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1

Magic and myth of migration: a case study of a special economic zone in China.  

PubMed

The town of Shenzhen, China, experienced rapid economic and demographic growth following the government's creation of four Special Economic Zones in 1980. The role of migration in the Shenzhen phenomenon is examined as a practicum for policymakers and demographic specialists. Specifically, the paper is concerned with "the sources and mechanisms of migration, and characteristics of migrants to Shenzhen in order to clarify the relationship between rapid economic growth and its demographic consequences in China. It also briefly assesses the problems associated with migration to Shenzhen and how they may affect the city's future." PMID:12268937

Chen, X

1987-09-01

2

Sustainable energy systems and economics of energy services: Case of special economic zones of People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main approach to elaborating the dissertational thesis is interdisciplinary re- search. We will carefully examine the interlinkages between complementary areas of economy, energy systems and environment within predefined geographic zones. Gener- ally speaking, we will focus on those aspects of sustainable development in China, which are relevant to its energy complex. Therefore, we will try to connect the commonalities

Radoslav Mizera

2008-01-01

3

The transition of urban growth in China : a case study of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone  

E-print Network

The Chinese government announced new economic reform policies in December of 1978. The announcement included an urban distribution policy that emphasized small cities and towns for rural urbanization as a means to achieve ...

Gao, Mingzheng, 1965-

1995-01-01

4

Stressors of dual-qualification nursing teachers in the ChengDu-ChongQing economic zone of China--a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Nursing and teaching are considered risk professions with high levels of stress and burnout. Dual-qualification nursing teachers (DQNT) are nurses who both teach and practise. These nurses face additional stress. This study explored the stressors of DQNT in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. This qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended interviews. The interview responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The participants in this study included 21 DQNT from 5 teaching hospitals in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone of China. The results indicated that heavy workload, personal safety, inadequate pay, role overload, and poor working environment are stressors of DQNT. Furthermore, Chinese DQNT face violence from patients and students. The study provides a theoretical basis to help DQNT to cope with stress. PMID:23702488

Wu, Youfeng; Liu, Hui; He, Hongyan

2013-12-01

5

China, Southeast Asia and Economic  

E-print Network

No: 12-01 China, Southeast Asia and Economic Crises Nicholas Tarling New Zealand Asia Institute-term and a short-term view of the issue in general, this paper particularly focuses on China and Southeast Asia Institute, The University of Auckland. 1 June 2012 #12;China, Southeast Asia and Economic Crises Nicholas

Sun, Jing

6

Emergy-based comparative analysis on industrial clusters: economic and technological development zone of Shenyang area, China.  

PubMed

In China, local governments of many areas prefer to give priority to the development of heavy industrial clusters in pursuit of high value of gross domestic production (GDP) growth to get political achievements, which usually results in higher costs from ecological degradation and environmental pollution. Therefore, effective methods and reasonable evaluation system are urgently needed to evaluate the overall efficiency of industrial clusters. Emergy methods links economic and ecological systems together, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. This method has been successfully applied in many case studies of ecosystem but seldom in industrial clusters. This study applied the methodology of emergy analysis to perform the efficiency of industrial clusters through a series of emergy-based indices as well as the proposed indicators. A case study of Shenyang Economic Technological Development Area (SETDA) was investigated to show the emergy method's practical potential to evaluate industrial clusters to inform environmental policy making. The results of our study showed that the industrial cluster of electric equipment and electronic manufacturing produced the most economic value and had the highest efficiency of energy utilization among the four industrial clusters. However, the sustainability index of the industrial cluster of food and beverage processing was better than the other industrial clusters. PMID:24788859

Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zuoxi

2014-09-01

7

Understanding china's economic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadly speaking, two schools of thought have emerged to interpret China's rapid growth since 1978: the experimentalist school and the convergence school. The experimentalist school attributes China's successes to the evolutionary, experimental, and incremental nature of China's reforms. Specifically, the resulting non-capitalist institutions are claimed to be successful in (a) agriculture where land is not owned by the fanners; (b)

Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo

2001-01-01

8

Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China  

PubMed Central

Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05). The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model. PMID:24384778

Xie, Hualin; Liu, Zhifei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guiying; Lu, Fucai

2013-01-01

9

Exploring the mechanisms of ecological land change based on the spatial autoregressive model: a case study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China.  

PubMed

Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran's I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated signi?cant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05). The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model. PMID:24384778

Xie, Hualin; Liu, Zhifei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guiying; Lu, Fucai

2014-01-01

10

Soil erosion, policy and management in China coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal zone is very important in the world. China coastal zone was granted the first priority of developing economy in the late 1980s. Since then, high population density and rapid economic development hace caused intensive changes of LUCC in this zone. Those changes have lead to land degradation. Besides, China governments launched series of projects and policy to improve such problems. Those will inevitably cause to diverse spatial dynamics of land degradtion. However, the state of land degradation in certain time is still unknown. Soil erosion is an important indicator of land degradation.Therefore, we use RS images?RUSLE model to anlyze the spatial pattern of soil erosion for 2000. By spatial analysis, we found that soil erosion in China coastal zone is not serious. Widespread soil erosion is only occurred on coastal zones in Shandong, Hainan and werstern Guangdong Province. Although rainfall eosivity factor(R) is higher in southern coastal zone, erosion tends to occur on the slopes with lower LS values in northern coastal zone than southern coastal zone. Goevernments have enforced some policy to reduce the extent of soil erosion by conversion of farmland to woodland and barren mountains to woodland. But the difference between southern and northern coastal zone is still not realized. To improve soil eorosion in those areas, we should let governments put more funds to increase vegetation cover in north. Such study will provide helpful suggestions for governments to prevent soil erosion in coastal zone.

Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Qiao; Ning, Jicai; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

2013-09-01

11

Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change that was previously unavailable for the Sanya Region. Data acquired from the IKONOS-2 satellite are analyzed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to identify urban greenspace in three subscenes extracted from the Sanya landscape. Results suggest that urban greenspace can be successfully characterized with enhanced detail using landscape pattern indices (LPIs) and a correlogram approach. Inclusion of a spatial approach to greenspace characterization and planning is argued to be an important and easily implemented method for enhanced evaluation of urban quality of life. The government of Hainan has stated that it wishes to employ additional and more refined means of guiding future development practices. This study is a landscape analysis involving change detection of land cover as well as the spatial analysis of urban morphological features. It develops methodologies that may be used to investigate and document past and current urban conditions; some of these could be used by the Hainan Government to further their future urban planning goals of economic growth and ecological sustainability.

Millward, Andrew Allan

12

Offshore wind energy potential in China: Under technical, spatial and economic constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates available offshore wind energy resources in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with the aid of a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on offshore wind resources being reflected in a continuous space. Geospatial supply curves and spatial distribution of levelised production cost (LPC) are developed, which provide information on

Lixuan Hong; Bernd Möller

2011-01-01

13

33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. ...States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means...United States has the sovereign rights and jurisdiction and all...respect to other nations, exclusive economic zone means...

2011-07-01

14

33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. ...States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means...United States has the sovereign rights and jurisdiction and all...respect to other nations, exclusive economic zone means...

2010-07-01

15

Three essays on development economics in China  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a collection of three independent essays in empirical development economics using data from China. In the first two chapters, I examine the determinants of choices within the household. In the first ...

Qian, Nancy

2005-01-01

16

China's Transition and Feminist Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978 China has been undergoing transition from a socialist to a capitalist economy and the opening up to international trade and investment. This process has been accelerated by WTO membership. This article presents an overview of the gendered processes and outcomes associated with China's reforms, mainly focusing on the post-1992 period when the pace of reforms accelerated. The imperative

Günseli Berik; Xiao-yuan Dong; Gale Summerfield

2007-01-01

17

A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

2014-03-01

18

China, India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and  

E-print Network

China, India and the Commodity Boom: Economic and Environmental Implications for Low of Life Sciences and 2 La Trobe University 1. INTRODUCTION THE emergence of China and India as major. When China first began to attract large-scale foreign investment and expand its export- oriented labour

Coxhead, Ian

19

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China  

E-print Network

Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China Qiang He1 , Mark D. Bertness2 , John F Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China, 2 Department, Shanghai 200433, China, 5 Division of Climate Change Thermodynamics and Systems Ecology, College

20

Economic changes and afforestation incentives in rural China Sylvie Dmurger  

E-print Network

1 Economic changes and afforestation incentives in rural China Sylvie Démurger HIEBS-data from the mid-1980s onwards to investigate the determinants of land-use choice in rural China, by paying with the huge population in China, the afforestation activity is analyzed within a framework of land allocation

Boyer, Edmond

21

The Effects of Democratization on Economic Policy: Evidence from China  

E-print Network

The Effects of Democratization on Economic Policy: Evidence from China (Preliminary Draft) Monica of rural China. Our study collects a unique survey to document the history of political reforms-level elections in rural China, which began in the late 1980s. We argue that this reform provides a uniquely ad

Contractor, Anis

22

2013 China Latin America Economic Bulletin Rebecca Ray and Kevin P. Gallagher  

E-print Network

2013 China ­ Latin America Economic Bulletin Rebecca Ray and Kevin P. Gallagher The China-Latin America Economic Bulletin is an annual note that summarizes and synthesizes trends in the burgeoning China-Latin America economic

Dennett, Daniel

23

Economic Development, Population Ageing and Sustainability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most populous country in the world, China is enjoying unprecedented economic growth. However this growth is accompanied with population ageing and serious environmental degradation which has attracted global attention. The impact of China's environmental problems on the rest of world in the future will be as important as that of the country's rapid economic growth. Without a balanced development

Xiumei Guo; Dora Marinova

24

[Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].  

PubMed

This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests. PMID:19459385

Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

2009-02-01

25

The Sources and Sustainability of China's Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1978, AT THE outset of its economic reform, China was the world’s tenthlargest economy, with a GDP of about $150 billion, or less than 6 percent of U.S. GDP at the time. By 2005, however, China’s economy, at $2.2 trillion, had grown to become the fourth largest in the world, behind only the United States at $12.5 trillion, Japan

GARY H. JEFFERSON; JIAN SU

2010-01-01

26

Regional distribution of China's science and technology and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional imbalance of economic development is one of the fundamental characteristics of China's national condition. A prevailing viewpoint is held that there is an increasingly widening gap in per capita GDP and per capita net income between individuals in China since the 1978 opening & reforming policy. To analyze the interrelationship between S&T and the economy as well as

Guisheng Wu; Jizhen Li

2001-01-01

27

Expenditure for science & technology and economic growth: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the statistical data during the period from 1978 to 2006 released by National Bureau of Statistics of China, this paper applies the compensative GM (1,N) model and regression model to simulate the relationship between the expenditure for science & technology and economic growth. In the numerical experiment, the established grey model simulates the China's GDP values during the

Wuwei Li

2009-01-01

28

Economic Impact ofEconomic Impact of the Coca-Cola System on Chinathe Coca-Cola System on China  

E-print Network

has had on the Chi- nese economy. This study is timely because China is currently preparing for entry in China has helped transform the Chinese economy, China's local conditions have required that The CompanyEconomic Impact ofEconomic Impact of the Coca-Cola System on Chinathe Coca-Cola System on China

Almor, Amit

29

Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

Datta, Koushik

1998-01-01

30

Fiscal decentralization, public spending, and economic growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of China demonstrates how the allocation of fiscal resources between the central and local governments has affected economic growth since reforms began in the late 1970s. We find that a higher degree of fiscal decentralization of government spending is associated with lower provincial economic growth over the past fifteen years. This consistently significant and robust result in our

Tao Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

1998-01-01

31

The Impact of Carbon Tax on Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon tax is an effective measure to build low-carbon economy and has significant influences on economic growth. Using the panel data of 29 provinces from 1999 to 2008, we build a panel data model and adopt Generalized Least Squares estimation (GLS) to analyze the impact of carbon tax on economic growth in China. The results are as follows: the impact

Zhang Zhixin; Li Ya

2011-01-01

32

Economic growth, income inequality and poverty in china under economic reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's gross domestic product (GDP) more than quadrupled between 1978 and 1996 under economic reforms. Per capita disposable incomes more than tripled in the cities and almost quadrupled in the rural areas. However, rapid economic growth brought about large income inequality which slowed down poverty reduction. In 1995, there were still 70–170 million people living in poverty. This article aims

Shujie Yao

1999-01-01

33

Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China  

PubMed Central

Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2?=?0.378) and climatic factors (R2?=?0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions. PMID:18030342

Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

2007-01-01

34

Economic welfare impacts from renewable energy consumption: The China experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last years renewable energy sources have increased their share on electricity generation of China due to environmental and security of supply concerns. In this work author assesses the role of both the amount and share of renewable energy consumption in economic welfare using Cobb–Douglas type production functions. This assessment is carried out by multivariate OLS and SPSS software

Yiping Fang

2011-01-01

35

Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…

Ng, Ying Chu

2004-01-01

36

Capital Formation and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, production functions are estimated for China's aggregate economy and for the five sectors--agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, and commerce--using annual data (some constructed by the author) from 1952 to 1980. Then, this paper measures the contribution of capital formation to the growth of these sectors, the effects of the Great Leap Forward of 1958-62 and of the Cultural Revolution of

Gregory C. Chow

1993-01-01

37

Industrial accidents: Challenges for China’s economic and social development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has made statistical analysis of industrial accidents in recent years in China, compared them with those in some other countries, and analyzed the relationship between industrial accidents in enterprises and economic development. Since coalmine accidents take up the largest percentage in industrial accidents, analysis has also been made on the type and distribution of them, and comparative research

Tiemin Liu; Maohua Zhong; Juanjuan Xing

2005-01-01

38

Analysis of an oasis microclimate in China's hyperarid zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microclimate of a desert oasis in China’s hyperarid zone was monitored, analysed and compared to that of nearby forested lands. Factors associated with differences in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) between clear, cloudy and dust storm days are discussed. Desert oases were shown to fulfill ecological functions such as altering solar radiation, adjusting near-ground and land surface temperatures, reducing temperature differences, lowering wind velocity, and increasing soil and atmospheric humidity. Total solar radiation within the oasis was roughly half that above the forest canopy. During the growing season, air temperatures in Populus euphratica Olivier and Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. woodlands were, on average, 1.62 and 0.83°C lower, respectively, than that in surrounding woodlands. The greater the forest cover, the greater was the difference in temperature. Air temperature was higher at the upper storey than that at the lower storey of the community, i.e., air temperature increased with increasing height above the soil surface. During the growing season, relative humidity was higher in woodlands than in surrounding areas: relative humidity in P. euphratica and T. ramosissima woodlands were, on average, 8.5 and 4.2% higher, respectively, than that in the surrounding area. Mean wind velocity in the P. euphratica forest land was 0.33 m/s, 2.31 m/s lower than that in the surrounding area. On dust storm days PAR and total radiation, Q, were significantly lower than that on cloudy or clear days. Their ratio, ? Q = PAR/ Q, was larger and much more variable on dust storm days than that on clear or cloudy days.

Feng, Qi; Macuo, Zhuo; Haiyang, Xi

2009-09-01

39

Recent Claims of China's Economic Exceptionalism: Reflections Inspired by WTO Accession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desirability of WTO membership for China depends on whether its economic successes have been the result of its discovery of new institutional forms (e.g. dual track pricing, SOE contracts, and fiscal contracts) that are optimal for China's particular economic circumstances, or have been the result of the convergence of its economic institutions to those of a typical advanced member

Wing Thye Woo

2001-01-01

40

Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

2013-03-01

41

Techno-economic potential of bioethanol from bamboo in China  

PubMed Central

Background Bamboo is potentially an interesting feedstock for advanced bioethanol production in China due to its natural abundance, rapid growth, perennial nature and low management requirements. Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was selected as a promising technology to enhance sugar release from bamboo lignocellulose whilst keeping economic and environmental costs to a minimum. The present research was conducted to assess: 1) by how much LHW pretreatment can enhance sugar yields in bamboo, and 2) whether this process has the potential to be economically feasible for biofuel use at the commercial scale. Pretreatments were performed at temperatures of 170-190°C for 10–30 minutes, followed by enzymatic saccharification with a commercial enzyme cocktail at various loadings. These data were then used as inputs to a techno-economic model using AspenPlus™ to determine the production cost of bioethanol from bamboo in China. Results At the selected LHW pretreatment of 190°C for 10 minutes, 69% of the initial sugars were released under a standardised enzyme loading; this varied between 59-76% when 10–140 FPU/g glucan of commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2 was applied. Although the lowest enzyme loading yielded the least amount of bioethanol, the techno-economic evaluation revealed it to be the most economically viable scenario with a production cost of $0.484 per litre (with tax exemption and a $0.16/litre subsidy). The supply-chain analysis demonstrated that bioethanol could be economically competitive with petrol at the pump at enzyme loadings up to 60 FPU/g glucan. However, in a prospective scenario with reduced government support, this enzyme loading threshold would be reduced to 30 FPU/g glucan. Conclusions Bioethanol from bamboo is shown to be both technically and economically feasible, as well as competitive with petrol in China. Alternative approaches to reduce bioethanol production costs are still needed however, to ensure its competitiveness in a possible future scenario where neither tax exemptions nor subsidies are granted to producers. These measures may include improving sugar release with more effective pretreatments and reduced enzyme usage, accessing low cost bamboo feedstock or selecting feedstocks with higher/more accessible cellulose. PMID:24286490

2013-01-01

42

Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China*  

PubMed Central

Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants’ accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general. PMID:24376290

Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

2013-01-01

43

Extraction of Suspicious Behavior of Vessels in the Exclusive Economic Zone  

E-print Network

Extraction of Suspicious Behavior of Vessels in the Exclusive Economic Zone # Florent JANGAL1 activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) activities and detect abnormal behavior using both, LLOYDS insurance base, history of vessels, delimitation of maritime zones, etc.) and classification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Economic Burden of Disease-Associated Malnutrition in China.  

PubMed

Disease-associated malnutrition (DAM) is a well-recognized problem in many countries, but the extent of its burden on the Chinese population is unclear. This article reports the results of a burden-of-illness study on DAM in 15 diseases in China. Using data from the World Health Organization (WHO), the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the published literature, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost because of DAM were calculated; a financial value of this burden was calculated following WHO guidelines. DALYs lost annually to DAM in China varied across diseases, from a low of 2248 in malaria to a high of 1 315 276 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The total burden was 6.1 million DALYs, for an economic burden of US$66 billion (Chinese ¥ 447 billion) annually. This burden is sufficiently large to warrant immediate attention from public health officials and medical providers, especially given that low-cost and effective interventions are available. PMID:25301845

Linthicum, Mark T; Thornton Snider, Julia; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Wu, Yanyu; LaVallee, Chris; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Benner, Jennifer E; Philipson, Tomas J

2014-10-01

45

Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2  

E-print Network

in the Chinese economy away from industry and towards services, both without and with a decrease in China's tradeWill Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions? Tianyu Qi, Niven Winchester, Valerie J. Karplus and Xiliang Zhang Report No. 232 October 2012 China Energy & Climate Project

46

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

SciTech Connect

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

Lindhjem, Henrik [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)]. E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy of the State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1 Yuhuinanlu, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu [College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

2007-01-15

47

Economic growth and industrial pollution: Evidence from the urban panel data in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the urban panel data in China from 2003 to 2008, this paper explores the relationship between economic growth and industrial pollution including industrial wastewater, industrial SO2 emission and industrial soot emission. The results confirm an inverted-U or environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between economic growth and industrial pollution in China. For most cities, industrial wastewater and SO2 emission

Zhang Juan

2011-01-01

48

Economic growth, the environment and employment: challenges for sustainable development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been heralded as the fastest growing economy in the world. However, this growth has been achieved significantly at the expense of its environment. Conventional measures of economic performance such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) do not take into account environmental damages, and thus may be biased towards an unsustainable development path. In this paper, we compare China's economic

Dodo J. Thampapillai; Xun Wu; Lawrence R. Sunderaj

2007-01-01

49

Causal Relationship between Telecommunications and Economic Growth in China and its Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiu A. and Lam P.-L. Causal relationship between telecommunications and economic growth in China and its regions, Regional Studies. This paper studies the causal relationship between telecommunications development and economic growth of China. Its result indicates that there is a unidirectional relationship running from real gross domestic product (GDP) to telecommunications development at the national level. Causality running from telecommunications

Alice Shiu; Pun-Lee Lam

2008-01-01

50

Seismic investigation of an ocean-continent transition zone in the northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rifted continental margins and basins are mainly formed by the lithospheric extension. Thined lithosphere of passive continental margins results in decompression melt of magma and created oceanic crust and thined ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone. Two refraction profiles used ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the broad continental shelf and three multi-channel seismic reflection lines in the northern South China Sea, acquired by the ship "Shiyan 2" of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010, are processed and interpreted in this study. Seismic reflection lines cut through the Dongsha rise, Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression within a Tertiary basin, Pear River Mouth basin (called as Zhujiangkou basin). These tectonic features are clear imaged in the seismic reflection records. Numerous normal faults, cutted through the basement and related to the stretch of the northern South China Sea margin, are imaged and interpreted. Reflection characteristics of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone are summaried and outlined. The COT zone is mainly divided into the northern syn-rift subsidence zone, central volcano or buried volcano uplift zone and tilt faulted block near the South Chia Sea basin. Compared to the previous seismic reflection data and refraction velocity models, the segmentation range of the OCT zone is outlined, from width of about 225 km in the northeastern South China Sea , of 160 km in the central to of 110 km in the north-central South China Sea. Based on the epicenter distribution of sporadic and large than 6 magnitude earthquakes, it suggests the OCT zone in the northern South China Sea at present is still an active seismic zone.

Zhu, J.; Qiu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhan, W.; Sun, Z.

2011-12-01

51

Aqaba's Old Town : proposed model for community development within the Aqaba Special Economic Zone  

E-print Network

As a recently designated Special Economic Zone in 2001 and Jordan's only port, Aqaba has been experiencing a major economic boom and rapid development at a scale previously unprecedented in Jordan. Under the governance of ...

Al-Husseini, Dalia Z. (Dalia Zuehir)

2007-01-01

52

Economic Reform and the Changing Pattern of China's Agricultural Trade  

E-print Network

Yearbook of China 1996 (State Statistical Bureau), reports that approximately 330 million workers remain in China’s agriculture,Yearbook. The Census data suggest there could be an additional 80 to 100 million employed in agriculture.

Carter, Colin A.; Li, Xianghong

1999-01-01

53

On the Regional Economic Growth Pattern Transformation in the Context of Ecological Civilization of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of ecological civilization, China traditional regional economic growth model should be changed into the pattern which is helpful to save resources and protect ecological environment. Paper analyzes the motivation and purpose of the change, and then proposes that the effective approaches of achieving regional economic growth pattern transformation involve the regional production element structure adjustment, economic performance

Falong Fang; Jiang Zhou

2011-01-01

54

Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

2014-03-01

55

The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic

Philippe Hervé Leloup; Robin Lacassin; Paul Tapponnier; Urs Schärer; Dalai Zhong; Xiaohan Liu; Liangshang Zhang; Shaocheng Ji; Phan Trong Trinh

1995-01-01

56

Role of culture in economic development: Case study of China and Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of my thesis is to demonstrate the economic development of China and Latin America. My reason for choosing these two regions for my study is because they are both Third World Nations. My intention on writing this thesis is to prove that culture and the informal business networks of China are the major forces of what is driving

Amira Fellner

2008-01-01

57

Sources of China's economic growth 1952–1999: incorporating human capital accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's economic growth has been remarkable since the reform started in 1978. There is an ongoing debate about whether this performance is driven mainly by productivity growth or by factor accumulation. But few past studies taken human capital into account, and thus contained an omission bias. In this paper, we construct a measure of China's human capital stock over 1952–1999

Yan WANG; Yudong YAO

2003-01-01

58

A Comparative Study of the Economic Reforms in China and India: What Can We Learn?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last quarter of the twentieth century was characterized by economic reforms in many formerly state-dominated economies. Among them, the reform attempts by China and India have attracted increasing attention in the popular media and academic research. This paper contribute to this research by using institutional theory to analyse the reforms in China and India and develop a framework to

Shaomin Li; Anil Nair

2007-01-01

59

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Re newable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-9-2 Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China Hongbing Chen Deying Li Xinqiang Dai Key Lab...

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01

60

Overall Evaluation on the Level of Rural Economic Development in 31 Regions of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking China Rural Statistical Yearbook in 2008 as the data source, we select 10 indices scientifically and rationally. By using SPSS statistical software, factor analysis method and cluster analysis method in multivariate statistical analysis, we conduct analysis on the level of rural economic development in 31 provinces, municipalities directly under the Central Government, autonomous regions in China. Finally we extract

Daojian Yang; Suxia Liu; Zanzan Zhang

2011-01-01

61

77 FR 13253 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering...fisheries in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the...sector to increase the value of harvested species...and are able to make value added products like...

2012-03-06

62

Persistence of Coastal Vegetation in Supratidal Zones of Northern China  

PubMed Central

Coastal vegetation comprises a number of coastal specialists and terrestrial generalists. It remains unclear how they persist on disturbed and undisturbed coastal conditions. We tested the hypothesis that coastal specialists may be superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, but their superiority can be influenced by human disturbances. Eight separate sandy coasts of the Shandong Peninsula were sampled, representing for disturbed and undisturbed sandy coasts. Plants growing on their supratidal zones were surveyed. On this basis, we compared the relative dominances, niche widths, and commonness of all species, and also analyzed species diversities of the coasts. Coastal specialists were found to be more common and widespread on supratidal zones of the sandy coasts than terrestrial generalists haphazardly invading from hinterlands. Coastal specialists exhibited lower Sørensen dissimilarities than terrestrial generalists among the coasts. Tourist trampling seemed more detrimental than pond fishery to coastal vegetation. Relative to terrestrial generalists, coastal specialists responded to human disturbances more deterministically, with steady decreases in species diversities. These evidences verify that coastal specialists are intrinsically superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, especially of undisturbed coasts, because their dispersal among coasts adapts well to local storm surge regime. They also validate that human disturbances can depress the superiority of coastal specialists, partly by inducing invasion of terrestrial generalists. PMID:24224026

Yang, Hongxiao; Chu, Jianmin

2013-01-01

63

78 FR 19214 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring Requirements for American...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring Requirements for American Fisheries...operational impacts of the proposed monitoring requirements. DATES: The workshop...developing proposed revisions to some monitoring components of Amendment 91 for AFA...

2013-03-29

64

77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...070718367-2061-02] RIN 0648-AV33 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska...Quota Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...NMFS issues regulations that govern fisheries managed under the Western Alaska...

2012-02-08

65

Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic

Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

2010-01-01

66

Landscape Urbanization and Economic Growth in China: Positive Feedbacks and Sustainability Dilemmas  

PubMed Central

Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China’s policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization. PMID:22103244

2011-01-01

67

Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic

Chang, Ho-Jun

2009-01-01

68

Fortress State, Cultural Continuities and Economic Change: Higher Education in Mainland China and Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the role of higher education in China and Taiwan as an agent of both political socialization and economic modernization in the context of economic and social transformations, 1949-95. Examines how cultural traditions, a national belief system, nation building, and foreign relations help maintain a 200-year-old tension between…

Law, Wing-Wah

1996-01-01

69

Perceptions of Subjective Economic Well-Being and Support for Market Reform among China's Urban Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether subjective economic assessments have any impact on support for further market reforms among China's urban population, utilising a large survey of 10,716 people across 32 cities. The effect of subjective economic well-being on support for market reforms is an important issue for the Chinese government as it seeks to sell the benefits of increased globalisation and

Ingrid Nielsen; Chris Nyland; Russell Smyth; Cherrie Jiuhua Zhu

2005-01-01

70

A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P 2O 5 (?0.06 wt.%), Na 2O > K 2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, ?14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (La CN/Lu CN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu * = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and ? 18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma. The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al 2O 3 and Na 2O, and decreasing SiO 2, (Fe 2O 3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K 2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y decrease, while F, Li, Rb, Hf, Ta, Sn, Sc, Ga and Zn increase. (6) K/Rb, Al/Ga, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho decrease, and K/Cs, Th/U (La/Lu) CN and TE 1,3 (quantification factor of REE tetrad effect) increase. (7) There is a general decrease in whole-rock ? 18O from 9.25‰ to 9.75‰ in zone-a to 7.32‰ in zone-e. (8) Homogenization temperatures of melt inclusions in quartz decrease from about 860 °C for zone-a to about 660 °C for zone-e. It is interpreted that crystallisation of the magma started from zone-a and proceeded upwards to zone-e, and the vertical zoning is produced by fractional crystallisation accompanied by fluid-melt interaction. Some of the distinctive features of zone-e were caused by influx and reaction of meteoric fluid at the post-magmatic stage. Turbulent structures and co-magmatic deformation textures are well recorded in the rocks, and are ascribed to reduced viscosity and enhanced flow rate of the F- and H 2O-rich magma.

Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Wu, Chang-zhi; Gou, Xiao-qin; Liao, Jing-juan; Yang, Hao

2011-10-01

71

Decadal-scale precipitation variations in arid and semiarid zones of northern China during the last 500 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional decadal precipitation reconstructions for the arid and semi-arid zones of northern China were established by the\\u000a use of different palaeoclimate archives such as ice-cores, tree-rings, lake sediments and written historical documents. Local\\u000a rainfall reconstructions from single sites were averaged to obtain regional precipitation records for western and eastern\\u000a regions of an arid and semiarid zone of northern China, respectively.

Tao Wang; Bao Yang; A. Braeuning; Dunsheng Xia

2004-01-01

72

Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.  

PubMed

Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization. PMID:22103244

Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

2012-01-01

73

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF FISHERIES EXCLUSION ZONES: A SICILIAN CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial approaches to fisheries management in the form of total or partial exclusion zones have attracted much interest in recent years, though relatively little is known in practice about how such measures impact fishermen or other groups of stakeholders. The present paper hopes to shed light on this issue by reporting the results of a recently completed EU project investigating

David Whitmarsh; Carl James; Helen Pickering; Carlo Pipitone; Fabio Badalamenti; Giovanni DAnna

2002-01-01

74

The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India  

PubMed Central

We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980. PMID:20419074

Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

2010-01-01

75

Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

Ozturgut, Osman

2008-01-01

76

China’s one-child policy: the economic choices and consequences faced by pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the important issue of the effect of China’s one-child policy on prenatal and obstetric care utilization. The paper provides the first detailed empirical approach to this question, exploiting a unique high quality household survey. China officially codified a set of rules and regulations in 1979 governing the approved size of Chinese families, commonly known as the one-child

Jim P. Doherty; Edward C. Norton; James E. Veney

2001-01-01

77

Factor Analysis of the Northeast Economic Zone's Logistics Competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the expanding regional logistics network, the area's logistics competition is very important because it enhances the entire area's economy. This paper is based on both the domestic and foreign theories and methods used with related subjects to study the content of the area's logistics competition. According to the level of economic development in Northeast region, the scale of logistics demand, the situation of logistics supply as well as the level of development of information, all establish the urban logistics competitiveness index system using the factor analysis method through the SPSS system to evaluate the competitiveness of the urban logistics which is very representative of the Northeast economic area. Finally, this paper uses the fore mentioned system to calculate the scores of 27 city's separated into 3 categories: The first including 4 cities (Shenyang, Harbin, Dalian, Changchun), the second having 3 cities (Jilin, Daqing, Anshan) and the final category has 20 cities (Fushun, Songyuan, Qiqihar, Baotou etc.).

