institutional environment remain unanswered. We apply the institutional and principal-agent perspectives to explain how firms with different ownerships de- ploy their resources

  17. The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H. Terpstra; Yu Kai-cheng

    1997-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings

  18. The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H Terpstra; Yu Kai-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence–divergence–crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as a theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The

  19. Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Challinor; Elisabeth S. Simelton; Evan D. G. Fraser; Debbie Hemming; Mathew Collins

    2010-01-01

    Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic

  20. Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China.

    PubMed

    Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Wyman, C E

    2005-06-01

    Reducing the use of non-renewable fossil energy reserves together with improving the environment are two important reasons that drive interest in the use of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial scale in Brazil and the United States, respectively, and this alcohol has been able to compete with conventional gasoline due to various incentives. In this paper, we examined making ethanol from the sugar extracted from the juice of sweet sorghum and/or from the hemicellulose and cellulose in the residual sorghum bagasse versus selling the sugar from the juice or burning the bagasse to make electricity in four scenarios in the context of North China. In general terms, the production of ethanol from the hemicellulose and cellulose in bagasse was more favorable than burning it to make power, but the relative merits of making ethanol or sugar from the juice was very sensitive to the price of sugar in China. This result was confirmed by both process economics and analysis of opportunity costs. Thus, a flexible plant capable of making both sugar and fuel-ethanol from the juice is recommended. Overall, ethanol production from sorghum bagasse appears very favorable, but other agricultural residues such as corn stover and rice hulls would likely provide a more attractive feedstock for making ethanol in the medium and long term due to their extensive availability in North China and their independence from other markets. Furthermore, the process for residue conversion was based on particular design assumptions, and other technologies could enhance competitiveness while considerations such as perceived risk could impede applications. PMID:15668196

  1. Symposium proceedings: a national program for the assessment and development of the mineral resources of the United States Exclusive Economic Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Offshore crude oil, natural gas, and mineral resources within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone were considered from the standpoint of hydrogeology. The status of marine technology available for mining and oil and gas exploration is reviewed. For individual titles, see N84-28193 through N84-28197.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

  3. Feeling good about the iron rice bowl: Economic sector and happiness in post-reform urban China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Situated in China's market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker's happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being - reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty. PMID:26188448

  4. Understanding Economic Development and Institutional Change: East Asian Development Model Reconsidered with Implications for China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongqin Wang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a coherent framework to characterize the dynamics of economic development and institutional change in\\u000a the East Asian Development Model. In the early stage of development, due to market incompleteness, a government with high\\u000a autonomy and capacity can promote economic development through interlinked and relational arrangements (e.g., industrial policy).\\u000a In later stages, market completion will usually unravel interlinked

  5. Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on sea floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China Sea and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.

  6. MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology applied in China: combustion temperature, flue gas loss and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhe; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Xiangpeng; Shao, Jingai; Wang, Ke; Chen, Hanping

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the application prospect of MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology in China, the technical and economical analyses of a municipal solid waste (MSW) grate furnace with oxy-fuel incineration technology in comparison to co-incineration with coal are performed. The rated capacity of the grate furnace is 350 tonnes MSW per day. When raw MSW is burned, the amount of pure oxygen injected should be about 14.5 wt.% under 25% O2 oxy-fuel combustion conditions with the mode of oxygen supply determined by the actual situation. According to the isothermal combustion temperature (Ta), the combustion effect of 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (? = 1.43) is identical with that of MSW co-incineration with 20% mass ratio of coal (? = 1.91). However, the former is better than the latter in terms of plant cost, flue gas loss, and environmental impact. Despite the lower costs of MSW co-incineration with mass ratio of 5% and 10% coal (? = 1.91), 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (? = 1.43) is far more advantageous in combustion and pollutant control. Conventional combustion flue gas loss (q2) for co-incineration with 0% coal, 20% coal, 10% coal, 5% coal are around 17%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, while that under the condition of 25% O2 oxy-enriched combustion is approximately 12% (? = 1.43). Clearly, q2 of oxy-enriched incineration is less than other methods under the same combustion conditions. High moisture content presents challenges for MSW incineration, therefore it is necessary to dry MSW prior to incineration, and making oxy-enriched incineration technology achieves higher combustion temperature and lower flue gas loss. In conclusion, based on technical and economical analysis, MSW oxy-enriched incineration retains obvious advantages and demonstrates great future prospects for MSW incineration in China. PMID:25680237

  7. Economic optimal nitrogen application rates for rice cropping in the Taihu Lake region of China: taking account of negative externalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Y.; Yan, X.

    2011-07-01

    Nitrogen application rates (NARs) is often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because only individual nitrogen (N) losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. Since N can permeate the ecosystem in numerous forms commencing from the acquisition of raw material, through manufacturing and use, to final losses in the farming process (e.g., N2O, NH3, NO3- leaching, etc.), the costs incurred also accumulate and should be taken into account if economically-optimal N rates (EONRs) are to be established. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and raw material exploitation processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.01 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 185 kg N ha-1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.

  8. Structure and geochronological constraints on the ductile deformation observed along the Gaoligong Shan and Chong Shan Shear Zones, Yunnan (China)

    E-print Network

    Akciz, Sinan Osman, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism by which the Cenozoic post-collisional northward motion of India relative to Eurasia and South China was accommodated along its eastern boundary is still a poorly understood aspect of the tectonic evolution ...

  9. Trade and Economic Implications of Low Level Presence and Asynchronous Authorizations of Agricultural Biotechnology Varieties: A Case Study in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jikun Huang; Jun Yang; WenQian Yang

    2012-01-01

    China has a biosafety regulatory framework in place for both domestic GM crop commercialization and imports. China imported about four times as many soybeans as it produced domestically in 2010 and is also expected to become a major importer of maize in the near future. Both China’s soybean and maize imports are dominated by GM varieties, with most soybean imported

  10. The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China.

    PubMed

    Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

    2006-11-30

    The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases. PMID:16876953

  11. A Study on the Rate of Contribution of Education Investment to the Economic Growth in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Bo-nai; Lai, Xiong-xiang

    2006-01-01

    There is an evident bi-directional causality relationship between education investment and economic growth based on an analysis of statistics from 1952 to 2003 released by the State Statistics Bureau. A generalized difference regression model is set up to investigate the relationship between the two. Studies show that the rate of contribution of…

  12. Economic Growth, Institutional Development and Personal Freedom: The Educational Needs of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    To sustain growth requires changes in the Chinese economy and society. The Asian financial crisis shows that independent institutions and individual freedoms are necessary to stimulate entrepreneurship and innovation. Conservative social values often promoted by the education and training system could hinder economic growth. (SK)

  13. Economic growth, institutional development and personal freedom: the educational needs of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Clarke

    1999-01-01

    The transformation of the Chinese economy is underway, and the process of reform has facilitated a sustained increase in economic growth. However, the state-owned enterprise sector is being left behind by the dynamism of the other sectors of the economy. To sustain growth it is likely that further changes are necessary in the Chinese economy and society. The lessons of

  14. Economic growth and the biological standard of living in China, 1880–1930

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen L. Morgan

    2004-01-01

    Recent scholarship has revised the once pessimistic view of the Chinese economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but controversy surrounds the distribution effects of economic growth. Did livelihoods improve? Who benefited from the growth? Which regions were better off? Past studies infer an improved standard of living based on sparse data for wages, the output of cotton

  15. The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Ahrens

    2010-01-01

    Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building

  16. The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Ahrens

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building

  17. Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…

  18. Using decision trees to predict benthic communities within and near the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Roland; Pehlke, Hendrik; Jerosch, Kerstin; Schröder, Winfried; Schlüter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article a concept is described in order to predict and map the occurrence of benthic communities within and near the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. The approach consists of two work steps: (1) geostatistical analysis of abiotic measurement data and (2) calculation of benthic provinces by means of Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and GIS-techniques. From bottom water measurements on salinity, temperature, silicate and nutrients as well as from punctual data on grain size ranges (0-20, 20-63, 63-2,000 mu) raster maps were calculated by use of geostatistical methods. At first the autocorrelation structure was examined and modelled with help of variogram analysis. The resulting variogram models were then used to calculate raster maps by applying ordinary kriging procedures. After intersecting these raster maps with punctual data on eight benthic communities a decision tree was derived to predict the occurrence of these communities within the study area. Since such a CART tree corresponds to a hierarchically ordered set of decision rules it was applied to the geostatistically estimated raster data to predict benthic habitats within and near the EEZ. PMID:17680336

  19. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  20. Age and nature of eclogites in the Huwan shear zone, and the multi-stage evolution of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuan-Bao; Hanchar, John M.; Gao, Shan; Sylvester, Paul J.; Tubrett, Mike; Qiu, Hua-Ning; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Yang, Sai-Hong; Yang, Qi-Jun; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Yuan, Hong-lin

    2009-01-01

    In situ LA-ICPMS U-Pb, trace element, and Hf isotope data in zircon demonstrate a Carboniferous age for eclogite-facies metamorphism in Siluro-Devonian protoliths in the Huwan shear zone, Dabie Mountains, Central China. This age contrasts with the more prevailing Triassic age for high- to ultrahigh pressure (HP to UHP) metamorphism in the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen. Metamorphic zircon in two eclogite samples from Sujiahe is characterized by low Th/U ratios, small negative Eu anomalies, flat HREE patterns, and low 176Lu/ 177Hf ratios. These geochemical signatures suggest that the zircon crystallized in the presence of garnet and in the absence of plagioclase feldspar. Furthermore, temperatures of ~ 655 and ~ 638 °C, calculated using the Ti content of zircon, are consistent with their formation during eclogite-facies metamorphism. The weighted mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 309 ± 4 Ma (2?) for this zircon improves previous age estimates for eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Huwan shear zone, ranging from 420 to 220 Ma. Metamorphic zircon from one eclogite sample from Hujiawan, most likely formed during prograde metamorphism, yields an equivalent age estimate of 312 ± 11 Ma. Magmatic zircon cores in the three samples yield ages for the magmatic protoliths of the eclogites ranging from 420 ± 7 to 406 ± 5 Ma, and post-dating the middle Paleozoic collision of the North China and the Qinling terrain. The zircon crystals in the three eclogite samples display a large variation of ? Hf (t) values of - 4.9 to 21.3. The metamorphic zircon overgrowths show the same range of ? Hf (t) values as those of the inherited magmatic crystal interiors. This suggests that the metamorphic zircon overgrowths may have formed by dissolution-reprecipitation of pre-existing magmatic zircon thereby preserving their original Hf isotopic composition. The high ? Hf (t) values suggest that the protoliths were derived from depleted mantle sources, most likely Paleotethyan oceanic crust; while the low ? Hf (t) values are attributed to crustal contamination. Some eclogites in the Huwan shear zone have a distinctive signature of continental crust most probably derived from the Yangtze Craton. The coexistence of Paleozoic oceanic crust and Neoproterozoic continental crust with similar metamorphic ages in the Huwan shear zone implies that Paleozoic Paleotethyan oceanic crust was produced within a marginal basin of the northern Yangtze Craton. The opening of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean was slightly younger than the collision of the North China Craton and the Qinling terrain during the Late Paleozoic in the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen. Subduction of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust and associated continental basement resulted in the 309 ± 2 Ma (2?) eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Huwan shear zone. The subsequent Triassic continent-continent collision led to the final coalescence of the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Amalgamation of the Yangtze and North China cratons was, therefore, a multistage process extending over at least 200 Ma.

  1. Impact of socio-economic factors on stroke prevalence among urban and rural residents in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Ah Tse, Lap; Yin, XiaoMei; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between better socioeconomic status (total household income, education or occupation) and stroke has been established in developed communities, but family size has generally not been considered in the use of socioeconomic status indices. We explored the utility of Family Average Income (FAI) as a single index of socioeconomic status to examine the association with stroke prevalence in a region of China, and we also compared its performance as a single index of socioeconomic status with that of education and occupation. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Nanjing municipality of China during the period between October 2000 and March 2001. A total of 45 administrative villages were randomly selected using a multi-stage sampling approach and all regular local residents aged 35 years or above were included. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used in analysis. Results The overall prevalence of diagnosed stroke was 1.54% in all 29,340 eligible participants. An elevated prevalence of stroke was associated with increasing levels of FAI. After adjustment for basic demographic variables (age, urban/rural area and gender) and a group of defined conventional risk factors, this gradient still remained significant, with participants in the highest (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.40, 2.70) and middle (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01, 2.02) categories of FAI having higher risks compared with the lowest category. A significantly elevated OR of stroke prevalence was found in white collar workers compared to blue collar workers, while no significant relationship was observed with education. Conclusion Our study consistently revealed that the prevalence of stroke was associated with increasing levels of all SES indices, including FAI, education, and occupation. However, a significant gradient was only observed with FAI after controlling for important confounding factors. The findings suggested that, compared with occupation and education, FAI could be used as a more sensitive index of socio-economic status for public health studies in China. PMID:18495014

  2. Mineralogy, geochronology and geochemistry of early Triassic blueschists in the Lancang metamorphic zone of Southwest China: fingerprints of the Paleotethyan subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Fan, W.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Jourdan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean and subsequent continental collision along the Lancang tectonic belt of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt is a major tectonic event for Southwest China, but the timing of the subduction and associated thermal structure preceding the final collision are still unknown. The mafic blueschists exposed in the Lancang accretionary complex provide the crucial records of the kinematics and thermal dynamics for the subduction zone. In this paper, we present a set of new mineralogical, geochronological and geochemical data for the Xuyi blueschists and report the presence of high-pressure Na-amphibole in the Lancang metamorphic zone. The mineral assemblage of these blueschists consists of zoned sodic amphibole (25-30 %), albite (15-20 %), epidote (25-30 %), phengite (5-10 %), chlorite (~5-10 %), and minor amounts of actinolite, apatite, sphere, zircon, ilmenite, quartz and secondary limonite. They display a progressive metamorphism from ~0.5 GPa to ~0.9 GPa and retrograde metamorphic overprinting (back to ~0.6 GPa) within the temperature range 300-450°C. The glaucophane and phengite developed during progressive metamorphism yielded the Ar-Ar ages of 246-251 Ma, and the glaucophane overprinted by retrograde metamorphism gave the Ar-Ar plateau ages of 233.2 ×3.1 Ma. The Xuyi blueschists yielded the zircon U-Pb age of 254 × 3 Ma, and are compositionally identical to the subalkaline basalt with typical OIB-type REE and multi-elemental patterns and ?Nd(t) values of +3.35 to +4.85. Based on all the available data, it is inferred that the protolith originated from the basaltic seamount with shallow-marine carbonate cap in the Paleotethyan Ocean till 254 Ma. The seamounts subducted eastward down to 30-35 km depths beneath the Lincang arc and became metamorphosed to form the epidote blueschists at ~246 -251 Ma. The blueschists were subsequently transported to shallower crustal levels in response to the continuous underthrust of the subducted slab and the continent-continent collision at ~230-240 Ma. These results provide the systematic constraint on the tectonic evolution and temporal framework of the southeastern Paleotethys belt in Southwest China. This study was jointly supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41190073, 41190070).

