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Sample records for economic zone china

  1. Ecological Risk Assessment of Land Use Change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation. PMID:23343986

  2. Spatio-temporal variation of flood vulnerability at the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Chen, Xiaoling

    2012-01-01

    For a long time areas of Poyang Lake have been threatened by floods. It is therefore important to assess flood vulnerability in this area. A composite flood vulnerability index was developed using an indicator approach to detect spatial distribution and temporal variation of flood vulnerability in the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone (abbreviated to PLEEZ). Thematic maps of flood vulnerability showed a spatially ring-shaped distribution. The flood vulnerability ranking of one unit negatively correlated with the distance between the unit and the lake. Although flood vulnerability in PLEEZ declined significantly, the spatial distribution hardly changed from 1997 to 2006. The degree of flood vulnerability is highly related to exposure; variations in flood vulnerability are influenced by sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Based on correlation analysis, three proxies were identified as determinants of flood vulnerability variation over the past 10 years. This approach could provide policymakers with important flood risk information and entry points for flood management. PMID:22437034

  3. [Response of cotton seeding date to climate warming in Northern Slope Economic Zone of Tianshan Mountain, China].

    PubMed

    Zhi, Juan; Zhang, Shan-qing; Xu, Wen-xiu; Tian, Yan-jun; Zhang, Na; Su, Li-li

    2015-07-01

    Based on the meteorological date acquired from 11 meteorological stations in Northern Slope Economic Zone of Tianshan Mountain during 1971-2010 and by using the methods of linear regression, t-test technique and IDW interpolation, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution of each ten-day average temperature from late March to late April and beginning date of ? 12 C to understand the effect of climate change on the cotton seeding date. Results showed that each ten-day average temperature from late March to late April increased by 0. 8, 0. 5, 0. 1 and 0. 5 C . (10 a)-1, but the beginning date of ?12 C advanced by 0.5 d . (10 a)-1 during 1971-2010. All meteorological elements in this research ascended abruptly in the 1990s. The abrupt climate change made each ten-day average temperature increasing by 2.5, 1.9, 1.1 and 1.5 C, to 7.2, 10.0, 13.2 and 15.6 C, respectively from late March to late April. The high values of each ten-day average temperature from late March to late April expanded the scope of main cotton producing areas in Northern Slope Economic Zone of Tianshan Mountain, such as Wusu, Sawan and Manasi, and the low values were observed in Urmuqi. The spatial distribution of the beginning day of ?12 C was significant different in different regions. During this study period, the early beginning dates of ? 12 C expanded the scope of Jinghe and Manasi as cotton producing areas, and the late beginning dates of ? 12 C narrowed to areas around Urumqi. With the advance of the beginning day of ? 12 C, the seeding date of cotton could start from 22nd to 28th April in most of the counties, and mulch cover could bring forward the suitable sowing date to 15th through 21st April. PMID:26710635

  4. Simulation and evaluation on the eco-industrial system of Changchun economic and technological development zone, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Shang, Jin-cheng; Chen, Chong; Wu, He-nan

    2008-04-01

    Reasonable structure, adaptive patterns and effective regulation of society, economy and environment subsystems should be taken into account in order to obtain harmonious development of urban eco-industrial system. We simulated and evaluated a redesigned eco-industrial system in Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone (CCETDZ) in the present work using system dynamics and grey cluster methods. Four typical development strategies were simulated during 2005-2020 via standard system dynamic models. Furthermore, analytic hierarchy process and grey cluster allowed for the eco-industrial system evaluation and scenarios optimizing. Our dynamic simulation and statistical analysis revealed that: (1) CCETDZ would have different development scenarios under different strategies. The total population in scenario 2 grew most rapidly and reached 3.28 x 10(5) in 2020, exceeding its long-term planning expected population. And the GDP differences among these four scenarios would amount to 6.41 x 10(10) RMB. On the other hand, environmental pollution would become serious along with economy increasing. As a restriction factor, positive or negative increment of water resource will occur according to the selected strategy. (2) The fourth strategy would have the best efficiency, which means that the most efficiently development of CCETDZ required to take science, technology, environment progress and economy increase into account at the same time. (3) Positive environment protection measures, such as cleaner production, green manufacture, production life cycle management and environment friendly industries, should be attached great importance the same as economy development during 2005-2020 in CCETDZ. PMID:17657575