Shen, Wei; Wang, Jiaxin; Li, Tingting

78

GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone  

SciTech Connect

Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

Torresan, M.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-06-01

79

Economic efficiency and social insurance reforms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses efficiency issues related to social insurance provisions and their implications for the newly established three-pillar pension system and three-tier health insurance system in China. It shows that these new systems can be improved substantially through some restructuring to reduce efficiency losses. The discussion of efficiency consequences focuses on correction for market failure and alternative mechanisms for financing

H. Li

2000-01-01

80

Regional Income Inequality and Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an augmented Solow growth model with cross section and panel data, we find evidence of conditional convergence of per capita production across China's provinces from 1978 to 1993. Convergence is conditional on physical investment share, employment growth, human-capital investment, foreign direct investment, and coastal location. We project that, in the near term, overall regional inequality as measured by the

Jian Chen; Belton M. Fleisher

1996-01-01

81

The Impact of China's Economic Reforms on Agricultural Productivity Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for assessing the relative importance of price increases and strengthened individual incentives due to the introduction of the responsibility system for the post-1978 increase in China's agricultural productivity. Data on post-1978 Chinese agricultural performance suggest that a little over three-quarters of the measured productivity increase is due to payment system changes and the remainder to

John McMillan; John Whalley; Lijing Zhu

1989-01-01

82

Economic Liberalization with Rising Segmentation in China's Urban Labor Market*  

E-print Network

-up in the late 1970s, both rural and urban labor markets in China have changed dramatically. By allowing market rural-urban migration, rural and urban labor markets remain highly segmented. Within both urban system (hukou system) was established in 1958 to restrict migrations both between rural and urban areas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Identification and evaluation of low resistivity pay zones by well logs and the petrophysical research in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of petrophysical research and exploration achievements of low resistivity pay (LRP) zone by\\u000a well logs in China. It includes geological characteristics and characteristics of well log response of the low resistivity\\u000a pay zones discovered and evaluated in recent years, as well as the problems in recognizing and evaluating low resistivity\\u000a pay zones by well logs.

Mao Zhiqiang; Kuang Lichun; Xiao Chengwen; Li Guoxin; Zhou Cancan; Ouyang Jian

2007-01-01

84

76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea...NMFS proposes to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for...

2011-07-18

85

77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...a final rule to implement the Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Program, which will evaluate the effectiveness of Chinook salmon bycatch management measures for the...

2012-02-03

86

SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

1975-01-01

87

Central Asia and Xinjiang, China: Emerging energy, economic and ethnic relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

On an energy?equivalent basis Central Asia is predominantly a gas producing region, with Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan contributing substantially to the regional total. Kazakhstan is the primary oil producer in the region. Xinjiang, one of the poorest areas of China, is noted for its vast oil, gas and coal resources, though still largely undeveloped. As a means of facilitating economic development

James P. Dorian; Brett Wigdortz; Dru Gladney

1997-01-01

88

The economics of sustainable energy for rural development: A study of renewable energy in rural China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines recent modeling efforts and case studies to evaluate the economic viability of off-grid renewable energy technologies for rural application in developing countries. Case studies have been conducted for a representative sample of 41 households from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, who have operating experience of at least one year with small, off-grid wind (less than

John Byrne; Bo Shen; William Wallace

1998-01-01

89

An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give

C. Z Wu; H Huang; S. P Zheng; X. L Yin

2002-01-01

90

A Research on Economic Factors Affecting China's Tax Growth Based on Panel Error Correction Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how various kinds of major economic factors affect China's tax growth. We apply the panel unit root testing, panel cointegration testing and panel-based error correction models to analyze the long-term stable relationship among tax growth, GDP growth, optimization of industrial structure and import for 30 provinces during 1994- 2008 periods. The empirical results show that in the

Sun Jian; Tong Jinzhi

2011-01-01

91

Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years, it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy. This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy, educational investment and educational finance, educational cost and…

Guirong, Li

2006-01-01

92

ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

93

Unequal Economic Development in China: Spatial Disparities and Regional Policy Reconsideration, 1985-1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZHAO X. B. and TONG S. P. (2000) Unequal economic development in China: spatial disparities and regional policy reconsideration, 1985-1995, Reg. Studies 34 , 549-561. Almost two decades into the implementation of Deng Xiaoping's 'get rich first' policy and 'coastal development strategy', income inequality and an imbalance in regional development have emerged as two of the most disturbing factors affecting

X. B. Zhao; S. P. Tong

2000-01-01

94

Alternative zoning scenarios for regional sustainable land use controls in China: a knowledge-based multiobjective optimisation model.  

PubMed

Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

2014-09-01

95

Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model  

PubMed Central

Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

96

OH in zoned amphiboles of eclogite from the western Tianshan, NW-China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically-zoned amphibole porphyroblast grains in an eclogite (sample ws24-7) from the western Tianshan (NW-China) have been\\u000a analyzed by electron microprobe (EMP), micro Fourier-transform infrared (micro-FTIR) and micro-Raman spectroscopy in the OH-stretching\\u000a region. The EMP data reveal zoned amphibole compositions clustering around two predominant compositions: a glaucophane end-member\\u000a (\\u000a B\\u000a Na2\\u000a C\\u000a M2+\\u000a 3 M3+\\u000a 2\\u000a \\u000a T\\u000a Si8(OH)2) in the cores, whereas

Wen Su; Ming Zhang; Simon A. T. Redfern; Jun Gao; Reiner Klemd

2009-01-01

97

Figure I.-Offshore bases in Mexico's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Foreign Fishery Developments  

E-print Network

Mexico's Marine Fisheries Enforcement Gulf Coast Enforcement The Gulf of Mexico is especially rich- cially by Cuban vessels. United States and Cuban shrimp fishing off Mexico's Gulf Coast is scheduledFigure I.-Offshore bases in Mexico's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Foreign Fishery Developments

98

75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish...be a novel approach to managing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery...combines a limit on the amount of Chinook salmon that may be caught incidentally with...

2010-02-18

99

Urban Youth Economic Enterprise Zones: An Intervention Strategy for Reversing the Gang Crisis in American Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that any strategy designed to combat the problem of urban youth groups must (1) have high visibility; (2) be youth intense; and (3) use economic development approaches such as community-based small business enterprises. The proposed youth enterprise zones model is a youth and community revitalization strategy. (SLD)

Ellis, Arthur L.

1992-01-01

100

Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China  

SciTech Connect

The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: > National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. > We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. > The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

Song Guojun, E-mail: Songguojun@vip.sohu.com; Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

2011-11-15

101

75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock...that pertain to the management of Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea subarea of...

2010-09-24

102

Study of the permeability in melting zone of South China Sea based on percolation theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic crust is formed at mid-ocean ridges. The melting zone extends up to several hundreds of km laterally, the upwelling area at the spreading axis is confined to a narrow belt of only 2-3 km width. Whereas the parameter of permeability that magma ascending from the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is still poorly understood, despite the important role of the process for the formation of crust. Based on continuum percolation, we build the random fracture network as magma migration channels of South China Sea; with momentum equation, we deduced the dynamic pressure distribution with passive corner flow. After which, the permeability of melting zone is calculated with finite element method. Numerical simulation results indicate that there exists a power law relationship between the permeability and magma migration channels. The simulated result is consistent with that calculated by fractal method. The discovery of the ruler provides sound theoretical basis for the formation and evolution of oceanic crust, and may help us better understanding the formation and evolution of South China Sea.

Wan, Ju-ying; Xu, He-hua; Li, Yan-zhen; Shu, Wei-bing

2015-01-01

103

Plant Invasions in China: What Is to Be Expected in the Wake of Economic Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing and transitional countries undergoing rapid economic development will face growing problems with biological invasions because international commerce will bring new invaders. We assessed the potential for plant invasions in China by comparing the country's current invasive flora with that of the United States, a nation of similar size and latitudinal span but with a different history of plant introductions. Invasive plant species richness in the United States is about twice as high as it is in China. The remarkably lower fraction of invasive woody plants in China suggests that more alien trees and shrubs could invade Chinese habitats. Road density correlated with invasive plant species density among geographical units, with numbers for China lower than those for the United States. The data suggest that China has been invaded less than the United States has, and that the potential for new plant invasions in China is high. Measures toward preventing biological invasions are needed and timelysteps taken now can prevent adverse impacts from future invasions.

Ewald Weber (University of Zurich;); Bo Li (Fudan University - Shanghai, China;)

2008-05-01

104

Coal use in the People`s Republic of China, Volume 2: The economic effects of constraining coal utilization  

SciTech Connect

The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. The dominance of coal in China`s energy balance has come at a high price to the environment. With the recent attention given to global warming issues, China`s energy consumption and production practices have become the subject of much concern. Of particular concern is China`s ability to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by constraining coal use and the impact such policies will likely have on the Chinese economy. The study is divided into two reports. Volume 1 focuses on the full coal fuel cycle, emissions, and environmental effects. This report (Volume 2) analyzes various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies and determines their effect on economic growth. Contrary to what some analysts have claimed, the current work suggests that it would not be costly for the Chinese to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, some strategies were accompanied by increases in China`s energy and economic efficiency, which actually stimulated economic growth.

Rose, A.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.; Benavides, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics; Tompkins, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

105

Mantle transition zone structure beneath India and Western China from migration of PP and SS precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the seismic structure of the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone beneath India and Western China using PP and SS underside reflections off seismic discontinuities, which arrive as precursors to the PP and SS arrival. We use high-resolution array seismic techniques to identify precursory energy and to map lateral variations of discontinuity depths. We find deep reflections off the 410 km discontinuity (P410P and S410S) beneath Tibet, Western China and India at depths of 410-440 km and elevated underside reflections of the 410 km discontinuity at 370-390 km depth beneath the Tien Shan region and Eastern Himalayas. These reflections likely correspond to the olivine to wadsleyite phase transition. The 410 km discontinuity appears to deepen in Central and Northern Tibet. We also find reflections off the 660 km discontinuity beneath Northern China at depths between 660 and 700 km (P660P and S660S) which could be attributed to the mineral transformation of ringwoodite to magnesiowuestite and perovskite. These observations could be consistent with the presence of cold material in the middle and lower part of the mantle transition zone in this region. We also find a deeper reflector between 700 and 740 km depth beneath Tibet which cannot be explained by a depressed 660 km discontinuity. This structure could, however, be explained by the segregation of oceanic crust and the formation of a neutrally buoyant garnet-rich layer beneath the mantle transition zone, due to subduction of oceanic crust of the Tethys Ocean. For several combinations of sources and receivers we do not detect arrivals of P660P and S660S although similar combinations of sources and receivers give well-developed P660P and S660S arrivals. Our thermodynamic modelling of seismic structure for a range of compositions and mantle geotherms shows that non-observations of P660P and S660S arrivals could be caused by the dependence of underside reflection coefficients on the incidence angle of the incoming seismic waves. Apart from reflections off the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, we observe intermittent reflectors at 300 and 520 km depth. The discontinuity structure of the study region likely reflects lateral thermal and chemical variations in the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone connected to past and present subduction and mantle convection processes.

Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Rost, Sebastian; Cobden, Laura; Dobson, David P.

2014-04-01

106

Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the coastal zone: The LOICZ approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focused on quantifying the role of the global coastal zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for site-specific and global assessments of coastal processes and their drivers. Indicators used in coastal assessments include the contribution of population and economic activities to waste load generation, and the resulting coastal system states relative to net production and nitrogen cycling. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Talaue-McManus, L.; Smith, S.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

2003-01-01

107

Implementation of energy efficiency standards of household refrigerator\\/freezer in China: Potential environmental and economic impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the rapid economic development, living standards in China are improving fast. Chinese families are having more household electrical appliances, among which refrigerators are indispensable. Energy consumption of refrigerators is huge in China and causes environmental concerns. China has issued the national energy efficiency standards of household refrigerators, GB12021.2-2003 and GB12021.2-2008 to promote high-efficiency refrigerator production and use. This

Jing Tao; Suiran Yu

2011-01-01

108

Geographic Patterns of Air Passenger Transport in China 1980–1998: Imprints of Economic Growth, Regional Inequality, and Network Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes the geographic patterns of domestic air passenger transport in China from 1980 to 1998, with three foci: (1) impacts of economic reforms, (2) regional inequality in air transport development, and (3) network development. Accessibility to air transport improved significantly as China expanded its air transport system, 1980–1998. The dominance of major airports declined as the air transport

Fengjun Jin; Fahui Wang; Yu Liu

2004-01-01

109

Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been unable to find any global or regional datasets of groundwater.. Combining Surface and Groundwater Supply Functions Water Demand Curves. Water Use data is reported on political regions. Water Supply is reported and modeled on river basin regions. It is necessary to allocate water demands to river basins. To accomplish this China's 9 major river basins were divided into 36 hydroeconomic regions. The counties were then allocated to one of the 36-hydroeconomic zones. The county-level water use data was aggregated to 5 major water use sectors: 1)industry; 2)urban municipal and vegetable gardens: 3) major irrigation; 4) Energy and 5)Other agriculture (forestry, pasture; fishery). Sectoral Demand functions that include price and income elasticity were developed for the 5 sectors for each of the 9 major river basin. The supply and demand curves were aggregated at a variety of geographical scales as well as levels of economic sectoral aggregation. Implications for investment and sustainable development policies were examined for the various aggregation using partial and general equilibrium modeling of the Chinese economy. These results and policy implications for China as well as insights and recommendation for other developing countries will be presented.

Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

2001-05-01

110

Nutrient dynamics in the winter thermohaline frontal zone of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the first attempt to estimate the nutrient transport across the winter thermohaline frontal zone on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the nutrient dynamics around the front and the effects of cross-frontal water exchange on nutrient transport were investigated using wintertime field observations. Both water temperature and salinity increased from coastal to oceanic waters, showing the presence

Su Mei Liu; Xinyu Guo; Qi Chen; Jing Zhang; Yan Feng Bi; Xin Luo; Jian Bing Li

2010-01-01

111

Air movement preferences observed in naturally ventilated buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.  

PubMed

Occupants' preferences for air movement in naturally ventilated buildings have been extracted from a database of three thermal comfort surveys conducted in the humid subtropical climate zone in China, during winter, spring, and summer seasons. The distribution of draft sensation shows that only 25.7, 38.5, and 28.7% of the subjects in winter, spring, and summer, respectively, felt that the available air movement was just right, suggesting that indoor air velocity may be a big problem in naturally ventilated buildings in humid subtropical China. Air movement preferences show that 15.8, 61.3, and 80.6% of subjects in winter, spring, and summer, respectively, wanted more air movement. Only a handful of subjects wanted less air movement than they were actually experiencing in any season, suggesting that draft was not much of an issue for thermal comfort. Occupants' preference for air movement is strongly related to thermal sensation, showing that people want to control air movement as a means of improving their comfort. The demand for less air movement under cool sensation is much smaller than the overwhelming demand for more air movement when the sensation was warm. The above results indicate that air movement might have a significant influence over the respondents' comfort sensation and that people required a high level of air movement in order to be comfortable during the summer season. Thus, one efficient way to improve the thermal environment in summer in humid subtropical China could be to provide occupants with effective natural ventilation and allow personal control of the air movement. Our findings are also applicable to other buildings, to encourage designers to provide air movement as a low energy cooling strategy and to ensure that sufficient levels of air movement are available. PMID:19618217

Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

2009-11-01

112

A Videotape Study of Science Teaching in Shenzhen, China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a videotape study of science teaching in Shenzhen, China. Shenzhen is one of China's first special economic zones adjacent to Hong Kong. Developed from a small fishing village in the late 1970s, Shenzhen experienced fast economic growth in the last two decades, which has steadily increased the diversity of the…

Wang, Jianjun; Zhu, Chunying

113

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mariculture zones of China's northern Yellow Sea.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in water and sediment samples collected from three mariculture zones in China's northern Yellow Sea. In these samples, total PAH concentrations ranged from 110.8 ng/L to 997.2 ng/L and 142.2 ng/gdry weight (dw) to 750.2 ng/gdw, respectively. The log KOC values of the various PAH compounds examined in this study increased with the log KOW values, which is consistent with the prediction regarding PAH behavior in the environment. However, these KOC values were lower than the predicted values as a result of the effects of organic matters, which were abundant in the mariculture water. The isomeric ratios of the PAHs in sediment indicated that the source of the PAHs in the mariculture zones were mainly pyrolytic. The TEQ(carc) values of PAHs ranged from 7 ng TEQ/gdw to 92 ng TEQ/gdw, and only a few samples met the safe criterion with respect to individual PAH concentrations. PMID:24952456

Zong, Humin; Ma, Xindong; Na, Guangshui; Huo, Chuanlin; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Zhifeng

2014-08-15

114

Geography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in ChinaGeography, Economic Policy,and Regional Development in China Geography, Economic Policy, and  

E-print Network

is also a reality, for example, the Appalachians in the United States, Northern Shaanxi in China, Chiapas to prosperous areas illegal, and the monopoly state bank system that, because of its bureaucratic na- ture in Mexico, and Madura in Indonesia. The per- sistence of regional poverty has led many prominent social

115

Plant Pb Contents in Elevation Zones of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, China 1 1 Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Nos. 2003CB415104 and 2006CB403301) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50239020)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical plants and soils of four elevation zones, mountain tundra (Zone A), Betula ermanii forest (Zone B), mountain dark coniferous forest (Zone C), and mountain coniferous and broad-leaf forest (Zone D), along the vertical gradient of the northern mountain slope of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, Jilin Province. China, were sampled to study the relationship between plant and soil

Jun-Hong BAI; Bao-Shan GUI; Wei DENG; Qing-Gai WANG; Qiu-Yi DING

2007-01-01

116

75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and ``Other Flatfish...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish...bycatch allowance specified for the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other...

2010-06-03

117

76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 680...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program...Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

2011-08-10

118

76 FR 80782 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Tuesday, December 27, 2011)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 80782-80802...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed 2012 and...

2011-12-27

119

78 FR 36122 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...116 (Monday, June 17, 2013)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 36122-36128...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 680...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization...

2013-06-17

120

77 FR 72791 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and 2014 Harvest Specifications for Groundfish...

2012-12-06

121

77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for...

2012-06-12

122

75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District...exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

2010-11-15

123

75 FR 41999 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...reopening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels participating...2010 directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels...

2010-07-20

124

76 FR 40838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels participating...2011 directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels...

2011-07-12

125

76 FR 46207 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating...is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels participating...2011 directed fishing allowance of Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels...

2011-08-02

126

An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China.  

PubMed

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give a financial return owing to the low price of biomass wastes and insufficient power supply at present in some regions of China. In this work, experimental data from 1 MW-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) BGPG plants constructed recently in China were analyzed; and it was found that the unit capital cost of BGPG is only 60-70% of coal power station and its operation cost is much lower than that of conventional power plants. However, due to the relatively low efficiency of small-scale plant, the current BGPG technology will lose its economic attraction when its capacity is smaller than 160 kW or the price of biomass is higher than 200 Yuan RMB/ton. The development of medium-scale BGPG plants, with capacity ranging from 1000 to 5000 kW, is recommended; as is the demonstration of BGPG technology in suitable enterprises (e.g. rice mill and timber mill) in developing countries where large amounts of biomass wastes are available so that biomass collection and transportation can be avoided and the operation cost can be lowered. PMID:12058832

Wu, C Z; Huang, H; Zheng, S P; Yin, X L

2002-05-01

127

Policy support, economic incentives and the adoption of irrigation technology in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in China. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of policy support and economic incentives on the adoption of irrigation technology in China. Based on a unique dataset collected at household and village levels from seven provinces in China, results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption on crop-sown areas was not high, and it was even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analyses results revealed that policy supports via subsidies and extension services have played an important role in promoting the adoption of irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played significant but contradictory roles in promoting the adoption of different types of irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to their substitution relationship, because having higher adoption of household-based irrigation technology reduce the incentives to invest in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

2014-11-01

128

Correlation Analysis of the Rural Finance Development and Rural Economic Growth - A Case of Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on relevant research on rural finance development and rural economic growth by some Chinese scholars, taking Sichuan Province of China as an example, index of rural financial scale (deposit scale Y1 and credit scale Y2), index of rural financial support to agriculture (agricultural loan scale Y3, loan size of township enterprises Y4), index of rural economic development level (total

Chenzhong Lu

2009-01-01

129

75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering...catcher/processor offload report. The purpose of this...and submit the offload report to NMFS will be able...not have a significant economic impact on a substantial...processor crab offload report. This rule removes...

2010-09-16

130

New attempts on increasing economic gains in the development of geothermal resources in Beijing, China  

SciTech Connect

The development of geothermal resources in the city of Beijing and its surrounding suburbs has been made possible by investments from companies in the surrounding Provinces of China. The development of these geothermal deposits has created a market for hot spring real estate. The real estate has been developed into comprehensive projects for recreation and vacation resorts, in addition to, heath care centers and greenhouse farming. This new attempt to develop these geothermal resources has increased the economic growth of the area and interest in geothermal expansion.

Zheng, K.

1997-12-31

131

Genotypic characteristics of the rrn operon and genome of indigenous soybean Bradyrhizobia in cropping zones of China.  

PubMed

Four genetic assays, 16S rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), 16S rRNA sequencing, 16S-23S rRNA intergenetic spacer (IGS) RFLP, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), were conducted to determine the genotypic characteristics of 44 indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium from soybean (Glycine max L.) cropping zones of China. The results generated from different assays showed that soybean bradyrhizobial isolates comprised four genomic groups. Group I was composed of strains mainly isolated from the North and Northeast plains of China. All four assays confirmed this group as phylogenetically divergent from all the reference strains. Strains of the group may represent a new species. Strains in Group II isolated from a variety of geographic regions were ascribed to B. liaoningense. Strains in Group III, mainly isolated from Central and East China, were closely related to the reference strains of B. japonicum. Strains in Group IV belonged to B. elkanii. PMID:17110965

Yang, Jiang Ke; Zhang, Wei Tao; Yuan, Tian Ying; Zhou, Jun Chu

2006-10-01

132

REE composition of primary and altered feldspar from the mineralized alteration zone of alkaline intrusive rocks, western Yunnan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yao'an gold deposit is situated northwest of Kunming in Yunnan Province, China, is associated spatially with Yao'an alkaline intrusion. The Yao'an gold mineralization may be divided into two ore stages: the stage I (sulfide stage) fine-grained pyrite-chalcopyrite-galena stringer veins and the stage II (oxide plus sulfide) tectonic breccias and banded ore. The stage I ores occur in the zones

Xianwu Bi; D. H Cornell; Ruizhong Hu

2002-01-01

133

Element cycling in the dominant plant community in the Alpine tundra zone of Changbai Mountains, China.  

PubMed

Element cycling in the dominant plant communities including Rh. aureum, Rh. redowskianum and Vaccinium uliginosum in the Alpine tundra zone of Changbai Mountains in northeast China was studied. The results indicate that the amount of elements from litter decomposition was less than that of the plant uptake from soil, but that from plant uptake was higher than that in soil with mineralization process released. On the other hand, in the open system including precipitation input and soil leaching output, because of great number of elements from precipitation into the open system, the element cycling(except N, P) in the Alpine tundra ecosystem was in a dynamic balance. In this study, it was also found that different organ of plants had significant difference in accumulating elements. Ca, Mg, P and N were accumulated more obviously in leaves, while Fe was in roots. The degree of concentration of elements in different tissues of the same organ of the plants also was different, a higher concentration of Ca, Mg, P and N in mesophyll than in nerve but Fe was in a reversed order. The phenomenon indicates (1) a variety of biochemical functions of different elements, (2) the elements in mesophyll were with a shorter turnover period than those in nerve or fibre, but higher utilization rate for plant. Therefore, this study implies the significance of keeping element dynamic balance in the alpine tundra ecosystem of Changbai Mountains. PMID:16083139

Liu, Jing-Shuang; Yu, Jun-Bao

2005-01-01

134

A thinned lithospheric image of the Tanlu Fault Zone, eastern China: Constructed from wave equation based receiver function migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the newly proposed wave equation-based receiver function poststack migration method to the Northern China Interior Structure Project broadband data to image the lithospheric structure of the Tanlu Fault Zone area in eastern China. Our migration result reveals a 60- to 80-km-thick present-day lithosphere beneath the study region, significantly thinned from the Paleozoic lithosphere of >180 km. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is coherently imaged along the ˜300-km east-west profile, displaying an arc-like shape with its apex roughly coincident with the transverse location of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the surface. An obvious uplift from ˜36 km to ˜32 km of the Moho is also clearly detected right below this fault zone. The coincidence of the imaged Moho uplift and the LAB apex with the surface location of the Tanlu Fault Zone provides seismological evidence for the steep geometry and deep penetration of the fault system, and indicates that the Tanlu Fault Zone might have acted as a major channel for anthenosphere upwelling during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental extension and lithospheric thinning in eastern China. Frequency analysis and synthetic modeling suggest that both the Moho and the LAB are sharp and strong. The latter, in particular, is constrained to have a 3-7% drop in S wave velocity over a depth range of 10 km or less. Such a rapid velocity change at the base of the lithosphere in the study region cannot be solely explained by thermal variation, but likely reflects the presence of volatiles or melt in the asthenosphere, or is partially attributed to the compositional contrast between the preserved depleted and dehydrated cratonic lithospheric veneer and the uplifted hydrated and fertile asthenospheric materials.

Chen, Ling; Zheng, Tianyu; Xu, Weiwei

2006-09-01

135

China's one-child policy: the economic choices and consequences faced by pregnant women.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the important issue of the effect of China's one-child policy on prenatal and obstetric care utilization. The paper provides the first detailed empirical approach to this question, exploiting a unique high quality household survey. China officially codified a set of rules and regulations in 1979 governing the approved size of Chinese families, commonly known as the one-child policy. The policy imposed economic and social costs on families failing to adhere to the family size limits. In particular, the policy raised the price of obstetric medical services for unapproved pregnancies in comparison to approved pregnancies and imposed fines on families with unapproved births. Using data from an eight-province longitudinal household survey (The China Health and Nutrition Survey), we investigate whether or not the one-child policy's financial penalties were associated with the avoidance of obstetric care by pregnant Chinese women with unapproved pregnancies. The one-child policy variables of particular interest were a dichotomous measure of the approval status of the pregnancy, a continuous measure of the fine imposed upon families with unapproved births, and a continuous measure of the prices of prenatal care and delivery services net of any subsidy available for approved births. The results partially confirm the hypotheses that the one-child policy's economic and social costs caused women to forego seeking modern obstetric care services. The fine was found to be a significant deterrent to the utilization of prenatal care. Additionally, the unapproved-status of a pregnancy was strongly negatively associated with "the use of obstetric care. However, higher prices were not consistently found to be a significant deterrent to the use of obstetric care. PMID:11218178

Doherty, J P; Norton, E C; Veney, J E

2001-03-01

136

GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector  

SciTech Connect

The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

1986-05-01

137

PERMANENT MIGRANTS TO CITIES IN CHINA: HUKOU ORIGIN AND EARNINGS AMONG MEN IN AN ERA OF ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION*  

PubMed Central

The massive volume of internal migration in China since the late 1970s has attracted considerable research attention. However, the integration of permanent migrants in cities during a time of economic transformation is understudied. Using information on earnings from the 2003 General Social Survey of China, this research examines whether permanent migrants are economically advantaged or disadvantaged in comparison to non-migrants in cities. We find that permanent migrants in cities tend to be economically advantaged and that their advantage depends more on human capital than on political capital. Nevertheless, this does not mean that political capital can be ignored. A nuanced view requires attention to how political and human capital jointly affect earnings in specific economic sectors. PMID:25133084

Wang, Xiaozhou; Oropesa, R.S.; Firebaugh, Glenn

2014-01-01

138

Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

2011-01-01

139

Economic transition and maternal health care for internal migrants in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Economic migration and growth in informal employment in many of the major cities of developing countries, combined with health sector reforms that are increasingly relying on insurance and out-of-pocket payment, are raising concerns about equity and sustainability of economic and social development. In China, the number of internal migrants has dramatically grown since economic transition started in 1980, and maternal health care for these is a pressing issue to be addressed. To provide information for policy-makers and health administrators, a medical records review, a questionnaire survey and qualitative interviews were carried out in Minhang District, Shanghai. This paper describes important inequities in main maternal health outcomes and utilization indicators relating to economic and social transformation of the Chinese society. Analysis of the data collected clarifies that insufficient antenatal care is one of the main determinants for poor maternal health outcomes and that migrants are using antenatal care services significantly less than permanent residents. The data suggest that there is no single explanatory factor, but that migrants are faced with a package of obstacles to accessing health care services, and that health systems may need to rethink and redesign their delivery approaches to specifically target those groups that are faced with such multi-faceted packages of obstacles to service-access. Although the study addresses a specific Chinese phenomenon related to internal migration and registration of residency, parallels can be drawn to other settings where a combination of economic and social transitions of the society and a reform of health care financing are potentially creating the same conditions of significant inequalities. PMID:12477741

Shaokang, Zhan; Zhenwei, Sun; Blas, Erik

2002-12-01

140

Sensible and Latent Heat Flux Variability and Response to Dry-Wet Soil Moisture Zones Across China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of sensible and latent heat fluxes over land has advanced slowly due to the absence of long-term measurements. To help address this, we produced a long-term heat flux dataset by using a land-surface model driven using observation-based atmospheric forcing. We then corrected the dataset using net radiation observations, and validated the corrected dataset using multiple-source measurements. The results indicate that the corrected dataset represents the variability of these two heat fluxes well on various time scales. Based on the dataset, analyses show that, during 1951-2008, sensible heat flux decreased significantly over China, with a linear trend of 0.04 W m year, while latent heat flux increased at 0.02 W m year. Regionally, the trends appeared more significant in north-east China, south-west China, and the Tibetan Plateau. On average, the Tibetan Plateau showed the maximum sensible heat flux, especially over the south-west region, with averages 100 W m. Meanwhile, higher latent heat fluxes mainly covered the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and southward, with averages 70 W m. Regarding the response of heat fluxes to soil moisture, the variations of sensible and latent fluxes were more sensitive to soil moisture over dry regions (arid and semi-arid soil moisture zones), while the stronger anomalies for both fluxes occurred over wet regions (semi-humid and humid soil moisture zones).

Li, Mingxing; Ma, Zhuguo

2015-01-01

141

Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years. PMID:24468441

Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

2014-03-01

142

Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China  

E-print Network

Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China E extracted from the juice of sweet sorghum and/ or from the hemicellulose and cellulose in the residual sorghum bagasse versus selling the sugar from the juice or burning the bagasse to make electricity in four

California at Riverside, University of

143

Persistent problems of access to appropriate, affordable TB services in rural China: experiences of different socio-economic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Large-scale Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in China have been hailed a success. Concerns remain, however, about whether the programme is reaching all sections of the population, particularly poorer groups within rural communities, and whether there are hidden costs. This study takes a household perspective to investigate receipt of appropriate care and affordability of services for different socio-economic groups with

Tuohong Zhang; Shenglan Tang; Gao Jun; Margaret Whitehead

2007-01-01

144

Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: Carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.  

PubMed

As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. PMID:25662248

Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

2015-02-01

145

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox ®, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox®, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox® vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines

X. Suo; J. X. Zhang; Z. G. Li; C. T. Yang; Q. R. Min; L. T. Xu; Q. Liu; X. Q. Zhu

2006-01-01

146

[Characteristics of soil denitrifying enzyme activity in riparian zones with different land use types in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China].  

PubMed

By using acetylene inhibition method, this paper studied the soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) and its affecting factors in the riparian zone with different land use types (cropland riparian, forested riparian, and grassy riparian zones) in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China. The riparian soil DEA was (0.69 +/- 0.11)--(134.93 +/- 33.72) microg N x kg(-1) x h(-1), which differed obviously among different land types, with a decreasing trend of forested riparian zone > cropland riparian zone > grassy riparian zone. The soil DEA was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 0-10 cm in 10-30, 30-50, and 50-70 cm layers. There were significant positive relationships between soil DEA and soil TOC, TN, and NO(3-)-N (P < 0.01). Land use change mainly altered the soil natural structure and soil physical and chemical properties, decreased the accumulation of soil organic carbon, and affected the soil nitrogen transformation, and thus, inhibited the occurrence of riparian soil denitrification. PMID:24483089

Chen, Gang-Liang; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Chang-Ming

2013-10-01

147

Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the He and H2 anomalies occurred mostly at the same place and the amplitudes of the anomalies significantly decreased simultaneously with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found three times at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity. Keyword: Soil gas; Seismic rupture; Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake; China

Zhou, X.; Du, J.

2010-12-01

148

Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?  

E-print Network

We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

Qi, Tianyu

149

Heavy metal concentrations and their possible sources in paddy soils of a modern agricultural zone, southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a typical modern agricultural Zone of southeastern China, Haining City, 224 topsoil samples were collected from paddy fields\\u000a to measure the total concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic\\u000a (As) and cobalt (Co). The total concentrations ranged from 15.30 to 78.40 mg kg?1 for Cu, 20.10 to 41.40 mg kg?1 for Pb, 54.98 to 224.4 mg kg?1

Chunfa Wu; Limin Zhang

2010-01-01

150

75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...the projected unused amount of the 2010 rock sole total allowable catch (TAC) specified...allow the 2010 total allowable catch of rock sole to be fully harvested. DATES:...