  3. Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern. Moreover, according to the spatial clustering index, the urban growth pattern predicted through MOP is more reasonable. In summary, the proposed model provides a set of Pareto urban growth solutions, which compromise environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed. PMID:24994100

  4. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  5. Microscale Characterization and Trace Element Distribution in Bacteriogenic Ferromanganese Coatings on Sand Grains from an Intertidal Zone of the East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linxi; Sun, Liguang; Fortin, Danielle; Wang, Yuhong; Yin, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 yr BP by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C was discovered in an intertidal zone of the East China Sea. Extensive and horizontally stratified sediments with black color on the top and yellowish-red at the bottom, and some nodule-cemented concretions with brown surface and black inclusions occurred in this intertidal zone. Microscale analysis methods were employed to study the microscale characterization and trace element distribution in the stratified sediments and concretions. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered electron imaging (BSE) revealed the presence of different coatings on the sand grains. The main mineral compositions of the coatings were ferrihydrite and goethite in the yellowish-red parts, and birnessite in the black parts using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). SEM observations showed that bacteriogenic products and bacterial remnants extensively occurred in the coatings, indicating that bacteria likely played an important role in the formation of ferromanganese coatings. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized middle rare earth element (MREE) enrichment patterns of the coatings indicated that they were caused by two sub-sequential processes: (1) preferentially release of Fe-Mn from the beach rocks by fermentation of ancient woods and colloidal flocculation in the mixing water zone and (2) preferential adsorption of MREE by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the seawater. The chemical results indicated that the coatings were enriched with Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, especially with respect to Co, Ni. The findings of the present study provide an insight in the microscale features of ferromanganese coatings and the Fe-Mn biogeochemical cycling during the degradation of buried organic matter in intertidal zones or shallow coasts. PMID:25786213

  6. Microscale characterization and trace element distribution in bacteriogenic ferromanganese coatings on sand grains from an intertidal zone of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linxi; Sun, Liguang; Fortin, Danielle; Wang, Yuhong; Yin, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 yr BP by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C was discovered in an intertidal zone of the East China Sea. Extensive and horizontally stratified sediments with black color on the top and yellowish-red at the bottom, and some nodule-cemented concretions with brown surface and black inclusions occurred in this intertidal zone. Microscale analysis methods were employed to study the microscale characterization and trace element distribution in the stratified sediments and concretions. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered electron imaging (BSE) revealed the presence of different coatings on the sand grains. The main mineral compositions of the coatings were ferrihydrite and goethite in the yellowish-red parts, and birnessite in the black parts using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). SEM observations showed that bacteriogenic products and bacterial remnants extensively occurred in the coatings, indicating that bacteria likely played an important role in the formation of ferromanganese coatings. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized middle rare earth element (MREE) enrichment patterns of the coatings indicated that they were caused by two sub-sequential processes: (1) preferentially release of Fe-Mn from the beach rocks by fermentation of ancient woods and colloidal flocculation in the mixing water zone and (2) preferential adsorption of MREE by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the seawater. The chemical results indicated that the coatings were enriched with Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, especially with respect to Co, Ni. The findings of the present study provide an insight in the microscale features of ferromanganese coatings and the Fe-Mn biogeochemical cycling during the degradation of buried organic matter in intertidal zones or shallow coasts. PMID:25786213

  7. The rapid economic and industrial growth of China, exemplified by a 10-fold increase in its gross domestic

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    . Desertification and diminishing water resources threaten future food security. In recent years, China's government pollution, environmental quality, and ecosystem health in China. The major issues, and results, and Ecosystem Health in China: Introduction to the Special Section Minghua Zhang* and Jianming Xu

  8. Receiver function images of the mantle transition zone beneath NE China: New constraints on intraplate volcanism, deep subduction and their potential link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Yongshun John; Grand, Steve; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ning, Jieyuan; Tanaka, Satoru; Obayashi, Masayuki; Ni, James

    2015-02-01

    In order to better understand the deep subduction geometry of the Pacific plate and genesis of intraplate volcanism in northeast China (NE China), we computed a total of 45,505 receiver functions from 788 teleseismic events recorded by 255 stations (NECESSArray temporal and permanent stations) in NE China. We used a common-conversion-point stacking (CCP) method to generate a 3D reflectivity volume beneath the study area. To position the P-to-S conversions to the correct depths, we employed 3D crustal and mantle models as references to make time to depth conversion. The 3D reflectivity volume was generated in an area between 115°-135°E and 40°-49°N, in the depth range of 300 to 800 km. We found significant topographic relief on the 660-km discontinuity across the study area. In particular, in a westward Pacific plate subduction section between 40°N and ?45.5°N, the 660-km discontinuity is depressed by as much as ?30-40 km along the western extension of the deep seismicity. The depression is elongated along the strike of the deep seismicity and is confined to a 200-300 km region in the E-W direction of subduction. To the west of this depression the 660-km discontinuity is uplifted by 5-10 km in a rectangular area of ?100 km by 200 km centered at about 125°E and 43°N. In the north, the 660-km discontinuity is moderately depressed (?20 km) in a broad area that extends further west. The high and low regions in the 660-km topographic map correlate, respectively, with low- and high-velocity anomalies in the P- and S-wave tomographic velocity images at the same depth. Our results suggest that slab stagnation might not be occurring in the southern part of the NE China, where the Changbaishan volcanic complex is located, thus the magmatism is unlikely caused by dehydration of the flat-lying Pacific slab in the transition zone. The low velocity mantle upwelling arising from a gap of stagnant slabs is a likely source that feeds the volcanic complex in NE China.

  9. Female streetwalkers' perspectives on migration and HIV/STI risks in a changing economic and social environment: a qualitative study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Jennifer; Hu, Dier; Chang, Ruth; Zaccaro, Heather; Iguchi, Martin; Zheng, Huang; He, Na

    2015-06-01

    China's 30-year economic boom has created a unique social and economic market for commercial sex, as well as for a workforce of migrant women from rural China. This qualitative study explores the impact of the rapidly changing social and economic environment on migration patterns, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), STI risk behaviours and health beliefs among female streetwalkers in Shanghai. Qualitative data were collected in 2010 through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 16 streetwalkers to characterise their migration passages, sexual health and behaviours, and peer networks. Many streetwalkers reported histories of childhood impoverishment, of family or partner violence or trauma, of migration consistent with the timeline and routes of economic development and of a scarcity in health, social or economic support. Their knowledge of the prevention and treatment of HIV and STIs was limited. They had little bargaining power on condom use and the majority resorted to vaginal douching and self-management with antibiotics as preventative measures. The study identifies streetwalkers' perspectives on the changing environment, their options and actions and, finally, HIV/STI risks that were unique to this hidden population. PMID:25587711

  10. Response of Vegetation and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Storage to Grazing Intensity in Semi-Arid Grasslands in the Agro-Pastoral Zone of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min-yun; Xie, Fan; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Overgrazing has been the primary cause of grassland degradation in the semi-arid grasslands of the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China. However, there has been little evidence regarding grazing intensity impacts on vegetation change and soil C and N dynamics in this region. This paper reports the effects of four grazing intensities namely un-grazed (UG), lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG) on vegetation characteristics and soil properties of grasslands in the Guyuan county in the agro-pastoral transition region, Hebei province, northern China. Our study showed that the vegetation height, canopy cover, plant species abundance and aboveground biomass decreased significantly with increased grazing intensity. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in the 0–50 cm were highest under UG (13.3 kg C m?2 and 1.69 kg N m?2) and lowest under HG (9.8 kg C m?2 and 1.22 kg N m?2). Soil available nitrogen (SAN) was significantly lower under HG (644 kg N hm?2) than under other treatments (725–731 kg N hm?2) in the 0–50 cm. Our results indicate that the pasture management of “take half-leave half” has potential benefits for primary production and livestock grazing in this region. However, grazing exclusion was perhaps the most effective choice for restoring degraded grasslands in this region. Therefore, flexible rangeland management should be adopted in this region. PMID:24819162

  11. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COASTAL WEB ATLAS (CWA) FOR THE INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT OF JIANGSU, CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. YAO; X. Zhang; F. Zheng; C. Zhu

    In Section 1, the background of the research is introduced. The Jiangsu Coastal Web Atlas is a project that has the ambitious goal of being a useful resource for the various audiences that make up the management constituency of the Jiangsu Coastal Zone. The project is a depot for traditional and digital information which can be used to inform decision-making

  12. Application of Short-Offset TEM (SOTEM) Technique in Mapping Water-Enriched Zones of Coal Stratum, an Example from East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-ying; Xue, G. Q.; Muhammad, Younis Khan; Gelius, L. J.; Zhou, Nan-nan; Li, Hai; Zhong, Hua-sen

    2015-06-01

    Water inrush from limestone coal beds is disastrous for coal mining. In general, it is very difficult to detect such water-enriched zones because of their relatively large burial depth. In this paper, we propose a novel transient electromagnetic method (TEM) configuration, short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM). Consistency of the results obtained from SOTEM measurements in the Shandong province, East China and drilling information indicate that the proposed TEM configuration not only improves the accuracy, but also enlarges the exploration depth for detecting water-enriched areas in coal mines ranging from 1,000 to 1,200 m depth. In this region, a majority of the deep coal beds are filled with water. The SOTEM technique was successfully employed in detecting the floor of a coal seam at a depth of about 1,500 m, as well as in identifying the location of the water-saturated area. These findings were later confirmed by subsequent drillings. Thus, our study indicates that SOTEM represents a convenient and effective technique for deep mineral and hydrogeological investigations due to its high sensitivity to conductive zones (water enriched areas) and vertical resolution.

  13. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

    2014-02-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which was appropriate for small-scale lakes and was not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for a lake. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was adopted to determine the number of zones for a lake based on the analysis of hydrological, water quality and ecological data. MIKE21 model was used to construct two-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model which can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE21. The Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model was promising to predict the spatial variation trends of ecological condition in response to the changes of water quantity and water quality for lakes, and could provide a great convenience for lake management.

  14. Crustal Structure and Fracture Zone in the Central Sea Basin of the South China Sea from Wide Angle Seismic Experiments Using OBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Aiguo; Wei, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    We present two E-W trending wide-angle seismic profiles (OBS2013-ZN, OBS2014-ZN), which cross the boundary (Zhongnan fault) between the east sub-basin and the southwest sub-basin of the South China Sea (SCS). We processed the data and used 2D ray-tracing to determine the oceanic crust thickness, velocity structures and Moho depth variations related to faults. The simulated velocity models show that the sea basin of the SCS has a typical oceanic crust covered by a 1~2 km thick sediment layer with a velocity of 2~3.5 km/s. The crust has a thickness of 5~8 km, of which the oceanic layer 2 is 1.8~3 km thick, with velocity increasing downward from 4.3 km/s to 6.4 km/s, and the oceanic layer 3 is 3~5 km thick, with velocity increasing downward from 6.4 km/s~7.0 km/s. The sea basin Moho depth is approximately 10 km. The Moho discontinuity has an obvious upheaval zone with a low velocity of 7.6 km/s, which corresponds to the low velocity zone in oceanic layer 2. We constructed an arc-shaped fracture zone (40-50 km wide) by connecting the upheaval portions of the Moho in the two profiles based on seabed relief and sea mounts distribution and suggest that it is the trace of the break-up of the Macclesfield and Reed Banks caused by the triangular opening system of the southwest sub-basin. We suggest that the faults or fracture zones in the oceanic basin of the SCS were formed in segmentation with varied directions controlled by varied stress fields during the multi-episode evolution of the SCS. The seafloor spreading abrupt direction change around 116°E maybe is because of lithosphere heterogeneity caused by early episode seafloor spreading in the east sub-basin or caused by the arc-shaped fracture zone, which results in different local stress filed.