  5. Exploring the mechanisms of ecological land change based on the spatial autoregressive model: a case study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hualin; Liu, Zhifei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guiying; Lu, Fucai

    2014-01-01

    Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran's I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated signi?cant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05). The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model. PMID:24384778

  6. Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, Andrew Allan

    Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change that was previously unavailable for the Sanya Region. Data acquired from the IKONOS-2 satellite are analyzed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to identify urban greenspace in three subscenes extracted from the Sanya landscape. Results suggest that urban greenspace can be successfully characterized with enhanced detail using landscape pattern indices (LPIs) and a correlogram approach. Inclusion of a spatial approach to greenspace characterization and planning is argued to be an important and easily implemented method for enhanced evaluation of urban quality of life. The government of Hainan has stated that it wishes to employ additional and more refined means of guiding future development practices. This study is a landscape analysis involving change detection of land cover as well as the spatial analysis of urban morphological features. It develops methodologies that may be used to investigate and document past and current urban conditions; some of these could be used by the Hainan Government to further their future urban planning goals of economic growth and ecological sustainability.

  7. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  8. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  9. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  10. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  11. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  12. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  13. China Update: Economic Reforms and Political Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates that China has been undergoing an unprecedented rapidity of change. Discusses the high unemployment rates, job markets, reform movements, differences in economic equality, the role of the National People's Congress, and the changing political climate. Reveals that freedom is subtly beginning to permeate the lives of Chinese citizens.…

  14. The down-faulted basin zone and high disaster risk zone in Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Min; Gui-Wu, Su; Yan, Deng; Qing-Hua, Gao

    2004-07-01

    Shanxi Province is a region with frequent occurrence of earthquakes, floods and waterlogging, meteorological and geologic hazards, and agrobiohazards in China. The study shows that the formation and development of the down-faulted basin zone in Shanxi Province provides an available condition for preparation and occurrence of these hazards, so that the basin zone becomes an area with frequent ocurrence of the hazards, such as earthquakes, floods and waterlogging, meteorological and geologic hazards and agrobiohazards in Shanxi and with their most serious interaction and mutual intensification. Moreover, the basin zone is an area with dense population and most concentrated industrial and agricultural productions and social-economic property in Shanxi. The comprehensive effect of the two factors caused the zone to be a high natural disaster risk area in Shanxi. For reduction of natural disasters and ensuring the sustainable social-economic development in Shanxi, it is necessary to regard the basin zone as an important area for disaster reduction in Shanxi and to carry out integrated disaster reduction.

  15. The economics of population aging in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, X

    1996-01-01

    This article relies on a Marxist framework for discussing the relationship between economic development and population aging in China. China places value on correctly understanding the causes, processes, trends, and socioeconomic consequences of population aging during the development of its socialist market economy. Many policies have an impact on the aged. Marxist theories of economic operations identify four key features--production, distribution, exchange, and consumption--which are affected by human activity. The age structure of population affects socioeconomic operations. An increase in accumulated capital means a decrease in consumption capital. China must maintain its high level of annual economic growth (6.0%-6.5%). 30% of China's national income must be used for accumulation of capital and investment, but the increase in the aged has led to growth in consumption capital. By 2050, it is expected that there will be over 100 million retirees needing about 800 billion RMB in pensions (20 times the amount in 1993). As the number of elderly grows, savings decline. The growth of the elderly will place demands on social security funds, which will in turn rely on an increased proportion of consumption capital. The increased labor force and the increased number of aged will both vie for a share in the national economy until about 2020, and then the problem will be declines in productivity in some areas. It is generally believed that support of the elderly should not rise above 10% of national income. In 1993, the elderly's share was 3.7%, and at the present rate of growth, it is expected that the share will be above 10% by 2030. Working families will have to carry a heavy domestic burden of care for their aged. Productivity will have to increase in order to offset the decline in per capita consumption capital due to aging. The author offers countermeasures at the macro- and microlevel for dealing with the demographic changes. PMID:12291971