2010-08-19

151

77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl...the B season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch specified for...

2012-03-30

152

76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska...the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). NMFS would...action also would require full retention of salmon in the Central and Western GOA...

2011-11-23

153

76 FR 77757 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska...the Central and Western GOA for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), which would...action also would require retention of salmon by all vessels in the Central and...

2011-12-14

154

77 FR 42629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska...the Central and Western GOA for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), which would...This action also requires retention of salmon by all vessels in the Central and...

2012-07-20

155

75 FR 69361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...initial total allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the...total allowable catch (ITAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea was...

2010-11-12

156

75 FR 69599 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels participating in the Amendment...necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific ocean perch total allowable catch specified...

2010-11-15

157

77 FR 42439 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of...

2012-07-19

158

78 FR 73110 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the...the 2013 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch specified for the Bering Sea...

2013-12-05

159

76 FR 39791 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area...

2011-07-07

160

77 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of...NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of...total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area...

2012-07-13

161

76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...to the initial total allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus in the BSAI was [[Page 17361

2011-03-29

162

76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached....

2011-09-07

163

Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is very complex. This paper focus on the development of a methodology to target the ESZ based on currently available tools (Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrologic Model). According to the features of the TGRR, a spatially explicit and process-based method was introduced to help plan the placement of the ESZ in the TGRR for water quality benefits. The methods presented here were based on the integration of grid-based terrain analysis and nonpoint source pollution estimates. Firstly, the contribution of nonpoint source pollution from upslope farmland and urban to the TGRR was determined by grid-based terrain analysis. The upslope contributing area beyond the ESZ was defined as a "source". The SWAT model was used to analyze the characteristics of the pollution load. Secondly, the ESZ was defined as a "sink" and the reducing pollution loads in each grid cell of the ESZ was calculated by the REMM model. Finally, the key areas in the TGRA where the ESZ have the greatest potential to improve water quality were identified and the formula of the width of the ESZ was determined. However, the method in this article considers only the function of pollutants reduction in the ESZ, the next stage of the study will involve detailed modeling for the function of ecological corridor in the ESZ.

Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

2011-12-01

164

Psychological Traces of China's Socio-Economic Reforms in the Ultimatum and Dictator Games  

PubMed Central

Can traces of rapid socio-economic changes within a society be reflected in experimental games? The post-Mao reforms in China provide a unique natural quasi-experiment to study people from the same society who were raised with radically different values about distribution of wealth and altruistic behavior. We tested whether the size of offers in the ultimatum and dictator games are an increasing function of the number of years Chinese citizens experienced of the Mao era (“planned economy”). For the cohort that lived throughout the entire Mao era, we found that mean offers in the two games were substantially higher than what is typically offered in laboratory studies. These offers were also higher than those of two younger Chinese cohorts. In general, the amount offered decreased with less time spent under Mao, while in the oldest group in which every member spent the same amount of time under Mao, the younger members tended to offer more, suggesting an additional effect of early education under Mao and contradicting the alternative hypothesis that generosity increases with age. These results suggest that some of the observed individual differences in the offers made in experimental games can be traced back to the values of the socio-economic era in which individuals grew up. PMID:23967102

Zhu, Liqi; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Huangfu, Gang

2013-01-01

165

Economic Impact of Maternal Death on Households in Rural China: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. Methods A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1–3 months after maternal death or childbirth) and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID), linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. Findings The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported “household economy became worse” during the follow-up period (adjusted OR?=?6.04, p<0.001). During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001). Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p?=?0.024). Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p?=?0.037), clothes and commodity (p?=?0.003), traffic and communication (p?=?0.022) and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p?=?0.014). Conclusion Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported “household economy became worse”, decreased income and expenditure, increased debts and changed expenditure pattern. PMID:24204648

Wang, Yan; Huntington, Dale

2013-01-01

166

Diurnal soil water dynamics in the shallow vadose zone (field site of China University of Geosciences, China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the relatively low soil moisture in arid or semi-arid regions, water vapour movement often predominates in the\\u000a vadose zone and affects the partitioning of energy among various land surface fluxes. In an outdoor sand bunker experiment,\\u000a the soil water content at 10 and 30 cm depth were measured at hourly intervals for 2.5 days during October 2004. It was found

Yijian Zeng; Li Wan; Zhongbo Su; Hirotaka Saito; Kangle Huang; Xusheng Wang

2009-01-01

167

Benthos and demersal fish habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled data from different monitoring surveys to analyse and compare community and diversity patterns of fish, epi- and infauna in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea in order to identify benthic habitats common to all faunal components. We found congruent community patterns of fish, epi- and infauna for the coastal waters, the Oysterground and the area called "Duck's Bill", which coincided with specific abiotic characteristics of these regions. The three regions were defined as special habitats for fish, epi- and infauna species in the German EEZ. The differences in the seasonal variability of abiotic factors seem to be the most important discriminating abiotic characteristic for the three habitats. The spatial distribution of fish, epifauna and infauna communities remained stable over time although habitat characteristics such as sea surface temperature increased due to climate change. However, it is expected that the coastal habitat will be more sensitive to future climate change effects in contrast to the Oysterground and Duck's Bill habitat.

Neumann, Hermann; Reiss, Henning; Ehrich, Siegfried; Sell, Anne; Panten, Kay; Kloppmann, Matthias; Wilhelms, Ingo; Kröncke, Ingrid

2013-09-01

168

The impacts of lower population growth on the quality of life and economic development: China's experience.  

PubMed

China's population in 1993 was 1.18 billion, which makes it the most populous nation in the world. The Chinese population policy aims to control growth and improve the quality of human resources. Most Chinese recognize the need for family planning. Replacement level fertility has been achieved, because there are limited resources to support a large population. Scarce resources are limiting economic development. There has been a loss of arable land, and the dream of 2 hectares of land, a cow, a wife and children, and a comfortable bed are not attainable. Water resources are also limited, the ratio of water to arable land is unevenly balanced, and there is overdrawing of groundwater. Energy shortages, environmental pollution, and pressure on employment are other effects of population pressure. The surplus labor force is about 150-190 million farmering laborers. Labor productivity has declined due to excess labor. Projections are that 20-25% of employees are surplus, and unemployed in urban areas will total 10 million. Without a strong family planning program, there will be a rural labor surplus of 200-360 million people by the year 2000. One benefit of lower population growth is the savings in child-rearing expenses. Estimated births averted between 1971 and 1992 was about 250 million, which translates to a savings of $500 billion. About 66% of this sum would be recovered in the same period and 33% would be recovered between 1993-2007. Government and nongovernmental spending on family planning totaled an estimated $10 billion between 1971-92. The ratio of input to output for averted births is 1 to 17. Total spending would have been RMB 2500 billion yuan for child rearing of averted births between 1971-92 and RMB 1828 billion yuan between 1991-2005. The saved money could be invested in economic development. An estimated 10% of national income could be saved. Another benefit from low population growth is the increased consumption evident between 1971-90. There has not been any significant change in the employment pattern in China. Women have benefitted from smaller families and greater involvement in the work force. 689 poor counties were identified as needing assistance, which resulted in increased incomes. PMID:12318709

Jiang, Z; Zhang, L

1994-02-01

169

Analysis on the disparity in economic growth and consumption between urban sector and rural sector of China: 1978–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper designs a theoretical model of excess per-capita income growth and brings forward such indices as excess per-capita\\u000a income, per-capita base consumption and decreasing factor as well as the corresponding measurement methods. It studies from\\u000a a brand new aspect the disparity between the economic growth in urban sector and rural sector of China in the past 30 years\\u000a after

Yue Li

2010-01-01

170

The embodied energy and environmental emissions of construction projects in China: An economic input–output LCA model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete understanding of the resource consumption, embodied energy, and environmental emissions of civil projects in China is difficult due to the lack of comprehensive national statistics. To quantitatively assess the energy and environmental impacts of civil construction at a macro-level, this study developed a 24 sector environmental input–output life-cycle assessment model (I–O LCA) based on 2002 Chinese national economic

Yuan Chang; Robert J. Ries; Yaowu Wang

2010-01-01

171

Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment of soybean-based biodiesel as an alternative automotive fuel in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment for conventional diesel (CD) and soybean-based biodiesel (SB) in China was carried out in this paper. The results of the assessment have shown that compared with CD, SB has similar source-to-tank (StT) total energy consumption, 76% lower StT fossil energy consumption, 79% higher source-to-wheel (StW) nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions, 31%, 44%, 36%, 29%,

Zhiyuan Hu; Piqiang Tan; Xiaoyu Yan; Diming Lou

2008-01-01

172

Optimization of geometry, material and economic parameters of a two-zone subcritical reactor for transmutation of nuclear waste with SERPENT Monte Carlo code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimization study of a subcritical two-zone homogeneous reactor was carried out, taking into consideration geometry, material, and economic parameters. The advantage of a two-zone subcritical system over a single-zone system is demonstrated. The study investigated the optimal volume ratio for the inner and outer zones of the subcritical reactor, in terms of the neutron-physical parameters as well as fuel cost. Optimal geometrical parameters of the system are suggested for different material compositions.

Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

2014-06-01

173

The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China's Economic and Social Transformation*  

PubMed

This paper examines the consequences of China's dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change. PMID:24288434

Steele, Liza G; Lynch, Scott M

2013-11-01

174

Trends of NDVI, precipitation and their relationship in different forest ecological zone of China during 1982 to 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the change of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and precipitation for forest in different ecological zones in China and their correlation over the period of 1982-2006. The specific aim of this paper was to identify the changing trends of NDVI and precipitation and understand their relations, especially, on which duration the precipitation influence NDVI strongly during growing season of forest in different ecological aspects. The results showed that 1) the break points of NDVI and precipitation appeared in different years in most ecological zones, but in temperate continental forest and temperate mountain system, they have a high degree of consistency; 2) the NDVI in boreal coniferous forest, temperate mountain system and tropical moist deciduous forest showed a increasing trend during 1982-2006 and the lowest value were appeared in different time and the precipitation in boreal coniferous forest and temperate mountain system showed a decreasing trend; 3) the forest in different ecological zones has different patterns with different periods and lags and the peak value of pearson correlation coefficients were showed in different duration and lag, and NDVI and precipitation generally have the negative but weak relation.

Wang, Sa; Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Xi; Zhang, Guo; Yang, Ting

2014-11-01

175

Structural and geochronological constraints on the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the North Dabashan zone, South Qinling, central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and 40Ar/39Ar data from the mylonitic rocks of the North Dabashan zone (NDZ) document kinematic and tectonothermal characteristics of the Mesozoic collisional and intra-continental orogenesis in the southern part of the Qinling orogenic belt. The NDZ underwent two deformational phases during the Mesozoic period. The earlier one is characterized by top-to-the-SW thrust ductile shearing along a NW-trending shear zone (DSZ-1), while the later one is featured by dextral strike-slip ductile shearing along another NNW-trending shear zone (DSZ-2). The timing of the two deformation events have been constrained to be 245-189 Ma and 178-143 Ma respectively, by using mica 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. It is proposed that the earlier deformation event was associated with the Middle Triassic-Early Jurassic collision between the North and South China Blocks, which generated the initial framework of the NDZ; and the later one was related to the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous intra-continental orogeny in East Asia, which caused a significant eastward extrusion of the South Qinling and led to the formation of the SW-convex Dabashan foreland orocline. The distinguishing between these two deformation events sheds a new insight into the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt.

Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Shi, Wei

2013-03-01

176

Paleotemperature variation in the South China Sea and the displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during the last 30 kyrs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have generated paleotemperature records from Cores MD97-2146 and MD 97-2151 during the last 30 kyrs to understand the latitudinal displacement of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the western Pacific warm pool region. The paleotemperatures were estimated by TEX86 paleothermometry. The age depth models were created by calendar ages converted from AMS C-14 ages of planktonic foraminifera. At MD97-2146 in the northern South China Sea, TEX86-derived temperature was about 23°C in the last glacial maximum (21 ka), dropped to 20°C at 17 ka, rose to 26°C at 14.5 ka, dropped again to 25°C at 12 ka, followed by temperature rise to 28°C at 11.5 ka and subsequent gradual increase to 29°C until 7 ka. The changing pattern resembles the pattern of Greenland temperatures. At MD97-2151 in the southern South China Sea, TEX86-derived temperature was about 24°C from 21 ka to 15ka and dropped to 23°C at 14.5 ka, followed by temperature rise to 27°C at 11.5 ka and subsequent gradual increase to 30°C until 5 ka. The changing pattern resembles the pattern of Antarctic temperatures. The changing patterns of TEX86-derived temperature during the last deglaciation are more similar to those of foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratio in nearby cores than to alkenone UK37’. The TEX86-derived temperatures in core-top samples agree with the summer sea surface temperatures, suggesting that the TEX86 reflects the summer temperatures in the South China Sea. According to the TEX86-derived temperatures, the northern site was warmer than the southern site in the Bølling/Allerød period, and the former was cooler than the latter in the Oldest Dryas period. In modern setting, the northern South China Sea is warmer than the southern South China Sea in summer season when the ITCZ shifts north, and the former is cooler than the latter in winter season when the ITCZ shifts south. By analogy with this modern setting, we suggest that the ITCZ shifted north in the Bølling/Allerød period and south in the Oldest Dryas period. The similar trends were reported in the Atlantic Ocean and South America, suggesting that the ITCZ displacement during the last deglaciation was synchronous across the Atlantic and the western Pacific regions.

Yamamoto, M.; Shintani, T.; Sai, H.; Chen, M.

2009-12-01

177

A case history of Tunnel Boring Machine jamming in an inter-layer shear zone at the Yellow River Diversion Project in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a case study of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) jamming in a section of the Connection Works No. 7 tunnel of the Yellow River Diversion Project (YRDP) in China. Analysis of tunnel lithology, rock convergence by shearing, rock strength and ground stress, indicates that a high rate of convergence within an inter-layer shear zone in the lower part

Yanjun Shang; Jihong Xue; Sijing Wang; Zhifa Yang; Jie Yang

2004-01-01

178

Land Use Zoning at the County Level Based on a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study from Yicheng, China  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can generate a corresponding optimal solution, with a different quantity structure and spatial pattern to satisfy the preference of the different decision makers; (7) the model proposed in this paper is capable of handling the land-use zoning problem, and the crossover and mutation operator can improve the performance of the model, but, nevertheless, leads to increased time consumption. PMID:23066398

Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

2012-01-01

179

The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China’s Economic and Social Transformation*  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the consequences of China’s dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change. PMID:24288434

Steele, Liza G.; Lynch, Scott M.

2013-01-01

180

Economic Evaluation of First-Line Adjuvant Chemotherapies for Resectable Gastric Cancer Patients in China  

PubMed Central

Background First-line postoperative adjuvant chemotherapies with S-1 and capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) were first recommended for resectable gastric cancer patients in the 2010 and 2011 Chinese NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Gastric Cancer; however, their economic impact in China is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX, with S-1 and no treatment after a gastrectomy with extended (D2) lymph-node dissection among patients with stage II-IIIB gastric cancer. Methods A Markov model, based on data from two clinical phase III trials, was developed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of patients in the XELOX group, S-1 group and surgery only (SO) group. The costs were estimated from the perspective of Chinese healthcare system. The utilities were assumed on the basis of previously published reports. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated with a lifetime horizon. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results For the base case, XELOX had the lowest total cost ($44,568) and cost-effectiveness ratio ($7,360/QALY). The relative scenario analyses showed that SO was dominated by XELOX and the ICERs of S-1 was $58,843/QALY compared with XELOX. The one-way sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential parameter was the utility of disease-free survival. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis predicted a 75.8% likelihood that the ICER for XELOX would be less than $13,527 compared with S-1. When ICER was more than $38,000, the likelihood of cost-effectiveness achieved by S-1 group was greater than 50%. Conclusions Our results suggest that for patients in China with resectable disease, first-line adjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX after a D2 gastrectomy is a best option comparing with S-1 and SO in view of our current study. In addition, S-1 might be a better choice, especially with a higher value of willingness-to-pay threshold. PMID:24340099

Tan, Chongqing; Peng, Liubao; Zeng, Xiaohui; Li, Jianhe; Wan, Xiaomin; Chen, Gannong; Yi, Lidan; Luo, Xia; Zhao, Ziying

2013-01-01

181

Sedimentary loadings and ecological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a typical mariculture zone of South China.  

PubMed

Two sediment cores were collected from Hailing Bay located in a typical mariculture zone of Guangdong Province, South China, and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of the sum of 27 PAHs ranged from 62 to 1200 ng g(-1) dry wt, and sediment in the study area was considered to be moderately polluted by PAHs. Source diagnostics based on PAH composition and principal component analysis suggested that PAHs in the study area were mainly derived from petroleum combustion, with discharge of PAHs from fishing boats as an important source. Ecological risk assessment results indicate that PAHs in sediment of the present study currently have minimal adverse effect on the mariculture environment. Comparison of sedimentary inventory of PAHs in the fish harbor of the study area with those in the Pearl River Estuary and the coastal Bohai Bay indicate that the sediment has become an important reservoir of PAHs. PMID:22898895

Yu, Huan-Yun; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wong, Charles S; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-10-26

182

Aquatic plants diversity in arid zones of Northwest China: patterns, threats and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated aquatic plant diversity by conducting the field investigation and collecting the published data in the arid\\u000a regions of Northwest China. Two hundred and twenty four taxa of vascular aquatic plants representing 64 genera and 34 families\\u000a occur in this area, 8.48% of which are endemic. Among these, 1 genus and 6 species were new state records and 1

Zhongqiang Li; Dan Yu; Wen Xiong; Dong Wang; Manghui Tu

2006-01-01

183

Research on thermal insulation performance of existing residential buildings in cold zone in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main factors which influenced the energy consumption of residential buildings were analyzed. DeST-c software was used to simulate a typical residential building in heating area in China, and the heat consumption index of the building under different insulation-layer thickness was investigated. It is found that building heat consumption index shows a downward trend with the increase of insulation-layer thickness. But

Jie Pengfei; Li Deying; Zhu Neng; Shen Jiao

2011-01-01

184

The effects of urbanization on temperature trends in different economic periods and geographical environments in northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data collected from 22 urban and 65 rural meteorological stations in northwestern China between 1961 and 2009, this paper presents a study concerning the effects of urbanization on air temperature trends. To distinguish among the potential influences that stem from the economic development levels, population scales, and geographic environments of the cities in this region, the 49-year study period was divided into two periods: a period of less economic development, from 1961 to 1978, and a period of greater economic development, from 1979 to 2009. Each of the cities was classified as a megalopolis, large, or medium-small, depending on the population, and each was classified as a plateau, plain, or oasis city, depending on the surrounding geography. The differences in the air temperature trends between cities and the average of their rural counterparts were used to examine the warming effects of urbanization. The results of this study indicate that the magnitude of warming effects due to urbanization depends not only on a city's economic level, but also on the population scale and geographic environment of the city. The urbanization of most cities in northwestern China resulted in considerable negative warming effects during 1961-1978 but evidently positive effects during 1979-2009. The population scale of a city represents a significant factor: a city with a larger population has a stronger warming influence, regardless of whether the effect is negative or positive. Among the three geographic environments of the cities considered, plateaus and plains more significantly enhance warming effects than oases. The urban population trend has a very significant logarithm relationship with the urban temperature effect, but no clear relationships between urban temperature effects and city elevation were detected. The majority of the temperature trends, accounting for more than 60 % of the trends during 1961-2009, can be explained by natural factors, although urbanization has had some obvious effects on temperatures in northwestern China.

Fang, Feng; Guo, Junqin; Sun, Landong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xinping

2014-04-01

185

Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.  

PubMed

With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

2014-01-01

186

Relationship between Air Pollutants and Economic Development of the Provincial Capital Cities in China during the Past Decade  

PubMed Central

With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictorssuch as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provinical cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

2014-01-01

187

Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental

Qingguo Gao

1999-01-01

188

Reconsidering brownfield redevelopment strategy in China's old industrial zone: a health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination.  

PubMed

Urban environmental quality in brownfield redevelopment sites is of vital importance after most of former industrial areas were replanned or changed into residential and recreational areas. Hence, it is necessary to rethink if those brownfield redevelopment sites have been cleaned up so that there will be no negative health impacts to local residents. Under such a circumstance, this paper aims to evaluate the contamination level of heavy metals within a brownfield redevelopment site in China, namely, the Tiexi old industrial zone in Shenyang. Surface soil and dust samples were collected from local industrial sites, residential/commercial sites, traffic sites, and recreational sites, respectively. Our analysis results revealed that although the soils in the brownfield redevelopment sites had been treated and remediated, heavy metal pollution still exists in certain sites, especially in the current industrial sites that will be planned into residential/commercial or recreational zones, and the current residential sites where the former industrial sites located, showing that past industrial activities did and will continue to influence the soil quality. Further health risk assessment indicates that As and Pb generated from industrial sites and traffic sites has a potential to pose serious health risks to local residents, especially children. The hotspots with more serious health risks to children are mainly concentrated in the areas close to the former Shenyang Smelting Plant. After one decade of redevelopment, the Tiexi old industrial zone has become a new urban area which is not suitable for large-scaled soil remediation efforts. Thus, the phytoremediation by trees or herbs in heavy-metal-contaminated land is more appropriate and should be embedded into urban green land planning. This study provides innovative policy insights on urban brownfield redevelopment to both governmental officials and related stakeholders so that they can make appropriate remediation actions. PMID:25205156

Ren, Wanxia; Geng, Yong; Ma, Zhixiao; Sun, Lina; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

2015-02-01

189

Molecular data and ecological niche modeling reveal population dynamics of widespread shrub Forsythia suspensa (Oleaceae) in China’s warm-temperate zone in response to climate change during the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Background Despite its high number of endemic deciduous broad-leaved species in China’s warm-temperate zone, far less attention has been paid to phylogeographic studies in this region. In this work, the phylogeographic history of Forsythia suspensa endemic to China’s warm-temperate zone was investigated to explore the effect of climate change during the Pleistocene on the distribution of this deciduous broad-leaved species in China. Results The cpDNA data revealed seven phylogeographical groups corresponding to geographical regions. By contrast, the nrDNA data supported the samples clustered into three groups, which was inconsistent with separate geographical regions supported by cpDNA data. Ecological niche modeling showed that the climatically suitable area during the cold period was larger than that during the warm period. Conclusions Both molecular data and ecological niche modeling indicated that F. suspensa expanded to nearby low-elevation plains in the glacial periods, and retreated to mountaintops during interglacial warmer stages. This study thus supported that F. suspensa persisted in situ during the glacial of the Pleistocene with enlarged distribution area, contrary to the hypothesis of long distance southward migration or large-scale range contraction. PMID:24885704

2014-01-01

190

Regional economic function analysis of U.S. foreign-trade zones  

E-print Network

Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZs) are defined as designated areas in the United States where foreign merchandise is considered to be international commerce and not subject to U.S. customs duties unless or until it enters into the ...

Otsubo, Hirotoshi

2005-01-01

191

75 FR 79330 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...provided by the preliminary reports on the pollock fishery...together with social and economic factors, in determining...combined with the SAFE Report and TAC recommendations...processing these preliminary reports. There would be some...Further analysis of the economic impact is found in...

2010-12-20

192

Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban forest conversion through model urbanization in Shenzhen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southern coastal China, Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ) was established as a model city by the government of mainland China in 1979 to demonstrate the competitive edge over Hong Kong across the straight. In less than three decades, Shenzhen has become a symbolic model city and changed from an agriculture-dominated landscape to a modern industrialization urban setting. The remote

Chongfeng Gong; Jiquan Chen; Shixiao Yu

2011-01-01

193

Consumption-Based Adjustment of China's Emissions-Intensity Targets: An Analysis of its Potential Economic Effects  

E-print Network

China’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015) aims to achieve a national carbon intensity reduction of 17% through differentiated targets at the provincial level. Allocating the national target among China’s provinces is ...

Springmann, M.

194

Nutrient dynamics in the winter thermohaline frontal zone of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the first attempt to estimate the nutrient transport across the winter thermohaline frontal zone on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the nutrient dynamics around the front and the effects of cross-frontal water exchange on nutrient transport were investigated using wintertime field observations. Both water temperature and salinity increased from coastal to oceanic waters, showing the presence of a thermohaline front. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients decreased oceanward, especially across the thermohaline front, while those of dissolved organic nutrients (i.e., dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus) showed patchy distributions. Ammonium was the major constituent of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and DON was the main component of total dissolved nitrogen. Molar ratios of PO43-/total dissolved phosphorus decreased from coastal to oceanic waters, indicating that PO43- was rapidly removed and/or consumed from the water column and that organic matter degradation increased offshore, replenishing PO43-. Molar ratios of NO3-/(NH4+ + DON) were 0.01-0.6, indicating dominance of regenerated nitrogen. Surface water convergence and bottom water divergence were identified in the across-shore velocity field, and the calculated across-shore nutrient fluxes suggest that the presence of the winter thermohaline front promotes the offshore transport of nutrients from coastal waters. The transport path begins with convergence of surface coastal waters toward the front, followed by the sinking in the frontal region and the oceanward movement through the bottom layer of the front offshore side. With an assumption of 500 km as the length of thermohaline front on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the calculated offshore fluxes of nutrients across the entire front are larger than those from the Zhujiang (Pearl River) and the Changjiang (Yangtze River).

Liu, Su Mei; Guo, Xinyu; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Bi, Yan Feng; Luo, Xin; Li, Jian Bing

2010-11-01

195

How can economic schemes curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth in China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility decline, driven by the one-child policy, and son preference have contributed to an alarming difference in the number of live male and female births in China. We present a quantitative model where people choose to sex-select because they perceive that married sons are more valuable than married daughters. Due to the predominant patrilocal kinship system in China, daughters-in-law provide

Debarun Bhattacharjya; Anant Sudarshan; Shripad Tuljapurkar; Ross Shachter; Marcus Feldman

2008-01-01

196

Exploring China's materialization process with economic transition: analysis of raw material consumption and its socioeconomic drivers.  

PubMed

China's rapidly growing economy is accelerating its materialization process and thereby creating serious environmental problems at both local and global levels. Understanding the key drivers behind China's mass consumption of raw materials is thus crucial for developing sustainable resource management and providing valuable insights into how other emerging economies may be aiming to accomplish a low resource-dependent future. Our results show that China's raw material consumption (RMC) rose dramatically from 11.9 billion tons in 1997 to 20.4 billion tons in 2007, at an average annual growth rate at 5.5%. In particular, nonferrous metal minerals and iron ores increased at the highest rate, while nonmetallic minerals showed the greatest proportion (over 60%). We find that China's accelerating materialization process is closely related to its levels of urbanization and industrialization, notably demand for raw materials in the construction, services, and heavy manufacturing sectors. The growing domestic final demand level is the strongest contributor of China's growth in RMC, whereas changes in final demand composition are the largest contributors to reducing it. However, the expected offsetting effect from changes in production pattern and production-related technology level, which should be the focus of future dematerialization in China, could not be found. PMID:24717125

Wang, Heming; Tian, Xin; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Chang, Miao; Hashimoto, Seiji; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Lu, Zhongwu

2014-05-01

197

Logistics Management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China, as the bright spot in the international economic development, has being joined into the global market. The sustained\\u000a economic growth in China is the driving force to the rapid development of logistics. In this chapter we first present a general\\u000a overview of China’s logistics developments. Summarizing the current development of China’s logistics industry, we can say\\u000a that the market

Gengzhong Feng; Gang Yu; Wei Jiang

198

Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.  

PubMed

Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

2013-08-01

199

Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

2014-06-01

200

Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

2014-02-01

201

Eutrophication and nutrient limitation in the aquatic zones around Huainan coal mine subsidence areas, Anhui, China.  

PubMed

The eutrophication of three small lakes in the aquatic zones at the Huainan coal mine subsidence areas, designated as east site (ES), central site (CS), and west site (WS), were studied. Nutrient content, species, and nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios were obtained through water quality analyses. Nutrient limitation was evaluated by nutrient enrichment bioassays (NEBs) in the autumn of 2012 and spring of 2013. Average annual concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) were 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 mg/L, and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were 0.77, 1.95, and 2.06 mg/L in the water column at CS, ES, and WS, respectively. All of the three lakes exhibited 'meso-eutrophic' states and the TN:TP ratio ranged from 25:1 to 74:1 with variability between seasons and sites. NEBs verified that primary productivity in the lakes at ES and WS were mainly limited by P, while N limitation or N and P co-limitation was present in the aquatic zones at CS due to unavailable dissolved inorganic nitrogen. In the studied lakes, the blue-green algae, which comprised 70% of all identified species, was the predominant taxa, while the micro-zooplankton taxa was dominant, indicating a typical trophic structure of eutrophic lakes. PMID:25225936

Yi, Qitao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Tingting; Qu, Xijie; Xie, Kai

2014-01-01

202

Economic Growth and Carbon Emission Control -A case study of power industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have achieved moderate to dramatic growth during the last few decades, and the world-widely continued economic growth results in increased wealth and deteriorated environment. The relationship between economic growth and environmental quality has received great attention in empirical and theoretical studies. But results are mixed: some find that economic development inevitably leads to environmental deterioration due to resource

Zhenyu Zhang; Karina Schoengold

2009-01-01

203

Water use and yield responses of cotton to alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation in the arid area of north-west China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was carried out over 2 years to investigate the effect of partial root-zone irrigation applied using drip\\u000a irrigation on the water use and yield of cotton (Gossypium\\u000a hirsutum) in oasis fields of arid north-west China. Two irrigation treatments, i.e., conventional drip irrigation (CDI, both sides\\u000a of plant row watered) or alternate drip irrigation (ADI, both sides of plant

Taisheng Du; Shaozhong Kang; Jianhua Zhang; Fusheng Li

2008-01-01

204

An integrative classification of vegetation in China based on NOAA AVHRR and vegetation-climate indices of the Holdridge life zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a method for integrated analysis of multi-source data for vegetation classification at the continental scale, and applied it to China. Multi-temporal 1 km NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Holdridge's life zone system and its vegetation-climate classification indices such as bio-temperature (BT), potential evapotranspiration rate (PER) and precipitation (P) correspond better with undisturbed vegetation types all over

Y. Pan; P. Gong; C. He; P. Shi; R. Pu

2007-01-01

205

An integrative classification of vegetation in China based on NOAA AVHRR and vegetation-climate indices of the Holdridge life zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a method for integrated analysis of multi-source data for vegetation classification at the continental scale, and applied it to China. Multi-temporal 1 km NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Holdridge's life zone system and its vegetation-climate classification indices such as bio-temperature (BT), potential evapotranspiration rate (PER) and precipitation ( P ) correspond better with undisturbed vegetation types

Y. Pan; X. Li; P. Gong; C. He; P. Shi; R. Pu

2003-01-01

206

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Yishak Volcanic Sequence, Kudi ophiolite, West Kunlun (NW China): implications for the magmatic evolution in a subduction zone environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yishak Volcanic Series (YVS) is part of the Late Cambrian Kudi ophiolite in the western Kunlun Mountains, NW China, which\\u000a marks the oldest suture zone in the Tibetan Plateau. The YVS is a well-preserved sequence comprising five conformable units\\u000a (A to E) of basalts to andesites, with mafic dykes in Units A to D. These rocks are sequentially characterized

Chao Yuan; Min Sun; Mei-Fu Zhou; Wenjiao Xiao; Hui Zhou

2005-01-01

207

The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion. Ecological engineering approaches can therefore reduce environmental impacts of LZTGR and optimize ecological services. In view of the current situation and existing ecological problems of LZTGR, according to function demands such as environmental purification, biodiversity conservation, and vegetation carbon sink enhancement, we should explore the eco-friendly utilization mode of resources in LZTGR. Ecological engineering approaches might minimize the impacts or optimize the ecological services. Natural regeneration and ecological restoration in LZTGR are valuable for soil erosion decrease, pollutant purification, biodiversity conservation, carbon sink increase, and ecosystem health maintenance in TGR. PMID:23296972

Yuan, Xing-zhong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

2013-10-01

208

‘Mobile men with money’: the socio-cultural and politico-economic context of ‘high-risk’ behaviour among wealthy businessmen and government officials in urban China  

PubMed Central

China’s transition from an injection drug-driven HIV epidemic to one primarily transmitted through sexual contact has triggered concern over the potential for HIV to move into the non-drug-injecting population. Much discussion has focused on the migrant men of China’s vast ‘floating population’ who are considered a high-risk group. As a result, many men who frequently engage in high-risk behaviour but are not included in this especially vulnerable group are evading HIV prevention messages. This paper highlights the socio-cultural and politico-economic factors that motivate many of China’s wealthy businessmen and government officials, sometimes referred to as ‘mobile men with money’, to engage in such behaviour. Examination of the activities related to the work of these men reveals a situation where the confluence of a market-oriented economy operating within a socialist-style political system under the influence of traditional networking practices has engendered a unique mode of patron-clientelism that brings them together over shared social rituals including feasting, drinking and female-centered entertainment that is often coupled with sexual services. As a result, consideration of the socio-cultural factors influencing these men’s sexual practices is important for responding to the newly emerging stage of China’s HIV epidemic. PMID:18975228

URETSKY, ELANAH

2014-01-01

209

Convergence tests on tax burden and economic growth among China, Taiwan and the OECD countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unfolding globalization has profound impact on a wide range of nations’ policies including tax and economy policies. This study adopts the time series and cluster analyses to examine the convergence property of tax burden and per capita gross domestic product among Taiwan, China and the OECD countries. The empirical results show that there is no significant relationship between the integration process and fiscal convergence among countries. However, the cluster analyses identify that the group of China, Taiwan, and Korea was stably moving toward one model during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. And, the convergence of tax burden is found in the group, but no pairwise convergence exists.