  15. Mental health, duration of unemployment, and coping strategy: a cross-sectional study of unemployed migrant workers in eastern china during the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. Results The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. Conclusions The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers. PMID:22856556

  16. Pb isotope geochemistry of lead, zinc, gold and silver deposit clustered region, Liaodong rift zone, northeastern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangfeng Chen; Gang Yu; Chunji Xue; Hui Qian; Jianfeng He; Zhi Xing; Xun Zhang

    2005-01-01

    33 Pb isotopic analyses were reported for sulfide and hydrothermal carbonate minerals and marble of the Xiquegou lead-zinc,\\u000a the Zhenzigou zinc-lead and the Gaojiapuzi silver deposits from the Qingchengzi ore field and the Beiwagou zinc-lead deposit\\u000a in the west, Proterozoic Liaodong rift zone. Pb isotopic ratios of the marble from the Qingchengzi ore field range from 18.24\\u000a to 30.63 for

  17. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponin

  18. Using CropSyst to Simulate Spring Wheat Growth in Black Soil Zone of Northeast China 1 1 Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40401003), the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KZCX3SW356), and the Key Laboratory of Ecological Restoration and Ecosystem Management of Jilin Province (No. DS2004–03)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zong-Ming WANG; Bai ZHANG; Xiao-Yan LI; Kai-Shan SONG; Dian-Wei LIU; Shu-Qing ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Available water and fertilizer have been the main limiting factors for yields of spring wheat, which occupies a large area of the black soil zone in northeast China; thus, the need to set up appropriate models for scenario analysis of cropping system models has been increasing. The capability of CropSyst, a cropping system simulation model, to simulate spring wheat growth

  19. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). These regulations amend the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

  20. 76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). If approved...would amend the Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program by...

  1. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). Amendment 30 amends the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

  2. Analyzing the non-stationary space relationship of a city's degree of vegetation and social economic conditions in Shanghai, China using OLS and GWR models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kejing; Zhang, Yuan; An, Youzhi; Jing, Zhuoxin; Wang, Chao

    2013-09-01

    With the fast urbanization process, how does the vegetation environment change in one of the most economically developed metropolis, Shanghai in East China? To answer this question, there is a pressing demand to explore the non-stationary relationship between socio-economic conditions and vegetation across Shanghai. In this study, environmental data on vegetation cover, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery in 2003 were integrated with socio-economic data to reflect the city's vegetative conditions at the census block group level. To explore regional variations in the relationship of vegetation and socio-economic conditions, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were applied to characterize mean NDVI against three independent socio-economic variables, an urban land use ratio, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population density. The study results show that a considerable distinctive spatial variation exists in the relationship for each model. The GWR model has superior effects and higher precision than the OLS model at the census block group scale. So, it is more suitable to account for local effects and geographical variations. This study also indicates that unreasonable excessive urbanization, together with non-sustainable economic development, has a negative influence of vegetation vigor for some neighborhoods in Shanghai.

  3. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious. PMID:25898664

  4. Risk factors associated with slide positivity among febrile patients in a conflict zone of north-eastern Myanmar along the China-Myanmar border

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region is extremely heterogeneous. While China and Thailand have been relatively successful in controlling malaria, Myanmar continues to see high prevalence. Coupled with the recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border, this makes Myanmar an important focus of malaria within the overall region. However, accurate epidemiological data from Myanmar have been lacking, in part because of ongoing and emerging conflicts between the government and various ethnic groups. Here the results are reported from a risk analysis of malaria slide positivity in a conflict zone along the China-Myanmar border. Methods Surveys were conducted in 13 clinics and hospitals around Laiza City, Myanmar between April 2011 and October 2012. Demographic, occupational and educational information, as well as malaria infection history, were collected. Logistic models were used to assess risk factors for slide positivity. Results Age patterns in Plasmodium vivax infections were younger than those with Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to have falciparum infections. Patients who reported having been infected with malaria during the previous year were much more likely to have a current vivax infection. During the second year of the study, falciparum infections among soldiers increased signficiantly. Conclusions These results fill some knowledge gaps with regard to risk factors associated with malaria slide positivity in this conflict region of north-eastern Myanmar. Since epidemiological studies in this region have been rare or non-existent, studies such as the current are crucial for understanding the dynamic nature of malaria in this extremely heterogeneous epidemiological landscape. PMID:24112638

  5. Changes in college attainment and the economic returns to a college degree in urban China, 2003-2010: implications for social equality.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anning; Hibel, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    Expansion of higher education is expected to reduce social inequality under the conditions that (1) higher education should become increasingly egalitarian; (2) educational attainment should be the main determinant of class destinations; and (3) individuals from different social backgrounds should benefit from higher education homogeneously. Using representative data collected in mainland China from 2003 to 2010, we find (1) social background factors, especially parents' education, are significantly associated with the opportunity of completing college across periods; (2) the economic returns to a college degree have been longitudinally increasing; and (3) for both 2003 and 2010, people from different social origins benefit from higher education attainment in a homogeneous way. An overall assessment of the findings suggests that changes in college attainment and the returns to higher education in urban China are not in favor of the promotion of general social equality, but maintain the existing extent of inequality. PMID:24468442

  6. The outlook for the discovery of new types of economic uranium deposits in the Kodar-Udokan zone of the Transbaikal territory in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar'ev, L. B.; Mironov, Yu. B.; Voyakovsky, S. K.

    2010-10-01

    On the basis of detailed fieldwork and analytical procedures (microprobe, X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, etc.), ores and altered wall-rock rocks of the Khadatkanda and Etyrko deposits in the Kodar-Udokan mineragenic zone were studied. Economic concentrations of gold and some other accompanying metals have been established in ore of the Khadatkanda uranium deposit in the Syul’ban uranium district. REE-U lodes with brannerite-uraninite have been found at the Etyrko Fe-Ti-V deposit related to the Chinei layered pluton in the Udokan mining district. The outlook for the discovery of new types of economic uranium deposits is substantiated with respect to the known hydrothermal uranium ore objects and nontraditional setting related to the layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions.

  7. Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

    2013-08-01

    Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

  8. U Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: Implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction-zone UHP metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Yang, J. S.; Wooden, J. L.; Liou, J. G.; Li, T. F.

    2005-09-01

    We studied the Zhimafang ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) peridotite from pre-pilot drill hole PP-1 of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. The peridotite occurs as lens within quartofeldspathic gneiss, and has an assemblage of Ol + Opx + Cpx + Phl + Ti-clinohumite (Ti-Chu) + Grt (or chromite) ± magnesite (Mgs). Zircons were separated from cores at depths of 152 m (C24, garnet lhezolite), 160 m (C27, strongly retrograded phlogopite-rich peridotite) and 225 m (C50, banded peridotite), and were dated by SHRIMP mass spectrometer. Isometric zircons without inherited cores contain inclusions of olivine (Fo 91-92), enstatite (En 91-92), Ti-clinohumite, diopside, phlogopite and apatite. The enstatite inclusions have low Al 2O 3 contents of only 0.04-0.13 wt.%, indicating a UHP metamorphic origin. The weighted mean 206Pb / 238U zircon age for garnet lherzolite (C24) is 221 ± 3 Ma, and a discordia lower intercept age for peridotite (C50) is 220 ± 2 Ma. These ages are within error and represent the time of subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. A younger lower intercept age of 212 ± 3 Ma for a foliated wehrlite (C27) was probably caused by Pb loss during retrograde metamorphism. The source of zirconium may be partially attributed to melt/fluid metasomatism within the mantle wedge. Geochronological and geochemical data confirm that the mantle-derived Zhimafang garnet peridotites (probably the most representative type of Sulu garnet peridotites) were tectonically inserted into a subducting crustal slab and subjected to in situ Triassic subduction-zone UHP metamorphism.

  9. Aging in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.; Streib, Gordon F.

    This document consists of facts and impressions gathered during 1984, in the course of an 18-day visit to the Peoples Republic of China by a team of epidemiologists and gerontologists from the United States. The major portion of the paper presents demographic, economic, and social perspectives on aging in China. It is noted that China remains a…

  10. Study on disparity of regional economic development based on geoinformatic Tupu and GWR model: a case of growth of GDP per capita in China from 1999 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feixue; Li, Manchun; Liang, Jian

    2007-06-01

    Regional disparity of economic development in China is always greatly concerned by investigators domestic and abroad, and sets of models have been used in the analysis. Spatial dependence, which is hidden in the data with spatial attributes, usually is not taken into account in classical statistics methods, such as ordinary linear regression(OLR) model. Along with the development of spatial statistics, more and more attentions are paid on spatial interactions between observations in the study of regional disparity. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) is a simple but effective model to recognize spatial variation and local difference, which considers the influence of the spatially non-stationarity of the variables. In this study, GWR model and Geo-Informatic Tupu were used to analyze the disparity of regional economic development in China, taking GDP per capita in 1999 and 2003 as a case, which is usually used to measure level of economic development. GDP per capita in the 338 cities in 1999 were selected to simulate GDP per capita in 2003 and to analysis non-stationarity of the growth of GDP per capita. Using Geo-Informatic Tupu, A series of maps were processed to display patterns of local parameter estimates, such as local r-squares, the residual sum of squares, local residual and so on, to gain a better understanding of the degree of spatial non-stationarity in a relationship over space. We tested for geographic heterogeneity in the parameters and compare them to estimates obtained from global regression approaches. The results suggested there was heterogeneity in the regression coefficients across broad regions of China, and a one-size fits all approach to describe growth processes appeared simplistic. The GWR model improved over the OLR model, and it was able to better explain the variation in the data and to simulate GDP per capita with smaller errors than the OLR models.

  11. Distribution of Cu and Pb in particle size fractions of urban soils from different city zones of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-Hua; Li, Lian-Qing; Wu, Xin-Min; Pan, Gen-Xing

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples from 4 defined city zones of Nanjing were randomly collected at 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm intervals and size fractions of soil particles were separated from undisturbed bulk soils by low energy dispersion procedure. The total contents of Cu and Pb in the different particle size fractions of the urban soils were analyzed by HNO3-HF-HClO4 digestion and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer determination. The total content of Cu and Pb in soil particle size fractions varied with their size and with city zones as well. Both the content and variation with the size fractions of Pb was bigger than of Cu supporting our previous finding that there was Pb pollution to different degrees in the urban soils although the two elements were generally enriched in clay-sized fraction. Contaminated Pb tended to be preferentially enriched in the size fraction of 2000-250 microm and clay-sized fraction. While the size fractions of the soils from newly developed and preserved area contained smaller amount of Cu and Pb, the partitioning of them in coarse and fine particle size fractions were insignificant compared to that from inner residence and commercial area. The very high Pb level over 150 mg/kg of the fine particle fractions from the soils of the inner city could be a cause of high blood Pb level reported of children from the city as acute exposure to Pb of fine particles of the urban soil might occur by soil ingestion and inhalation by young children. Thus, much attention should be paid to the partitioning of toxic metals in fine soil particles of the urban soils and countermeasures against high health risk of Pb exposure by soil ingestion and dust inhalation should be practiced against the health problem of blood Pb for young children from the cities. PMID:17294644

  12. Nitrate pollution from agriculture in different hydrogeological zones of the regional groundwater flow system in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Sakura, Yasuo; Yu, Jingjie; Fukushima, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    A survey of the quality of groundwater across a broad area of the North China Plain, undertaken in 1998 to 2000, indicates that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting the drinking water for a vast population. The use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer in agriculture has greatly increased over the past 20 years to meet the food needs of the rapidly expanding population. During the study, 295 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine the water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. High concentrations of nitrate, especially in a recharge area along the western side, but also in the vicinity of Beijing and locally in other parts of the plain, pose a serious problem for the drinking water supply. In places, the nitrate concentration exceeds the maximum for safe drinking water of 45 mg/L. The intense use of N-fertilizer and the widespread use of untreated groundwater for crop irrigation contribute greatly to the problem, but no doubt the disposal of industrial and municipal waste into streams and infiltrating the aquifer also contribute to the problem; however, the lack of data prevents evaluation of those sources. In the recharge area, nitrate is found at depths of as much as 50 m. Near Beijing, relatively high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of as much as 80 m. In the discharge area, in the vicinity of the Yellow River, high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of <8 m.

  13. Spatial Variation in the Storages and Age-Related Dynamics of Forest Carbon Sequestration in Different Climate Zones—Evidence from Black Locust Plantations on the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China’s Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001). The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha?1 (1 Mg = 106 g) in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha?1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha?1 to 28.4 Mg C ha?1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration. PMID:25799100

  14. Advancing analysis of spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using self-organizing map.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Yang, Yuyi; Shu, Xiao; Zhang, Jiaquan; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-01-01

    The ~350 km2 water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China, situated at the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, experiences a great hydrological change with prolonged winter inundation. Soil samples were collected in 12 sites pre- (September 2008) and post submergence (June 2009) in the WLFZ and analyzed for soil nutrients. Self-organizing map (SOM) and statistical analysis including multi-way ANOVA, paired-T test, and stepwise least squares multiple regression were employed to determine the spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients in relation to submergence, and their correlations with soil physical characteristics. Results showed significant spatial variability in nutrients along ~600 km long shoreline of the TGR before and after submergence. There were higher contents of organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), and nitrate (NO3-) in the lower reach and total phosphorus (TP) in the upper reach that were primarily due to the spatial variations in soil particle size composition and anthropogenic activities. Submergence enhanced soil available potassium (K), while significantly decreased soil N, possibly due to the alterations of soil particle size composition and increase in soil pH. In addition, SOM analysis determined important roles of soil pH value, bulk density, soil particle size (i.e., silt and sand) and nutrients (TP, TK, and AK) on the spatial and temporal variations in soil quality. Our results suggest that urban sewage and agricultural runoffs are primary pollutants that affect soil nutrients in the WLFZ of TGR. PMID:25789612

  15. Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin American Economic Development Kevin P-author of the new book, The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, Stanford University Press. The author would like to thank Elen Shrethsa for research as- sistance #12;Taking the China

  16. Seismic reflection imaging of a paleo-strike-slip zone: Permain-Jurassic structures and implications for the evolution of the NW Junggar Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Wang, X.; Wang, R.