  16. Economic Rebalancing and Electricity Demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    He, Gang; Lin, Jiang; Yuan, Alexandria

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the relationship between economic growth and electricity use is essential for power systems planning. This need is particularly acute now in China, as the Chinese economy is going through a transition to a more consumption and service oriented economy. This study uses 20 years of provincial data on gross domestic product (GDP) and electricity consumption to examine the relationship between these two factors. We observe a plateauing effect of electricity consumption in the richest provinces, as the electricity demand saturates and the economy develops and moves to a more service-based economy. There is a wide range of forecasts for electricity use in 2030, ranging from 5,308 to 8,292 kWh per capita, using different estimating functions, as well as in existing studies. It is therefore critical to examine more carefully the relationship between electricity use and economic development, as China transitions to a new growth phase that is likely to be less energy and resource intensive. The results of this study suggest that policymakers and power system planners in China should seriously re-evaluate power demand projections and the need for new generation capacity to avoid over-investment that could lead to stranded generation assets.

  17. A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

    2014-03-01

    Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

  18. China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a

  19. China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

  20. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  1. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Sderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Hkan; Olsson, Bjrn; Soutukorva, Asa

    2005-03-01

    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

  2. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

  3. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems. PMID:25104138

  4. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  5. Economic Choices: China after Mao. High School and Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, developed for high school and community college students, has a two-fold purpose: to introduce students to free market and planned economic systems, and to examine China's recent efforts to supplement its planned economy with market mechanisms. The unit is appropriate for a variety of courses, including economics, social studies,

  6. Economic Choices: China after Mao. High School and Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, developed for high school and community college students, has a two-fold purpose: to introduce students to free market and planned economic systems, and to examine China's recent efforts to supplement its planned economy with market mechanisms. The unit is appropriate for a variety of courses, including economics, social studies,…

  7. Student Responses to Economic Reform in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunhou, Zhang; Vaughan, C. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Describes research suggesting diverse trends in the behavior and attitudes of Chinese students, which often conflict with Chinese tradition and customs, and official Chinese government ideology. Addresses the decline of personal sacrifice for the social cause, and changes in courtship and sexual attitudes. Relates most of these changes to China's

  8. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  9. Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2007-01-01

    Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biological invasion is coincident with the rapid economic development that has occurred in China over the past three decades. The results indicate that the geographic prevalence of invasive species varies substantially on the provincial scale, but can be surprisingly well predicted using the combination of economic development (R2 = 0.378) and climatic factors (R2 = 0.347). Economic factors are proven to be at least equal to if not more determinant of the occurrence of invasive species than climatic factors. International travel and trade are shown to have played a less significant role in accounting for the intensity of biological invasion in China. Our results demonstrate that more attention should be paid to economic factors to improve the understanding, prediction and management of biological invasions. PMID:18030342

  10. Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Ying Chu

    2004-01-01

    Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential

  11. On the Economic Approach to Bilingual Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Zhiwei; Shao, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    In the process of globalization, each country culture retains an independence from the others besides in reality a fusion of several cultures. Bilingual education as an effective means and intangible resource, which have long been neglected, will play an important part in social and economic development in China. Bilingual education, in this

  12. Economic Stress, Quality of Life, and Mortality for the Oldest-Old in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, W. Jean; Xu, Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    China's oldest old population is estimated to quadruple by 2050. Yet, poverty rate for the oldest old has been the highest among all age groups in China. This paper investigates the relationship between economic stress, quality of life, and mortality among the oldest-old in China. Both objective economic hardships and perceived economic strain are