Wang, David Han-Min

2007-07-01

210

Equity and economic growth, a theoretical and empirical study: MENA zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In macroeconomic literature, it is widely held that persuasion of economic growth and more equitable distribution of income (wealth) is not possible at the same time. The basic reason put forward is that to aim for more equitable distribution will reduce total savings in short and medium terms by reducing the weighted average of propensities to save of the different

Rasul Bakhshi Dastjerdi; Rahim Dalali Isfahani

2011-01-01

211

76 FR 12884 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the data provided in these reports is a sufficient substitute...provided by the preliminary reports on the pollock fishery from...together with social and economic factors, in determining TACs...that, combined with the SAFE Report and TAC recommendations,...

2011-03-09

212

Can domestication of wildlife lead to conservation? The economics of tiger farming in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tigers are a threatened species that might soon disappear in the wild. Not only are tigers threatened by deteriorating and declining habitat, but poachers continue to kill tigers for traditional medicine, decoration pieces and so on. Although international trade in tiger products has been banned since 1987 and domestic trade within China since 1993, tigers continue to be poached and

Brant Abbott; G. Cornelis van Kooten

2011-01-01

213

An Endogenous Economic Growth Model: Analyzing the Sustainable Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sustainable development in China by building a theoretic model based on the R&D model. A major difference to the former models is that the model presented here considers exhaustible energy, pollution control which are endogenously determined. The method of optimal control is employed to obtain the balance growth solutions. The Results

Chunjie Chi; Tieju Ma; Jun Chen

2009-01-01

214

Rural-urban and regional inequality in output, income and consumption in China under economic reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Fast growth in China has led to significant improvement in people's living standards and average income. However, it has also brought about a huge rise in inequality. The purpose of this paper is to analyse regional and rural-urban inequality using a few income and consumption indicators. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data are collected from official statistical sources for all the

Shujie Yao; Zongyi Zhang; Gengfu Feng

2005-01-01

215

Economic Growth and The Expanding Export Sector: China 1952–1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper Granger's test is employed to examine the causal relationship between the size of the export sector and national income per capita (as well as their respective growth rates) for China for the period 1952–1985. Our empirical results favour a bi-directional causal sequence between these two variables. However, these findings disappear when a similar test is used for

Andy C. C. Kwan; John A. Cotsomitis

1991-01-01

216

Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies have attempted to make use of scale expansion as a tool to reduce inequality of higher education among regions with different development levels by providing poor regions with preferential treatment and support. This paper analyzes…

Bickenbach, Frank; Liu, Wan-Hsin

2013-01-01

217

Introduction Urban China has witnessed sweeping economic and social changes in the past two  

E-print Network

and sectoral changes in the urban economy have further shaped the evolution of the labor market in Chinese of migrants from rural areas, the young urban labor market in China appears to be evolving toward a market and gatekeeping role in the opportunity structure of the urban labor market. In this paper I aim at examining

218

Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3°C and 27.7°C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0˜31.6°C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1˜30.3°C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9°C and 27.3°C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4°C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like “slightly cool” to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants’ comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26°C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making people comfortable, which supports the regulation in China that in public and office buildings the set-point temperature of air-conditioning system should not be lower than 26°C.

Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

2008-05-01

219

Primary rock magnetism for the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone at Jiulong outcrop, Sichuan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary rock magnetism analysis was performed on samples from the Jiulong outcrop across the Anxian-Guanxian fault of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake rupture zone. The protolith of hanging wall of this outcrop is the upper Triassic sediments, which formed the fault breccia and gouge by repeated large earthquakes. The footwall of this outcrop contains Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. The average magnetic susceptibility value of the gouge is slightly less than that of potential protolith. Based on the primary rock magnetism, the main magnetic carriers are Fe-sulfides for the gouge, magnetite for the fault breccia, and magnetite and hematite for the Jurassic grayish-green and dark-purple sandstones. Possibly during or after repeated large earthquakes (just like the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake), it transformed the magnetic mineral from magnetite to Fe-sulfides by low thermal decomposition processes along the Anxian-Guanxian earthquake fault, which induces the slightly less average magnetic susceptibility values of the gouge than that of potential protolith. If this magnetic mineral changed only because of repeated large earthquake process, the heating by low velocity seismic slip friction and seismic fluid could possibly have been less than 300 °C. If this magnetic mineral of the Anxian-Guanxian earthquake fault is only induced after repeated large earthquakes, the earth surface process acts an important role for the magnetic mineral change. More other further studies should be done to verify the primary magnetic mineral phase change and discriminate the time of this magnetic mineral variation.

Liu, Dongliang; Li, Haibing; Lee, Teh-Quei; Chou, Yu-Min; Song, Sheng-Rong; Sun, Zhiming; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Si, Jialiang

2014-04-01

220

Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

2008-12-01

221

Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.  

PubMed

Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities. PMID:18853224

He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

2008-12-01

222

Rural Education and Economic Development in China, Mexico, Japan, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the histories of rural education and rural technology in four countries. Suggests that the economic function of education is the transmission of technologically relevant skills, and that technologically appropriate curricula are a necessary part of economic development policy. 30 references. (SV)

Ranson, Baldwin

1988-01-01

223

Economic transition, gender bias, and the distribution of earnings in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractMarket-oriented economic reform, which accelerated after 1992, has brought substantial changes to the Chinese economy. This dramatic economic transition was raised two important questions: ‘How are women faring in the transition from a planned economy to a market economy?’ and ‘Are some women faring relatively better than other women’? We use data from the Chinese Household Income Projects for the

John A. Bishop; Feijun Luo; Fang Wang

2005-01-01

224

The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: a study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence–divergence–crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as a theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize our investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The

David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H Terpstra; Yu Kai-Cheng

2008-01-01

225

The Impact of Natural Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the impact of economic ideology and national culture on the individual work values of managers in the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. The convergence-divergence-crossvergence (CDC) framework was used as theoretical framework for the study, while the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was used to operationalize over investigation of managerial work values across these four countries. The findings

David A. Ralston; David H. Holt; Robert H. Terpstra; Yu Kai-cheng

1997-01-01

226

Developing country experience with eco-industrial parks: a case study of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the pollution that accompanies rapid industrial growth in China, a National Eco-industrial Park Demonstration Program was launched in 2000. This article provides a case study of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA). The emergence of an environmental institution in TEDA is used as a backdrop to assess how TEDA has transformed itself into one of the top three

Han Shi; Marian Chertow; Yuyan Song

2010-01-01

227

GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

2011-01-01

228

China.  

PubMed

China's census, scheduled for July 1, 1981, will be preceded by a pilot census at the end of the next month. According to Mr. Y.C. Yu, Statistician in the Demographic and Social Statistics Branch of the UN, the pretest will be held in Wu Xi, a resort area of about 1.6 million persons about a 2-hour train ride west of Shanghai. Mr. Yu and Mr. Varon Kannisto will be UN observers of the pilot census. The method of enumeration will be similar to that used in the 1953 and 1964 censuses, said Mr. Yu. Each head of household will report to an enumeration station to provide information on the characteristics of household members. The questionnaire will contain about 13 items, which will be asked of 100% of the population. The 5 million enumerators will be teachers, accountants, and others, generally residents of the local area in which they will act as enumerators. Census data will be processed by computers in each of the 29 provinces and autonomous regions. The UNFPA is providing computers, data entry and ancillary equipment, software and supplies, advisory services, and training in census methods and data processing. The computers supplied by IBM will be the 4300 series; a model 4341 will be installed at the State Statistical Bureau in Beijing and 15 model 4331s will go to individual provinces. Results of earlier censuses were processed manually and with the abacus. UNFPA also plans to provide support for the analysis of census data and for their dissemination to appropriate organizations and departments in China. PMID:12278426

1980-05-01

229

The Roles and Performance of State Firms and Non-State Firms in China's Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — It is commonly accepted that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are inefficient and that non-state firms drive the phenomenal growth in China. However, why SOEs are not dying out and how the non-state firms thrive in a poor institutional environment remain unanswered. We apply the institutional and principal-agent perspectives to explain how firms with different ownerships de- ploy their resources

Shaomin Li; Jun Xia

2008-01-01

230

The distribution and economic losses of alien species invasion to China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive alien species have become one of the most serious environmental issues in the world. Data of taxon, origin, pathway,\\u000a and environmental impacts of invasive alien microorganisms, invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, fish, birds, mammals,\\u000a herbs, trees, and, marine organisms in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems of China were analyzed during 2001 and\\u000a 2003, based on literature retrieval and field survey.

Haigen Xu; Hui Ding; Mingyan Li; Sheng Qiang; Jianying Guo; Zhengmin Han; Zongguo Huang; Hongying Sun; Shunping He; Hairong Wu; Fanghao Wan

2006-01-01

231

Inter-Korean Cooperation in Special Economic Zones: Developments and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Already in 1998 then South Korean President Kim Dae-Jung\\u000a \\u000a had articulated the new “Sunshine Policy\\u000a ” calling for peaceful coexistence of the two nations, including the prospect of aid and bilateral economic cooperation as\\u000a well as a long-term unification proposal (Ahrens, 2003, p. 53). The historic summit between Kim Dae-jung and Kim Jong-il\\u000a \\u000a in June 2000 gave additional hope for

Ralph Michael Wrobel

232

Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

2010-09-01

233

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China.  

PubMed

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases. PMID:16876953

Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

2006-11-30

234

The impacts of tourism at a UNESCO heritage site in China – a need for a meta-narrative? The case of the Kaiping Diaolou  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, sites categorised as UNESCO World Heritage Sites are commonly used as a means of economic regeneration through tourism development. This study is of a recent addition to the list, the diaolou (fortified tower houses) of Kaiping, Guangdong, in South China. This rural zone, characterised by past emigration and farming, is in the early stages of tourism development. The

Chris Ryan; Zhang Chaozhi; Deng Zeng

2011-01-01

235

Eco-geochemical Assessment of Agroecosystems: Cd in the Chengdu Economical Region, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cadmium (Cd) in the Chengdu Economic Region was studied as an example of eco-geochemical assessment on agroecosystems. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition samples, chemical fertilizers, irrigation water, and plants were collected. The concentrations of Cd and other elements in these samples were analyzed and the fluxes of input and output of the agroecosystem were calculated. The results indicated that

Zhongfang YANG; Qingye HOU; Tao YU; Jiawei CHEN; Xueqi XIA; Yong HUANG; Kuo LI

2008-01-01

236

Exports, Inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Regional Economic Growth in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between exports and economic growth is strong in developing economies. Both externality effects of exports on the non-exports sector and higher marginal productivity in the exports sector in relation to the non-exports sector play an important role in promoting exports and GDP growth. The underlying theoretical model of FEDER, 1982, is used with the data on the Chinese

Haishun Sun; Ashok Parikh

2001-01-01

237

Economic Growth, Institutional Development and Personal Freedom: The Educational Needs of China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To sustain growth requires changes in the Chinese economy and society. The Asian financial crisis shows that independent institutions and individual freedoms are necessary to stimulate entrepreneurship and innovation. Conservative social values often promoted by the education and training system could hinder economic growth. (SK)

Clarke, Thomas

1999-01-01

238

Public Health Workers and Vaccination Coverage in Eastern China: A Health Economic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than one million deaths among children under 5 years of age every year. Public Health Workers (PHWs) are needed to provide immunization services, but the role of human resources for public health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been assessed in China. The objective of this study was to test whether PHW density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China. Methods: The vaccination coverage rates of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV), Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis combined vaccine (DTP), and Poliomyelitis Vaccine (PV) were chosen as the dependent variables. Vaccination coverage data of children aged 13–24 months for each county in Zhejiang Province were taken from the Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS). Aggregate PHW density was an independent variable in one set of regressions, and Vaccine Personnel (VP) and other PHW densities were used separately in another set. Data on densities of PHW and VP were taken from a national investigation on EPI launched by Ministry of Health of China in 2013. We controlled other determinants that may influence the vaccination coverage like Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person, proportion of migrant children aged <7 years, and land area. These data were taken from Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Statistics and ZJIIS. Results: PHW density was significantly influence the coverage rates of MCV [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR) = 4.29], DTP3(AOR = 2.16), and PV3 (AOR = 3.30). However, when the effects of VPs and other PHWs were assessed separately, we found that VP density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV AOR = 7.05; DTP3 AOR = 1.82; PV3 AOR = 4.83), while other PHW density was not. Proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant determinants for vaccination coverage, while GDP per person had no effect on vaccination coverage. Conclusions: A higher density of PHWs (VP) would improve the availability of immunization services over time and space, which may increase the possibility of achieving a higher childhood vaccination coverage rate. It was indicated that the level of GDP per person had no association with the improved vaccination coverage after controlling for other potential factors. Our findings implicated that PHW density was a major constraint on immunization coverage in Zhejiang Province. PMID:24859680

Hu, Yu; Shen, Lingzhi; Guo, Jing; Xie, Shuyun

2014-01-01

239

Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 20 years, China's economy has been developing rapidly. Yet is China's education keeping up the same pace as its economic development? What is the current situation for China's education? With the advent of knowledge-based economy, how will education in China adjust itself in order to meet the growing demands of economy? This paper will…

Fengzhen, Yang

2002-01-01

240

Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on sea floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China Sea and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.

Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing

2013-01-01

241

Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

242

78 FR 15677 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...42 would revise the annual economic data reports (EDRs) currently required...implemented a comprehensive economic data collection program. The...participants to complete an annual economic data report (EDR) based on...

2013-03-12

243

Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.  

PubMed

Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern. Moreover, according to the spatial clustering index, the urban growth pattern predicted through MOP is more reasonable. In summary, the proposed model provides a set of Pareto urban growth solutions, which compromise environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed. PMID:24994100

Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song

2014-11-01

244

China's Thirty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's transformation over the past three decades has touched every corner of Chinese society and had an enormous global economic impact. Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, in his Foreword to this book, calls China's accomplishments \\

245

Whether New Cooperative Medical Schemes Reduce the Economic Burden of Chronic Disease in Rural China  

PubMed Central

Background The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) provides health insurance coverage for rural populations in China. This study aimed to evaluate changes in household catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) due to chronic disease before and after the reimbursement policies for services of chronic disease were implemented to provide additional financial support. Methods The study used data from the household surveys conducted in Shandong Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2006 and 2008. The study sample in village-level units was divided into two groups: 36 villages which implemented the NCMS reimbursement policies for chronic diseases as the intervention group, and 72 villages which did not as the control group. Health care expenditure of more than 40% of household’s non-food expenditure was defined as a household with CHE (i.e., impoverishment). The conceptual framework was established based on the Andersen socio-behavioral model of health care utilization to explore how the NCMS reimbursement policies impacted health expenditures. A difference-in-difference model was employed to compare the change in the proportion of households incurring CHE due to chronic disease between the two groups over time. Results The households that participated in the NCMS were less likely to become impoverished (P<0.05). In addition, the households with both male household head and higher income level were protective factors to prevent CHE (P<0.05). Young households with preschool children suffered less from CHE (P<0.05). The effect of the NCMS reimbursement policies for chronic disease on the CHE was negative, yet not statistically significant (p?=?0.814). Conclusions The NCMS coverage showed financial protection for households with chronic disease. However, the NCMS reimbursement policies should be strengthened in the future. PMID:23326382

Jing, Shanshan; Yin, Aitian; Shi, Lizheng; Liu, Jinan

2013-01-01

246

Socio-Economic Burden of Influenza among Children Younger than 5 Years in the Outpatient Setting in Suzhou, China  

PubMed Central

Background The disease burden of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza in China has not been well described. The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology and socio-economic burden of influenza in children younger than 5 years in outpatient and emergency department settings. Methods A prospective study of laboratory-confirmed influenza among children presenting to the outpatient settings in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital with symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) was performed from March 2011 to February 2012. Throat swabs were collected for detection of influenza virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Data were collected using a researcher administered questionnaire, concerning demographics, clinical characteristics, direct and indirect costs, day care absence, parental work loss and similar respiratory illness development in the family. Results Among a total of 6,901 children who sought care at internal outpatient settings, 1,726 (25%) fulfilled the criteria of ILI and 1,537 were enrolled. Influenza was documented in 365 (24%) of enrolled 1,537 ILI cases. Among positive patients, 52 (14%) were type A and 313 (86%) were type B. About 52% of influenza outpatients had over-the-counter medications before physician visit and 41% visited hospitals two or more times. Children who attended daycare missed an average of 1.9 days. For each child with influenza-confirmed disease, the parents missed a mean of 1.8 work days. Similar respiratory symptoms were reported in 43% of family contacts of influenza positive children after onset of the child's illness. The mean direct and indirect costs per episode of influenza were $123.4 for outpatient clinics and $134.6 for emergency departments, and $125.9 for influenza A and $127.5 for influenza B. Conclusions Influenza is a common cause of influenza-like illness among children and has substantial socio-economic impact on children and their families regarding healthcare seeking and day care/work absence. The direct and indirect costs of childhood influenza impose a heavy financial burden on families. Prevention measures such as influenza vaccine could reduce the occurrence of influenza in children and the economic burden on families. PMID:23950882

Wang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Jing; Jiang, Yanwei; Ding, Yunfang; Hua, Jun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liling; Feng, Zijian; Iuliano, Danielle; McFarland, Jeffrey; Zhao, Genming

2013-01-01

247

Geological and isotopic constraints on the timing of movement in the Tan-Lu Fault Zone, northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tan-Lu Fault Zone forms part of a major fault system which can be traced for over 5000 km parallel to the present Asian continental margin. A sinistral displacement of about 700 km has been postulated on the zone, and it has been argued that this displacement occurred between late Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. However, the geological and isotopic evidence presented in this paper indicate that there was substantial ductile movement on the fault zone during the middle Proterozoic, and that normal faulting was active during the late Proterozoic. In west Shandong Province undeformed late Proterozoic (Qingbaikouan) sediments lie with marked unconformity on Archaean to early Proterozoic schists and gneisses, which contain mylonitic shear zones associated with strike-slip displacements in the fault zone. The Qingbaikouan rocks of this area are comparable to the transgressive sequences of the type area near Beijing. However, syn-depositional fault movements along the Tan-Lu Fault Zone resulted in confined depocentres and rapid facies changes. The limestone micrites at, and near, the bases of some of these sequences are interpreted as calcretes which formed on an irregular landscape. Isotopic studies of the gneisses and schists, within and close to the Tan-Lu Fault Zone, have shown that mineral growth and isotopic resetting were predominantly Precambrian events. Rb-Sr whole-rock data suggest that some of the gneisses first crystallized during the early Proterozoic ( c. 2340 Ma). Biotites and hornblendes from a gneiss within the Tan-Lu Fault Zone gave K-Ar ages between 2342-2059 Ma, a confirmation of this early event. Disturbance of the mineral isotope systems and the growth of muscovite occurred at the end of the middle Proterozoic ( c. 1700 Ma), in response to movement along the Tan-Lu Fault Zone. Whole-rock K-Ar ages of mylonites range from 1025 to 519 Ma, a result of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration, probably no younger than early Palaeozoic.

Fletcher, C. J. N.; Fitches, W. R.; Rundle, C. C.; Evans, J. A.

248

Geochemistry of the paleoproterozonic Nanying granitic gneisses in the Fuping complex: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Central Zone, North China Craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nanying granitic gneisses represent a major ˜2.0 Ga magmatic event in the Fuping Complex of the Central Zone of the North China Craton. They occur in the Chengnanzhuang shear zone, which is chiefly developed along the contact between the Neoarchean Fuping tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses and the Wanzi paragneisses. The Nanying granitic gneisses were derived from monzogranite and syenogranite, with minor amounts of quartz diorite and granodiorite, and belong to the metaluminous to peraluminous, high-potassium calc-alkaline series, correlations between major and trace elements, and similarities in chondrite-normalized rare-earth-element (REE) patterns, support field relationships (e.g. gradational contacts) indicating that the Nanying granitic gneisses originated from similar magmas. The granodioritic, monzogranitic and syenogranitic gneisses have similar ranges of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr values (0.7030-0.7093, 0.7021-0.7193 and 0.7049-0.7111, respectively), although these variations are partly attributable to local resetting of the isotopic system during late deformation/hydrothermal alteration. The whole-rock 208Pb/ 204Pb, 206Pb/ 204Pb and 207Pb/ 204Pb values of the Nanying granitic gneisses are 37.32-76.8, 15.24-23.82 and 14.92-17.92, respectively. These Sr-Pb isotope systematics, together with previously published Nd isotope compositions, suggest that the Nanying granitic gneisses were derived from partal melting of the ˜2.50 Ga Fuping TTG gneisses, with local assimilation involving the Wanzi paragneisses. The Nanying granitic gneisses are geochemically similar to the C CA and C CL groups of granitoids, except for a few samples, which plot in the H LO group. The Nanying granitic gneisses exhibit depletion in Rb, Sr, Ba, Ti and U, and enrichment in Th, Nb, Zr, Hf and REE, similar to those of syn-shear, high-potassium calc-alkaline granitoids and late-shear alkaline granitoids; they therefore represent the product of a syn-collisional to post- collisional magmatic event. This collisional event, which is significantly older than the ˜1.84-1.80 Ga event that has been proposed for the juxtaposition of the Eastern and Western Archean continental blocks in the final stabilization of the North China Craton, supports a tectonic model involving multiple collisional events for the amalgamation of the internal lithotectonic domains within the Central Zone and the assembly of the North China Craton as a whole.

Liu, Shuwen; Pan, Yuanming; Xie, Qianli; Zhang, Jian; Li, Qiugen; Yang, Bin

2005-02-01

249

Truth concealed behind "Zero Increase of Total Water Use" and coordination approach of socio-economic and eco-environmental water uses in the Weihe River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources situation in the water-stressed Weihe River Basin, China, is more serious now than ever before because of a decrease in water resources and socio-economic development. A "Zero increase of socio-economic water use" in recent years gives people a wrong understanding and conceals the water crisis in the basin because the socio-economic water consumption has actually increased. Water use for the hydro-ecological system has been greatly reduced by a decrease in water resources and socio-economic water consumption increase. New concepts of hierarchical water uses for every sector and water consumption control are suggested for coordinating water uses of the socio-economy and ecosystems in the water-stressed basin. The traditional water resources allocation and regulation in China usually set up a priority sequence for water use sectors. Generally speaking, domestic water use has the highest priority and a highest guarantee rate, followed by industrial water use, irrigation and lastly ecological water use. The concept of hierarchical water use for every sector is to distinguish the water use of every sector into minimum part, appropriate part, and expected extra part with different guarantee rates, and the minimum parts of all sectors should be first guaranteed. By applying a water allocation model, we compared the water allocation results of the traditional approach and the newly suggested approach. Although further study is desired, the results are believed to be of an important referential value to sustainable development in the basin.

Jia, Y.; Wei, N.; Hao, C.; You, J.; Niu, C.; Qiu, Y.

2014-09-01

250

Receiver function images of the mantle transition zone beneath NE China: New constraints on intraplate volcanism, deep subduction and their potential link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better understand the deep subduction geometry of the Pacific plate and genesis of intraplate volcanism in northeast China (NE China), we computed a total of 45,505 receiver functions from 788 teleseismic events recorded by 255 stations (NECESSArray temporal and permanent stations) in NE China. We used a common-conversion-point stacking (CCP) method to generate a 3D reflectivity volume beneath the study area. To position the P-to-S conversions to the correct depths, we employed 3D crustal and mantle models as references to make time to depth conversion. The 3D reflectivity volume was generated in an area between 115°-135°E and 40°-49°N, in the depth range of 300 to 800 km. We found significant topographic relief on the 660-km discontinuity across the study area. In particular, in a westward Pacific plate subduction section between 40°N and ?45.5°N, the 660-km discontinuity is depressed by as much as ?30-40 km along the western extension of the deep seismicity. The depression is elongated along the strike of the deep seismicity and is confined to a 200-300 km region in the E-W direction of subduction. To the west of this depression the 660-km discontinuity is uplifted by 5-10 km in a rectangular area of ?100 km by 200 km centered at about 125°E and 43°N. In the north, the 660-km discontinuity is moderately depressed (?20 km) in a broad area that extends further west. The high and low regions in the 660-km topographic map correlate, respectively, with low- and high-velocity anomalies in the P- and S-wave tomographic velocity images at the same depth. Our results suggest that slab stagnation might not be occurring in the southern part of the NE China, where the Changbaishan volcanic complex is located, thus the magmatism is unlikely caused by dehydration of the flat-lying Pacific slab in the transition zone. The low velocity mantle upwelling arising from a gap of stagnant slabs is a likely source that feeds the volcanic complex in NE China.

Liu, Zheng; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Yongshun John; Grand, Steve; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ning, Jieyuan; Tanaka, Satoru; Obayashi, Masayuki; Ni, James

2015-02-01

251

Fault weakening by water in the brittle-plastic transition zone of the Wenchuan fault zone (Longmenshan, China):a study through deformed exhumed granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismogenic fault of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake showed a high-angle reverse slip, and the hypocenter lies in the middle crust. High pore fluid pressure and/or low friction coefficient related to water-rock reaction may have contributed to fault sliding. The current technologies cannot give us the water content in the deep fault. We determined the water content in deformed granites at the outcrops of two ductile shear zones found in the southern and middle sections of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, and estimated the deformation temperature and flow stress that the samples experienced in early geological history to explore the past earthquake mechanisms in the Longmenshan region. The microstructures of deformed granites showed that inhomogeneous ductile deformation occurred in the deep fault. The deformation temperature is ~400 to 500°C , obtained by the deformation fabrics of quartz, and the flow stress ranges from 15 to 80 MPa. Using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the trace amount water in quartz and feldspar include hydroxyl in crystals, grain boundaries water and fluid inclusions. The quartz water content ranges from 0.001 wt% to 0.031 wt%, and that of feldspar from 0.004 wt% to 0.103 wt%. Trace-amount water increases with the strain of rocks, and water contents with fluid inclusions decrease with deformation. Based on the study of fluid inclusions with the composition of NaCl-H2O using micro-thermometer and Laser Raman micro-spectrometer, the temperature of fluid capture is estimated to range from 330 to 350°C, corresponding to a depth of 18 to 19 km in the Longmengshan fault zone, which indicates that the fluid pressure coefficient ranges from 0.15 to 0.9, implying that the pore fluid pressure varied form low to high. Both high pore fluid pressure and minerals with low friction coefficient generated by water-rock reaction could weaken the fault significantly and increase the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone according to the reconstructed rheological structures of the Longmenshan region. All of these could lead to a brittle fault slip on top of the brittle-plastic transition zone. In addition, we built a preliminary model with respect to water transition in a seismic cycle using the data of water content and fluid pressure across the deep fault.

Han, L.; Zhou, Y.; Li, H.

2012-12-01

252

77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection published on...

2012-03-09

253

[Changes of rice yield and quality in different accumulated temperature zones in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China].  

PubMed

Field experiments were installed in different accumulated temperature zones in Heilongjiang Province to study the changes of the grain yield and quality of five major rice varieties with accumulated temperature. The rice yield changed with accumulated temperature in quadratic curve, and the correlation degree differed with the varieties. The panicle number and the grain number per panicle changed significantly in quadratic curve with accumulated temperature, while the 1000-grain mass had less correlation with accumulated temperature. The sterile spikelet rate of grain increased obviously from suitable accumulated temperature zone to low accumulated temperature zone, but had no obvious change from suitable accumulated temperature zone to high accumulated temperature zone. The rates of chalky and head milled rice also changed with accumulated temperature in quadratic curve, i. e., there were both the lowest and the highest values in suitable accumulated temperature zone. The protein and amylose contents of the grain as well as the taste varied little with accumulated temperature. According to the sensitivity to temperature, the test rice varieties were divided into sensitive, medium, and blunt types, with the optimal and allowable cultivation accumulated temperature limits being 300 degrees C and 420 degrees C, 360 degrees C and 440 degrees C, and 380 degrees C and 520 degrees C, respectively. It would be very important to select the rice varieties with higher yield and better quality according to the local conditions, especially the accumulated temperature. PMID:24015559

Wang, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Yu-Long; Liu, Feng; Wang, Lian-Min; Li, Ming-Xian

2013-05-01

254

A root zone model for estimating soil water balance and crop yield responses to deficit irrigation in the North China Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposed a new soil water balance model by quantifying drainage out of the root zone with the simplification of the Darcy's law, which combined the advantages of conceptual and physically based models. This model was connected with the Jensen crop water production function to simulate soil water components and relative crop yield. Field experiments with the winter wheat-summer corn cropping system were conducted in Beijing area in the North China Plain (2007-2009) to evaluate the model. The model could give quite reasonable predictions of soil water content in the root zone with the average root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (RE) and model efficiency (EF) of 0.02 cm3/cm3, 6.69% and 0.78, respectively. Furthermore, the predicted soil water flux through the bottom of root zone agreed well with the measured ones supported by the values of RMSE (0.10 mm/d) and EF (0.92). The Jensen crop water production function with the calculated actual evapotranspitation from the soil water balance model could satisfactorily evaluate crop yield response to deficit irrigation with the EF values greater than 0.95 and the RE values lower than 6%. As an application, the model was used to obtain the optimal irrigation management schedules for the hydrologic years of 75%, 50% and 25% in the study area. The average amount of irrigation saving and reduction of water losses through drainage under optimal irrigation alternative were about 175 mm and 101.9 mm, respectively. This study indicates that the developed root zone model is more available for agricultural water management as it has minimal input requirement, robust physical meaning and satisfactory simulation performance.

Ma, Y.; Song, X.; Feng, S.