    2013-12-01

    The recognition of inactive paleo-strike-slip faults can be difficult, especially when their fault-related structures have been buried by several kilometers of sediments. However, the subsurface seismic data are able to identify the characteristics of the structures in these areas. In this study, we focus on the geometry and evolution of the strike-slip fault zones in the Northwest Junggar Basin, by using both 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data. Based on the results of our analysis, we characterized the Dalabute and Hong-Che Domains, whose structures are both fitting for the Riedel shear model. In the Dalabute domain, the observed structures are mainly composed of en echelon folds and main P and R faults with other secondary reverse faults, while the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ) is oriented to Northeast-Southwest. However, the structures in Hong-Che domain are characterized by main strike-slip faults with a narrow deformation zone along the straight fault traces, and compressional faults and folds within their restraining bends. As well, the orientation of the PDZ changes to North-South. Meanwhile, the extensional structures observed in both Dalabute and Hong-Che domains suggest the regional extension in the Early to Middle Permian. The growth strata associated with en echelon folds indicates the onset of strike-slip fault in Dalabute domain is Late Permian, whereas a few data show the onset of strike-slip fault in Hong-Che region is no later than Middle Triassic. The deformation in Northwest Junggar baisn lasted untill Late Jurassic. The Dalabute domain reactived and inversed to sinitral strike-slip during the Cenzoic time, whereas the Hong-Che domain was almost inactive then. We proposed that the observed Dalabute and Hong-che dextral strike-slip system might be a part of sinistral shear system in the Altaid orogenic collage in central Asia during the Late Permian to Jurassic time, which also helps to better understand the evolution of the NW Junggar Basin, NW China.

  17. Research on the Innovative Service Platform of Agricultural Economic Development - A Case Study on New Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Development Model of Yunnan Province in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingmei Gong; Youjin Gu; Yougang Wang

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations (ACEO) is an important service platform to promote the industrialization of agriculture, increase farmers' income, and solve the \\

  18. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...Council (Council). The CIE review will examine the scientific methods and practices employed by NMFS in the design and administration...recommendations for methodological improvements to achieve best scientific practices in economic data collection and...

  19. 76 FR 5556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ...Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal...threshold for eligibility because the inclusion of share holders with less economic...

  20. Sustainable Growth for China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew H. Chen; Jennifer Warren

    2011-01-01

    The world's economic system and ecosystem have everything to gain by teasing apart the issues related to infrastructure and climate change in China. If China is to sustain its economic growth and improve its living standards over the next several decades, huge sums of capital will be needed to finance green infrastructure in energy and water. While cooperative approaches between

  1. Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

    1993-01-01

    China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

  2. 75 FR 69598 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2010 Pacific ocean perch total...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  3. 75 FR 70614 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  4. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National...Pacific cod by catcher Pacific cod by catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  5. 77 FR 10400 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  6. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  7. 77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  8. 77 FR 39440 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  9. 76 FR 70665 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  10. 75 FR 15626 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  11. 76 FR 13098 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  12. 75 FR 8840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  13. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  14. 78 FR 9328 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2013 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  15. 78 FR 5144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...apportionment of the 2013 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  16. 76 FR 17569 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  17. 78 FR 73110 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  18. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by American...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  19. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by American...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  20. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  1. 75 FR 68726 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  2. 75 FR 28502 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  3. 76 FR 18663 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  4. 76 FR 24404 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...allowable catch of Pacific cod allocated to...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  5. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  6. 77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by American...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  7. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  8. 77 FR 55735 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...allowable catch of Pacific cod allocated to...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  9. 75 FR 69599 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2010 Pacific ocean perch total...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  10. 77 FR 13013 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  11. 75 FR 5251 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...allowance of the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  12. 77 FR 65838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  13. 78 FR 53369 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...allowable catch of Pacific cod allocated to...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  14. 75 FR 12463 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  15. 77 FR 3157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...apportionment of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  16. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by American...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  17. 75 FR 72735 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  18. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  19. 76 FR 4552 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by pot catcher...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  20. 75 FR 16359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  1. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  2. 75 FR 3874 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Participating in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Participating...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...exceeding the 2010 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  3. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  4. 75 FR 69361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch in the...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  5. 76 FR 4081 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...allowance of the 2011 Pacific cod total allowable...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  6. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National...Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for...Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  7. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). This proposed...would amend the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

  8. 76 FR 11139 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011 and 2012 Harvest Specifications...fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action...to the BSAI Atka mackerel and Aleutian Islands subarea Pacific cod fisheries to...

  9. 75 FR 76372 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed 2011 and 2012 Harvest Specifications...fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area. This action...Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area. The intended...

  10. 78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY...Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI FMP), and amend...Area 4B) and the sablefish Aleutian Islands regulatory area that is similar to...

  11. 78 FR 6279 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY...Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). If approved...regulations will amend the Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

  12. 77 FR 10669 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2012 and 2013 Harvest Specifications...fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action...the Bering Sea subarea and the Aleutian Island subarea. This split depends on NMFS...

  13. 78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY...Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI FMP) for review...Program for sablefish in the Aleutian Islands regulatory area. The proposed CQE...

  14. 77 FR 61300 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...projected unused amount of the 2012 Atka mackerel incidental catch allowance (ICA) for...the 2012 total allowable catch of Atka mackerel to be fully harvested. DATES:...

  15. 78 FR 63899 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  16. 75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  17. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2013-0032 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  18. 76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  19. 78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  20. 76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  1. 75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  2. 75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  3. 75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  4. 77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  5. 77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  6. 76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  7. 77 FR 65330 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  8. 77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  9. 76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  10. 78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  11. 75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  12. 77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

  13. Characterization of the bacterial community composition in a hypoxic zone induced by Microcystis blooms in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Huabing; Xing, Peng; Wu, Qinglong L

    2012-03-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have become more frequent as a result of eutrophication in lakes. The accumulation and breakdown of huge cyanobacterial biomasses often cause hypoxia in lakes. However, little is known about microbial diversity in these areas. In this study, we characterized the bacterial community composition of a Microcystis-bloom-induced hypoxic area in Lake Taihu, which is a large, shallow lake, by analysing terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S ribosomal RNA genes and clone libraries generated from selected samples. Bacterial samples were collected at different sites within the hypoxic zone at different times during the development of hypoxia. The results showed that the composition of both free-living and particle-attached bacterial communities in the water column varied spatially and temporally and that these variations were largely related to changes in the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and ions in the water column. Sequences affiliated with Clostridium were predominantly found at the onset of hypoxia, whereas members of the LD12 cluster were detected at the posthypoxia stage; Desulfovibrio and Comamonadaceae dominated throughout the hypoxic event. We speculate that these organisms may be associated with the decomposition of Microcystis biomass and the production of volatile organic compounds; however, their specific function in Microcystis-bloom-induced hypoxia warrants further study. PMID:22126440

  14. Water and Vapor Transfer in Vadose Zone of Gobi Desert and Riparian in the Hyper Arid Environment of Ejina, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, C.; Yu, J.; Wang, P.

    2014-12-01

    To reveal how water and vapor transfer in vadose zone affect evapotranspiration in Gobi desert and riparian in hyper arid region is important for understanding eco-hydrological process. Field studies and numerical simulations were imported to evaluate the water and vapor movement processes under non isothermal and lower water content conditions. The soil profiles (12 layers) in Gobi desert and riparian sites of Ejina were installed with sensors to monitor soil moisture and temperature for 1 year. The meteorological conditions and water table were measured by micro weather stations and mini-Divers respectively in the two sites. Soil properties, including particles composition, moisture, bulk density, water retention curve, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of two site soil profiles, was measured. The observations showed that soil temperatures for the two sites displayed large diurnal and seasonal fluctuations. Temperature gradients with depth resulted in a downward in summer and upward in winter and became driving force for thermal vapor movement. Soil moistures in Gobi desert site were very low and varied slowly with time. While the soil moistures in riparian site were complicated due to root distribution but water potentials remained uniform with time. The hydrus-1D was employed to simulate evapotranspiration processes. The simulation results showed the significant difference of evaporation rate in the Gobi desert and riparian sites.

  15. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

  16. The arsenic contamination of rice in Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China: arsenic speciation and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Lu, Shaoyou; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuyi

    2015-04-01

    Rice is a staple food in China, but it may contain toxic heavy metals. Hence, the concentrations of arsenic (As) species (As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA) were evaluated in 260 rice samples from 13 cities of Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China. The levels of sum concentrations of As species in rice samples varied from non-detect to 225.58 ng g(-1), with an average value of 57.27 ng g(-1). The mean concentrations of the major As species detected in rice samples were in the order As(III) (34.77 ng g(-1)) > As(V) (9.34 ng g(-1)) > DMA (8.33 ng g(-1)) > MMA (4.82 ng g(-1)). The rice samples of Guangdong Province were categorized as inorganic As type. Significant geographical variation of As speciation existed in rice samples of 13 cities of Guangdong Province by chi-square test (p < 0.05). The average human weekly intakes of inorganic As via rice consumption in Guangdong Province, southern China, were 1.91 µg kg(-1) body weight. Hazard quotients of total As via rice consumption of adults in 13 cities ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, indicating the As contents in rice from Guangdong Province had no potential adverse impact on human health. PMID:25287102

  17. Extreme Climatic Events Modelling and Economic Impacts Under Different Climate Change Scenarios: a Risk Management Application to the Rural Sector in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, E.; Ghil, M.

    2013-05-01

    An increasing body of literature has shown the increase of frequency of occurrence of extreme weather events such as heat waves or heavy precipitation events across the world. Several economic systems and networks present high levels of vulnerability to weather variability and extreme weather events. This research proposes a methodological framework to characterize the cascading climate-to-economy risk profiles of economic systems to weather variability in different global warming scenarios. A weather-index and machine learning-based approach is introduced to encode and characterize the studied systems vulnerability to weather variability. The latter is enclosed in a "weather-within-climate" stochastic downscaling approach in order to characterize the interaction of low and high frequency climate variability and project risk profiles into future climate scenarios. The probabilistic weather-driven physical loss risk profiles are finally used to model supply shock-driven economic direct and indirect economic losses in the studied region or country. Given the acute vulnerability of the rural population to weather variability and global warming, this probabilistic risk assessment-based methodology is applied to the study the risk profile of weather-driven loss in the rural sector in a developing country, China. Province-level weather-to-economy risk profiles results of weather-driven staple crops loss under different technological and climate scenarios are presented. Implications for the design of risk management policy mixes are finally discussed.

  18. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. PMID:20702024

  19. Coal-derived methanol for hydrogen vehicles in China: Energy, environment, and economic analysis for distributed reforming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Li; Dan Gao; Le Chang; Pei Liu; Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered an ideal energy carrier, but the storage and efficient delivery of hydrogen to vehicles still remain a challenging problem currently. This study analyzes the possibilities of using methanol as a hydrogen carrier in China, based on the distributed methanol reforming technology at forecourt refueling stations. A detailed well-to-tank life cycle analysis was applied to the hydrogen production

  20. Ecological and SocioEconomic Benefits of Investment in an Environmental Restoration and Agricultural Management Program in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Liu; Puling Liu; Qiong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    On the Loess Plateau of China, the local people have been struggling on low incomes to guarantee their food security, and contend with some of the most serious soil erosion problems in the world. This paper discusses the application, over ten years, of an ecosystem recovery plan, introduced in the Yan'gou watershed in 1998, including large scale construction and re-vegetation

  1. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

  2. Social, economic, political and health system and program determinants of child mortality reduction in China between 1990 and 2006: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xing Lin; Theodoratou, Evropi; Liu, Li; Chan, Kit Yee; Hipgrave, David; Scherpbier, Robert; Brixi, Hana; Guo, Sufang; Chunmei, Wen; Chopra, Mickey; Black, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Guo, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Between 1990 and 2006, China reduced its under-five mortality rate (U5MR) from 64.6 to 20.6 per 1000 live births and achieved the fourth United Nation’s Millennium Development Goal nine years ahead of target. This study explores the contribution of social, economic and political determinants, health system and policy determinants, and health programmes and interventions to this success. Methods For each of the years between 1990 and 2006, we obtained an estimate of U5MR for 30 Chinese provinces from the annual China Health Statistics Yearbook. For each year, we also obtained data describing the status of 8 social, 10 economic, 2 political, 9 health system and policy, and six health programmes and intervention indicators for each province. These government data are not of the same quality as some other health information sources in modern China, such as articles with primary research data available in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wan Fang databases, or Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance system. Still, the comparison of relative changes in underlying indicators with the undisputed strong general trend of childhood mortality reduction over 17 years should still capture the main effects at the macro-level. We used multivariate random effect regression models to determine the effect of 35 indicators individually and 5 constructs defined by factor analysis (reflecting effects of social, economic, political, health systems and policy, and health programmes) on the reduction of U5MR in China. Results In the univariate regression applied with a one-year time lag, social determinants of health construct showed the strongest crude association with U5MR reduction (R2?=?0.74), followed by the constructs for health programmes and interventions (R2?=?0.65), economic (R2?=?0.47), political (R2?=?0.28) and health system and policy determinants (R2?=?0.26), respectively. Similarly, when multivariate regression was applied with a one-year time lag, the social determinants construct showed the strongest effect (beta?=?11.79, P?economic growth alone may all fail to achieve the desired reduction in child mortality when improvement of the key social determinants of health is lagging behind. To accelerate progress toward MDG4, low- and middle-income countries should undertake appropriate efforts to promote maternal education, reduce fertility rates, integrate minority populations and improve access to clean water and safe sanitation. A cross-sectoral approach seems most likely to have the greatest impact on U5MR. PMID:23198134

  3. Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel F. Law

    2008-01-01

    Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

  4. International Symposium on Hydrogeology and the Environment, Wuhan, China, Oct. 17 20, 2000 A confined groundwater zone in weathered igneous rocks and its impact

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    A confined groundwater zone in weathered igneous rocks and its impact on slope stability Jiu Jimmy Jiao in igneous rock saprolites are a serious natural hazard in Hong Kong and have been extensively studied groundwater zone may exist in the weathered igneous rock profile due to a highly fractured zone. In Hong Kong

  5. China's Japonica Rice Market: Growth and Competitiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Frank Fuller; Frederick Gale; Frederick Crook; Eric Wailes; Michelle Moore