  13. Economic Stress, Quality of Life, and Mortality for the Oldest-Old in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, W. Jean; Xu, Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    China's oldest old population is estimated to quadruple by 2050. Yet, poverty rate for the oldest old has been the highest among all age groups in China. This paper investigates the relationship between economic stress, quality of life, and mortality among the oldest-old in China. Both objective economic hardships and perceived economic strain are…

  14. The Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengfeng, Xiao; sheng, Xu ming; tianxing, Zhu; xuelli, Zhang

    This paper examine the short and long terms causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP in China through vector error correction model, which can avoid the false causal relationship. The results of the VECM reveal the co-integration relationship between real GDP and electricity consumption and the presence of unidirectional causality from electricity consumption to economic growth in the short-run and long-run, which is subsequently verified in two different sub-phases. And then we come up with some suggestions that China should modulate the supply structure of electric power and pick up speed to adjust industry structures.

  15. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. PMID:26514312

  16. Fulbright Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1990. China's Economic Development: Research Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of nine research papers concerning aspects of the economy of China were written by U.S. college and university professors who traveled to China as part of the Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program. The papers include: "The Impact of Economic Reforms on the Status of Women in China" (M. Eysenbach); "China's Agricultural

  17. Farewell to Diversity? New State Zones of Health Care Service in Chinas Far West

    PubMed Central

    Klotzbcher, Sascha; Lssig, Peter; Jiangmei, Qin; Dongsheng, Rui; Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Using James Scotts (2009) theoretical framework of the interaction between the state and peripheral people, we argue that the welfare state should be regarded as a pull-factor in the context of the states endeavours to project its power to distant peoples in assigned state zones. Our discussion is based on interviews in Xinyuan County in the Western part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Presenting current policies and alternative policy options discussed at the local level for providing primary health care in rural China, we argue that decisions made in the implementation process did not respond to the special health needs of mobile pastoralists in the high plains, but were part of the central state logic of homogenising settlement efforts and health care. Der theoretische Ansatz von James Scott zu Expansion von staatlicher Ordnung auf periphere Randgebiete wird auf den Aufbau von Wohlfahrts- und Gesundheitspolitik des modernen Staates angewendet und weiterentwickelt. Anhand mehrjhriger Feldstudien zwischen 2005 und 2009 zur Gesundheitsversorgungsstruktur im Kreis Xinyuan der Autonomen Uighurischen Region Xinjiang in der Volksrepublik China werden zuerst die nationalen Restrukturierungsmanahmen vorgestellt und Lsungen fr eine bessere Versorgung der halbnomadisierenden kasachischen Hirtenfamilien diskutiert. Lokal entwickelte und an die nomadischen Lebensformen angepasste mobile Lsungen zur Gesundheitsfrsorge konnten nicht implementiert werden. Die Anstrengungen der staatlichen Akteure sind als Versuch zu sehen, bisher marginalisierte Gruppen aus den peripheren Gebirgsregionen und ber die Integration in eine staatliche Gesundheitsversorgung in den Tlern anzusiedeln. PMID:25729121

  18. Sonograph mosaic of U. S. west coast Exclusive Economic Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    The Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scanning sonar system was used to obtain data that were compiled as an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor from the edge of the continental shelf to 200 nmi offshore within the US Exclusive Economic Zone off California, Oregon, and Washington. The mosaic clearly displays the large-scale geomorphic and sedimentologic features of the sea floor, including spreading centers, seamounts, fracture zones, sediment fans, continental-slope canyons, and abyssal-plain channels. Hundreds of seamounts (some previously uncharted) dot the deep sea floor, and many have large summit craters and attendant volcanic flows. The major Nitinat, Astoria, Delgada, and Monterey sediment fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes that extend from morphologically diverse canyons on the adjacent continental slope. Areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the complexes. Some channels on the abyssal plain are straight whereas others are highly sinuous, suggesting that various channel-forming processes occur on the sea floor. The contrast between the transform tectonic regime south of Cape Mendocino and the convergent tectonic regime to the north is particularly apparent on the mosaic. The linear basement ridges that were generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers and were later moved apart by sea-floor spreading are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones that accommodate horizontal slip between adjacent lithospheric plates.