2012-12-01

255

Common Pb isotope mapping of UHP metamorphic zones in Dabie orogen, Central China: Implication for Pb isotopic structure of subducted continental crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Pb isotopic compositions for feldspars separated from 57 orthogneisses and 2 paragneisses from three exhumed UHPM slices representing the North Dabie zone, the Central Dabie zone and the South Dabie zone of the Dabie orogen, central-east China. The feldspars from the gneisses were recrystallized during Triassic continental subduction and UHP metamorphism. Precursors of the orthogneisses are products of Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatic events, those in north Dabie zone emplaced into the lower crust and those in central and south Dabie zones into middle or upper crust, respectively. On a 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram, almost all orthogneisses data lie to the left of the 0.23 Ga paleogeochron and plot along the model mantle evolution curve with the major portion of the data plotting below it. On a 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram the most of data of north Dabie zone extend in elongate arrays along the lower crustal curve and others extend between the lower crustal curve to near the mantle evolution curve for the plumbotectonics model. This pattern demonstrates that the Pb isotopic evolution of the feldspars essentially ended at 0.23 Ga and the orthogneiss protoliths were principally dominated by reworking of ancient lower crust with some addition of juvenile mantle in the Neoproterozoic rifting tectonic zone. According to geological evolution history of the locally Dabie orogen, a four-stage Pb isotope evolution model including a long time evolution between 2.0 and 0.8 Ga with a lower crust type U/Pb ratio (? = 5-6) suggests that magmatic emplacement levels of the protoliths of the orthogneisses in the Dabie orogen at 0.8 Ga also play an important role in the Pb evolution of the exhumed UHPM slices, corresponding to their respective Pb characters at ca. 0.8-0.23 Ga. For example, north Dabie zone requires low ? values (3.4-9.6), while central and south Dabie zones require high ? values (10.9-17.2). On the other hand, Pb isotopic mixing between north and central or south Dabie zones during retro-grade metamorphism enhanced by the extensive magmatism in the Cretaceous has also been observed in the 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagrams. A combined study of common Pb isotopic compositions of Dabie orthogneisses and Sulu UHPM rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project demonstrates that a slab marked by extremely unradiogenic Pb observed in the main hole was absent in the Dabie orogen. However, occurrence of some Mesozoic granitoids with such unradiogenic character in the Dabie orogen suggests that their source may be a buried unradiogenic unit underlying below north Dabie zone. This case study clearly shows that whether the position of the Dabie data relative to the orogen curve of the plumbotectonic model is helpful in understanding the Pb isotopic structure and evolution of subducted continental crust.

Shen, Ji; Wang, Ying; Li, Shu-Guang

2014-10-01

256

Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponin

McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

2011-08-18

257

Tectonics of the Middle Triassic intracontinental Xuefengshan Belt, South China: new insights from structural and chronological constraints on the basal décollement zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In orogenic belts, a basal décollement zone often develops at depth to accommodate the shortening due to folding and thrusting of the sedimentary cover. In the Early Mesozoic intracontinental Xuefengshan Belt of South China, such a décollement zone is exposed in the core of anticlines formed by the emplacement of the late-orogenic granitic plutons. Our detailed, multi-scale structural analysis documents a synmetamorphic ductile deformation. In the basal décollement, the Neoproterozoic pelite and sandstone, and the intruding Early Paleozoic granites were deformed and metamorphosed into mylonites and orthogneiss, respectively. The metamorphic foliation contains a NW-SE stretching lineation associated with top-to-the-NW kinematic indicators. The ductile shearing of these high-strained rocks can be correlated with NW-verging folds and thrusts recognized in the Neoproterozoic to Early Triassic sedimentary cover. Monazite U-Th-Pbtot chemical dating, and zircon SIMS U-Pb dating provide age constraints of the ductile shearing between 243 and 226 Ma, and late-orogenic granite emplacement around 235-215 Ma. In agreement with recent geochronological data, these new results show that the Xuefengshan Belt is an Early Mesozoic orogen dominated by the NW-directed shearing and thrusting. At the southeastern boundary of the Xuefengshan Belt, the Chenzhou-Linwu fault separates the Early Mesozoic domain to the NW from the Early Paleozoic domain to the SE. The tectonic architecture of this belt was possibly originated from the continental underthrusting to the SE of the South China block in response to northwest-directed subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

Chu, Yang; Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Wang, Qingchen; Ji, Wenbin

2012-11-01

258

Seismic Velocity Imaging of the Aftershock Zone of the 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan Earthquake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On April 20, 2013, an Mw6.6 earthquake occurred in the Lushan, Sichuan area, about 80 km southwest of the epicenter of the catastrophic 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. To monitor aftershocks, we installed a temporary seismic network consisting of 29 short period seismic stations in the aftershock zone. Within 3 weeks of operation, ~4000 events were detected and located. To characterize the seismogenic zone, we applied the double-difference seismic tomography method to determine the detailed Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models of the aftershock zone. Both catalog and cross-correlation differential times are included when using double-difference tomography. In this study, we used a so-called multiscale method to improve the velocity model step by step. The grid intervals of 5, 2 and 1 km are used sequentially with the velocity models from coarser grids used as the starting models for finer grids. Overall, the earthquake relocations clearly show a 'Y' like distribution, indicating a thrust faulting system with the conjugate fault. The mainshock of the Lushan earthquake occurred on a blind, high-angle thrust fault dipping to the west. In the northwest of the aftershock zone, aftershocks are located on the back thrust fault of the thrust fault system. Majority of aftershocks are located between 6 km and 20 km, in the brittle zone of the crust. The velocity models clearly show that there is a velocity contrast at a depth of ~8 km, below which the velocity is much higher than the above zone. The high velocity anomaly zone with a Vp of ~6.2 km/s and a Vs of ~3.6 km/s corresponds very well with the high slip zone (Hao et al., 2013), where most of earthquakes are located. In fact, for the region from the surface to 8 km depth, the slip is very weak. The weak slip zone is associated with low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/Vs anomalies and very few earthquakes, indicating the materials are too weak to accommodate stress accumulation. For the thrust fault where the mainshock is located, a clear velocity contrast can be seen across the fault above 8 km with the velocity lower to the west.

Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Wang, H.; Pei, S.

2013-12-01

259

Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China  

PubMed Central

The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the magnitudes of the He and H2 anomalies of three surveys declined significantly with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found in three replicates at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity. PMID:21134257

2010-01-01

260

Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-06-01

261

Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.  

PubMed

The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. PMID:22311560

Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

2013-01-01

262

Application of Short-Offset TEM (SOTEM) Technique in Mapping Water-Enriched Zones of Coal Stratum, an Example from East China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water inrush from limestone coal beds is disastrous for coal mining. In general, it is very difficult to detect such water-enriched zones because of their relatively large burial depth. In this paper, we propose a novel transient electromagnetic method (TEM) configuration, short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM). Consistency of the results obtained from SOTEM measurements in the Shandong province, East China and drilling information indicate that the proposed TEM configuration not only improves the accuracy, but also enlarges the exploration depth for detecting water-enriched areas in coal mines ranging from 1,000 to 1,200 m depth. In this region, a majority of the deep coal beds are filled with water. The SOTEM technique was successfully employed in detecting the floor of a coal seam at a depth of about 1,500 m, as well as in identifying the location of the water-saturated area. These findings were later confirmed by subsequent drillings. Thus, our study indicates that SOTEM represents a convenient and effective technique for deep mineral and hydrogeological investigations due to its high sensitivity to conductive zones (water enriched areas) and vertical resolution.

Chen, Wei-ying; Xue, G. Q.; Muhammad, Younis Khan; Gelius, L. J.; Zhou, Nan-nan; Li, Hai; Zhong, Hua-sen

2015-01-01

263

75 FR 62462 - Additions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Hynix...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hi-Tech Development Zone, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China 430074. Lam Research...Hi-Tech Development Zone, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China 430223. Eligible Items...Hi-Tech Development Zone, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China 430074. Lam...

2010-10-12

264

The Hengshan low-angle normal fault zone: Structural and geochronological constraints on the Late Mesozoic crustal extension in South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We document in this paper a significant low-angle normal fault, namely the Hengshan detachment fault, which extends more than 150 km long in NNE orientation and bounds an elongated Early Cretaceous basin in Hunan Province, central South China. Detailed structural and geochronological analyses have been conducted along its southern segment, where a well exposed, ~ 3 km thick, flat ductile shear zone develops along the western margin of the Hengshan granitic massif. This zone is featured by shallow-dipping foliations of varied trend from NE to NW, which bear penetrative stretching lineations varying from NW to SW trend. Shear sense criteria indicate top-to-the-NW and top-to-the-SW motions along its northern and southern parts, respectively. Quartz c-axis orientations of mylonitic rocks from the shear zone exhibit asymmetric single or crossed girdle patterns, and the distributions of fabric point maxima suggest a simultaneous operation of basal and prism slips, indicating a deformation temperature ranging from 400 °C to 550 °C. One zircon U-Pb age of the sheared albitite and three muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages of the mylonitic rocks indicate that the ductile shearing initiated at 136 Ma and lasted till 97 Ma. The zircon U-Pb dating results of five granitic samples from the Hengshan granitic pluton yield two phases of crystallization ages of 232-228 Ma and 150-151 Ma respectively, indicating two preceding magmatic events prior to the ductile shearing in the lower plate. Our structural and geochronological data allow defining the Hengshan massif as an extensional dome, rather than a metamorphic core complex as previously predicted, due to the lack of syn-tectonic plutonism and the origin of detachment fault associated with the reactivation of the inherited thrust. This study provides crucial evidence for understanding how the mid-upper crust deformed during the process of extension, which testifies to a coeval occurrence of non-coaxial deformation of the ductile flow in the middle crust and brittle faulting in the upper crust. It also sheds new insights into the timing of the regional crustal extension in South China, and permits to constrain its onset time to be ca. 136 Ma.

Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Su, Jinbao; Li, Yong; Cui, Jianjun; Shi, Wei

2013-10-01

265

[Distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches, Shandong Province of East China].  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted on the abundance, group composition, and distribution of meiofauna at the Second Beach of Taiping Bay and the Shilaoren Beach in Qingdao in January, April, July, and October 2008, aimed to analyze the distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in the intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches. The measurements of environmental factors, including sediment grain size, interstitial water salinity, interstitial water temperature, organic matter content (TOC), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, were made simultaneously. There existed obvious seasonal differences in the environment factors, which could be clustered into two groups, i. e. , spring-winter group (January and April) and summer-autumn group (July and October). At the Second Beach of Taiping Bay, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1167.3 +/- 768.3) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the most dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 91% of the total. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance at the Second Beach differed horizontally, with the abundance ranked as high tide zone < middle tide zone < low tide zone. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance also varied seasonally, with high values in spring/winter and low values in summer/autumn (spring > winter > autumn > summer). The vertical distribution of the meiofauna in the high and middle tide zones of the Second Beach varied seasonally too. The meiofauna migrated downward with increasing temperature, concentrated in surface layer in winter and migrated downward in summer. At the Shilaoren Beach, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1130.2 +/- 1419.1) ind x 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda accounted for 85% of the total. There was a great similarity of the environmental factors in the middle tide zone of the Second Beach and Shilaoren Beach, which led to no differences in the meiofaunal group composition and abundance. However, the vertical distribution of the meiofauna differed between the two beaches. When the temperature decreased, the meiofauna at Shilaoren Beach migrated downward. The ANOVA and BIOENV analyses showed that the TOC and MD phi were most responsible for the distribution of meiofauna among the tidal zones, the interstitial water temperature, MD phi, and TOC were the main causes of the seasonal variation of meiofaunal group composition and abundance, whereas the sediment Chl a affected the vertical migration of meiofauna. Tourism-induced sediment variation was another factor affecting the meiofaunal abundance, group composition, and distribution. PMID:23479891

Li, Ha; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

2012-12-01

266

Impacts of LUCC on soil properties in the riparian zones of desert oasis with remote sensing data: A case study of the middle Heihe River basin, China.  

PubMed

Large-scale changes in land use and land cover over long timescales can induce significant variations in soil physicochemical properties, particularly in the riparian zones of arid regions. Frequent reclamation of wetlands and grasslands and intensive agricultural activity have induced significant changes in both land use/cover and soil physicochemical properties in the riparian zones of the middle Heihe River basin of China. The present study aims to explore whether land use/land cover change (LUCC) can well explain the variations in soil properties in the riparian zones of the middle Heihe River basin. To achieve this, we mapped LUCC and quantified the type of land use change using remote sensing images, topographic maps, and GIS analysis techniques. Forty-two sites were selected for soil and vegetation sampling. Then, physical and chemical experiments were employed to determine soil moisture, soil bulk density, soil pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total potassium, total phosphorous, available nitrogen, available potassium, and available phosphorous. The Independent-Samples Kruskal-Wallis Test, principal component analysis, and a scatter matrix were used to analyze the effects of LUCC on soil properties. The results indicate that the majority of the parameters investigated were affected significantly by LUCC. In particular, soil moisture and soil organic carbon can be explained well by land cover change and land use change, respectively. Furthermore, changes in soil moisture could be attributed primarily to land cover changes. Changes in soil organic carbon were correlated closely with the following land use change types: wetlands-arable, forest-grasslands, and grasslands-desert. Other parameters, including pH and total K, were also found to exhibit significant correlations with LUCC. However, changes in soil nutrients were shown to be induced most probably by human agricultural activity (i.e. fertilize, irrigation, tillage, etc.), rather than by simple conversions from one land use/cover types to the others. PMID:25460959

Jiang, Penghui; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Zhao, Ruifeng; Duan, Yuewei

2015-02-15

267

China: Public Health Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a multicultural country that has arisen from its 56 ethnicities, with a diverse population of over 1.3 billion people and an imbalanced economic development. The health care system in China is tending to be overall funded through urban and rural health insurance plans. Although China has invested in the basic research of genome science, public health genomics-related programs

S. Zheng; M. Song; L. Wu; S. Yang; J. Shen; X. Lu; J. Du; W. Wang

2010-01-01

268

Aging in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of facts and impressions gathered during 1984, in the course of an 18-day visit to the Peoples Republic of China by a team of epidemiologists and gerontologists from the United States. The major portion of the paper presents demographic, economic, and social perspectives on aging in China. It is noted that China remains a…

Sheppard, Harold L.; Streib, Gordon F.

269

76 FR 40836 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pelagic Shelf Rockfish by Vessels Subject to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...July 12, 2011)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 40836-40837] [FR...Zone Off Alaska; Pelagic Shelf Rockfish by Vessels Subject to Amendment...Conservation and Management Act. Regulations governing [[Page 40837

2011-07-12

270

158 East Asian Studies/Economics Economics 272--Japan's Modern Economy  

E-print Network

158 East Asian Studies/Economics Economics 272--Japan's Modern Economy Economics 274--China's Modern Economy Economics 399--Economics Seminar History 103--China: Origins to 20th Century Reforms II History 383--China's Imperial Shadow: Prehistoric Origins to 1600 History 385--The Yin & Yang

Dresden, Gregory

271

Rn and CO2 geochemistry of soil gas across the active fault zones in the capital area of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is proposed to investigate the spatiotemporal variations in soil gas Rn and CO2 across the active faults in the capital area of China in order to understand fault activities and assess seismic hazard. A total of 342 soil gas sampling sites were measured twice in 2011 and 2012 along seven profiles and across four faults. The results of soil gas surveys show that, in each profile, due to the variation in gas emission rate, the concentrations of Rn and CO2 changed in the vicinity of faults. Spatial distributions of Rn and CO2 in the study areas were different from each other, which was attributed to soil types affecting the existence of Rn and CO2. Compared with the measurement result of 2011, the increasing amplitude of average concentration value of Rn and CO2 in profiles in 2012 ranged from 30.2 to 123.4% and 66.3 to 131.7%, respectively, which were coincident with the enhancement of seismic activities in the capital area of China. Our results indicate that special attention with regard to seismic monitoring should be paid to the Xinbaoan-Shacheng Fault and the northeastern segment of the Tangshan Fault in the future.

Han, X.; Li, Y.; Du, J.; Zhou, X.; Xie, C.; Zhang, W.

2014-10-01

272

Micro-Institution : design and craft in education for socio-economic change for urban China migrant workers' children  

E-print Network

The socioeconomic condition of the urban migrant worker remains one of the most substantial manifestations of inequality in China. The ever-growing wealth and human rights disparity between urban citizens and rural farmers ...

Gao, Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

273

Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin  

E-print Network

Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin American Economic Development Kevin P-author of the new book, The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, Stanford University Press. The author would like to thank Elen Shrethsa for research as- sistance #12;Taking the China

Tufts University

274

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

275

Heavy Metal Contamination in the Water-Level Fluctuating Zone of the Yangtze River within Wanzhou Section, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution, potential ecological hazards, and homologous relativity of heavy metals in the water-level fluctuating zone\\u000a (WLFZ) of the Yangtze River within the Wanzhou Section (YRWS) were investigated. The heavy metal content (Cd, Cu, Cr, and\\u000a Ni) of the surface soil was analysed via atomic absorption spectroscopy. The potential ecological hazards of the heavy metals\\u000a in the WLFZ soil of

Junjie Lin; Chuan Fu; Xudong Zhang; Kun Xie; Zhiguo Yu

276

Ophiolitic mélanges in crustal-scale fault zones: Implications for the Late Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in West Junggar, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baijiantan and Darbut ophiolites in West Junggar are exposed in steep fault zones (>70°) containing serpentinite mélange, in contact on either side with regionally distributed Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous ocean floor peperitic basalts and overlying sedimentary successions. The ophiolitic mélanges show classic structural features created by strike-slip faulting and consistent shear sense indicators of left-slip kinematics. Sandstone blocks within the mélanges resemble the surrounding sediments in lithology and age, indicating that the ophiolitic mélanges consist of locally derived rocks. The ophiolitic mélanges therefore originated from left-slip fault zones within a remnant basin and are not plate boundaries nor subduction suture zones. Sandstone is the youngest lithology involved in the mélange and provides a maximum age for the mélange of 322 Ma, whereas stitching plutons are younger than 302 Ma. Multiple clusters in zircon ages from single gabbro blocks in the mélange at ~375, ~360, ~354, and ~340 Ma are inconsistent with accretionary incorporation of subducting ocean crust but rather suggest that episodic movement of the faults provided pathways for magma from the mantle into magma chambers. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of West Junggar involved Late Devonian to Carboniferous relative motion between the Junggar block and West Junggar ocean basin, which triggered the left-slip fault zones within a remnant ocean basin, along which the oceanic crust was disrupted to form linear ophiolitic mélanges. Final filling of this remnant ocean basin and its dismemberment by strike-slip faulting occurred in the late Carboniferous, followed by crustal thickening by juvenile granites at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary.

Chen, Shi; Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; Guo, Zhaojie

2014-12-01

277

The chemical composition and source identification of soil dissolved organic matter in riparian buffer zones from Chongming Island, China.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) that is derived from the soil of riparian buffer zones has a complex chemical composition, and it plays an important role in the transport and transformation of pollutants. To identify the source of DOM and to better understand its chemical and structural properties, we collected 33 soil samples from zones with fluctuating water levels along the major rivers on Chongming Island, evaluated the DOM contents in riparian soil, analyzed the chemical composition and functional groups and traced DOM origins by using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with clustering analysis. All sampling sites were divided into four groups by principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the DOM molecules. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the DOM contents between every two groups; however, the DOM fractions differed significantly among the different site groups in the following order: ? lipids and ? proteins>? sugars and ? fatty acids>? amino acids, ? indoles and ? alkaloids. DOM in the riparian buffer zones originated from riparian plants, domestic sewage and agricultural activities, and the hydrophobic and amphiphilic fractions accounting for over 60% of the identified molecules were the dominant fractions. Our study has confirmed the heterogeneous properties of DOM, and it is of vital importance to isolate and characterize the various DOM fractions at the molecular level for a better understanding of the behavior and roles of DOM in the natural environment. PMID:24997959

Wang, Yulai; Yang, Changming; Li, Jianhua; Shen, Shuo

2014-09-01

278

The arsenic contamination of rice in Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China: arsenic speciation and its potential health risk.  

PubMed

Rice is a staple food in China, but it may contain toxic heavy metals. Hence, the concentrations of arsenic (As) species (As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA) were evaluated in 260 rice samples from 13 cities of Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China. The levels of sum concentrations of As species in rice samples varied from non-detect to 225.58 ng g(-1), with an average value of 57.27 ng g(-1). The mean concentrations of the major As species detected in rice samples were in the order As(III) (34.77 ng g(-1)) > As(V) (9.34 ng g(-1)) > DMA (8.33 ng g(-1)) > MMA (4.82 ng g(-1)). The rice samples of Guangdong Province were categorized as inorganic As type. Significant geographical variation of As speciation existed in rice samples of 13 cities of Guangdong Province by chi-square test (p < 0.05). The average human weekly intakes of inorganic As via rice consumption in Guangdong Province, southern China, were 1.91 µg kg(-1) body weight. Hazard quotients of total As via rice consumption of adults in 13 cities ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, indicating the As contents in rice from Guangdong Province had no potential adverse impact on human health. PMID:25287102

Lin, Kai; Lu, Shaoyou; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuyi

2014-10-01

279

Risk factors associated with slide positivity among febrile patients in a conflict zone of north-eastern Myanmar along the China-Myanmar border  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region is extremely heterogeneous. While China and Thailand have been relatively successful in controlling malaria, Myanmar continues to see high prevalence. Coupled with the recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border, this makes Myanmar an important focus of malaria within the overall region. However, accurate epidemiological data from Myanmar have been lacking, in part because of ongoing and emerging conflicts between the government and various ethnic groups. Here the results are reported from a risk analysis of malaria slide positivity in a conflict zone along the China-Myanmar border. Methods Surveys were conducted in 13 clinics and hospitals around Laiza City, Myanmar between April 2011 and October 2012. Demographic, occupational and educational information, as well as malaria infection history, were collected. Logistic models were used to assess risk factors for slide positivity. Results Age patterns in Plasmodium vivax infections were younger than those with Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to have falciparum infections. Patients who reported having been infected with malaria during the previous year were much more likely to have a current vivax infection. During the second year of the study, falciparum infections among soldiers increased signficiantly. Conclusions These results fill some knowledge gaps with regard to risk factors associated with malaria slide positivity in this conflict region of north-eastern Myanmar. Since epidemiological studies in this region have been rare or non-existent, studies such as the current are crucial for understanding the dynamic nature of malaria in this extremely heterogeneous epidemiological landscape. PMID:24112638

2013-01-01

280

78 FR 24707 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska: Fixed-Gear Commercial Halibut and Sablefish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...commercial halibut and sablefish fixed-gear fisheries. The Council and NMFS...economic character of the fixed-gear fisheries and the coastal communities...leased a vessel that made fixed-gear landings of halibut or sablefish...

2013-04-26

281

75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alaska Region website at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/regs/summary.htm. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen Harrington, 907-586-7228. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The king and Tanner crab fisheries in the exclusive economic...

2010-02-18

282

77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Islands Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...the North Pacific Fishery Management Council...eliminates redundant data reporting by removing...process by NMFS' Data Collection Agent (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission...

2012-07-09

283

76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-09-08

284

77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-02-17

285

78 FR 63405 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-24

286

77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-24

287

78 FR 63899 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-10-25

288

75 FR 14359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-25

289

77 FR 16950 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-03-23

290

76 FR 13097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-10

291

75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-19

292

75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-03-03

293

75 FR 61638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...total allowable catch limit in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-06

294

77 FR 60321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock for Statistical Area 620 in the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-03

295

76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-02-28

296

78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2013-0032 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-02-12

297

76 FR 11393 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch (TAC) of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2011-03-02

298

75 FR 57702 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...catch of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-09-22

299

77 FR 65330 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 620 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2012-10-26

300

78 FR 17886 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...allowable catch of pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...NOAA-NMFS-2012-0180 by any of the following methods: Electronic...

2013-03-25

301

75 FR 64958 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...directed fishing for pollock in Statistical Area 630 of the Gulf of Alaska...of pollock specified for Statistical Area 630 of the GOA. DATES...by any one of the following methods: Electronic...

2010-10-21

302

78 FR 55228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...reallocating the projected unused amount of Pacific cod from trawl catcher/processors to catcher...the 2013 total allowable catch of Pacific cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

2013-09-10

303

76 FR 29671 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...reallocating the projected unused amount of Pacific cod from vessels using trawl gear to catcher...the 2011 total allowable catch of Pacific cod to be harvested. DATES: Effective...

2011-05-23

304

77 FR 66564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...reallocating the projected unused amount of Pacific cod from catcher vessels using trawl gear and...the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

2012-11-06

305

78 FR 40638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2013)] [Rules and Regulations] [Page 40638] [FR...Zone Off Alaska; Dusky Rockfish in the Western Regulatory...catch (TAC) of dusky rockfish in the Western Regulatory...and Management Act. Regulations governing fishing by...The 2013 TAC of dusky rockfish in the Western...

2013-07-08

306

U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: Implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction-zone UHP metamorphism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the Zhimafang ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) peridotite from pre-pilot drill hole PP-1 of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. The peridotite occurs as lens within quartofeldspathic gneiss, and has an assemblage of Ol + Opx + Cpx + Phl + Ti-clinohumite (Ti-Chu) + Grt (or chromite) ?? magnesite (Mgs). Zircons were separated from cores at depths of 152 m (C24, garnet lhezolite), 160 m (C27, strongly retrograded phlogopite-rich peridotite) and 225 m (C50, banded peridotite), and were dated by SHRIMP mass spectrometer. Isometric zircons without inherited cores contain inclusions of olivine (Fo91-92), enstatite (En91-92), Ti-clinohumite, diopside, phlogopite and apatite. The enstatite inclusions have low Al2O3 contents of only 0.04-0.13 wt.%, indicating a UHP metamorphic origin. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age for garnet lherzolite (C24) is 221 ?? 3 Ma, and a discordia lower intercept age for peridotite (C50) is 220 ?? 2 Ma. These ages are within error and represent the time of subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. A younger lower intercept age of 212 ?? 3 Ma for a foliated wehrlite (C27) was probably caused by Pb loss during retrograde metamorphism. The source of zirconium may be partially attributed to melt/fluid metasomatism within the mantle wedge. Geochronological and geochemical data confirm that the mantle-derived Zhimafang garnet peridotites (probably the most representative type of Sulu garnet peridotites) were tectonically inserted into a subducting crustal slab and subjected to in situ Triassic subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang, R.Y.; Yang, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Li, T.F.

2005-01-01

307

Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

2013-08-01

308

Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici presents high diversity and recombination in the over-summering zone of Gansu, China.  

PubMed

Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), a basidiomycota responsible for wheat yellow rust, has a strict clonal behavior and a low genetic diversity in European and Australian populations. On the other hand high diversity has been reported in Chinese populations. Moreover it is thought that in China yellow rust epidemics start recurrently from the western highlands where over-summering occurs. To compare PST genetic diversity in this area to the one described in France seven AFLP primer combinations were used to analyze a sample of 160 isolates collected in 2001 in five counties of Gansu Province. The AFLP data revealed 40 polymorphic bands, discriminating 139 AFLP genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium and phylogeographic analyses support the hypothesis of a reproductive mode that is not strictly clonal. In this regard Chinese isolates from Gansu strongly contrast with the European studies using the same markers. Genetic diversity of this 1 y sampling in Gansu is found to be seven times higher than the one observed in France over 20 y and exhibits lower linkage disequilibrium. The effective population size of the French sample was estimated to be 1000 times smaller than the Gansu population. These results support the hypothesis of large population size as well as the occurrence of genetic recombination, while the importance of Gansu as a main over-summering area requires assessment through larger scale studies. PMID:20120228

Duan, X; Tellier, A; Wan, A; Leconte, M; de Vallavieille-Pope, C; Enjalbert, J

2010-01-01

309

75 FR 27185 - Revisions to the Authorization for Validated End-User Applied Materials China, Ltd.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Guanggu Road, East Lake High-Tec Development Zone, Wuhan, Hubei, China 430074. Applied Materials (China), Inc.--Shanghai...101 Guanggu Road East Lake High-Tec Development Zone Wuhan, Hubei, China 430074. [[Page 27188

2010-05-14

310

78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Optical Valley Software Park, Wuhan, Hubei, China 430074. Lam Research Semiconductor...Hi-Tech Development Zone, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China 430223. Names and Current...Road, Donghu Development Zone, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China 430074. Lam...

2013-01-16

311

[Dynamic changes of vegetation net primary productivity in permafrost zone of Northeast China in 1982-2009 in response to global change].  

PubMed

As one of the high-latitude cold regions, the permafrost zone of Northeast China (PZNC) is more sensitive to global change. Based on the AVHRR GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI, and by using CASA model, this paper simulated the net primary productivity (NPP) in the PZNC from 1982 to 2009. In 1982-2009, the mean annual air temperature, annual solar radiation and sunshine duration, and atmospheric CO2 concentration and its annual increasing rate in the PZNC increased significantly while the annual precipitation had a significant decrease, and the annual NPP showed an up-and-down trend, with the turning point in 1998. The annual NPP had a high spatial heterogeneity, with an average of 623 g C X m(-2). Comparing with air temperature, the precipitation in growth season was the main factor affecting the NPP. Land use change altered land cover, and thus, the spatiotemporal characteristics of NPP. A significant positive correlation was observed between the NPP and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The impact of permafrost degradation on NPP differed with regional environment. The NPP had a significant positive correlation with the mean annual ground temperature, but a negative correlation with the annual maximum permafrost depth. PMID:22937638

Mao, De-Hua; Wang, Zong-Ming; Luo, Ling; Han, Ji-Xing

2012-06-01

312

Receiver function images of the mantle transition zone beneath NE China: new constraints on intraplate volcanism, deep subduction and their potential link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better understand the intraplate volcanism and the subduction geometry of the Pacific plate, we installed 127 broadband seismic stations across northeast China between 2009 and 2011. The NorthEast China Extended SeiSmic Array (NECESSArray) covers an area ~1800 km and ~600 km in the EW and NS directions, respectively, with a station spacing of ~70-80 km. While seismic tomography offers a direct way to map a descending cold slab and a hot mantle upwelling with a high and low seismic velocity, respectively, receiver function data provides an indirect approach to image them when they interact with the 410-km and 660-km seismic discontinuities. The two discontinuities, which define the upper and lower bounds of the mantle transition zone, are believed to be associated with the phase transitions from olivine to wadsleyite and from ringwoodite to perovskite plus magnesiowustite that have a positive and negative Clapeyron slope, respectively. Lateral variations in the transition-zone thickness, as well as variations in the depths of the two discontinuities thus can be used to indirectly map out a descending cold slab and an uprising hot plume. We collected a total of ~50,000 receiver-function data from ~800 teleseismic events, and employed a common-conversion-point stacking (CCP) method to generate a 3D reflectivity volume beneath the study area. To position the P-to-S conversions to the correct depths, we utilized 3D crustal and mantle models as the reference velocity model to make the time-depth conversion. The 3D reflectivity volume was generated in an area between 115-135°E and 40-49°N, in the depth range of 200 to 1000 km. We found significant topographic relief on both the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities across the study area. In particular, the 660-km discontinuity is depressed by as much as ~30-40 km in the western end of the deep seismicity. The depression is elongated along the strike of the deep seismicity and is limited within less than 200 km in the E-W subduction direction. To the west of this depression, the 660-km discontinuity rises suddenly by as much as 20 km in a circular area with a radius of ~100 km centered at 123.5°E and 42.5°N. The depression and uplift correspond well with a high and low velocity anomaly, respectively, in the P- and S-wave tomographic velocity maps at the same depth. Our results thus suggest that stagnant subducted slab may not be the extensive feature of deep subduction in this region, and the origin of the Changbaishan volcano located in the border between China and North Korea may not be derived from dehydration of the flat-lying Pacific plate. The low velocity mantle upwelling arising at the tip of the subducting slab may be the eventual source that feeds the enigmatic volcano.

Liu, Z.; Niu, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Grand, S.; Kawakatsu, H.; Ning, J.; Tanaka, S.; Obayashi, M.; Ni, J. F.

2012-12-01

313

Ecological and SocioEconomic Benefits of Investment in an Environmental Restoration and Agricultural Management Program in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Loess Plateau of China, the local people have been struggling on low incomes to guarantee their food security, and contend with some of the most serious soil erosion problems in the world. This paper discusses the application, over ten years, of an ecosystem recovery plan, introduced in the Yan'gou watershed in 1998, including large scale construction and re-vegetation

Gang Liu; Puling Liu; Qiong Zhang

2010-01-01

314

Changing Labor Market Conditions and Economic Development in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the newly industrializing economies (NIEs) of Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan (China), the entire working population has benefited from labor market institutions. The East Asian NIEs attained and maintained generally full employment, improved their job mixes, raised real earnings, and lowered their rates of poverty. This article reaches two principal conclusions. First, labor market conditions

Gary S. Fields

1994-01-01

315

75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...on the order of $25 per report and the fleet of four to six...submits a total of about 18 such reports, annually). Thus, because...have a significant adverse economic impact on any directly regulated...vessels have submitted these reports in recent years. In...