    2002-01-01

    China's rice economy is among the world's most diverse with respect to both the number of varieties grown and the different climatic conditions under which rice is produced. China has six agro-climatic zones for producing rice, ranging from the warm and humid tropics in the south, to the cooler subtropics of central China, and to northern China with its much

  6. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions. PMID:25023984

  7. Imaging the migration of seismicity along the Zongwulongshan thrust fault zone in Qinghai, China from 2003 to 2009 using spaceborne radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, W.; Li, Z.; Hoey, T.; Xu, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Three MW ~6.3 earthquakes followed by a series of large aftershocks occurred on the north margin of Qaidam Basin in Qinghai, China during the period from 2003 to 2009. All the observed events were located within a 150-km-long and 50-km-wide zone along the Zongwulongshan thrust fault. In this study, over 400 unwrapped interferograms covering the entire earthquake areas from 5 ENVISAT ASAR tracks were generated by using the JPL/Caltech ROI_PAC software. We attempted to retrieve surface displacements in different phases (coseismic and postseismic) , rather than to obtain a simple mean velocity. A novel iterative time series (TS) analysis method was used to separate surface displacements from various sources of errors (e.g. orbital ramps, DEM errors and atmospheric delays (APS)) by fully utilizing the datapoints from overlapping regions. Combining a network strategy, a wavelet-based algorithm was employed to estimate topography-related APS. Five independent coseismic interferograms resulting from 6 different events were generated, of which one displacement map resulted from the 28th Aug 2009 MW 6.3 earthquake and its latest largest aftershock 3 days after the mainshock together. Significant postseismic displacements following all the three mainshocks were observed even during the period from Nov 2008 to Aug 2009. In the first three months after the Nov 2008 mainshock, a maximum accumulative displacement of ~ 3 cm was detected. From then until the 2009 mainshock, no clear surface displacement was found. Using geodetic modeling, the fault parameters of three mainshocks were determined, which are consistent with seismic solutions. The principal thrust slips characterized the Qilianshan-nanshan compressional belt caused by the collision of India to Eurasian plates. However, the oblique slip mechanisms of another three large aftershocks were not consistent with their mainshocks, suggesting that the main shocks had possibly changed the stress state in the vicinity of the hypocentres. A simple numerical experiment indicated that the westward migration of seismicity along the Zongwulongshan fault from 2003 to 2009 was likely controlled by a large creep along the Altyn Tagh fault. Tectonic settings and coseismic interferograms associated with three Mw6.3 Earthquakes and their large aftershocks during the period of 2003-2009. The gray lines indicate the distribtuion of active faults in the study area. The broken polygon suggests the spatial location of the sub-figure which suggests the coseismic surface changes resulting from the 2003 Mw6.3 Delingha Earthquake.

  8. Fluid inclusion, rare earth element geochemistry, and isotopic characteristics of the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic Ore district, northwestern Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Caixia; Bi, Xianwu; Liu, Shen; Hu, Ruizhong

    2014-05-01

    The Baiyangping Cu-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the northern part of the Lanping-Simao foreland fold belt, which lies between the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan and Lancangjiang faults in western Yunnan Province, China. The source of ore-forming fluids and materials within the eastern ore zone were investigated using fluid inclusion, rare earth element (REE), and isotopic (C, O, and S) analyses undertaken on sulfides, gangue minerals, wall rocks, and ores formed during the hydrothermal stage of mineralization. These analyses indicate: (1) The presence of five types of fluid inclusion, which contain various combinations of liquid (l) and vapor (v) phases at room temperature: (a) H2O (l), (b) H2O (l) + H2O (v), (c) H2O (v), (d) CmHn (v), and (e) H2O (l) + CO2 (l), sometimes with CO2 (v). These inclusions have salinities of 1.4-19.9 wt.% NaCl equivalents, with two modes at approximately 5-10 and 16-21 wt.% NaCl equivalent, and homogenization temperatures between 101 °C and 295 °C. Five components were identified in fluid inclusions using Raman microspectrometry: H2O, dolomite, calcite, CH4, and N2. (2) Calcite, dolomitized limestone, and dolomite contain total REE concentrations of 3.10-38.93 ppm, whereas wall rocks and ores contain REE concentrations of 1.21-196 ppm. Dolomitized limestone, dolomite, wall rock, and ore samples have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with ores in the Huachangshan, Xiaquwu, and Dongzhiyan ore blocks having large negative ?Ce and ?Eu anomalies, which may be indicative of a change in redox conditions during fluid ascent, migration, and/or cooling. (3) ?34S values for sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite sulfide samples range from -7.3‰ to 2.1‰, a wide range that indicates multiple sulfur sources. The basin contains numerous sources of S, and deriving S from a mixture of these sources could have yielded these near-zero values, either by mixing of S from different sources, or by changes in the geological conditions of seawater sulfate reduction to sulfur. (4) The C-O isotopic analyses yield ?13C values from ca. zero to -10‰, and a wider range of ?18O values from ca. +6 to +24‰, suggestive of mixing between mantle-derived magma and marine carbonate sources during the evolution of ore-forming fluids, although potential contributions from organic carbon and basinal brine sources should also be considered. These data indicate that ore-forming fluids were derived from a mixture of organism, basinal brine, and mantle-derived magma sources, and as such, the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic ore deposit should be classified as a “Lanping-type” ore deposit.

  9. Western China energy development and west to east energy transfer: Application of the Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenying Chen; Hualin Li; Zongxin Wu

    2010-01-01

    China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China

  10. Hongshan chiefly communities in Neolithic northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Christian E.; Lu, Xueming; Drennan, Robert D.; Zhu, Da

    2010-01-01

    The Hongshan societies of northeastern China are among East Asia’s earliest complex societies. They have been known largely from elaborate burials with carved jades in ceremonial platforms. The most monumental remains are concentrated in a “core zone” in western Liaoning province. Residential remains are less well known and most investigations of them have been in peripheral regions outside the core zone. Recent regional settlement pattern research around the well known ceremonial site of Dongshanzui has begun to document the communities that built and used Hongshan core zone monuments and to assess their developmental dynamics. The core zone, like the Hongshan periphery, appears to have been organized into a series of small chiefly districts within which ceremonial activities were important integrative forces. Their estimated populations of less than 1,000 are not much larger than those of districts in the periphery, and the evidence does not suggest that these districts were integrated into any larger political entity. The greater elaboration of core zone monumental architecture is thus not attributable to demographically larger communities or to larger-scale political integration. Future research should focus on documenting the organization of statuses and economic activities within these core zone communities to assess potential differences from peripheral communities in these regards. PMID:20224038

  11. Economic stress among adult-child caregivers of the oldest old in China: the importance of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyu; Guo, Man; Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    Guided by Pearlin's stress process model, this study tested the association between parents' care needs, caregivers' structural context, and caregivers' perception of economic stress in providing care for their parents. Multinomial probit regression was conducted with the cross-sectional data from 895 pairs of Chinese oldest-old parents and their adult-child caregivers. The results indicate that caregiver's low income, and reporting "eldest son" status increased the likelihood of reporting higher levels of economic stress. Caregivers who lived in urban areas, had poor health, or were divorced, widowed or unmarried reported higher levels of economic stress. These findings indicate the need of research on low-income caregivers and the relationship between filial norms and caregiving experience. This study also implies the need for culturally congruent social services and policies designed to enhance the family's ability to care for elders. PMID:24193817

  12. A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark

    2014-11-01

    China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments. PMID:24945700

  13. Genetic structure and gene flow in the endangered aquatic economic crop Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmel. (Nymphaeaceae) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuan-Huo; Wahiti Gituru, Robert

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to measure the levels of genetic variation and patterns of population structure within and among five extant populations of Brasenia schreberi, an endangered aquatic plant in China. Six primers selected from sixty ISSR primers were used in the study which amplified 49 reproducible bands with 22 (44.9%) being polymorphic, indicating low levels of genetic diversity at the species level. AMOVA analysis revealed that most genetic variation (85.64%) is present among populations. The low level of gene flow (Nm = 0.1) is estimated among five remaining populations. A Mantel test show significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance (r = 0.91). Several factors including clonal growth, habitat fragment, population isolation, restricted gene flow among populations and agricultural practices, might have played an important role in maintaining the genetic structure of B. schreberi populations in China. In view of the limited genetic information currently available for B. schreberi, we recommend in situ preservation of the remaining population.

  14. Environmental governance: the emerging economic dimension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Much has been made of the environmental dark side of China's economic boom. Public health challenges, large-scale migration and diminishing economic opportunities are all costs incurred by China from the country's failure to integrate environmental protection and economic development successfully. Now China's leaders are attempting to use the country's transition to a market economy and integration into the global economy

  15. China Briefing, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnam, Robert B., Ed.; Bush, Richard C., Ed.

    Eight essays on Chinese affairs comprise this document. Compiled in response to the China Council's objective of making available to the public materials which meet the steadily rising demand for information about contemporary China, the document focuses on Chinese art, literature, politics, foreign policy, literature, society, and economic

  16. Economic reforms, public transfers and social safety nets for the poor : A study of India and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Roy; J. C. H. Chai

    1999-01-01

    Increased economic insecurity helps to spur individuals to work harder and be more efficient according to the theory of work incentive. However, in a civilised society, the society has a moral obligation to provide basic needs and social safety nets for its poor and unfortunate members who, due to factors beyond their own control, have not been able to earn

  17. Contamination, chemical speciation and vertical distribution of heavy metals in soils of an old and large industrial zone in Northeast China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayun Li; Zhiping Fan; Pengfei Xiao; Kokyo Oh; Xiping Ma; Wei Hou

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soils has become a major concern in China as a consequence of rapid urbanization and industrialization\\u000a in recent years. However, the evaluation on soil heavy metal pollution in Shenyang, the largest heavy industrial base city\\u000a in China, has not yet been conducted. In this study, accumulation, chemical speciation, and vertical distribution Cu, Zn,\\u000a Pb and Cd

  18. SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA 92030006 86-351-7010700 86-351-7010700 E-mail: scope #12;SCOPE-ZHONGYU ENvirONmENtal FOrUm 2012 October 11-14, 2012 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China Chair of Environmental Development Dr. Shu Sun, Academician, President of SCOPE CAST China Former Vice President

  19. Structural characteristics and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon geochronology of the deformed granitic rocks from the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenyue; Liu, Yongjiang; Neubauer, Franz; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Genser, Johann; Li, Weimin; Li, Wei; Han, Guoqing; Wen, Quanbo; Zhao, Yingli; Cai, Libin

    2015-05-01

    We describe the recently detected ENE-trending Xingcheng-Taili ductile strike-slip shear zone, which is an important Mesozoic low- to middle-grade tectonic element formed during the reactivation of the North China Craton (NCC) at the eastern termination of the Yanshanian orogenic belt. Within the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone, the degree of deformation weakens gradually from NW to SE. Three main types of banded granitic gneisses represent low- to middle-grade metamorphic tectonites. New U-Pb zircon dating gives a wide range of protolith ages. Neoarchean granitic rocks with an emplacement age of 2498.4 ± 6.3 Ma have obvious E-W trending banded structures. Upper Triassic granitic rocks with U-Pb zircon ages of 219.7 ± 1.1 Ma, 218.74 ± 0.61 Ma, 212.1 ± 1.6 Ma and 212.3 ± 1.9 Ma are considered to relate to the collision of the NCC and Yangtze craton in early Mesozoic times. The emplacement of biotite adamellite bodies with ages of 159.0 ± 0.8 Ma and 152.4 ± 1.9 Ma is related to the thinning of the NCC's continental crust. An ENE-trending sinistral ductile shear zone developed within these granites. The strongly deformed biotite adamellite bodies bear a gneissosity with S-C fabrics, ENE-trending sinistral shear zones and show the deformation characteristics of a shallow crustal level, reflecting decratonization of the NCC. Crystal lattice preferred orientations (LPO) of quartz, determined by electron back-scatter diffraction, suggest sinistral strike-slip shear and a deformation temperature at about 400 to 500 °C. Quartz mainly shows low-temperature fabrics with a dominant {0001}-slip system similar to the temperature estimated by the micro-structural characteristics of quartz and feldspar. This deformation event might have occurred in Early Cretaceous times and is related to the lithospheric thinning and extension of the North China Craton triggered by an ongoing roll-back of the Pacific Plate beneath the eastern North China Craton.

  20. Human Resource Management in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuming Zhao

    1994-01-01

    Human resource management and labour-management relations in China are different from those in other countries because of different political and economic systems and social and cultural backgrounds. Lots of changes have taken place in human resource management since the 1978 economic reforms. This paper discusses the general background of human resource man agement and labour-management relations in China. It describes

  1. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-04-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44%, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23%, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced (19.65 ppbv, the contributions before the control period minus the values after the control period), followed by industrial manufacturing (10.29 ppbv) and solvent utilization (6.20 ppbv). Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, with values of 2.85 and 0.35 ppbv, respectively. Contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were the most important precursor sources likely responsible for the reduction in SOA formation during this campaign.