  19. Techno-economic potential of bioethanol from bamboo in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bamboo is potentially an interesting feedstock for advanced bioethanol production in China due to its natural abundance, rapid growth, perennial nature and low management requirements. Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was selected as a promising technology to enhance sugar release from bamboo lignocellulose whilst keeping economic and environmental costs to a minimum. The present research was conducted to assess: 1) by how much LHW pretreatment can enhance sugar yields in bamboo, and 2) whether this process has the potential to be economically feasible for biofuel use at the commercial scale. Pretreatments were performed at temperatures of 170-190°C for 10–30 minutes, followed by enzymatic saccharification with a commercial enzyme cocktail at various loadings. These data were then used as inputs to a techno-economic model using AspenPlus™ to determine the production cost of bioethanol from bamboo in China. Results At the selected LHW pretreatment of 190°C for 10 minutes, 69% of the initial sugars were released under a standardised enzyme loading; this varied between 59-76% when 10–140 FPU/g glucan of commercial enzyme Cellic CTec2 was applied. Although the lowest enzyme loading yielded the least amount of bioethanol, the techno-economic evaluation revealed it to be the most economically viable scenario with a production cost of $0.484 per litre (with tax exemption and a $0.16/litre subsidy). The supply-chain analysis demonstrated that bioethanol could be economically competitive with petrol at the pump at enzyme loadings up to 60 FPU/g glucan. However, in a prospective scenario with reduced government support, this enzyme loading threshold would be reduced to 30 FPU/g glucan. Conclusions Bioethanol from bamboo is shown to be both technically and economically feasible, as well as competitive with petrol in China. Alternative approaches to reduce bioethanol production costs are still needed however, to ensure its competitiveness in a possible future scenario where neither tax exemptions nor subsidies are granted to producers. These measures may include improving sugar release with more effective pretreatments and reduced enzyme usage, accessing low cost bamboo feedstock or selecting feedstocks with higher/more accessible cellulose. PMID:24286490

  20. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants’ accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general. PMID:24376290

  1. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general. PMID:24376290

  2. Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-03-01

    SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

  3. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhjem, Henrik . E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao . E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong . E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne . E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun . E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon . E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian . E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu . E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

  4. Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of

  5. Seismic investigation of an ocean-continent transition zone in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Qiu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhan, W.; Sun, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Rifted continental margins and basins are mainly formed by the lithospheric extension. Thined lithosphere of passive continental margins results in decompression melt of magma and created oceanic crust and thined ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone. Two refraction profiles used ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the broad continental shelf and three multi-channel seismic reflection lines in the northern South China Sea, acquired by the ship "Shiyan 2" of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010, are processed and interpreted in this study. Seismic reflection lines cut through the Dongsha rise, Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression within a Tertiary basin, Pear River Mouth basin (called as Zhujiangkou basin). These tectonic features are clear imaged in the seismic reflection records. Numerous normal faults, cutted through the basement and related to the stretch of the northern South China Sea margin, are imaged and interpreted. Reflection characteristics of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone are summaried and outlined. The COT zone is mainly divided into the northern syn-rift subsidence zone, central volcano or buried volcano uplift zone and tilt faulted block near the South Chia Sea basin. Compared to the previous seismic reflection data and refraction velocity models, the segmentation range of the OCT zone is outlined, from width of about 225 km in the northeastern South China Sea , of 160 km in the central to of 110 km in the north-central South China Sea. Based on the epicenter distribution of sporadic and large than 6 magnitude earthquakes, it suggests the OCT zone in the northern South China Sea at present is still an active seismic zone.

  6. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary. PMID:23604726

  7. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, X. H.; Wang, Y. D.; Hou, X. Y.

    2014-03-01

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005.

  8. Overview of Educational Development in Shenzhen Special Economic Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education: A Journal of Translations, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes the changes that have taken place in Shenzhen, China, a city which has grown from 30,000 people in 1979 to 350,000 currently. Discusses the educational reforms which have been made possible and necessary due to rapid growth and the city's open border with capitalist Hong Kong. Highlights incongruities between educational endeavors and

  9. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  10. Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

    2014-03-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

  11. 77 FR 15019 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Observer Program AGENCY: National Marine... may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF...