2010-08-10

316

The Yingba shear zone on the Sino-Mongolian border: Southwestern extension of the Zuunbayan Fault from Mongolia to China and implications for Late Mesozoic intracontinental extension in Eastern Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major strike-slip and normal faults are prominent features of Eastern Asia during the Meso-Cenozoic and they are critical to understanding the intracontinental deformation. Among others, the northeast-striking Zuunbayan Fault in southeastern Mongolia is usually documented as a strike-slip fault, but it may be a normal fault during the Late Mesozoic. However, its southwestern extension from Mongolia to China is still uncertain. The northeast-striking Yingba shear zone in western Inner Mongolia, China, just lies in the place where the Zuunbayan Fault probably strikes through southwestward. The gentle northwest-dipping foliation and lineation and top-to-the-northwest shear sense in the granitic mylonite indicate that the Yingba shear zone is a northwest-dipping, low-angle normal fault. The mylonitization occurred mainly at 400-500 °C, as a result of the Early Cretaceous intracontinental extension, as bounded by the zircon U-Pb ages of 145 Ma from two deformed (pre-tectonic) pegmatite veins and of 134 Ma from one undeformed (post-tectonic) pegmatite vein, all of which definitely crosscut the shear zone. The Yingba normal faulting was coeval with the Late Mesozoic extensional phase of the Zuunbayan Fault in southeastern Mongolia, which is characterized by northwest-dip and NW-SE extension from at least 155 to 126 Ma. Therefore, the Yingba shear zone is considered as the southwestern segment of the Zuunbayan Fault in China. The Late Mesozoic intracontinental extension, which was possibly triggered by the Jurassic thrusting in the South Gobi area of Mongolia, generated the Yingba shear zone and the Yagan metamorphic core complex on the Sino-Mongolian border.

Zhou, Yin-Zhang; Han, Bao-Fu; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zhao; Ren, Rong; Li, Xiao-Wei; Su, Li

2012-10-01

317

China's Environmental Challenges and Implications for the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

After three decades of exceptional economic growth, China has become a global economic powerhouse. As the economy has grown, though, so have China's environmental challenges, causing enormous socioeconomic consequences for China and the rest of the world. The global financial crisis has prompted China to create more domestic demand for consumption and implement massive infrastructure construction. Although China has the

JIANGUO LIU; PETER H. RAVEN

2010-01-01

318

Late Quaternary paleoseismic behavior and rupture segmentation of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault along the Longmen Shan fault zone, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quaternary rupture behavior of large earthquakes along the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and the Longmen Shan fault zone has been the focus of geoscientists since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. However, most studies have concentrated on the southern segment of the fault from Yingxiu to Beichuan. Here we opened trenches and used borehole drilling in Guixi and Pingxi along the northern segment (north of Beichuan) with the following paleoseismic results: (1) Trenches at Pingxi and Guixi reveal that at least one paleoseismic event occurred prior to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake with ages of 770-955 A.D. and 665-1030 A.D. determined at the two locations, respectively. This event is possibly associated with a historical earthquake documented from 16 November to 15 December of 942 A.D.; furthermore, the trench and boreholes at Guixi may reveal another paleoseismic event occurred at 8240-7785 B.C.; (2) the northern segment (north of Beichuan) of the seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured independently from the southern segment; specifically, the southern segment records three events within the past 6000 years, whereas the northern segment shows a different rupture behavior. We suggest that the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault can be divided into at least two rupture segments.

Ran, Yongkang; Chen, Wenshan; Xu, Xiwei; Chen, Lichun; Wang, Hu; Li, Yanbao

2014-11-01

319

Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic data to account for autonomous farmer adaptation. The simulations show crop failure rates increasing under climate change, due to increasing extremes of both heat and water stress. Crop failure rates increase with mean temperature, with increases in maximum failure rates being greater than those in median failure rates. The results suggest that significant adaptation is possible through either socio-economic measures such as greater investment, or biophysical measures such as drought or heat tolerance in crops. The results also show that adaptation becomes increasingly necessitated as mean temperature and the associated number of extremes rise. The results, and the limitations of this study, also suggest directions for research for linking climate and crop models, socio-economic analyses and crop variety trial data in order to prioritize options such as capacity building, plant breeding and biotechnology.

Challinor, Andrew J.; Simelton, Elisabeth S.; Fraser, Evan D. G.; Hemming, Debbie; Collins, Mathew

2010-07-01

320

Economics, environment, and energy life cycle assessment of automobiles fueled by bio-ethanol blends in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the life cycle economics, environment impacts, and energy consumptions of Chinese automobiles fueled by bio-ethanol blends, utilizing life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, and puts forward C, Env, En, EEE indicators to assess the economics, combined environmental impacts, energy consumption, and the balance of the three, as a means to evaluate whether the energy utilization efficiency and the

Zhiyuan Hu; Gengqiang Pu; Fang Fang; Chengtao Wang

2004-01-01

321

Are western community psychiatric models suitable for China? An examination of cultural and socio-economic foundations of western community psychiatry models using assertive community treatment as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western community psychiatry models, such as Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management, are well-studied and considered to be effective and cost-effective; in particular, ACT is perceived as a gold standard for community treatment of severe and persistently mentally ill patients. With China's recent rapid economic reform and attendant cultural and healthcare system changes, it is timely to examine the

Samuel F. Law

2008-01-01

322

Magnetic fingerprinting of hydrodynamic variations and channel erosion across the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze Estuary, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic measurements were conducted on surface sediments and suspended particles collected across the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze Estuary, in order to examine the spatial distribution of magnetic mineral assemblages and the driving factors. The results indicate that a bimodal distributions of ferrimagnetic minerals in sediments of the Yangtze Estuary is displayed. Sediments in the North Channel have the highest ? and SIRM values but lowest ?ARM/SIRM ratios, which is consistent with the coarsest particle size due to strong hydrodynamics. Within each channel, ? and SIRM values are higher in sediments from shallower water depth due to energetic conditions. The increasing trend of ?ARM/SIRM of suspended particles on the pathway of sediment transport indicates weakening hydrodynamics from the inner estuary to the outer estuary. Diagenesis is another factor influencing magnetic properties in addition to particle size. Channel erosion leads to local exposure of buried sediments on the channel bed. As a result of a stronger diagenetic imprint, they show magnetic properties different from the recently deposited sediments. Our results indicate that magnetic properties can not only indicate hydrodynamics variations, but also provide insight into sediment erosion/deposition processes. Combined granulometric and magnetic methods could be used to interpret hydrodynamics and depositional processes in a more robust way. Fig. 1 Study area and sampling sites of surface sediments and suspended particles. The Yangtze Estuary is split into two branches (the North Branch and South Branch) by the Chongming Island. The South branch is further divided into the North and South Channels by the Changxing Island and Hengsha Island. The South Channel has two outlets (the North Passage and South Passage) which are separated by the the Jiuduansha Shoal. Fig.2 Variations in bulk magnetic properties of surface sediments and suspended particles along the three transects. The dashed arrow line depicts the trend observed for suspended particles.

Dong, C.; Zhang, W.; He, Q.; Dong, Y.; Yu, L.

2013-12-01

323

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.  

PubMed

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

324

Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.  

PubMed

In China, the continuously increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in an urgent need for changing the current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system based on mixed collection. A pilot program focusing on source-separated MSW collection was thus launched (2010) in Hangzhou, China, to lessen the related environmental loads. And greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kyoto Protocol) are singled out in particular. This paper uses life cycle assessment modeling to evaluate the potential environmental improvement with regard to GHG emissions. The pre-existing MSWM system is assessed as baseline, while the source separation scenario is compared internally. Results show that 23 % GHG emissions can be decreased by source-separated collection compared with the base scenario. In addition, the use of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) is suggested for further optimizing the management of food waste. 260.79, 82.21, and -86.21 thousand tonnes of GHG emissions are emitted from food waste landfill, composting, and AD, respectively, proving the emission reduction potential brought by advanced food waste treatment technologies. Realizing the fact, a modified MSWM system is proposed by taking AD as food waste substitution option, with additional 44 % GHG emissions saved than current source separation scenario. Moreover, a preliminary economic assessment is implemented. It is demonstrated that both source separation scenarios have a good cost reduction potential than mixed collection, with the proposed new system the most cost-effective one. PMID:23436063

Dong, Jun; Ni, Mingjiang; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao

2013-08-01

325

The Post-seismic Slip of the 1973 M7.6 earthquake on the Luhuo Segment of the Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An M=7.6 earthquake ruptured the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone on Feb. 6, 1973. Since then, several across-fault (across the 1973 rupture) deformation observation systems have been set up one after another at the site of Xialatuo, Luhuo county, Sichuan province, China. Among them are a system of short baselines and short leveling, a set of creep-meters, an artificial construction, and some near-fault to far-fault GPS geodetic stations. By using data from the observation of these systems, this paper studies the characteristic of the post-seismic slip/deformation and their temporal-spatial variations for the Luhuo segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone, and builds a tectonic-dynamic model to explain the characteristic features. Our study mainly shows that, (1) in the first five years following the 1973 earthquake, the earthquake fault at Xialatuo behaved as an open one that the post-seismic slip showed mainly as aseismic left-lateral slip (creeping) at an average rate of 10.27mm/a along with slight tensional creeping. Since 1979, however, the rate of the post-seismic left-lateral creep has been slowing down gradually from 5.3mm/a to 2.27mm/a, and the process of the rate slowing down is the type of logarithmic function, suggesting that during the period since 1979 the fault plane, that ruptured in the 1973 earthquake, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock gradually with some strain having rebuilt-up. (2) Since 1999 the rate of relative left-lateral displacement/deformation at the fault far-fields on both sides of the fault segment is estimated to be 10mm/a, much greater than the near-fault (40m to 144m across the fault) left-lateral creep rates of 0.66 mm/a to 2.52mm/a in the same stage. Also, such significant differences of the near- to far-fault displacement/deformation rates occur along an about 2×30-km-wide zone centered along the fault segment of Luhuo, indicating the width of the seismogenic fault zone associated with the stress/strain build-up and release during major earthquake cycles here. (3) Combining with information of tectonic-dynamic background and deep crustal structure, the authors try to explain the mechanism of the post-seismic fault slip/deformation and its spatial-temporal variation for the studied fault segment. Key points of the explanation are as follows: Starting from the 5th year after the 1973 earthquake, the fault plane in the brittle upper crust, which was once used to be open in the earlier post-seismic stage, has been tending to re-couple and re-lock as a result of gradual increasing slip/friction resistance on the fault plane. In the deeper crust, however, the continuous ductile relative motion between the both sides of the fault keeps dragging the brittle upper crust to produce elastic displacement/deformation. (4) It can be estimated that the studied fault segment will entirely "re-lock", enter the stage of inter-seismic locking, and re-build up stress/strain for the next major event in the next 15 to 25 years.

Fang, D.; Xue-Ze, W.

2012-04-01

326

Western China energy development and west to east energy transfer: Application of the Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China

Wenying Chen; Hualin Li; Zongxin Wu

2010-01-01

327

Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from an algal bloom in the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, and an emended description of the genus Maribacter.  

PubMed

A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain HT7-2T, was isolated from Ulva prolifera collected from the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, during its bloom. Cells were rod-shaped (1.9-3.5 × 0.4-0.6 ?m), non-sporulating, and motile by gliding. Strain HT7-2T was able to grow at 4-50 °C (optimum 40-42 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), 0-8% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3%) and 0.5-10% (w/v) sea salts (optimum 2.5%). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HT7-2T belonged to the genus Maribacter with sequence similarity values of 94.5-96.6%, and was most closely related to Maribacter aestuarii GY20T (96.6%). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the main isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and unknown ECL 13.565. The polar lipids of strain HT7-2T consisted of one phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), four unidentified lipids (L1~4) and one unidentified aminolipid (AL). On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain HT7-2T (= CGMCC 1.12207T = JCM 18466T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Maribacter is also proposed. PMID:25269849

Hu, Jing; Yang, Qi-Qi; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Zheng, Gang; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min

2014-09-30

328

[Ecological risk assessment of human activity of rapid economic development regions in southern Jiangsu, China: a case study of Dantu District of Zhenjiang City].  

PubMed

This article investigated the spatiotemporal variation of landscape ecological risk in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City with statistical method based on the ETM remote sensing data in 2000 and 2005, and the TM remote sensing data in 2010, and quantitative index of regional ecological risk assessment was established with the employment of landscape index, so as to enhance the ecosystem management, prevent and reduce the regional ecological risk in southern Jiangsu with rapid economic development. The results showed that the fragmentations, divergence, and ecological losses of natural landscape types, such as forestland, wetland, waters, etc., were deteriorated with the expansion of built-up lands from 2000 to 2010. The higher ecological risk zone took up 5.7%, 9.0%, and 10.2% of the whole region in 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively, which mainly distributed in the plain hilly region. During the study period, the area aggravating to the higher ecological risk zone was approximately 296.2 km2, 48% of the whole region. The ecological risk rose up in most of the region. The interference of rapid economic development to landscape patterns was even more intensive, with obvious spatial differences in ecological risk distribution. The measures of exploiting resources near the port, utilizing natural wetlands, constructing industrial parks, and rapid urbanization, etc., intensified the ecological risk and accelerated the conversion rate. Prompt strategies should be established to manage the ecological risk of this region. PMID:25011302

Fang, Guang-Ling; Xiang, Bao; Wang, Bao-Liang; Jin, Xia; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Li-Kun

2014-04-01

329

Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, an integrated damage from floods in Russia was about 1 billion euros, floods have caused the death of over 200 people. It is one of the most pressing scientific topics, but most of the works devoted to natural risks assessment. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the influence of dangerous hydrological phenomena (e.g. floods, underflooding and surges) on society, using vulnerability and damage assessment techniques. The objectives are to examine domestic and foreign methodologies, to integrate them and to test on specific Russian territory. Foreign training was organized at UNU-EHS (Bonn, Germany). Three different methods were used for each stage of research. The first part of the research was devoted to estimation of potential damage for population and economy of the Baltic Sea coastal zones. The authors used a model, which takes into account direct damage (loss of life, destruction of buildings, etc.) as well as indirect effects of the first, second, etc. orders (loss of profits, loss of the budget, etc.). A database, based on satellite images, maps, yearbooks of Russian Statistical Service and reports of entities, has been prepared. The database is a matrix, in which the rows are coastal zones, and the columns are given indicators: number of people in port areas (people), cost of fixed assets (million rubles), investment (million rubles.), revenue / profit (million rubles.), etc. The authors identified zones with different depth of flooding, using satellite images, and calculated the direct and indirect costs, using the methodology of EMERCOM. Maximum direct potential damage for the Baltic coast is about 15,7 billion euros, but indirect damage is more than 25,5 billion euros. The second part of research was devoted to vulnerability assessment of coastal municipalities of Krasnodar Region. A database, as a matrix of 252 parameters from 2007 to 2009 for 14 coastal municipalities, was developed. The parameters were divided into several blocks according to UNU-EHS methodology: 'exposure' and 'vulnerability', consisting of 'susceptibility', 'coping capacity' and 'adaptive capacity'. Relevant indicators for each block were selected and verified by statistical methods. The authors estimated the share of people potentially exposed to flooding with the help of geographic information system. The authors, using the technique of World Risk Index (2011), calculated sub-indices for each block, and made the maps. Areas with the highest socio-economic risks were identified on the Azov and the Black sea coast: Slavyansky, Krymsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Temryuksky and Primorsko-Akhtarsky municipal districts. On the third stage, the main purpose was to integrate and use both approaches in evaluation of socio-economic risks on micro-geographical level for different categories of the population and different industries (agriculture, utilities, etc.), using 'field' data. Field study was conducted in Slavyansky municipal district of Krasnodar region and included opinion polls, special interviews with businessmen and authorities, collection of municipal statistics and data from companies, etc. Vulnerability maps, speed evacuation maps, maps of possible locations of warning systems and maps of high insurance risks were developed. Proposals for improvement of legislation for coastal zones were prepared. The conducted research has shown the importance of both social ('vulnerability'), and economic ('damage') components of risk assessment. Using the previously discussed methods individually does not bring desired results because of deficiencies of Russian statistics. It is essential for accurate risk assessment to use an 'ensemble' of methods (statistical, field observations, etc.) on micro geographic level. The work has a practical importance for improving safety of local communities.

Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

2013-04-01

330

Genetic structure and gene flow in the endangered aquatic economic crop Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmel. (Nymphaeaceae) in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to measure the levels of genetic variation and patterns of population structure within and among five extant populations of Brasenia schreberi, an endangered aquatic plant in China. Six primers selected from sixty ISSR primers were used in the study which amplified 49 reproducible bands with 22 (44.9%) being polymorphic, indicating low levels of genetic diversity at the species level. AMOVA analysis revealed that most genetic variation (85.64%) is present among populations. The low level of gene flow (Nm = 0.1) is estimated among five remaining populations. A Mantel test show significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance (r = 0.91). Several factors including clonal growth, habitat fragment, population isolation, restricted gene flow among populations and agricultural practices, might have played an important role in maintaining the genetic structure of B. schreberi populations in China. In view of the limited genetic information currently available for B. schreberi, we recommend in situ preservation of the remaining population.

Dong, Yuan-Huo; Wahiti Gituru, Robert

331

10. China's Emergence, Real Exchange Rates, and Implications for East Asian Regional Trade and  

E-print Network

10. China's Emergence, Real Exchange Rates, and Implications for East Asian Regional Trade arena is China, whose economic reforms have led it to record growth rates, dramatically accelerating export expansion and sharply improving material living standards. China's global economic emergence

Kammen, Daniel M.

332

China's Economy: Retrospect and Prospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Report highlights China's remarkable economic achievements over the past quarter century, including its enormous expansion of output, employment, productivity, exports and incomes; unprecedented progress in poverty alleviation and material well-being; and the emergence of China as a major force in global markets. It also recognizes, however, China's domestic problems in governance, banking, finance, law and the creation of

Loren Brandt; Thomas G. Rawski; GANG LIN

2005-01-01

333

Exploratory analysis of health-related quality of life among the empty-nest elderly in rural China: An empirical study in three economically developed cities in eastern China  

PubMed Central

Background Along with rapid economic development, the aging process in China is gradually accelerating. The living conditions of empty-nest rural elderly are worrisome. As a more vulnerable group, empty-nest elderly are facing more urgent health problems. This study explores the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of empty-nest elderly in rural China and aims to arouse more social concern for their HRQOL. Methods Research subjects were empty-nest rural elderly from three cities: Nanjing, Suzhou, and Wenzhou (ages???60, n?=?967). This study used the five-dimensional European quality of health scale (EQ-5D) and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure the HRQOL of the respondents. Spearman correlation coefficient, stereotype logistic regression, ordered probit regression and multinomial logistic regression, and Structural equation model (SEM) methods are employed to study the relationship. Results (1) The Spearman correlation coefficient shows that the correlations of similar domains between the SF-12 and the EQ-5D scales are relatively strong. (2) Men’s scores are higher than that of women’s in general health (GH) and anxiety/depression (AD) models. (3) The scores of physical component summary (PCS), physical functioning (PF), mental health (MH), and usual activities (UA) decline with age. (4) Apart from PCS, vitality (VT), and role-emotional (RE) as dependent variables, the education passes all the significance tests. The higher the education is, the higher the scores of physical or psychological health are. (5) The scores of PCS and bodily pain (BP) of empty-nest elderly are divorced or higher in other marital status. (6) In SEM analysis, the effect of basic information of empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scale is more significant. Conclusions First, the frequency histograms of EQ-5D show that the scores of empty-nest elderly in rural China are generally low. Second, in all SF-12 items, the HRQOL is low. Third, men’s scores are higher than that of women’s. The elderly with higher education reported higher scores than those with lower education. Fourth, the effect of socio-demographic variables of the rural Chinese empty-nest elderly on SF-12 scores is more significant, whereas the effect on EQ-5D scores is less significant. PMID:24766880

2014-01-01

334

Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or "Community Learning…

Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

2008-01-01

335

Transmission planning in China  

SciTech Connect

Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

2009-07-15

336

Entrepreneurship in China International  

E-print Network

is to advance management theories and methods that contributeto social welfare. We arededicated to cultivating", the University ismaking substantial contributions to China's economic, social and technological development. .3 and social responsibility. The School is a modern businessschool in the forefront of market economyof China

Haviland, David

337

Sedimentary record of hydrophobic organic compounds in relation to regional economic development: a study of Taihu Lake, East China.  

PubMed

Sediment cores taken from Taihu Lake, East China were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The results showed a general sharp increase of HCH, DDT, PAH and PBDE concentrations in the surface layers, corresponding to a sedimentation time of 1980 and 1990 onward in the Meiliang Bay and Xukou Bay, respectively. The source of PAHs has largely transferred from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin, and good relationships were observed between sediment PAH concentrations and the regional gross domestic product. The sharp increase of DDTs in recent years may be related to the mobilization and migration of these chemicals from surface soil to lake sediment, as a result of enhanced soil run-off due to large scale land transform, as well as the contribution of current usage of dicofol and DDT-containing anti-fouling paints. PMID:19564068

Liu, Guoqing; Zhang, Gan; Jin, Zhangdong; Li, Jun

2009-11-01

338

Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

2004-01-01

339

TSINGHUA -MIT China Energy & Climate Project  

E-print Network

TSINGHUA - MIT China Energy & Climate Project Will economic restructuring in China reduce trade economic restructuring in China reduce trade-embodied CO2 emissions? Tianyu Qi a,b, , Niven Winchester b , Valerie J. Karplus b , Xiliang Zhang a a Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy, Tsinghua University

340

Continental vertical growth in the transitional zone between South Tianshan and Tarim, western Xinjiang, NW China: Insight from the Permian Halajun A1-type granitic magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Tianshan Collisional Belt (STCB) and northern margin of the Tarim Block (NTB) are key areas for understanding the prolonged tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Halajun region in Xinjiang province, NW China is located within the tectonic transition zone between STCB and Tarim Blocks. Several granitic intrusions and one mafic-ultramafic complex (Piqiang complex) are exposed in this region. Zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock major oxide, trace element and Nd isotopic data are presented for the Huoshibulake, Tamu, Kezi'ertuo and Halajun II granitic intrusions in this area. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age for Kezi'ertuo intrusion, coupled with previously published SHIRMP U-Pb ages for Huoshibulake and Halajun II intrusions and Piqiang complex, reveals that all the igneous rocks in the Halajun region are coeval (~ 275 Ma). Geochemically, the four granitic intrusions show high contents of SiO2, K2O and total alkalis and possess trace element patterns characterized by Rb, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf enrichment and significantly negative Ba, Sr, P, Eu and Ti anomalies. These features strongly favor an A1-type affinity for the Halajun granitic intrusions. Among the four intrusions, the Kezi'ertuo, Tamu and Halajun II intrusions possess positive to slightly negative ?Nd(t) values ranging from - 0.9 to + 0.6, whereas the Huoshibulake intrusion displays less depleted ?Nd(t) values of - 2.6 to - 2.9. Our new elemental and isotopic data suggest that the four granitic intrusions were generated by the partial melting of a common Neoproterozoic gabbroic source, probably as a result of the ~ 275 Ma underplating of the asthenosphere mantle-derived magmas. The variable involvement of the mantle components accounts for the range of ?Nd(t) values. After the generation of the parental magma, alkali feldspar, arfvedsonite, biotite, Fe-Ti oxides and zircon seem to have fractionated prior to the final emplacement of the granitic magmas. In combination with the regional geological history, we propose that the ~ 275 Ma A1-type granitic magmatism in the Halajun region and other areas of the NTB provides a good proxy record for the vertical continental crustal growth in the southern margin of the CAOB during the Permian. Our study, in combination with other geological evidence, indicates that these A1-type felsic and OIB-like mafic-ultramafic rocks, with ages from ~ 282 Ma to ~ 275 Ma, in the southern margin of the CAOB are parts of the Permian Tarim large igneous province and could be genetically related to the Tarim mantle plume.

Huang, He; Zhang, Zhaochong; Kusky, Timothy; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Dongyang; Liu, Junlai; Zhao, Zhidan

2012-12-01

341

International Symposium on Hydrogeology and the Environment, Wuhan, China, Oct. 17 20, 2000 A confined groundwater zone in weathered igneous rocks and its impact  

E-print Network

A confined groundwater zone in weathered igneous rocks and its impact on slope stability Jiu Jimmy Jiao in igneous rock saprolites are a serious natural hazard in Hong Kong and have been extensively studied groundwater zone may exist in the weathered igneous rock profile due to a highly fractured zone. In Hong Kong

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

342

Fluid inclusion, rare earth element geochemistry, and isotopic characteristics of the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic Ore district, northwestern Yunnan Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baiyangping Cu-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the northern part of the Lanping-Simao foreland fold belt, which lies between the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan and Lancangjiang faults in western Yunnan Province, China. The source of ore-forming fluids and materials within the eastern ore zone were investigated using fluid inclusion, rare earth element (REE), and isotopic (C, O, and S) analyses undertaken on sulfides, gangue minerals, wall rocks, and ores formed during the hydrothermal stage of mineralization. These analyses indicate: (1) The presence of five types of fluid inclusion, which contain various combinations of liquid (l) and vapor (v) phases at room temperature: (a) H2O (l), (b) H2O (l) + H2O (v), (c) H2O (v), (d) CmHn (v), and (e) H2O (l) + CO2 (l), sometimes with CO2 (v). These inclusions have salinities of 1.4-19.9 wt.% NaCl equivalents, with two modes at approximately 5-10 and 16-21 wt.% NaCl equivalent, and homogenization temperatures between 101 °C and 295 °C. Five components were identified in fluid inclusions using Raman microspectrometry: H2O, dolomite, calcite, CH4, and N2. (2) Calcite, dolomitized limestone, and dolomite contain total REE concentrations of 3.10-38.93 ppm, whereas wall rocks and ores contain REE concentrations of 1.21-196 ppm. Dolomitized limestone, dolomite, wall rock, and ore samples have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns, with ores in the Huachangshan, Xiaquwu, and Dongzhiyan ore blocks having large negative ?Ce and ?Eu anomalies, which may be indicative of a change in redox conditions during fluid ascent, migration, and/or cooling. (3) ?34S values for sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite sulfide samples range from -7.3‰ to 2.1‰, a wide range that indicates multiple sulfur sources. The basin contains numerous sources of S, and deriving S from a mixture of these sources could have yielded these near-zero values, either by mixing of S from different sources, or by changes in the geological conditions of seawater sulfate reduction to sulfur. (4) The C-O isotopic analyses yield ?13C values from ca. zero to -10‰, and a wider range of ?18O values from ca. +6 to +24‰, suggestive of mixing between mantle-derived magma and marine carbonate sources during the evolution of ore-forming fluids, although potential contributions from organic carbon and basinal brine sources should also be considered. These data indicate that ore-forming fluids were derived from a mixture of organism, basinal brine, and mantle-derived magma sources, and as such, the eastern ore zone of the Baiyangping polymetallic ore deposit should be classified as a “Lanping-type” ore deposit.

Feng, Caixia; Bi, Xianwu; Liu, Shen; Hu, Ruizhong

2014-05-01

343

Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

2008-12-01

344

SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA  

E-print Network

SCOPE CHINA SCOPE CHINA 92030006 86-351-7010700 86-351-7010700 E-mail: scope #12;SCOPE-ZHONGYU ENvirONmENtal FOrUm 2012 October 11-14, 2012 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China Chair of Environmental Development Dr. Shu Sun, Academician, President of SCOPE CAST China Former Vice President

Wang, Wei Hua

345

Hongshan chiefly communities in Neolithic northeastern China  

PubMed Central

The Hongshan societies of northeastern China are among East Asia’s earliest complex societies. They have been known largely from elaborate burials with carved jades in ceremonial platforms. The most monumental remains are concentrated in a “core zone” in western Liaoning province. Residential remains are less well known and most investigations of them have been in peripheral regions outside the core zone. Recent regional settlement pattern research around the well known ceremonial site of Dongshanzui has begun to document the communities that built and used Hongshan core zone monuments and to assess their developmental dynamics. The core zone, like the Hongshan periphery, appears to have been organized into a series of small chiefly districts within which ceremonial activities were important integrative forces. Their estimated populations of less than 1,000 are not much larger than those of districts in the periphery, and the evidence does not suggest that these districts were integrated into any larger political entity. The greater elaboration of core zone monumental architecture is thus not attributable to demographically larger communities or to larger-scale political integration. Future research should focus on documenting the organization of statuses and economic activities within these core zone communities to assess potential differences from peripheral communities in these regards. PMID:20224038

Peterson, Christian E.; Lu, Xueming; Drennan, Robert D.; Zhu, Da

2010-01-01

346

China’s New Demographic Reality: Learning from the 2010 Census1  

PubMed Central

The paper provides an examination of China’s 2010 census data to evaluate its quality and to assess China’s demographic situation. The demographic trends revealed by the new census data suggest that China has entered a new demographic era characterized by prolonged low fertility, elevated sex ratios, rapid aging, fast urbanization and major geographic redistribution. How China responses to these demographic challenges will have profound implications for its social and economic future.

Cai, Yong

2015-01-01

347

Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and biochar addition on the net global warming potential (net GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). These experiments were conducted in an intensive vegetable field with 4 consecutive vegetable crops in 2012 and 2013 in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with a 32 factorial design in triplicate at N fertilizer rates of 0, 1475, 1967 kg N ha-1 and biochar rates of 0, 20, and 40 t ha-1. Although CH4 emissions were not obviously affected by N fertilization, N2O emissions increased by 27.2-116.2% and the net GWP increased by 30.6-307.2%. Consequently, the GHGI increased significantly, but vegetable yield and the NEEB did not improve. Furthermore, biochar amendments did not significantly influence CH4 emissions, but significantly decreased the N2O emissions by 1.7-25.4%, the net GWP by 89.6-700.5%, and the GHGI by 89.5-644.8%. In addition, vegetable yields significantly increased by 2.1-74.1%, which improved the NEEB. Thus, N fertilization did not increase vegetable yields or the NEEB. However, N fertilization did increase the net GWP and GHGI. In contrast, biochar additions resulted in lower N2O emissions and net GWP and GHGI, but increased vegetable yield and the NEEB in the intensive vegetable production system. Therefore, appropriate biochar amendment should be studied to combat changing climate and to improve the economic profits of vegetable production.

Li, B.; Fan, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Z. Z.; Sun, L. Y.; Xiong, Z. Q.

2015-01-01

348

Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21??21???N, 111??11???E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982-2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas. The correlation coefficients among the metals and climatic and economic factors indicate that the metals Ni, Zn, and Cd behave similarly. Copper and Mn are positively correlated, and cobalt is negatively correlated with Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd. Lead is not correlated with any other metals but is correlated with sea surface water temperature, air temperature, GDP and industrial-agricultural production in Dianbai County. Lead in corals is related to the enhanced pollution level of ocean waters as a result of increased industrial activities.

Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

2006-01-01

349

China views globalization: Toward a new great-power politics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is rising in the age of globalization. Although China ini- tially accepted greater interdependence largely out of economic necessity early in the reform era, Beijing has since come to embrace interdependence and globalization with increasing enthusiasm. Yet, the country's political elites recognize that economic globalization is a double-edged sword for China. Although undoubtedly an engine of national economic growth,

Yong Deng; Thomas G. Moore

2004-01-01

350

Comparison of two vegetation classification techniques in China based on NOAA\\/AVHRR data and climate-vegetation indices of the Holdridge life zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new multi-source data set for integrated analysis of vegetation classification at a continental scale, and applied it in China. Two kinds of supervised classification methods, artificial neural network (NN) and maximum likelihood classification (MLC) algorithms were employed to classify the data set in order to ascertain which method is better for this new data set. Classification

Xiaobing Li; Peng Gong; Ruiliang Pu; Peijun Shi

2001-01-01

351

Evolution of abnormally low pressure and its implications for the hydrocarbon system in the southeast uplift zone of Songliao basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underpressured formations are present in the southeast uplift of the Songliao basin, northeast China. At depths between 1540 and 3000 m, the Lower Cretaceous strata in the Shiwu depression of the basin are significantly underpressured at about 50-80% of hy- drostatic pressure. Exploration for oil and gas indicates that the hydrocarbon distribution in the depression has unusual character- istics: gas

Xinong Xie; Jiu Jimmy Jiao; Zhonghua Tang; Chunmiao Zheng

352

Production of Perennial Vegetation in an Oasis-desert Transition Zone in NW China - Allometric Estimation, and Assessment of Flooding and Use Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

River oases at the southern fringe of the Taklamakan desert in NW China are surrounded by belts of spontaneous vegetation that protect the oases from sand drift. As an important source of forage, fuel and construction wood, this foreland vegetation is also a component part of the agricultural system of the oases but has been, and still is, destroyed through

Dirk Gries; Andrea Foetzki; Stefan K. Arndt; Helge Bruelheide; Frank M. Thomas; Ximing Zhang; Michael Runge

2005-01-01

353

Changes in China's fertility rate in the 1980s and an analysis of the related social and economic factors.  