  2. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  3. China’s New Demographic Reality: Learning from the 2010 Census1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides an examination of China’s 2010 census data to evaluate its quality and to assess China’s demographic situation. The demographic trends revealed by the new census data suggest that China has entered a new demographic era characterized by prolonged low fertility, elevated sex ratios, rapid aging, fast urbanization and major geographic redistribution. How China responses to these demographic challenges will have profound implications for its social and economic future. PMID:25620818

  4. The AIDS epidemic and economic input impact factors in Chongqing, China, from 2006 to 2012: a spatial-temporal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqi; Xiao, Qin; Zhou, Liang; Ma, Dihui; Liu, Ling; Lu, Rongrong; Yi, Dali; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the spatial-temporal clustering of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Chongqing and to explore its association with the economic indices of AIDS prevention and treatment. Methods Data on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and economic indices of AIDS prevention and treatment were obtained from the annual reports of the Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control for 2006–2012. Spatial clustering analysis, temporal-spatial clustering analysis, and spatial regression were used to conduct statistical analysis. Results The annual average new HIV infection rate, incidence rate for new AIDS cases, and rate of people living with HIV in Chongqing were 5.97, 2.42 and 28.12 per 100?000, respectively, for 2006–2012. The HIV/AIDS epidemic showed a non-random spatial distribution (Moran’s I?0.310; p<0.05). The epidemic hotspots were distributed in the 15 mid-western counties. The most likely clusters were primarily located in the central region and southwest of Chongqing and occurred in 2010–2012. The regression coefficients of the total amount of special funds allocated to AIDS and to the public awareness unit for the numbers of new HIV cases, new AIDS cases, and people living with HIV were 0.775, 0.976 and 0.816, and ?0.188, ?0.259 and ?0.215 (p<0.002), respectively. Conclusions The Chongqing HIV/AIDS epidemic showed temporal-spatial clustering and was mainly clustered in the mid-western and south-western counties, showing an upward trend over time. The amount of special funds dedicated to AIDS and to the public awareness unit showed positive and negative relationships with HIV/AIDS spatial clustering, respectively. PMID:25818270

  5. Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-04-01

    It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to be reversed. At least two factors contribute to the dichotomy between huge investment and limited results. First, the majority of the efforts have been limited to engineering approaches to water pollution control, ignoring the important roles of non-engineering approaches and stakeholder participation. Second, the complex hydrological regime of the basin may aggravate the impacts of various pollutant sources. Using the Yincungang canal, one major tributary to the Lake Tai, as an example, we discuss our work on both hydrological and socio-economic factors affecting the water quality of the canal, as well as the grand challenges of coupling hydrological systems and socio-economic systems in the region. Keywords non-point source pollution, rural sewage, agricultural pollution, spatio-temporal pattern, stakeholder participation

  6. Early Paleozoic to Middle Triassic bivergent accretion in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: insights from zircon U-Pb dating of ductile shear zones in central Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yilong; Zhou, Hanwen; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Zhong, Zengqiu

    2014-09-01

    The Solonker suture zone records the termination of convergence in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The timing of termination of the Solonker suture and the tectonic style of the southern CAOB have long been controversial. The Baolidao arc-accretion complex and the Ondor Sum subduction-accretion complex are located immediately to the north and south of the Solonker suture zone respectively. However, the tectonic settings and formation ages of these two complexes are debated. In this paper, we present a systematic study of LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages of multiple units and lithologies from both the complexes to constrain the timing of final collision between the South Mongolian microcontinent and the North China craton. The geochronological results indicate that the northward subduction of the Paleoasian Oceanic lithosphere beneath the South Mongolian microcontinent at ~ 452 Ma induced extensive melting of overriding continental crust. Continuous subduction led to accretionary wedge-continent collision at the southern margin of the South Mongolian microcontinent, represented by the 416 ± 3 Ma granitic activity in the southern margin of the Baolidao arc-accretion complex. After Early Paleozoic collision, widespread magmatism occurred at 316-302 Ma in response to transient extension along the southern margin of the South Mongolian microcontinent. There was a deep marine basin during Permian times to the south of the microcontinent. The closure of this oceanic basin led to Late Paleozoic-Early Triassic north-dipping subduction and final suturing of the CAOB during Late Permian to Middle Triassic times. Proximal forearc sediments composed of arc volcanic and plutonic materials with crystallization ages varying from 299 ± 3 Ma to 267 ± 3 Ma, and some intrusions at 274 ± 2 Ma caused by the melting of continental crust were produced along the northern margin of the Solonker suture zone. Accretion and collision occurred at ~ 263 Ma. The southward subduction of the Paleoasian Oceanic lithosphere beneath the North China craton at ~ 451 Ma induced high-grade metamorphism and partial melting in the south-dipping subduction zone. An arc/forearc-related ocean at the northern margin of the North China craton existed during the southward subduction (324-300 Ma) and was filled during transient regional extension (299-290 Ma) in Linxi area to form the protolith of the Shuangjing Schist, accompanied with widespread Late Carboniferous to Early Permian arc volcanic and plutonic activity in the CAOB. Initial subduction of the arc/forearc-related oceanic basin occurred during 290-280 Ma, and was followed by the convergence of the North China craton and the South Mongolian microcontinent until ~ 230 Ma. The eastern section of the CAOB formed by bivergent Early Paleozoic to Middle Triassic accretion until ~ 263-230 Ma that ended in the closure of the Paleoasian Ocean.

  7. Satellite monitoring of spatio-temporal dynamics of China’s coastal zone eco-environments: preliminary analysis on the relationship between the environment, climate change and human behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Qin; L. Zhu; A. Ghulam; Z. Li; P. Nan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, temporal dynamics of eco-environmental changes in coastal areas of China during 1981–2000 are investigated\\u000a based on four key surface parameters including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), thermal index, moisture index\\u000a and surface broadband albedo derived from quantitative remote sensing techniques and meteorological data. Firstly, land surface\\u000a temperature (LST) and land surface broadband albedo are retrieved by the

  8. Heartache of the state, enemy of the self: bipolar disorder and cultural change in urban China.

    PubMed

    Ng, Emily

    2009-09-01

    Past works in anthropology and psychology have described the Chinese orientation toward life as situation-centered with an external locus of control. This model has also been applied to the understanding of affect disorders in China--depressive patients have been found to focus on outside circumstances surrounding dysphoric moods. However, dramatic economic, sociopolitical and cultural changes in post-Mao China may be affecting these cognitive orientations toward emotional distress. This paper focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder in China. The study is based on semistructured interviews with patients at a Western-style mental health institution in Shenzhen, the first successful Special Economic Zone in China. My data suggest that the location of agency has shifted across generations. Whereas those who grew up in the Maoist era are inclined to use external circumstances to explain the control over and responsibility for their illness, younger patients tend to emphasize self-blame and individual responsibility. I argue that these intergenerational differences in ethnopsychology relate to the multifaceted rise of individualism in post-Mao China. The paper ends with an examination of this observed shift vis-à-vis recent theories of neoliberal discipline in China and a discussion of potential psychological implications. PMID:19526331

  9. Lower Permian formations of the Buqingshan Mountains in the A'nyemaqen ophiolitic zone (Eastern Kunlun, Qinghai Province, China): On the beginning of the Paleotethys closure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Pospelov; E. J. Leven; Qiantao Bian; V. A. Aristov; O. A. Korchagin

    2005-01-01

    (1) Several Lower Permian formations are most completely represented within the Buqing- shan Mountains (eastern portion of the Eastern Kunlun orogenic belt), a part of the Paleotethyan ophiolite suture commonly considered as the A'nyemaqen ophiolite zone. The formations were formed in the following paleogeodynamic environments (in a southward direction): (1) shelf and slope of a passive continental margin of a

  10. Origin of Permian exotic limestone blocks in the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Southern Tibet, China: With biostratigraphic, sedimentary and regional geological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaochi; Huang, Hao; Shi, Yukun; Zhan, Lipei

    2015-05-01

    The Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone in Southern Tibet represents the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian continents. It is, to a lesser extent, also the boundary between the Himalayan region and the Lhasa Block. A fascinating aspect of it is the appearance of Permian limestone blocks in Late Triassic (and sometimes Late Jurassic-Cretaceous) siliciclastic sediments south of the ophiolite belt. They are meter- to kilometer-scale, randomly scattered blocks in a clastic matrix. Large blocks often form ridges of mountains or occur as projecting rocks; small blocks are often seen half buried or floating within matrix. They are therefore often noted as exotic blocks. Fossils from the limestone blocks have ages mainly in the range of Guadalupian-Lopingian. The faunas have mixed Gondwanan and Cathaysian features. Petrographic study of the limestone blocks shows that their deposition processes were often influenced by terrigenous clasts and suggests that they were deposited in a generally proximal environment. The age range, lithofacies and fossil content of these limestone blocks in the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone are highly compatible with those of the Permian successions north and south of the zone in the framework of northern Greater India. They were originally deposited in peri-Gondwana environment, like the Permian limestone successions of the Lhasa Block and the Himalayan region. The exotic Permian limestone blocks are dismembered units of Permian carbonate successions broken during the rifting process in the Late Triassic. Their entering in the Late Triassic clastic sediments is resulted from either block faulting or olistostrome. Final emplacement of different components, including the limestone blocks, in the suture zone were achieved in the Paleogene accompanied by strong deformation.

  11. High-temperature metamorphism in a major strike-slip shear zone: the Ailao Shan—Red River, People's Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, Philippe H.; Kienast, Jean-Robert

    1993-07-01

    Petrographic and thermobarometric analysis provides constraints on thePT path of the mylonitic gneisses of the left-lateral Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone which has accommodated the lateral extrusion of Indochina during the Tertiary. Two different paragenesis, P1 and P2, are coeval with this deformation and correspond respectively to the amphibolite and greenschist facies. Microprobe analysis reveals that P1 garnets bear a chemical zonation from core to rim. This zonation indicates a temperature increase during garnet growth. Conditions of formation of garnet rims (P1b), which are estimated using biotite-garnet and plagioclase-garnet thermobarometers, are close to the granitic solidus (710 ± 70°C and4.5 ± 1.5 kbar). P2 conditions are estimated to be approximately 500°C and < 3.8 kbar. Both P1b and P2 conditions correspond to much higher temperatures than expected for their depths in the continental crust, suggesting a perturbed geothermal gradient during strike-slip deformation along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone. Thermochronology results suggest that cooling between P1b and P2 was fast ( ? 100°C/Ma) and may have been associated with significant uplift. Uplift during the left-lateral shearing may have resulted from a slight reverse or, more probably normal, component of movement along the strike-slip fault. A simple numerical model suggests that the high temperatures in the shear zone at the time of deformation may be explained by shear heating in the more competent upper mantle and by advection of this heat along the shear zone by ascent of magmas and/or fluids. In this hypothesis, the medium-pressure and temperature schists bounding the mylonitic gneisses to the southwest previously interpreted as resulting from collision-related metamorphism result instead from 'contact' metamorphism of the shear zone at mid-crustal depths.

  12. Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Methods Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. Results The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900). The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8?%, 29/56) paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9?%, 5/56). The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200) per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8?% (43/56) victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9?% (29/56) patients. Moreover, only 21.4?% (12/56) patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4?% (26/56) and 28.6?% (16/56) felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2?=?16.916, P?=?0.028). Conclusions The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a close relationship with the injury severity. Formal legislation was urgently needed to compel the employer to purchase injury or medical insurance and provide more compulsory protection to the population working in high risk occupations. In addition, psychological counseling and instruction shouldn’t be neglected in the aid and treatment of victims. PMID:22672729

  13. Association between high temperature and mortality in metropolitan areas of four cities in various climatic zones in China: a time-series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have reported on the associations between ambient temperatures and mortality. However, few multi-city studies have been conducted in developing countries including China. This study aimed to examine the association between high temperature and mortality outcomes in four cities with different climatic characteristics in China to identify the most vulnerable population, detect the threshold temperatures, and provide scientific evidence for public health policy implementations to respond to challenges from extreme heat. Methods A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) with a Poisson distribution was used to analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature over the threshold on mortality after controlling for covariates including time trends, day of the week (DOW), humidity, daily temperature range, and outdoor air pollution. Results The temperature thresholds for all-cause mortality were 29°C, 35°C, 33°C and 34°C for Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders including air pollution, strong associations between daily maximum temperature and daily mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic outcomes, and particularly diabetes, were observed in different geographical cities, with increases of 3.2-5.5%, 4.6-7.5% and 12.5-31.9% (with 14.7-29.2% in diabetes), respectively, with each 1°C increment in the daily maximum temperature over the threshold. A stronger temperature-associated mortality was detected in females compared to males. Additionally, both the population over 55 years and younger adults aged 30 to 54 years reported significant heat-mortality associations. Conclusions Extreme heat is becoming a huge threat to public health and human welfare due to the strong temperature-mortality associations in China. Climate change with increasing temperatures may make the situation worse. Relevant public health strategies and an early extreme weather and health warning system should be developed and improved at an early stage to prevent and reduce the health risks due to extreme weather and climate change in China, given its huge population, diverse geographic distribution and unbalanced socioeconomic status with various climatic characteristics. PMID:25103276

  14. Rice consumption in China 

    E-print Network

    Lan, Jin

    1989-01-01

    RICE CONSUMPTION IN CHINA A Thesis by JIN LAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Agricultural... Economics RICE CONSUMPTION IN CHINA A Thesis by JIN LAN Approved as to style and content by: E, We ey F. Peterson (Chair of Committee) James E. Christiansen (Member) Carl Shaf (Member) Daniel I. Padberg (Head of Department) August 1989...

  15. Rice consumption in China

    E-print Network

    Lan, Jin

    1989-01-01

    RICE CONSUMPTION IN CHINA A Thesis by JIN LAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Agricultural... Economics RICE CONSUMPTION IN CHINA A Thesis by JIN LAN Approved as to style and content by: E, We ey F. Peterson (Chair of Committee) James E. Christiansen (Member) Carl Shaf (Member) Daniel I. Padberg (Head of Department) August 1989...

  16. Groundwater response to leakage of surface water through a thick vadose zone in the middle reaches area of Heihe River Basin, in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-S.; Ma, M.-G.; Li, X.; Zhao, J.; Dong, P.; Zhou, J.

    2010-04-01

    The behavior of groundwater response to leakage of surface water in the middle reaches area of Heihe River Basin is significantly influenced by a thick vadose zone. The groundwater regime is a result of two recharge events due to leakage of Heihe River and irrigation water with different delay time. A nonlinear leakage model is developed to calculate the monthly leakage of Heihe River in considering changes of streamflow, river stage and agricultural water utilization. Numerical modeling of variable saturated flow is carried out to investigate the general behaviors of leakage-recharge conversion through a thick vadose zone. It is found that the recharge pattern can be approximated by simple reservoir models of leakages under a river and under an irrigation district with different delay-time and recession coefficient. A triple-reservoir model of relationship between surface water, vadose zone and groundwater is developed. It reproduces the groundwater regime during 1989-2006 with variable streamflow of Heihe River and agricultural water utilization. The model is applied to interpret changes of groundwater level during 2007-2008 that observed in the Watershed Airborne Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER).