PubMed

In the 1980s, the government reform policy exerted a profound impact on Chinese society and the economy, including the fertility rate. A sample survey of two thousandths of the total population was conducted in mid-1988. Social and economic factors were investigated primarily using the total fertility rate (TFR). The new Marriage Act was adopted in 1988 setting marriage age at 20; previously, early marriage and childbearing before age 18 had occurred often. Early marriage had declined from 47.89% in 1970 to 12.53% in 1979. In rural areas more than half of marriages were early marriages, dropping to 16.90% by 1979 and increasing to 25% in 1987. Consequently, the cumulative fertility rate in the 15-20 age group rose 88% from 1980 to 1988. Mature-age marriage, at age 23 or older, became more common both in urban and rural areas, with a 80.0% and 42.26% rate, respectively, in 1979. However, by 1987 it declined to 66.84% and 20.71%, respectively. The age at first childbearing had grown to 24.45 in 1980 (23.89 in rural areas); however, it was reversed to 23.04 in 1987 (22.56 in rural areas). The cumulative fertility in the 15-24 age group shot up between 1980 and 1987. THe cumulative fertility rate in terms of TFR in this group grew from 35.21% in 1980 to 47.74% in 1987. Single-child cumulative fertility rates in the age groups of 15-19 and 20-24 had declined to below 1 in the late 1970s and 1980, but these were merely postponed childbearing. In 1987 many rural women began to have their second child. Multiple births in rural areas declined from 59.80% in 1970 to 20.86% in 1987, while total number of births increased 41.78% in 1987. In urban areas the TFR was 1.98 after 1974 and declined to 1.24 in 1980 and then rose to 1.36, a little below the planned TFR of 1.25. In rural areas, low per capita income and its irrational distribution favor less educated people, while transformation into the household-based economy requires child labor, factors which have impeded the family planning program. PMID:12345189

Feng, L

1993-01-01

354

Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.  

PubMed

This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization. PMID:23054291

Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

2013-06-01

355

Current state of sewage treatment in China.  

PubMed

The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. PMID:25189479

Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

2014-12-01

356

The Forces Shaping China's Outbound Tourism ???????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of outbound tourism in China has been dominated by the consumer approach, and individual travelers have been the focus of research. This article adopts an alternative approach to studying outbound tourism in China by analyzing the macro?environment. It is found that socio?economic and political factors play important parts in shaping the outbound international tourist flows from China. The

Tony S. M. Tse; J. S. Perry Hobson

2008-01-01

357

Charms - China Agricultural Remote Sensing Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the sustaining economic development in China, the timely, accurate and objective agricultural production information service has been highly demanded by the central and provincial governments. China Agricultural Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) is an operational agricultural monitoring system in the Ministry of Agriculture of China to meet this demand. Wheat, corn and rice, are the three main grain crops

Zhongxin Chen; Qingbo Zhou; Jia Liu; Limin Wang; Jianqiang Ren; Qing Huang; Hui Deng; Li Zhang; Dandan Li

2011-01-01

358

Lower Permian formations of the Buqingshan Mountains in the A'nyemaqen ophiolitic zone (Eastern Kunlun, Qinghai Province, China): On the beginning of the Paleotethys closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Several Lower Permian formations are most completely represented within the Buqing- shan Mountains (eastern portion of the Eastern Kunlun orogenic belt), a part of the Paleotethyan ophiolite suture commonly considered as the A'nyemaqen ophiolite zone. The formations were formed in the following paleogeodynamic environments (in a southward direction): (1) shelf and slope of a passive continental margin of a

I. I. Pospelov; E. J. Leven; Qiantao Bian; V. A. Aristov; O. A. Korchagin

2005-01-01

359

Globalization of Education in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under traditional Confucianism, China's school system became authoritarian, rigid, and undemocratic. In recent decades, China had one national curriculum and one unified set of textbooks. Now, text publication is more varied, curriculum planning and writing is becoming more democratic, and Western ideas are incorporated to spur economic

An, Shuhua

2000-01-01

360

Association between high temperature and mortality in metropolitan areas of four cities in various climatic zones in China: a time-series study  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have reported on the associations between ambient temperatures and mortality. However, few multi-city studies have been conducted in developing countries including China. This study aimed to examine the association between high temperature and mortality outcomes in four cities with different climatic characteristics in China to identify the most vulnerable population, detect the threshold temperatures, and provide scientific evidence for public health policy implementations to respond to challenges from extreme heat. Methods A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) with a Poisson distribution was used to analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature over the threshold on mortality after controlling for covariates including time trends, day of the week (DOW), humidity, daily temperature range, and outdoor air pollution. Results The temperature thresholds for all-cause mortality were 29°C, 35°C, 33°C and 34°C for Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders including air pollution, strong associations between daily maximum temperature and daily mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic outcomes, and particularly diabetes, were observed in different geographical cities, with increases of 3.2-5.5%, 4.6-7.5% and 12.5-31.9% (with 14.7-29.2% in diabetes), respectively, with each 1°C increment in the daily maximum temperature over the threshold. A stronger temperature-associated mortality was detected in females compared to males. Additionally, both the population over 55 years and younger adults aged 30 to 54 years reported significant heat-mortality associations. Conclusions Extreme heat is becoming a huge threat to public health and human welfare due to the strong temperature-mortality associations in China. Climate change with increasing temperatures may make the situation worse. Relevant public health strategies and an early extreme weather and health warning system should be developed and improved at an early stage to prevent and reduce the health risks due to extreme weather and climate change in China, given its huge population, diverse geographic distribution and unbalanced socioeconomic status with various climatic characteristics. PMID:25103276

2014-01-01

361

Origin of oscillatory zoned garnets from the Xieertala Fe-Zn skarn deposit, northern China: In situ LA-ICP-MS evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oscillatory zoned garnets are able to record numerous geological processes including variations of physicochemical conditions and hydrothermal fluid evolution. In this contribution, we present the mineralogy, petrography, and systematic major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations of zoned garnets from the Xieertala Fe-Zn skarn deposit. The in situ analytical results of oscillatory zoned garnets from core to rim demonstrate that garnet cores are remarkably HREE-rich, with relatively high ?REE and HREE/LREE ratios as well as negative Eu anomalies. REE patterns of garnet rims are typically LREE-rich, with relatively low ?REE and HREE/LREE ratios and positive Eu anomalies. Estimates of PT conditions suggest that the early fluid formed in relatively high temperature, pressure and salinity conditions, while the later fluid formed in relatively low temperature, pressure and salinity conditions. This transition in P, T and salinity conditions is interpreted to be caused by the dominance of magmatic and meteoric waters in early and late stages, respectively. Based on optical and textural characteristics, REE patterns, Eu anomalies and trace element variations in zoned garnets, it can be shown that during skarn formation, Xieertala hydrothermal fluids shifted from near neutral pH and oxidizing conditions with relatively high ?REE, low LREE/HREE ratios, and U-poor and Y-rich characteristics to acidic and reducing conditions with relatively low ?REE, high LREE/HREE ratios, and U-rich and Y-poor characteristics. We infer that variations of fluid compositions and physicochemical conditions may have a major control on incorporating trace elements and REEs into different sections of oscillatory zoned garnets.

Zhai, De-Gao; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Wang, Jian-Ping; Su, Li; Yang, Xi-An; Wu, Sheng-Hua

2014-03-01

362

Interprovincial disparities in China since the reforms: Convergence or divergence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the extent of disparities amongst the provinces of China since the economic reform in 1978 up to the most recent year for which data is available. After a brief review of theoretical and in particular recent empirical literature on regional inequality in China it investigates whether or not the dynamic economic growth in China has been coupled

Farhad Noorbakhsh; Zhikai Wang

2010-01-01

363

Interprovincial disparities in China since the reforms: convergence or divergence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the extent of disparities amongst the provinces of China since the economic reform in 1978 up to the most recent year for which data is available. After a brief review of theoretical and in particular recent empirical literature on regional inequality in China it investigates whether or not the dynamic economic growth in China has been coupled

Farhad Noorbakhsh; Zhikai Wang

2010-01-01

364

Information Technology Brings Better Life to Western China  

E-print Network

Information Technology Brings Better Life to Western China Information Technology has begun, China launched a national development strategy in its impov- erished western regions to boost economic and enhance education. In 2000, China launched the national Western Development Strategy to boost economic

Narasayya, Vivek

365

China's energy economy: A survey of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on China's energy economy, focusing particularly on: (i) the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth; (ii) China's changing energy intensity; (iii) energy demand and energy-non-energy substitution; (iv) the emergence of energy markets in China; and (v) economic reforms in the energy industry. After reviewing the literature, the paper presents the main findings that some

Hengyun Ma; Les Oxley; John Gibson

2010-01-01

366

China Economy: Technology, Growth and Global Connections (3 Credits)  

E-print Network

China Economy: Technology, Growth and Global Connections (3 Credits) Instructor Susan Mays, and challenges in China's unique and dynamic economy, in a global context. Topics 1. China's "Opening" from 1978 addresses China's economic and technological development in a global context, circa 1978 to the present

Chen, Zheng

367

The "Golden Projects": China's National Networking Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For China, information technology and communications networks are a new solution to an old problem, reconstituting hierarchical state power. This article examines China's National Networking Initiative, "Golden Projects," within the context of economic and political reform to demonstrate an alternative to traditional economic based networking…

Lovelock, Peter; Clark, Theodore C.; Petrazzini, Ben A.

1996-01-01

368

Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone  

E-print Network

In northern China, there are a large number of space buildings divided in inner zone and exterior zone based on usage requirements. The exterior zone needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer, while the inner zone needs to be cooled both...

Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

2006-01-01

369

Logistics barriers for multinational corporations doing business in China  

E-print Network

With rapid economic growth, China attracts many multinational corporations (MNCs) as a manufacturing center with both its cheap labor cost and a huge consumer market. While doing business in China, most MNCs have faced ...

Luo, Manqin, 1976-

2004-01-01

370

China's Banking Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the main problems facing the Chinese banking system and concludes that, despite serious problems, the risk seems small that, in the near future, a financial crisis will occur that will pose severe problems for the international financial system. An internal financial crisis, however, could occur. Without government support, the economic viability of many of China's banks is

Dick Nanto; Radha Sinha

2002-01-01

371

The stability of sapphirine + quartz in magnetite-bearing high oxygen fugacity granulites: a case study of the Madurai Block (Southern India) and the Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (North China)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sapphirine has been the focus of many petrological investigations for the last two decades as the mineral often occurs in Mg-Al rich and pelitic rocks formed at high temperature to ultrahigh temperature (UHT). Particularly, sapphirine coexisting with quartz is considered as one of the most diagnostic mineral assemblages of UHT metamorphism. It is also known that sapphirine often occurs in magnetite-bearing high oxygen fugacity rocks, and, in such cases, the mineral can incorporate considerable quantity of ferric iron as well as Fe2+. It is therefore important to evaluate the effect of Fe3+ content on the stability of sapphirine-bearing assemblages for estimating peak conditions as well as constructing P-T paths. In this study, we evaluated the stability of sapphirine + quartz in magnetite-bearing high-oxygen fugacity rocks in UHT granulites from India (Madurai Block in the southern granulite terrane) and China (Inner Mongolia Suture Zone) using mineral equilibrium modeling technique, and constructed P-T paths of the areas. The calculations have been done in NCKFMASHTO system using THERMOCALC 3.33 with an updated version of the internally consistent data set. The Madurai Block is the largest granulite block in the Southern Granulite Terrane, India, which was formed by collisional orogeny related to the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent. The block contains granulites with various UHT mineral assemblages including sapphirine + quartz, orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz, and Al-rich orthopyroxene. Quartzo-feldspathic garnet-sillimanite granulites from Rajapalaiyam area in the southern part of the block, for example, contain sapphirine + quartz inclusion in garnet as a stable mineral assemblage at the peak of metamorphism. The calculated T-X pseudosections suggest that the stability temperature of sapphirine + quartz is lowered from 1000°C at reduced condition (XFe2O3 = 0.02) to 910°C at oxidized condition (XFe2O3 = 1.0). The Inner Mongolia Suture Zone within the North China Block rarely contains sapphirine-bearing UHT granulites. Tuguiwula area within the suture zone contains coarse-grained sapphirine granulites. Although both sapphirine and quartz occur quartzo-feldspathic layers of the rocks, the two minerals are separated by thin film of sillimanite. This indicates sapphirine was in equilibrium with quartz at prograde or peak metamorphic conditions and separated during retrograde metamorphism. The T-X pseudosection of the rocks indicate that the stability field of sapphirine + quartz lowered in more oxidized condition (T > 1050°C at XFe2O3 = 0.1 to T > 920°C at XFe2O3 = 0.9). The results of this study demonstrated that the occurrence of sapphirine + quartz in UHT rocks is strongly controlled by the oxidation state of the rocks. Lowering of the stability field of sapphirine + quartz by increasing XFe2O3 ratio was also confirmed for UHT granulites from the Madurai Block and the Inner Mongolia Suture Zone.

Shimizu, H.; Tsunogae, T.; Santosh, M.

2012-04-01

372

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Undergraduate BSc Economics BSc Economics and Politics #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching is internationally respected and our students are in demand by employers

Burton, Geoffrey R.

373

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics  

E-print Network

Economics Postgraduate MSc Economics MSc Economics & Finance MSc International Money & Banking #12;www.bath.ac.uk/economics Welcome to the Department of Economics The Department offers a range. The Department has a strong international research reputation in mainstream economics. Our teaching and research

Burton, Geoffrey R.

374

China under the Four Modernizations: Part 1. Selected Papers Submitted to the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policies and performance of the post-Mao Chinese government (1976 to the present) in the four modernization areas of industry, agriculture, science and technology, and the military are examined. Realizing that the program to modernize the economy of the People's Republic of China, which was initiated by Mao's successors in 1977, was much too…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

375

Integrated Emergy, Energy and Economic Evaluation of Rice and Vegetable Production Systems in Alluvial Paddy Fields: Implications for Agricultural Policy in China  

EPA Science Inventory

China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation...

376

China's (uneven) progress against poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the incidence of extreme poverty fell dramatically in China over 1980–2001, progress was uneven over time and across provinces. Rural areas accounted for the bulk of the gains to the poor, though migration to urban areas helped. Rural economic growth was far more important to national poverty reduction than urban economic growth; agriculture played a far more important role

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

2007-01-01

377

Characterization, sources, and potential risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from nearshore and farther shore zones of the Yangtze estuary, China.  

PubMed

The assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface sediments from the Yangtze estuary which is a representative area affected by anthropogenic activity (rapid industrialization, high-population density, and construction of dams upstream) in the world was systematically conducted. Fifty-one samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ?PAHs in all sediments varied from 76.9 to 2,936.8 ng g(-1). Compared with other estuaries in the world, the PAH levels in the Yangtze estuary are low to moderate. Phenanthrene, acenaphthylene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were relatively abundant. The ?PAH levels and composition varied obviously in different estuarine zones due to different sources. The highest ?PAHs concentration was observed in the nearshore of Chongming Island. The PAH composition showed that four to six ring PAHs were mainly found in the nearshore areas, while two to three ring PAHs were in the farther shore zones. The PAHs in the Yangtze estuary were derived primarily from combustion sources. A mixture of petroleum combustion and biomass combustion mainly from coal combustion and vehicle emission was the main source of PAHs from the nearshore areas, while the spill, volatilization, or combustion of petroleum from shipping process and shoreside discharge were important for PAHs in the farther shore areas. The result of potential ecotoxicological risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines indicated low PAH ecological risk in the Yangtze estuary. The study could provide foundation for the protection of water quality of the Yangtze estuary by inducing main sources input. PMID:22585391

Wang, Ying; Li, Xue; Li, Baohua H; Shen, Zhenyao Y; Feng, Chenghong H; Chen, Yaxin X

2012-11-01

378

Plant community characteristics and their responses to environmental factors in the water level fluctuation zone of the three gorges reservoir in China.  

PubMed

The annual water level regulating of the Three Gorges Reservoir prolonged the submerged duration (from 2 to 8 months) and resulted in the reversal of natural flood rhythms (winter submerged). These changes might alter plant community characteristics in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). The aim of this study was to determine the plant community characteristics in the WLFZ and their responses to the environmental factors (i.e., annual hydrological regulation, topographic characteristics, soil physical properties and soil nutrients). The height, coverage, frequency and biomass of each plant species and the soil properties at each elevation zone (150, 155, 160, 165 and 170 m) were measured from March to September in 2010. Univariate two-factor analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the community characteristics and identify the key environmental factors influencing vegetation. We found that 93.2 % of the species analysed were terrestrial vascular plants. Annual herbs made up the highest percentage of life forms at each altitude. The differences in the species number per square metre, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the biomass of vegetation demonstrated statistical significance with respect to sampling time but not elevation. The most dominant species at altitudes of 150, 155, 160, 165 and 170 m were Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria viridis and Daucus carota, respectively. The concentrations of soil nutrients appeared to be the lowest at an altitude of 150 m, although the differences with respect to elevation were not significant. The results of the RDA indicated that the key factors that influenced the species composition of vegetation were elevation, slope, pH and the concentration of soil available phosphorus. PMID:23589274

Zhang, Zhiyong; Wan, Chengyan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Hu, Lian; Feng, Kun; Chang, Jianbo; Xie, Ping

2013-10-01

379

National Bureau of Statistics of China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, this Website provides economic, agricultural, and census data for China. Included here are versions of the China Statistical Yearbook for 1998 and 1999, a copy of the Statistics Law of the People's Republic of China, statistical abstracts and supplemental tables of the First National Agricultural Census in China conducted in 1997, monthly economic data for this year, currently covering January through September, and reports on national economic performance. In addition, an economic database is still under construction. The site is available in both Chinese and English. Some interactive features, including a forum, contact bar, cooperative program, and news updates, were not operational on our visit.

380

Blueschist metamorphism and its tectonic implication of Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic metabasites in the mélange zones, central Inner Mongolia, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blueschists in central Inner Mongolia are distributed as layers and blocks in mélanges including the southern zone in Ondor Sum area and the northern zone in Manghete and Naomuhunni areas. They have been attributed to the subduction of Early Paleozoic oceanic crust. Blueschists from Ondor Sum and Naomuhunni are characterized by occurrence of sodic amphibole coexisting with epidote, albite, chlorite, calcic amphibole (in Ondor Sum) and muscovite (in Naomuhunni). Blueschists in Manghete contain porphyroblastic albite with inclusions of garnet and epidote in a matrix dominated by calcic-sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, albite and muscovite. Phase equilibria modeling for three blueschist samples using pseudosection suggest that the AlM2 contents in sodic amphibole can be used as a good barometer in the limited assemblage involving sodic amphibole + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + albite + quartz under pressures <4-6 kbar, while this barometer is largely influenced by temperature and bulk Fe2O3 contents in the actinolite-absent assemblage sodic amphibole + epidote + chlorite + albite + quartz of higher pressure and the AlM2 contents are not pressure-controlled in the albite-absent assemblage sodic amphibole + epidote + chlorite + quartz under pressures > 7-10 kbar. In the sodic amphibole-bearing assemblages, the NaM4 contents in sodic amphibole mainly decrease as temperature rises, being a potential thermometry. The calculated pseudosections constrain the P-T conditions of blueschists to be 3.2-4.2 kbar/355-415 °C in Ondor Sum, 8.2-9.0 kbar/455 °C-495 °C in Manghete and 6.6-8.1 kbar/420-470 °C in Naomuhunni. These P-T estimates indicate a rather high geothermal gradient of 18-25 °C/km for the blueschist metamorphism, being of intermediate P/T facies series. Available zircon U-Pb age data suggests that the protoliths of blueschists were formed later than Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic and metamorphosed soon afterwards. An alternative interpretation for the tectonic implication of blueschists in central Inner Mongolia is that they may be a new type attributed to closure of limited ocean basins and do not represent a tectonic regime occurred in conventional subduction setting.

Zhang, Jinrui; Wei, Chunjing; Chu, Hang

2015-01-01

381

Oral health in China – trends and challenges  

PubMed Central

For a long time, oral disease is one of the major problems of the public health for its high prevalence and incidence throughout the world, which is especially true for low-income populations. Since China's economic reform in 1978, great changes have taken place in China. These changes have significant impact on and have been reflected in oral disease trends in China. This paper provides an overview and assessment of the oral health status in China. It focuses on changes in the nation's demographic profile, in the marketplace, the oral disease status and trends. The paper also suggests some possible measures and strategies for bettering oral health in future China. PMID:21449210

Hu, De-yu; Hong, Xiao; Li, Xue

2011-01-01

382

Emerging Asian Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

Trezise, Philip H.

383

Tree cover changes in-and outside protected areas in China  

E-print Network

Tree cover changes in- and outside protected areas in China Jonas Nüchel1,2, Peder Klith Bøcher1, A Academy of Sciences, China; 4Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin, USA. Introduction: China. The large area also means that China has a diverse landscape and covers several climatic zones, resulting

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

384

6. Business organizations in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two-and-a-half decades, China's transition to a market economy has produced remarkable growth rates and fundamental changes in the organization of economic action.1 Though lacking the fundamental institutional shifts that have defined many transforming socialist economies around the world, China's gradualist reforms have nevertheless been radical and deep (Naughton, 1995; Guthrie, 1999, 2003, 2005; Nolan, 2004). The emergence of business

Doug Guthrie; Junmin Wang

385

Ecological economic evaluation of the degraded natural vegetation restoration after water transfer to the lower Tarim River, Xinjiang region of northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergency ecological water transfer has been implemented for 12 years since 2000 in the lower Tarim River with the goal of restoring the impaired ecosystem and protected habitat environment. It is necessary to evaluate the ecological economic benefits of the vegetative system in order to measure the success of the rehabilitated ecosystem. Based on a hypothesis that the growth of the natural vegetation has a hysteresis with increased groundwater level, this paper suggests that the ecological economic value of the natural vegetation response to groundwater level elevation theoretically includes two parts: the direct value resulting from the increased aboveground biomass of the natural vegetation and the potential value resulting from the natural vegetative restoration in the future. The ecological economic analysis method is applied to calculate assess the ecological economic benefits of the natural vegetative restoration in Kaogan area. The total investment cost of increased groundwater level after seven years is 867 US Dollars in the 100-metre-wide, 2000-metre-long sample belt. The direct value is 1491 US Dollars and the direct input-output ratio is 1:1.7. While the potential value is 4989 US Dollars and the total input-output ratio is 1:7.5. The results indicate that the ecological economic benefits of natural vegetative response are significant after seven years of groundwater level elevation in the lower Tarim River. It also provides a theoretical reference for quantifying the benefits of the degraded ecosystem restoration. Keywords: The lower reaches of Tarim River; ecological water transfer project; ecological economic value; the potential value

Mao, Ye; Hailiang, Xu

2013-04-01

386

Urbanization around the Pearl River Estuary in China from 1973 through 2001 (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The region around the Pearl River Estuary in southern China experienced rapid urban growth in the 1980s and 1990s. This growth was spurred by the establishment of special government economic zones, particularly in Shenzhen, just to the east of the estuary. Urban areas increased by more than 300% between 1988 and 1996. This growth can be directly assessed by remote sensing measurements from space, particularly by comparing images from the Landsat sensors for the last thirty years. This animation shows nine such images in sequence, from the years 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1988, 1992, 1995, 2000, and 2001.

Sokolowsky, Eric; Perkins, Lori; Newcombe, Marte; Mitchell, Horace; Seto, Karen; Williams, Darrel

2004-02-13

387

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 64, pp. 859 to 875, 2008 Yellow/East China  

E-print Network

in the South- ern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne Expendable Bathythermograph Measurements and their seasonality in frontal zones of the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Finestructure characteristics

Chu, Peter C.

388

Nationalities of China Province of China  

E-print Network

Outline Nationalities of China Province of China Language of China #12;Nationalities of China 56 of China A province is an administrative division of China. 33 province level divisions. 22 Provinces 4-level cities in China direct- controlled by the central government Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Chongqing #12

Li, Xiang

389

Review of water pollution control in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because\\u000a of China’s specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries’ experience is unrealistic.\\u000a At present, China needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and municipal environmental\\u000a remediation that embrace the country’s specific need to battle the water resource

Tingyao Gao; Hongbin Chen; Siqing Xia; Zengyan Zhou

2008-01-01

390

Tectonics and distribution of gold deposits in China - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold exploration in China has expanded rapidly during the last two decades since a modern approach to economic development has become a national priority. China currently produces 180 tonnes (t) of gold annually, which is still significantly less than South Africa, USA, and Australia. However, China is now recognized as possessing significant gold resources in a wide range of mineral

Taihe Zhou; Richard J. Goldfarb; Neil G. Phillips

2002-01-01

391

A comparative study of projection models on China's food economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, China's food supply and demand has been a hot topic for both politicians and academics given China's rapid economic development and its sheer market size. Accordingly, researchers are trying to project the future development of China's food economy. This article reviews several influential projection models and compares their model structure, major assumptions and projection results.

Xiaoyong Zhang

2003-01-01

392

Transforming coal for sustainability: a strategy for China  

E-print Network

the goal of expanding China's economy fourfold by 2020 and defined the Three E's strategy for economic on specific technical analyses and modeling of China's integrated energy economy[3] . The Task Force on EnergyTransforming coal for sustainability: a strategy for China Report by the Task Force on Energy

393

Internet Development, Censorship, and Cyber Crimes in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its first Internet connection with the global computer network in 1994, China has witnessed explosive Internet development. By the end of 2008, China replaced the United States as the largest Internet user of the world. Although China enjoyed tremendous economic benefits from Internet development, the Chinese government has tried to maintain tight control over the telecommunications industry and the

Bin Liang; Hong Lu

2010-01-01

394

Impacts of uncertainty in AVOC emissions on the summer RO x budget and ozone production rate in the three most rapidly-developing economic growth regions of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High levels of uncertainty in non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions in China could lead to significant variation in the budget of the sum of hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy (HO2, RO2) radicals (RO x = OH + HO2 + RO2) and the ozone production rate [P(O3)], but few studies have investigated this possibility, particularly with three-dimensional air quality models. We added diagnostic variables into the WRF-Chem model to assess the impact of the uncertainty in anthropogenic NMVOC (AVOC) emissions on the RO x budget and P(O3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta of China. The WRF-Chem simulations were compared with satellite and ground observations, and previous observation-based model studies. Results indicated that 68% increases (decreases) in AVOC emissions produced 4%-280% increases (2%-80% decreases) in the concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 in the three regions, and resulted in 35%-48% enhancements (26%-39% reductions) in the primary RO x production and ˜ 65% decreases (68%-73% increases) of the P(O3) in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. For the three cities, the two largest contributors to the RO x production rate were the reaction of O1D + H2O and photolysis of HCHO, ALD2, and others; the reaction of OH + NO2 (71%-85%) was the major RO x sink; and the major contributor to P(O3) was the reaction of HO2 + NO (˜ 65%). Our results showed that AVOC emissions in 2006 from Zhang et al. (2009) have been underestimated by ˜ 68% in suburban areas and by > 68% in urban areas, implying that daily and hourly concentrations of secondary organic aerosols and inorganic aerosols could be substantially underestimated, and cloud condensation nuclei could be underestimated, whereas local and regional radiation was overestimated.

Wang, Feng; An, Junling; Li, Ying; Tang, Yujia; Lin, Jian; Qu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Jing

2014-11-01

395

Medical Expenditure and Rural Impoverishment in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to continued economic growth and increasing income, the overall poverty rate has been on the decline in China. However, due to escalating medical costs and lack of insurance coverage, medical spending often causes financial hardship for many rural families. Using data from the 1998 China National Health Services Survey, the impact of medical expenditure on the poverty headcount for

Yuanli Liu; Keqin Rao; William C. Hsiao

2003-01-01

396

Governing urban water flows in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been witnessing an unprecedented period of continuous high economic growth during the past three decades. But this has been paralleled by severe environmental challenges, of which water problems are of key importance. This thesis addresses the urban water challenges of contemporary China, by focusing especially on the institutional traditions and innovations in Chinese water policies and governance, basically

L. Zhong

2007-01-01

397

CHINA'S TRANSITIONAL ECONOMY - Between Plan and Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper should be seen as an introduction to China's progress intransition from plan to market, rather than a comprehensive or exhaustivetreatment of this question. Within the constraints of this short exercisewe have provided only an overview on the economy's status in 1997 andwhere it has come from in the past 19 years. A more comprehensiveanalysis of China's economic reform

George Mina; Frances Perkins

1997-01-01

398

Income Distribution during the Transition in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper's goal is to increase the understanding of the inequality trends during the transitional period in China. From 1978 to 1995, China has been undergoing 18 years far-reaching economic system reform and opening to the outside world nationwide. During the transitional periods, the average household income per capita increased substantially and so did income inequality.

Z. Ping

1997-01-01

399

User study on family communication in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family is a core element of society. The development of economics and the transformation of cultures in mainland China bring new challenges to family communications. To understand current practices and the needs of family communication in mainland China, we studied 27 rural and urban families with ethnographic methods. We summarized the main family structures for rural and urban families and

Jie Wang; Ying Liu; Huanglingzi Liu; Jyri Salomaa

2008-01-01

400

8?Organizations and Management in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China’s economic transition and its integration into the global economy have been widely recognized as among the most important social changes in the past three decades. This transformation has attracted scholarly attention from multiple disciplines, and sociologists have made particularly important contributions to literature emphasizing theories of organizations, organizational change, and management practice. In this article, we present a critical

Lisa A. Keister; Yanlong Zhang

2009-01-01

401

The Emergence of Continuing Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on continuing education in China. It discusses the emergence of the field in the 1980s, the Chinese characteristics of continuing education, recent developments, and limitations. Continuing education became available in China in the 1980s following a change in government policy and economic reform. It caters mainly for…

Chen, Xiao; Davey, Gareth

2008-01-01

402

Planning and Developing Community Colleges in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although China has expanded its system of short-cycle vocational and technical education in recent years to respond to its rapid economic development, most programs are narrowly focused on special technical areas and offer few general education or personal development components. As such, China's technical institutions differ greatly from…

Hu, Nan Brian; And Others

403

Strategic thinking on oil development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected that crude oil production in China will maintain its current level until 2020. Driven by higher living standards and the rapid development of energy intensive industries, China's oil demand will increase rapidly and might lead to heavier import dependency. Three cases of demand forecasts are presented, but for the sake of sustainable economic and social development, neither

Liu Keyu; Shan Weiguo

2005-01-01

404

Perspectives for natural working fluids in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has become one of the largest refrigerants market in the world with the rapid economy development. This paper details the status of natural working fluid research and application developments in China as an essential element for the sustainable economic development and environmental protection. The natural working fluids examined include carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, air and hydrocarbon. Prestigious universities and

R. Z. Wang; Y. Li

2007-01-01

405

Invasive species in China — an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a vast country with rich biodiversity, which makes China especially vulnerable to invasive species. It has a long history of introduction of non-native species, especially those with perceived beneficial impacts. Its rapid economic development, including an explosive growth in international trade and transportation, has increased the potential for new introductions. Currently, alien species are widespread in the country,

Xie Yan; Li Zhenyu; William P. Gregg; Li Dianmo

2001-01-01

406

Fertility Policy in China: Future Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of social, economic, and demographic criteria are used to evaluate China's present one-child policy and five alternative fertility policies that might guide China's population control efforts until the end of the century when the one-child policy is scheduled to be abandoned. These criteria include the policies' macrodemographic impact on total population size and population aging; their microdemographic

Susan Greenhalgh; John Bongaarts

1987-01-01

407

People's Republic of China's Technological Capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the importance of the People's Republic of China in the global economy by exemplifying industrial sectors where it has established a strong competitive advantage. The author accounts for China's growth by looking at factors such as direct foreign investment and investment in research and development. This paper discusses several economic sectors including the textile, electronics, semiconductor, and

Jon Sigurdson

2004-01-01

408

Territorial Competition in China and the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chien S.-S. and Gordon I. Territorial competition in China and the West, Regional Studies. In modern western societies, and most other economies to which it has spread, territorial economic competition is associated with a combination of competitive electoral politics and private land-ownership. In mainland China, however, a very strong form of this competition has emerged without either of these supports.

Shiuh-Shen Chien; Ian Gordon

2008-01-01

409

High gene flow and genetic diversity in three economically important Zanthoxylum Spp. of Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of NE India using molecular markers  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity in Zanthoxylum species viz.  Zanthoxylum nitidum, Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum and Zanthoxylum rhesta collected from the Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam (NE India) was amplified using 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 9 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. RAPD markers were able to detect 81.82% polymorphism whereas ISSR detected 98.02% polymorphism. The genetic similarities were analyzed from the dendrogram constructed by RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting methods which divided the 3 species of Zanthoxylum into 3 clear different clusters. The principle component analysis (PCA) was carried out to confirm the clustering pattern of RAPD and ISSR analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the presence of significant variability between different Zanthoxylum species and within the species by both RAPD and ISSR markers. Z. nitidum was found to be sharing a high degree of variation with the other two Zanthoxylum species under study. The Nei's gene diversity (h), Shannon's information index (I), observed number of alleles (na) and effective number of alleles (ne) were also found to be higher in ISSR markers (0.3526, 0.5230, 1.9802 and 1.6145) than in RAPD markers (0.3144, 0.4610, 1.8182 and 1.5571). The values for total genotype diversity for among population (HT), within population diversity (Hs) and gene flow (Nm) were more in ISSR (0.3491, 0.2644 and 1.5610) than RAPD (0.3128, 0.2264 and 1.3087) but the mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) was more in RAPD (0.2764) than ISSR (0.2426). A comparison of this two finger printing methods was done by calculating MR, EMI and MI. The correlation coefficient between data matrices of RAPD and ISSR based on Mantel test was found to be significant (r = 0.65612). PMID:25606454

Medhi, K.; Sarmah, D.K.; Deka, M.; Bhau, B.S.

2014-01-01

410

High gene flow and genetic diversity in three economically important Zanthoxylum Spp. of Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of NE India using molecular markers.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity in Zanthoxylum species viz.  Zanthoxylum nitidum, Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum and Zanthoxylum rhesta collected from the Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam (NE India) was amplified using 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 9 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. RAPD markers were able to detect 81.82% polymorphism whereas ISSR detected 98.02% polymorphism. The genetic similarities were analyzed from the dendrogram constructed by RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting methods which divided the 3 species of Zanthoxylum into 3 clear different clusters. The principle component analysis (PCA) was carried out to confirm the clustering pattern of RAPD and ISSR analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the presence of significant variability between different Zanthoxylum species and within the species by both RAPD and ISSR markers. Z. nitidum was found to be sharing a high degree of variation with the other two Zanthoxylum species under study. The Nei's gene diversity (h), Shannon's information index (I), observed number of alleles (na) and effective number of alleles (ne) were also found to be higher in ISSR markers (0.3526, 0.5230, 1.9802 and 1.6145) than in RAPD markers (0.3144, 0.4610, 1.8182 and 1.5571). The values for total genotype diversity for among population (HT), within population diversity (Hs) and gene flow (Nm) were more in ISSR (0.3491, 0.2644 and 1.5610) than RAPD (0.3128, 0.2264 and 1.3087) but the mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) was more in RAPD (0.2764) than ISSR (0.2426). A comparison of this two finger printing methods was done by calculating MR, EMI and MI. The correlation coefficient between data matrices of RAPD and ISSR based on Mantel test was found to be significant (r = 0.65612). PMID:25606454

Medhi, K; Sarmah, D K; Deka, M; Bhau, B S

2014-12-01

411

Cogeneration development and market potential in China  

SciTech Connect

China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

1996-05-01

412

The emergence of NGOs in China and their transnational linkages: implications for domestic reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addressing the question of how China's rapid socioeconomic transformation is changing the nature of its international engagement we need to move beyond a traditional focus on state-centric analysis. Obviously a major stimulus for China's international engagement over the past 25 years of reform and opening has come from non-state economic activity. Growing economic interdependence, accelerated after China's accession into

Katherine Morton

2005-01-01

413

Estimating the effects of China's Accession to the World Trade Organisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) marks a new era in China's economic reform. In this new era, state capital will lose its dominance of pillar industries such as iron and steel, automobile, petrochemicals, non-ferrous metal, insurance, telecommunication, banking, wholesale, and utilities. This study uses a computable general equilibrium model of China to estimate the economic benefits from China

Yin Hua Mai; Mark Horridge; Frances Perkins

2003-01-01

414

Growth and structural change in China's energy economy Fredrich Kahrl a  

E-print Network

Growth and structural change in China's energy economy Fredrich Kahrl a , David Roland-Holst b xxx Keywords: China Chinese economy Chinese energy use Energy intensity a b s t r a c t China has been energy economy and sustained economic and energy demand growth in China will pose important

Kammen, Daniel M.

415

Lurching towards markets for power: China's electricity policy 19852007 Xiaoli Zhao a,c,  

E-print Network

Institute for Low Carbon Economy and Trade, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China a r t i cLurching towards markets for power: China's electricity policy 1985­2007 Xiaoli Zhao a,c, , Thomas P. Lyon b , Cui Song a,c a School of Economics and Management, North China Electric Power University

Lyon, Thomas P.

416

Global Shipbuilding, Who Will be the Leader? South Korea or China?  

E-print Network

since 2006. A China’s soaring economic growth has been a big push for the shipbuilding and related industries as well. As of January 2007, China has 51% of orders place worldwide, which includes an 81% share of the low end vessel market. China is now...

Dan, Yong Jin

2007-12-14

417

Situating Productive Play: Online Gaming Practices and Guanxi in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic activities in and around online gaming in China are often correlated in the West with practices of gold farming, or selling in-game currency to players for real money in online games. What can we learn about online gaming in China and about online gaming and online sociality more broadly when we look at economic and other \\

Silvia Lindtner; Scott D. Mainwaring; Paul Dourish; Yang Wang

2009-01-01

418

Coal Mining in China's Economy and Society 1895-1937  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an important contribution to the economic history of modern China. It examines the history of the coal mining industry - one of China's largest and most important - from the beginnings of modernisation around 1895 to the start of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937. It addresses questions of both economic and socio-political history and contributes to our

Tim Wright

1985-01-01

419

Impact of China on Economies in East Asian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines China's emergence as a global economic power over the last few decades. It provides an overview of China's economic growth and its impact on East Asian Region (South Korea and Japan). There exits both competitive and complementary linkages relationships among EAR economies. It also explains the flow of capital in the form of FDI.

Ji Hong

420

Assessment of regional trade and virtual water flows in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of China's economic development has left deep marks on resource availability and quality. Some regions in China are relatively poor with regards to water resources. This problem is exacerbated by economic growth. Flourishing trade activities on both domestic and international levels have resulted in significant amounts of water withdrawal and water pollution. Hence the goal of this paper

Dabo Guan; Klaus Hubacek

2007-01-01

421

Technology transfer allows China to build exotic power systems  

SciTech Connect

This article details a joint program between China and Germany to bring economical electric power to China's rural areas through the use of wind/diesel/battery systems that are planned to be constructed of locally made components. The topics of the article include the cooperative program, technology and performance, technology transfer and economics of the project.

Cramer, G. (SMA Regelsystems GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)); Kniehl, R.

1994-02-01

422

The Heterogeneous Dynamics of Economic Complexity  

PubMed Central

What will be the growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the competitiveness of China, United States, and Vietnam in the next 3, 5 or 10 years? Despite this kind of questions has a large societal impact and an extreme value for economic policy making, providing a scientific basis for economic predictability is still a very challenging problem. Recent results of a new branch—Economic Complexity—have set the basis for a framework to approach such a challenge and to provide new perspectives to cast economic prediction into the conceptual scheme of forecasting the evolution of a dynamical system as in the case of weather dynamics. We argue that a recently introduced non-monetary metrics for country competitiveness (fitness) allows for quantifying the hidden growth potential of countries by the means of the comparison of this measure for intangible assets with monetary figures, such as GDP per capita. This comparison defines the fitness-income plane where we observe that country dynamics presents strongly heterogeneous patterns of evolution. The flow in some zones is found to be laminar while in others a chaotic behavior is instead observed. These two regimes correspond to very different predictability features for the evolution of countries: in the former regime, we find strong predictable pattern while the latter scenario exhibits a very low predictability. In such a framework, regressions, the usual tool used in economics, are no more the appropriate strategy to deal with such a heterogeneous scenario and new concepts, borrowed from dynamical systems theory, are mandatory. We therefore propose a data-driven method—the selective predictability scheme—in which we adopt a strategy similar to the methods of analogues, firstly introduced by Lorenz, to assess future evolution of countries. PMID:25671312

Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

2015-01-01

423

The heterogeneous dynamics of economic complexity.  

PubMed

What will be the growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the competitiveness of China, United States, and Vietnam in the next 3, 5 or 10 years? Despite this kind of questions has a large societal impact and an extreme value for economic policy making, providing a scientific basis for economic predictability is still a very challenging problem. Recent results of a new branch-Economic Complexity-have set the basis for a framework to approach such a challenge and to provide new perspectives to cast economic prediction into the conceptual scheme of forecasting the evolution of a dynamical system as in the case of weather dynamics. We argue that a recently introduced non-monetary metrics for country competitiveness (fitness) allows for quantifying the hidden growth potential of countries by the means of the comparison of this measure for intangible assets with monetary figures, such as GDP per capita. This comparison defines the fitness-income plane where we observe that country dynamics presents strongly heterogeneous patterns of evolution. The flow in some zones is found to be laminar while in others a chaotic behavior is instead observed. These two regimes correspond to very different predictability features for the evolution of countries: in the former regime, we find strong predictable pattern while the latter scenario exhibits a very low predictability. In such a framework, regressions, the usual tool used in economics, are no more the appropriate strategy to deal with such a heterogeneous scenario and new concepts, borrowed from dynamical systems theory, are mandatory. We therefore propose a data-driven method-the selective predictability scheme-in which we adopt a strategy similar to the methods of analogues, firstly introduced by Lorenz, to assess future evolution of countries. PMID:25671312

Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

2015-01-01

424

Domestic satellite communication system to be established in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The establishment of a domestic satellite communication system for China is discussed. To experiment, China built miniaturized ground stations and used the idle transponders of two INTELSAT satellites. The experiment was divided into three phases: verification and test of ground facilities; test of channel operations; and functional test of the Chinese built ground facilities. From a technical and economic point of view, developing China's domestic satellite communication system by leasing foreign satellites and building China's own ground stations is both efficient and effective.

Ruhou, Z.; Yucheng, B.

1984-01-01

425

Changes in the Potential Multiple Cropping System in Response to Climate Change in China from 1960–2010  

PubMed Central

The multiple cropping practice is essential to agriculture because it has been shown to significantly increase the grain yield and promote agricultural economic development. In this study, potential multiple cropping systems in China are calculated based on meteorological observation data by using the Agricultural Ecology Zone (AEZ) model. Following this, the changes in the potential cropping systems in response to climate change between the 1960s and the 2010s were subsequently analyzed. The results indicate that the changes of potential multiple cropping systems show tremendous heterogeneity in respect to the spatial pattern in China. A key finding is that the magnitude of change of the potential cropping systems showed a pattern of increase both from northern China to southern China and from western China to eastern China. Furthermore, the area found to be suitable only for single cropping decreased, while the area suitable for triple cropping increased significantly from the 1960s to the 2000s. During the studied period, the potential multiple cropping index (PMCI) gap between rain-fed and irrigated scenarios increased from 18% to 24%, which indicated noticeable growth of water supply limitations under the rain-fed scenario. The most significant finding of this research was that from the 1960s to the 2000s climate change had led to a significant increase of PMCI by 13% under irrigated scenario and 7% under rain-fed scenario across the whole of China. Furthermore, the growth of the annual mean temperature is identified as the main reason underlying the increase of PMCI. It has also been noticed that across China the changes of potential multiple cropping systems under climate change were different from region to region. PMID:24312511

Liu, Luo; Xu, Xinliang; Zhuang, Dafang; Chen, Xi; Li, Shuang

2013-01-01

426

Family division in China’s transitional economy  

PubMed Central

Using a longitudinal data-set (the China Health and Nutrition Survey) we explored the effect of various economic factors, including household wealth, employment sector, and involvement in a household business on the division of extended families in China’s transitional economy. Results from event history analyses suggest that these economic factors act as either a dividing or a unifying force on the extended family. Household wealth reduces the risk of family division, but the effect is weaker for families in which parents have upper secondary education. In addition, an extended family is more likely to divide when married children work in the state sector. Further, the probability of family division is higher in families where daughters-in-law work in the state sector than in those with sons in this sector. Finally, involvement in a household business for married children increases family stability. PMID:19184721

Chen, Feinian

2009-01-01

427

The China She Knows, the China She Doesn't  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dandelion School educates children of migrant workers, refugees from peasant villages in central China who are vying for crumbs from Beijing's economic boom. Outside the school walls, they are heading to work as maids, laborers, and factory workers. For the children, this is a rare shot at upward mobility. Dandelion is among hundreds of…

Hvistendahl, Mara

2008-01-01

428

Ready for Takeoff: China's Advancing Aerospace Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China is growing on all fronts, and their economic explosion on the past few years has been nothing less than extraordinary. Published in March 2011, this 164-page report from the RAND Corporation was sponsored by the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission and was conducted within the RAND Corporation's International Security and Defense Policy Center. The report is divided into six chapters, including "China's Commercial Aircraft Market" and "China's Space Capabilities". Roger Cliff, Chad J.R. Ohlandt, and David Yang authored the work and it takes a close look at the role of China's government in supporting the aerospace industry and its ability to transform the world market for their products. The work will be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders, including international policy scholars and those with an interest in international business. The entire eBook can be read online and both the book and a summary can be downloaded as well.

429

China's military reforms: International and domestic implications  

SciTech Connect

China's reform policies during the past decade have resulted in the reorganization of economic and political structures and have led to a dramatic reorientation of the nation's foreign policy. These reforms have especially influenced China's military establishment, which is now in a period of major transition. What new paradigm is replacing the old Maoist model of People's War, however, is not clear. This book examines what China's military modernization means for the global and regional balance of power and for China's internal political-economic system. Specific chapters focus on changes in Chinese strategy and doctrine, developments in defense industries and military procurement, China's acquisition of foreign technology, its military education system, and its nuclear weapons program.

Lovejoy, C.D. Jr.; Watson, B.W.

1986-01-01

430

Pattern recognition of earthquake prone area in North China  

E-print Network

zoning of North China, provides a pattern scheme of lineaments, which has been considered in this paper. The pattern recognition method successfully divided those intersections into class-D or class-N where strong earthquakes may or may not occur.... Basic Theory B. The Algorithm CORA-3 III FORI IAL ltIORPHOSTRUCTURAL ZONING . A. Basic Principles B. The Scheme of the Zoning of North China IV EARTHQUAKES IN NORTH CHINA A. The Problem B. The Objects C. Results D. Control Experiments V...

Gu, Ji-Min

1989-01-01

431

Evaluation of the PV technology for rural electrification improvement : China market focus  

E-print Network

Energy use, especially electricity, in China is rapidly growing, but China faced two challenges in developing new energy supply: global climate changes and unbalanced economic development between urban and rural regions. ...

Cho, Kyoung Suk

2011-01-01

432

Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China  

PubMed Central

This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74?RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. PMID:24171160

Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

2013-01-01

433

Environmental Kuznets curve analysis of the economic development and nonpoint source pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation districts in China.  

PubMed

This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. PMID:24171160

Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

2013-01-01

434

Modelling Energy Consumption in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption in China has attracted conside rable research interest since the middle 1990s. This is largely prompted by the environment al ramifications of the extensive use of fossil fue ls in the country to propel two decades of high economic growth. Since the late 1980s, there has been an increasing awareness on the part of the Chinese gov ernment

Baiding Hu

435

Primary Science Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consider the extent to which primary science teaching has evolved since it became a core subject in England with the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988, and the pace at which theory-driven classroom practice has advanced. It is no wonder that, given the recent economic restructuring and boom in technological development in China,…

Pook, Gayle

2013-01-01

436

Corporate Social Responsibility in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current understandings of corporate social responsibility practices and attitudes have been mainly driven by 'western-centric' data and philosophical approaches. China is undergoing a vast economic boom, and research attention is turning to the practices and attitudes of Chinese firms in regard to corporate social responsibility. The current paper used a qualitative multi-case method to examine CSR motivations, policies, and practices

Michael Ewing; Lydia Windisch

437

CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

438

Travel patterns in China.  

PubMed

The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult. PMID:21311745

Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil

2011-01-01

439

Lycos Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the tradition of Yahooligans (reviewed in the March 22, 1996 Scout Report) and other so-called "green spaces," Lycos has created a new online safe haven for young users which is fairly self-contained, with the exception of the advertisements. (In response to criticisms regarding aggressive marketing to children at similar sites, Lycos claims that the ads are clearly marked and will not collect any personal information.) The site is composed of four sections: the Fun and Games Zone, the Homework Zone, the New and Cool Zone, and an area for parents and teachers. The first two sections are fairly deep, with numerous resources and activities aimed at various age levels. Some links in the Homework Zone lead users outside the site, but they are first presented with a gateway page informing them that they are leaving and offering advice on not divulging personal information.

440

China energy databook  

SciTech Connect

The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

1996-06-01

441

Is China \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, observers increasingly have pointed to China as a source of downward pressure on global prices. This paper evaluates the theoretical and empirical evidence bearing on the question of whether China's buoyant export growth has led to significant changes in the inflation performance of its trading partners. This evidence suggests that the impact of Chinese exports

Steven B. Kamin; Mario Marazzi; John W. Schindler

2004-01-01

442

Research of the coordinated development on the economy and ecological environment in northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable development in northwest China is paid a great attention to because of its frangible ecological environment and the laggard economic development. Sustainable development is mainly the coordination between regional economic development and the ecological environment improvement. Based on building the economy-environment index system of northwest China, in this paper the weights of all the economic and environmental index

Cuiyun Wang; Bo Shao; Wenyong Feng; Gang Li; Chunhui Zhang

2007-01-01

443

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E-print Network

N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE

Kainen, Paul C.

444

Spatial distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring.  

PubMed

Floating seaweeds play an important role as a habitat for many animals accompanying or attaching to them in offshore waters. It was in 2000 that the first report described abundant distributions of floating seaweeds in offshore waters in the East China Sea in spring. Young individuals of the yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata are captured for aquaculture purposes from floating seaweeds in the East China Sea. Therefore, a sound understanding of the distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea is needed. Detailed information is especially important during the late winter to early spring, which corresponds to the juvenile period of the yellowtail. Thus, field surveys using R/V Tansei-Maru were conducted in the Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring in 2010 and 2011. We obtained positions of the vessel by GPS and transversal distances from the vessel to a raft by visual observation. Distance sampling method (Thomas et al. 2010) was applied to estimation of floating seaweed densities (rafts km(-2)). Seaweed rafts were also randomly sampled using nets during the research cruises. In the East China Sea, seaweed rafts were distributed mainly on the continental shelf west of the Kuroshio, especially in waters between 26° N and 30° N. Collected rafts consisted of only one species, Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh. Taking into account surface currents and geographical distribution of S. horneri, it is estimated that these floating seaweeds originated from natural beds along the coast between mid and south China. Considering the approximate travel times, it is suggested that floating patches are colonized by yellowtails early on during their trips, i.e., close to the Chinese coast. PMID:24771973

Mizuno, S; Ajisaka, T; Lahbib, S; Kokubu, Y; Alabsi, M N; Komatsu, T

2014-01-01

445

Blood banking in China.  

PubMed

While transfusion-transmissible diseases, including AIDS and viral hepatitis, continue to spread especially in developing countries, the issue of safeguarding the world's blood supply is of paramount importance. China houses more than 20% of the earth's population, and thus its blood supply has the potential to affect the global community. In recent years, Chinese blood centres have tried to improve the nation's blood safety. Although substantial progress has already been made, many daunting difficulties remain. Traditional cultural barriers need to be overcome to successfully mobilise volunteer blood donors. Gaps in information and technology still need to be closed. Insufficiency of economic resources also restrict the blood bank industry. Other developing countries face many of the same challenges as China. PMID:12480443

Shan, Hua; Wang, Jing-Xing; Ren, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhao, Hai-Yan; Gao, Guo-Jing; Ji, Yang; Ness, Paul M

2002-11-30

446

BABCOCK INSTITUTE DISCUSSION PAPER THE DAIRY SECTOR OF CHINA: A COUNTRY STUDY  

E-print Network

-265-4169. #12;COnTenTS exeCUTIve SUMMAry 1 InTrODUCTIOn 3 ChInA'S GeOGrAphy 4 ChInA'S eCOnOMy 5 Overview 5BABCOCK INSTITUTE DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 2011-2 THE DAIRY SECTOR OF CHINA: A COUNTRY STUDY William D economic Growth 7 Demographics 8 Inflation 9 exchange rates 10 ease of Doing Business in China 10 ChInA

Bohnhoff, David

447

Petrogenesis of late Triassic post-collisional basaltic rocks of the Lancangjiang tectonic zone, southwest China, and tectonic implications for the evolution of the eastern Paleotethys: Geochronological and geochemical constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Xiaodingxi and Manghuihe volcanic sequences represent key components of the Lancangjiang igneous zone in southwest China. Their petrogenesis provides important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Paleotethys ocean. The basaltic rocks from the Xiaodingxi and Manghuihe sequences yield SHRIMP zircon U-Pb weighted mean ages of 214 ± 7 Ma and 210 ± 22 Ma, respectively, which is 15-20 Ma younger than the ages of the syn-collisional granite magmatism (230-241 Ma). Samples from the volcanic sequences are dominated by alkaline basalts and basaltic andesites, and can be geochemically classified into two groups. Group 1 samples, mainly from the Xiaodingxi sequence and the lower part of the Manghuihe sequence, are characterized by low MgO (1.49-7.50 wt.%) and Zr/Nb (9.4-15.3), and high Al 2O 3 (15.95-18.39 wt.%). They are enriched in LILE and LREE contents and depleted in HFSE, and have 87Sr/ 86Sr(t) ratios of 0.705473-0.706972, ? Nd(t) of - 1.47-0.75, and similar Pb isotopic compositions to the global average composition of pelagic sediments. In contrast, Group 2 samples from the middle-upper parts of the Manghuihe sequence have similar Al 2O 3 (16.62-18.23 wt.%) but higher MgO (8.08-11.74 wt.%) and Zr/Nb (15.9-23.9) than those of Group 1 samples. They exhibit relatively flat REE patterns, significantly negative Nb-Ta and Th-U anomalies and positive Sr anomalies. In comparison with Group 1, Group 2 samples show higher Cr, Ni contents and ? Nd(t) values (1.17-5.02), and lower 87Sr/ 86Sr(t) and Pb isotopic ratios (?8/4 = 43.2-59.8 and ?7/4 = 11.8-19.8). The geochemical data suggest that Group 1 samples might be the differentiated product of primitive high MgO and low Al 2O 3 melts originating from a refractory modified mantle with the involvement of 5-10% recycled pelagic sediments. The parental magma for Group 2 samples may have been derived from a plagioclase-rich, garnet-free source comprising 80-85% fluid-metasomatized and 15-20% asthenospheric components. Based on all available data, a tectonic model involving eastward subduction in the Permian and collision in the Triassic can be proposed for the evolution of the eastern Paleotethys ocean. During the late Triassic, the progressive upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle, shortly after slab detachment, may have led to the melting of the metasomatized mantle wedge, resulting in the post-collisional Group 1 and Group 2 magmas.

Wang, Yuejun; Zhang, Aimei; Fan, Weiming; Peng, Touping; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Yanhua; Bi, Xiawu

2010-12-01

448

Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China  

PubMed Central

Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3?-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

449

The wave and wave forecasting in the China Seas  

SciTech Connect

The China Seas located at the Southeastern part of the large Eurasia continent, and beside the largest ocean, the Pacific. They are greatly influenced by continent and the ocean. Due to it across the tropical zone, the subtropical zone and the extropical zone, the cold and warm air circulation in Northsouth is a very active exchange. In the summer, the South China Sea and the East China Sea are frequently hit by typhoon waves. In spring and autumn, the bohai sea, the Yellow sea and the East China Seas had series disasters caused by the extropical cyclone wave and the cold air wave. In this paper the time-space distribution and formative cases of wave disaster in the China Seas, and the wave monitoring and prediction system, the wave prediction method, and two automatic systems of numerical wave forecasting are briefly introduced.

Xu Fuxiang [National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center, Beijing (China)

1993-12-31

450

Study on drought indicies and loss assessment of winter wheat in North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a principal agrometeorological disaster to winter wheat zones in North China. From the correlation of wheat yield to rainfall the drought indices are determined that correspond to varying levels of severities on an agricultural basis. In wheat growing season, when rainfall displays its negative anomalies of <15, 15-35, 36-55 and >55%, there occurs a slight, moderate, heavy and extreme drought, leading to yield drop by <10, 10-20, 21-30 and >30%, respectively. The economic loss consists of yield reduction and drought-fighting input like irrigation. A drought-caused loss model is presented from historical meteorological and wheat yield datasets, with which to make the distribution of economic losses in the last 30 years over the province of Henan. Evidence suggests that in years of heavy droughts the loss was between 450 to 675 (<250) RMB yuans per hectare in the NE (west - SW) segment of the province.

Liu, Ronghua; Zhu, Zixi; Fang, Wensong; Shen, Shuanghe; Chen, Huailiang; Wang, Youhe; Chang, Yue

2005-08-01

451

China's Churn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China's Churn, a 20-page article from the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, examines China's changing economy, or its churn, which is defined as "creative destruction." Filled with photographs, this easy-to-read piece thoughtfully illustrates China's changing economy with case studies of several Chinese cities including Guiyang, Wenzhou, and Shanghai. The paper also offers exhibits in which charts and graphs show some of the changes, including The Changing Face of Rural Employment, The Exodus of Urban Workers from State-Owned Enterprises, and Bounty of Market Reform. Be forewarned, although this document is only 20 pages long, it's a whopping 3226K.

452

Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

NONE

1995-02-01

453

Fiscal reform, decentralization and poverty alleviation in the context of China's 12th Five-Year Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is said to be one of the world's most economically decentralized countries. While the claim that economic as well as fiscal decentralization had much to do with the success of China's reforms is controversial and it has been argued that China's approach to administrative decentralization might over time threaten the success of the reform process, the highly remarkable extent

Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh; Susie Yieng-Ping Ling; Fan Pik Shy

2012-01-01

454

Dead Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from the independent film Big River: A King Corn Companion, the filmmakers explain how agricultural runoff from the Midwest has contributed to a massive "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico. A cornfield treated with conventional chemical fertilizer promises a bumper crop, but chemical runoff from the farm enters the Iowa River, eventually draining into the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. In the Gulf, these dissolved nutrients allow algae to flourish. The algae's decay depletes the water of oxygen, creating a dead zone where shrimp and fish are starved of oxygen and die. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-08-31

455

Future float zone development in industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

Sandfort, R. M.

1980-01-01

456

Reflections on energy issues in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy, which has a bearing on both economic and national security, is of importance and a major constraining factor to the\\u000a economic and social development of China. The article analyses the current world energy status and development trend from\\u000a the perspectives of resources, production and consumption and in the context of its implications on the environment and economic\\u000a and social

Ze-min Jiang

2008-01-01

457

China Business Development  

E-print Network

China Business Development Postgraduate Programme #12;Programme: China Business Development with China: Intercultural Management 3 1 Daily life and business behaviour explained from a cultural perspective Chinese strategic thinking China's political constellation and its impact on business life Human

Einmahl, Uwe

458

Gas hydrate saturation from acoustic impedance and resistivity logs in the Shenhu area, South China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the China’s first gas hydrate drilling expedition -1 (GMGS-1), gas hydrate was discovered in layers ranging from 10 to 25 m above the base of gas hydrate stability zone in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Water chemistry, electrical resistivity logs, and acoustic impedance were used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the chloride concentrations range

Xiujuan Wang; Shiguo Wu; Myung Lee; Yiqun Guo; Shengxiong Yang; Jinqiang Liang

2011-01-01

459

The Economics Department of Economics  

E-print Network

The Economics Initiative Department of Economics #12;Economics at LSE The Department of Economics is the top ranked economics department in Europe and among the top 12 worldwide. It is one of the largest economics departments in the world, with over 60 faculty and 1,000 students and a department which makes

460

In situ vadose zone bioremediation.  

PubMed

Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented. PMID:24863890

Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

2014-06-01

461

China scholars discuss population issues.  

PubMed

The principal objective of the China Population Analysis Conference, held at the East-West Population Institute during May 1980, was to bring together specialists to share insights and information regarding demographic trends and related societal changes in China. In conjunction with the Conference, a Working Group was held. For 1 week 13 persons attended presentations on demographic techniques and computer programs available for analysis of China's population data, with emphasis on population projections, fertility estimation techniques, and economic demography. Papers reporting on China's population data, family planning policy and programs, and projections and consequences of furture population growth were presented. Several papers examined the sources and quality of China's population data. Participants acknowledged the sparseness of currently available data. They also recognized the exciting prospects for continued release of collected information and improved analysis as a result of the application of better analytical methods. For China as a whole, participants identified several important demographic patterns; early marriage is rare; there has been marked success in fertility regulation; the proportion of young people is high; and mortality levels appear to be low for a developing country. Official ideology in China's birth planning program is to combine state guidance with voluntarism. 2 particular examples of birth planning programs--the programs at Shifang County and at Tientsin municipality--were discussed in detail. The question of how rapidly and how far China's birth rate will fall in the next 2-3 decases was 1 of the most discussed subjects. Elements of the current population assistance program, proposed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, were outlined by Siri Melchior-Tellier. PMID:12338076

Mason, J F

1980-08-01

462

Social security pension reform in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has legislated a mixed social security pension system with a defined benefit pay-as-you-go portion and an investment-based defined contribution portion. This paper analyzes the economics of these two types of systems in the Chinese context and calculates the advantage to China of using an investment-based portion. Several options for reform of the recently legislated system are considered.

Martin Feldstein

1999-01-01

463

Dementia care in rural China  

PubMed Central

Dementia is a major cause of disability and has immense cost implications for the individual suffering from the condition, family caregivers and society. Given the high prevalence of dementia in China with its enormous and rapidly expanding population of elderly adults, it is necessary to develop and test approaches to the care for patients with this disorder. The need is especially great in rural China where access to mental healthcare is limited, with the task made more complex by social and economic reforms over the last 30 years that have transformed the Chinese family support system, family values and health delivery systems. Evidence-based collaborative care models for dementia, depression and other chronic diseases that have been developed in some Western countries serve as a basis for discussion of innovative approaches in the management of dementia in rural China, with particular focus on its implementation in the primary care system. PMID:24427180

2013-01-01

464

Household operational energy consumption in urban China : a multilevel analysis on Jinan  

E-print Network

With decades of economic growth and socio-economic transformation, China's residential sector has seen rapid expansion in energy consumption, and is now the second largest energy consuming sector in the country. Faced with ...

Wang, Dong, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

465

Environmental issues in China  

SciTech Connect

Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

Travis, P.S.

1991-10-01

466

Accuracy and reliability of China's energy statistics  

SciTech Connect

Many observers have raised doubts about the accuracy and reliability