  17. Groundwater response to leakage of surface water through a thick vadose zone in the middle reaches area of Heihe River Basin, in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-S.; Ma, M.-G.; Li, X.; Zhao, J.; Dong, P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The behavior of groundwater response to leakage of surface water in the middle reaches area of Heihe River Basin is significantly influenced by a thick vadose zone. The variation of groundwater level is a result of two recharge events corresponding to leakage of Heihe River and irrigation water with different delay time. A nonlinear leakage model is developed to calculate the monthly leakage of Heihe River in considering changes of streamflow, river stage and agricultural water utilization. Numerical modeling of variable saturated flow is carried out to investigate the general behaviors of leakage-recharge conversion through a thick vadose zone. It is found that the variable recharge can be approximated by simple reservoir models for both leakage under a river and leakage under an irrigation district but with different delay-time and recession coefficient. A triple-reservoir model of relationship between surface water, vadose zone and groundwater is developed. It reproduces the in situ water table movement during 1989-2006 with variable streamflow of Heihe River and agricultural water utilization. The model is applied to interpret groundwater dynamics during 2007-2008 that observed in the Watershed Airborne Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER).

  18. Pollution and Environmental Concern in Rural China

    E-print Network

    Brandes, Julia

    2013-12-31

    In the last decades, China has become equally known for her high economic growth rates and the increased environmental pollution that came with the economic change. Although the central government has taken steps to mitigate ...

  19. Deformational and sedimentary responses to Late Miocene (13-8.5 Ma) left-lateral oblique movement along the northern foreland of the Red River-Ailao Shan shear zone, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, E.; Yin, J.; Su, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The arcuate Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, one of the largest Cenozoic strike-slip faults within the Tibetan plateau, experienced the left-lateral and right-lateral strike-slip motions, occurred in late Oligocene to Miocene time (24-17 Ma) and late Cenozoic time (2-4 Ma), respectively (Allen et al., 1984; Tapponnier et al., 1986; Harrison et al., 1996, Schoenbolhm, et al., 2004). The question underlying this study is what happened in the interval between these two events. Our reconstruction of the range-front deformation and sedimentation of the Ailao Shan shear zone (ASSZ) demonstrates that the eastern range-front of the southeastern segment with a strike of 290°-110° used to be dominated by low-angle normal faulting, which resulted in contemporaneously coarse-grained sedimentation associated with NE-SW shortening by gravitational gliding that occurred within a narrow half-graben along the foreland of the southeastern segment of the shear zone. These coarse-grained sediments, namely Ailao Shan conglomerate, are late Oligocene to Miocene in age, dated by fossils. They are in unconformable depositional contact on pre-Cenozoic rocks of the Yangtze block to the north, with the unconformity cropping out along the north side of the Red River valley, and consistently dip to the southwest against the mylonitic gneiss along the ASSZ with dipping angle decreasing upward from 60° to sub-horizontal, characteristic of growth strata. The Ailao Shan conglomerate in the Mosha area is dated as 11.8-8.5 Ma by paleomagstratigraphy, which is approximately coeval with a rapid cooling event of the ASSZ, occurred from 13 to 10 Ma (FT dating, Bergman et al., 1997). All these evidence suggest that the ASSZ was highly active during middle to late Miocene (13-8.5 Ma). We interpret that the low angle normal faulting to have been controlled by the change in geometric pattern of the ASSZ. The ASSZ lies within a wide zone of the north-south right-lateral shear, generated by the relative movement between the Indian subcontinent and the South China block, within which the crustal fragments are undergoing clockwise rotation (Wang and Burchfiel, 1997). Thus, the northwestern segment of the ASSZ with a strike of 320°-140° must have experienced clockwise bending. As the bending proceeded with time, the oblique extension was generated in a direction oblique to the southeastern segment of the shear zone, by which the low-angle normal faulting occurred along the range front of the southeastern segment. In summary, the ASSZ may have had two stages of development. The first stage occurred between 24-17 Ma, dominated by left-lateral displacement with a minor component of the normal displacement, which juxtaposed the mylonite with various rocks of the Yangtze block along a high-angle normal fault bounding the shear zone on the east. The second stage occurred between 13-8.5 Ma, dominated by the low-angel normal faulting along the range-front of the southeastern segment of the shear zone, associated with the contemporary coarse-grained sedimentation.

  20. Crustal structures revealed from a deep seismic reflection profile across the Solonker suture zone of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, northern China: An integrated interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shihong; Gao, Rui; Li, Haiyan; Hou, Hesheng; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Qiusheng; Yang, Ke; Li, Chao; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Jishen; Yang, Tianshui; Keller, G. R.; Liu, Mian

    2014-02-01

    The Solonker suture zone is one of the most important tectonic boundaries in the southeastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). An ~ 630 km-long reflection seismic profile across this suture was recently completed by the Chinese SinoProbe Project. The processed seismic data show clear crustal structures and provide new constraints on the tectonic and crustal evolution models. The Moho is delineated as a relatively flat boundary between a strongly reflective lower crust and a transparent mantle at a depth of ~ 40-45 km (~ 14.5 s two-way travel time), which is in agreement with the refraction data recorded along the same profile. In a broad view, the profile images an orogen that appears bivergent with, and approximately centered on, the Solonker suture zone. The southern portion of this profile is dominated by a crustal-scale, cratonward propagating fold-and-thrust system that formed during the late Permian and Triassic through collision and subsequent convergence in a post-collisional stage. The major thrust faults are truncated by Mesozoic granitoid plutons in the upper crust and by the Moho at the base of the crust. This geometry suggests that the Moho was formed after the thrusting event. The northern portion of the profile, although partially obliterated by post-collisional magmatic bodies, shows major south-dipping folding and thrusting. Bands of layered reflectors immediately overlying the Moho are interpreted as basaltic sills derived from the mantle. Episodic mafic underplating may have occurred in this region, giving rise to post-collisional magmatic events and renewal of the Moho. A few mantle reflectors are also visible. The overall geometry of these mantle reflectors supports the tectonic models that the southern orogen (Manchurides) experienced south-directed subduction and the northern orogen (Altaids) underwent north-directed subduction prior to collision along the Solonker suture zone.

  1. Intraplate tectonics in Asia: A precise age for large-scale Miocene movement along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schärer, Urs; Tapponnier, Paul; Lacassin, Robin; Leloup, Philippe H.; Zhong, Dalai; Ji, Shaocheng

    1990-02-01

    Tertiary left-lateral movement along the 1000 km long Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone appears to have played an important role in absorbing post-collisional northward penetration of India into Asia. Crustal strike-slip shear along this zone caused the formation of a gneiss belt, metamorphosed to amphibolite grade, including anatectic melting. Both metamorphism and melting were induced by ductile deformation yielding the possibility to date the major tectonometamorphic event that shaped the Ailao Shan-Red River belt. 17 U-Pb isotope analyses were performed on small size-fractions of zircon, monazite and xenotime, extracted from two different leucogranitic layers. The two samples are located about 50 km apart in the central segment of Ailao Shan, in structurally well controlled settings where the melts crystallized within the strongly foliated gneisses during late stages of deformation. All mineral U-Pb analyses had to be corrected for excess or deficit amounts of radiogenic 206Pb, originating from initial 230Th disequilibrium in the 238U decay series. In monazite, such disequilibrium 206Pb reaches 20% of total radiogenic 206Pb. The corrected U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime lie between 22.1 and 23.9 Ma, whereas zircon yields significantly discordant U-Pb ages between 30.5 and 33.9 Ma pointing to Precambrian material in the magma source region. Inherited components could also be detected in monazite. The set of U-Pb data shows that monazite and xenotime formed simultaneously in both localities substantiating an early Miocene age of 23.0 ± 0.2Ma for late kinematic crystallization of anatectic melts in the metamorphic belt of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone.

  2. Trace element compositions of apatite from the middle zone of the Panzhihua layered intrusion, SW China: Insights into the differentiation of a P- and Si-rich melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Chang-Ming; Wang, Christina Yan; Li, Congying

    2014-09-01

    The Panzhihua layered intrusion in the ~ 260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province is composed of melagabbro and Fe-Ti oxide ore bodies in the lower zone (LZ) and the lower part of the middle zone (MZa), and Fe-Ti oxide-poor leucogabbro in the upper part of the middle zone (MZb) and upper zone (UZ). Cumulus apatite grains occur in the ~ 500- to 600-m-thick MZb, which makes up 25-30% of the ~ 2-km-thick intrusion. Apatite grains from the MZb show two compositional reversals in the composition of Sr, which divide the MZb into three sub-units from the base upwards, MZb1, MZb2 and MZb3. There is 1-3 vol.% apatite in the MZb1 and MZb2 and 2-5 vol.% apatite in the MZb3. Both apatite and plagioclase have an overall trend of decreasing Sr in each sub-unit. Most apatite grains from the MZb1 and MZb2 have negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.70-0.98) on chondrite-normalized REE plots and some at the top of the MZb2 have positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.09-1.18), whereas all grains from the MZb3 have positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.11-1.25). We consider that the Panzhihua intrusion formed due to immiscibility of ferrobasaltic magmas in a large convection cell at high temperatures. The immiscible Fe-rich melt tended to move towards the base of the chamber, whereas the Si-rich melt moved upwards due to density differences. Crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides from the Fe-rich melt at high temperatures may result in the enrichment of P in the residual magmas. The upward moving residual P-rich magmas may have mixed with Si-rich melt to form a P- and Si-rich melt in the upper part of the chamber, from which the MZb formed. Double-diffusive convection circulated in the P- and Si-rich melt to form stratified magma layers. Magma mixing between the stratified magma layers resulted in the compositional reversals of apatite along the boundaries. Negative Eu anomaly of apatite in the MZb1 and MZb2 is attributed to prior crystallization of plagioclase, whereas replenishment of a syenitic magma to the MZb3 may result in the positive Eu anomaly of apatite in the MZb3. The immiscibility model can explain why the apatite-rich MZb is above the major Fe-Ti oxide layers in the Panzhihua intrusion.

  3. Charms - China Agricultural Remote Sensing Monitoring System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongxin Chen; Qingbo Zhou; Jia Liu; Limin Wang; Jianqiang Ren; Qing Huang; Hui Deng; Li Zhang; Dandan Li

    2011-01-01

    With the sustaining economic development in China, the timely, accurate and objective agricultural production information service has been highly demanded by the central and provincial governments. China Agricultural Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) is an operational agricultural monitoring system in the Ministry of Agriculture of China to meet this demand. Wheat, corn and rice, are the three main grain crops

  4. China, Southeast Asia and Economic

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jing

    or terrorism. It will apply also to books that attempt, either with a single author or an editor marshalling: A Modern History [2001]. It dealt with the subject regionally and topically, de-emphasising chronological

  5. The stability of sapphirine + quartz in magnetite-bearing high oxygen fugacity granulites: a case study of the Madurai Block (Southern India) and the Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (North China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, H.; Tsunogae, T.; Santosh, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sapphirine has been the focus of many petrological investigations for the last two decades as the mineral often occurs in Mg-Al rich and pelitic rocks formed at high temperature to ultrahigh temperature (UHT). Particularly, sapphirine coexisting with quartz is considered as one of the most diagnostic mineral assemblages of UHT metamorphism. It is also known that sapphirine often occurs in magnetite-bearing high oxygen fugacity rocks, and, in such cases, the mineral can incorporate considerable quantity of ferric iron as well as Fe2+. It is therefore important to evaluate the effect of Fe3+ content on the stability of sapphirine-bearing assemblages for estimating peak conditions as well as constructing P-T paths. In this study, we evaluated the stability of sapphirine + quartz in magnetite-bearing high-oxygen fugacity rocks in UHT granulites from India (Madurai Block in the southern granulite terrane) and China (Inner Mongolia Suture Zone) using mineral equilibrium modeling technique, and constructed P-T paths of the areas. The calculations have been done in NCKFMASHTO system using THERMOCALC 3.33 with an updated version of the internally consistent data set. The Madurai Block is the largest granulite block in the Southern Granulite Terrane, India, which was formed by collisional orogeny related to the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent. The block contains granulites with various UHT mineral assemblages including sapphirine + quartz, orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz, and Al-rich orthopyroxene. Quartzo-feldspathic garnet-sillimanite granulites from Rajapalaiyam area in the southern part of the block, for example, contain sapphirine + quartz inclusion in garnet as a stable mineral assemblage at the peak of metamorphism. The calculated T-X pseudosections suggest that the stability temperature of sapphirine + quartz is lowered from 1000°C at reduced condition (XFe2O3 = 0.02) to 910°C at oxidized condition (XFe2O3 = 1.0). The Inner Mongolia Suture Zone within the North China Block rarely contains sapphirine-bearing UHT granulites. Tuguiwula area within the suture zone contains coarse-grained sapphirine granulites. Although both sapphirine and quartz occur quartzo-feldspathic layers of the rocks, the two minerals are separated by thin film of sillimanite. This indicates sapphirine was in equilibrium with quartz at prograde or peak metamorphic conditions and separated during retrograde metamorphism. The T-X pseudosection of the rocks indicate that the stability field of sapphirine + quartz lowered in more oxidized condition (T > 1050°C at XFe2O3 = 0.1 to T > 920°C at XFe2O3 = 0.9). The results of this study demonstrated that the occurrence of sapphirine + quartz in UHT rocks is strongly controlled by the oxidation state of the rocks. Lowering of the stability field of sapphirine + quartz by increasing XFe2O3 ratio was also confirmed for UHT granulites from the Madurai Block and the Inner Mongolia Suture Zone.

  6. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of the Yuanzhuding granitoid porphyry within the Shi-Hang Zone, South China: Petrogenesis and implications for Cu-Mo mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lifeng; Li, Jie; Peng, Touping; Xia, Bin; Liu, Liwen

    2013-09-01

    The Shi-Hang Zone is an important NE-SW-trending Mesozoic magmatic belt in South China, which is dominated by granites with relatively high ?Nd(t) values and young TDM model ages. Here, we present laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace element compositions, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Yuanzhuding porphyritic granitoids within the southwestern Shi-Hang Zone, and use these data to determine the origin of this granitoid and its relationship with Cu-Mo mineralization. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that these granitoids were emplaced at 157.8 ± 1.1 Ma. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70941-0.71398, ?Nd(t) values of - 3.15 to - 2.02, and in situ zircon ?Hf(t) values of + 1.71 to + 6.17. Geochemically, most of them are high-K calc-alkaline and show an adakitic affinity. They are more likely emplaced in a continental arc setting related to westward subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate. Their parental magma originated chiefly from the overlying sediments of the downgoing slab, and subsequently interacted with the lithospheric mantle wedge at the temperatures of ~ 790 °C. High oxygen fugacity during magmatic evolution played a crucial role in the development of Cu-Mo mineralization within the Yuanzhuding. The discovery of the Yuanzhuding deposit implies that the Chenzhou-Huaiji fault belt is most likely prospective for mineral exploration for porphyry Cu-Mo deposits.

  7. Characterization, sources, and potential risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from nearshore and farther shore zones of the Yangtze estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Xue; Li, Baohua H; Shen, Zhenyao Y; Feng, Chenghong H; Chen, Yaxin X

    2012-11-01

    The assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface sediments from the Yangtze estuary which is a representative area affected by anthropogenic activity (rapid industrialization, high-population density, and construction of dams upstream) in the world was systematically conducted. Fifty-one samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ?PAHs in all sediments varied from 76.9 to 2,936.8 ng g(-1). Compared with other estuaries in the world, the PAH levels in the Yangtze estuary are low to moderate. Phenanthrene, acenaphthylene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were relatively abundant. The ?PAH levels and composition varied obviously in different estuarine zones due to different sources. The highest ?PAHs concentration was observed in the nearshore of Chongming Island. The PAH composition showed that four to six ring PAHs were mainly found in the nearshore areas, while two to three ring PAHs were in the farther shore zones. The PAHs in the Yangtze estuary were derived primarily from combustion sources. A mixture of petroleum combustion and biomass combustion mainly from coal combustion and vehicle emission was the main source of PAHs from the nearshore areas, while the spill, volatilization, or combustion of petroleum from shipping process and shoreside discharge were important for PAHs in the farther shore areas. The result of potential ecotoxicological risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines indicated low PAH ecological risk in the Yangtze estuary. The study could provide foundation for the protection of water quality of the Yangtze estuary by inducing main sources input. PMID:22585391

  8. The Impact of Modernization on Higher Education in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Edwin Vaughan; Chunhou Zhang

    1996-01-01

    China now has the world's most rapidly growing economy. Since 1949, China's historic developments make it unique among East Asia's flourishing economies. The regimentation of knowledge through a focus on classical studies and narrow specialization has been a traditional means of social control in China. In 1978, China began a series of economic reforms which included an openness to the

  9. The rise of China: Marx's solution or Adam Smith's? On China's rise in Adam Smith in Beijing by Giovanni Arrighi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Yuanhua

    2011-01-01

    Adam Smith in Beijing offers a subversive analysis of China's rise, an analysis which has provoked a strong reaction in the academic world outside China. Based on Adam Smith's economic principles and world systems analysis, the book comprehensively explores China's reform and opening up and its market economy, as well as the role they have played in China's rise. In

  10. Blueschist metamorphism and its tectonic implication of Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic metabasites in the mélange zones, central Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Wei, Chunjing; Chu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Blueschists in central Inner Mongolia are distributed as layers and blocks in mélanges including the southern zone in Ondor Sum area and the northern zone in Manghete and Naomuhunni areas. They have been attributed to the subduction of Early Paleozoic oceanic crust. Blueschists from Ondor Sum and Naomuhunni are characterized by occurrence of sodic amphibole coexisting with epidote, albite, chlorite, calcic amphibole (in Ondor Sum) and muscovite (in Naomuhunni). Blueschists in Manghete contain porphyroblastic albite with inclusions of garnet and epidote in a matrix dominated by calcic-sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, albite and muscovite. Phase equilibria modeling for three blueschist samples using pseudosection suggest that the AlM2 contents in sodic amphibole can be used as a good barometer in the limited assemblage involving sodic amphibole + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + albite + quartz under pressures <4-6 kbar, while this barometer is largely influenced by temperature and bulk Fe2O3 contents in the actinolite-absent assemblage sodic amphibole + epidote + chlorite + albite + quartz of higher pressure and the AlM2 contents are not pressure-controlled in the albite-absent assemblage sodic amphibole + epidote + chlorite + quartz under pressures > 7-10 kbar. In the sodic amphibole-bearing assemblages, the NaM4 contents in sodic amphibole mainly decrease as temperature rises, being a potential thermometry. The calculated pseudosections constrain the P-T conditions of blueschists to be 3.2-4.2 kbar/355-415 °C in Ondor Sum, 8.2-9.0 kbar/455 °C-495 °C in Manghete and 6.6-8.1 kbar/420-470 °C in Naomuhunni. These P-T estimates indicate a rather high geothermal gradient of 18-25 °C/km for the blueschist metamorphism, being of intermediate P/T facies series. Available zircon U-Pb age data suggests that the protoliths of blueschists were formed later than Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic and metamorphosed soon afterwards. An alternative interpretation for the tectonic implication of blueschists in central Inner Mongolia is that they may be a new type attributed to closure of limited ocean basins and do not represent a tectonic regime occurred in conventional subduction setting.

  11. China's Banking Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dick Nanto; Radha Sinha

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the main problems facing the Chinese banking system and concludes that, despite serious problems, the risk seems small that, in the near future, a financial crisis will occur that will pose severe problems for the international financial system. An internal financial crisis, however, could occur. Without government support, the economic viability of many of China's banks is

  12. Entrepreneurship Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Yuli; Matlay, Harry

    2003-01-01

    China's recent economic success resulted, to a great extent, from the release of the entrepreneurial potential inherent in its business sectors. Yet, entrepreneurship education as a whole remains a relatively new concept and practice, in particular in the higher education sector. This explorative article reviews the recent developments in…

  13. Composition and variation of sediment bacterial and nirS-harboring bacterial communities at representative sites of the Bohai Gulf coastal zone, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiangyu; Zhu, Lingling; Li, Youxun; Xie, Yuxuan; Zhao, Mingzhang; Luo, Ximing

    2014-04-01

    With rapid urbanization, anthropogenic activities are increasingly influencing the natural environment of the Bohai Bay. In this study, the composition and variation of bacterial and nirS-harboring bacterial communities in the coastal zone sediments of the Bohai Gulf were analyzed using PCR-based clone libraries. A total of 95 genera were detected in the bacterial communities, with Proteobacteria (72.1 %), Acidobacteria (10.5 %), Firmicutes (1.7 %), Bacteroidetes (1.4 %), Chloroflexi (0.7 %) and Planctomycetes (0.7 %) being the dominated phyla. The NirS sequences were divided into nine Clusters (A-I). Canonical correlation analysis showed that the bacterial or denitrifying communities were correlated with different environmental factors, such as total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium, sulfate, etc. Furthermore, bacterial communities' composition and diversity are influenced by oil exploration, sewage discharge and other anthropogenic activities in the coastal area of the Bohai Sea. Thus, this study provided useful information on further research on regional or global environmental control and restore. PMID:24214680

  14. Recycling and utilisation of industrial solid waste: An explorative study on gold deposit tailings of ductile shear zone type in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Fei; Du, Runxiang; Zhao, Chunming; Li, Yongli; Yu, Haoran

    2015-06-01

    Tailings are solid waste arising from mineral processing. This type of waste can cause severe damage to the environment during stockpiling as a result of the leaching of something harmful into the ecosystem. Gold deposit of ductile shear zone type is an important type of gold deposit, and the recycling of its tailings has been challenging researchers for a long time. In this article, the characteristics of this type of tailings were systematically studied by using modern technical means. Considering the characteristics of the tailings, clay was selected to make up for the shortcomings of the tailings and improve their performance. Water and raw materials were mixed to produce green bodies, which are subsequently sintered into ceramic bodies at 980?°C~1020?°C (sintering temperature). The results showed that some new kinds of mineral phases, such as mullite, anorthite and orthoclase, appear in ceramic bodies. Furthermore, the ceramic bodies have a surface hardness of 5 to 6 (Mohs scale), and their water absorption and modulus of rupture can meet some technical requirements of ceramic materials described in ISO?13006-2012 and GB?5001-1985. These gold mine tailings can be made into ceramic tiles, domestic ceramic bodies, and other kinds of ceramic bodies for commercial and industrial purposes after further improvements. PMID:26060235

  15. China's (uneven) progress against poverty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

    2007-01-01

    While the incidence of extreme poverty fell dramatically in China over 1980–2001, progress was uneven over time and across provinces. Rural areas accounted for the bulk of the gains to the poor, though migration to urban areas helped. Rural economic growth was far more important to national poverty reduction than urban economic growth; agriculture played a far more important role

  16. Integrated Emergy, Energy and Economic Evaluation of Rice and Vegetable Production Systems in Alluvial Paddy Fields: Implications for Agricultural Policy in China

    EPA Science Inventory

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation...

  17. China under the Four Modernizations: Part 1. Selected Papers Submitted to the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    The policies and performance of the post-Mao Chinese government (1976 to the present) in the four modernization areas of industry, agriculture, science and technology, and the military are examined. Realizing that the program to modernize the economy of the People's Republic of China, which was initiated by Mao's successors in 1977, was much too…

  18. Municipal solid waste management in China: using commercial management to solve a growing problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Suocheng; Kurt W. Tong; Wu Yuping

    2001-01-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) problem in China is expanding rapidly, with annual waste production growing at close to 10% per year, but sanitary landfills are still rare. This paper discusses China’s MSW management problems, analyzes MSW production trends, and proposes countermeasures using commercial management to address China’s MSW problems. Various organizational and technical hurdles, including centralized planning and economic

  19. Reaction zone between pre-UHP titanite and host rock: insights into fluid-rock interaction and deformation mechanisms during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust (Dabie Shan UHP unit, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzenitz, N.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2012-04-01

    Exhumed crustal UHP rocks may occur as relict blocks in strongly metasomatized matrix rocks. Due to variations in competence between the mm to km sized blocks and their ductile matrix, the largely undeformed blocks may preserve the pre-subduction and the prograde history, whereas the matrix rocks have been ductilely deformed to high magnitudes and record successive stages of deformation. The reaction zones between blocks and matrix, however, provide insights into the fluid-rock interaction, deformation and the deformation mechanisms active during the exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust in the subduction channel. We investigate a titanite megacryst (3 cm in diameter) in a calc-silicate marble from the UHP unit in the Dabie Shan, China. The core of the titanite megacryst grew prograde during subduction. Its U-Pb system remained closed and yields a maximum age for UHP metamorphism. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in the core demonstrate that the titanite megacryst precipitated from a homogeneous fluid source. During metamorphism in the subduction zone, infiltration of external fluids resulted first in Sr-loss from the marbles and then introduction of Sr with unusually low 87Sr/86S values (Romer et al., 2003), leading to the contrasting 87Sr/86Sr values in the titanite megacryst and the hosting UHP marbles (Wawrzenitz et al., 2006). Related to deformation in the calc-silicate marble matrix, the rim of the titanite megacryst has been replaced during the following dissolution-precipitation reactions: (i) Pseudomorphic replacement of the old titanite megacryst by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Fluid migrated into the old grain producing a sharp boundary of the replacement front. (ii) New small titanite grains grew with their long axes parallel to the foliation of the marble matrix, reflecting the activation of dissolution precipitation creep. In the matrix, the foliation is defined by the orientation of the basal planes of phengitic white mica. The new titanite grains are patchy zoned and replace, along with rutile, calcite, quartz, and apatite, the old titanite megacryst. This reaction reflects the changing CO2 versus fluorine activity in the available fluid phase, rather than changing P-T conditions. The Sr isotope composition of the phases formed by these fluid-mediated reactions is variable and depends on the reaction-history and origin of the fluids. (iii) Brittle deformation of the titanite megacryst induced the formation of fractures, enhancing fluid transport and precipitation of new titanite, allanite, calcite ± rutile, and albite (locally anorthite), as well as Zn(Fe) - and Cu - sulphides along the vein walls. Dislocation creep is indicated by subgrains in local zones of high differential stress within the rim of the titanite megacryst. However, dissolution precipitation creep has been much more effective in changing the (isotope)chemical composition of titanite compared to dislocation creep. Romer, R.L., Wawrzenitz, N., Oberhänsli, R., 2003. Terra Nova 15, 5, 330-336. Wawrzenitz, N., Romer, R.L., Oberhänsli, R., Dong, S., 2006. Lithos 89, 1-2, 174-201.

  20. Spatial Information Technologies for Disaster Management in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Yunhao Chen; A-du Gong; Weiguo Jiang

    \\u000a China’s monsoon climate and special geographical and geological conditions leaves it vulnerable to frequent natural disasters,\\u000a including floods, droughts, forest fires, and earthquakes. Because China’s population density is high, these disasters often\\u000a result in serious casualties and enormous economic losses. The problem becomes more and more severe as the frequency of natural\\u000a disasters and related economic losses are expected to