  12. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; Yang, Qichun

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  13. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; Yang, Qichun

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. Themore » Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.« less

  14. Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ho-Jun

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic

  15. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic

  16. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  17. A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Wu, Chang-zhi; Gou, Xiao-qin; Liao, Jing-juan; Yang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P 2O 5 (⩽0.06 wt.%), Na 2O > K 2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, Σ14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (La CN/Lu CN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu * = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and δ 18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma. The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al 2O 3 and Na 2O, and decreasing SiO 2, (Fe 2O 3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K 2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y decrease, while F, Li, Rb, Hf, Ta, Sn, Sc, Ga and Zn increase. (6) K/Rb, Al/Ga, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho decrease, and K/Cs, Th/U (La/Lu) CN and TE 1,3 (quantification factor of REE tetrad effect) increase. (7) There is a general decrease in whole-rock δ 18O from 9.25‰ to 9.75‰ in zone-a to 7.32‰ in zone-e. (8) Homogenization temperatures of melt inclusions in quartz decrease from about 860 °C for zone-a to about 660 °C for zone-e. It is interpreted that crystallisation of the magma started from zone-a and proceeded upwards to zone-e, and the vertical zoning is produced by fractional crystallisation accompanied by fluid-melt interaction. Some of the distinctive features of zone-e were caused by influx and reaction of meteoric fluid at the post-magmatic stage. Turbulent structures and co-magmatic deformation textures are well recorded in the rocks, and are ascribed to reduced viscosity and enhanced flow rate of the F- and H 2O-rich magma.

  18. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  19. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-06-15

    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. PMID:25747370

  20. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary school. China's goal is to provide universal elementary school education by 1990. Since 1978 the premise of China's economic policy has been that consumer welfare, economic productivity, and political stability are indivisible. Emphasis has been placed on raising personal income and consumption and on introducing new productivity incentive and management systems. Since early 1982 China has placed increasing importance on building closer ties with the 3rd world. China's armed forces total about 4.2 million. In February 1981 the Reagan Administration reaffirmed the US commitment to respect the principles of the 1979 Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic relations. PMID:12178089

  1. The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

    2010-01-01

    We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980. PMID:20419074

  2. 76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska Pollock Fishery.... The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the GOA are managed under the FMP. The FMP... prevent either area from bearing a disproportionate share of the economic impact of the PSC limit....

  3. China's Economic and Education Reform: A Role for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBreen, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the interdependence of two of China's major social initiatives: the move from a command economy closer to a free market economy and the liberalization of the country's educational system. Highlights needs for and the contributions that community colleges might make in the context of these initiatives. (27 citations) (MAB)

  4. Landscape ecological security response to land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runsen; Pu, Lijie; Li, Jianguo; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    As coastal development becomes a national strategy in Eastern China, land use and landscape patterns have been affected by reclamation projects. In this study, taking Rudong County, China as a typical area, we analyzed land use change and its landscape ecological security responses in the tidal flat reclamation zone. The results show that land use change in the tidal flat reclamation zone is characterized by the replacement of natural tidal flat with agricultural and construction land, which has also led to a big change in landscape patterns. We built a landscape ecological security evaluation system, which consists of landscape interference degree and landscape fragile degree, and then calculated the landscape ecological security change in the tidal flat reclamation zone from 1990 to 2008 to depict the life cycle in tidal flat reclamation. Landscape ecological security exhibited a W-shaped periodicity, including the juvenile stage, growth stage, and maturation stage. Life-cycle analysis demonstrates that 37 years is required for the land use system to transform from a natural ecosystem to an artificial ecosystem in the tidal flat reclamation zone. PMID:26627206

  5. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in

  6. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments. PMID:21147494

  7. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  8. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  9. Economic Thinking in China: Economic Knowledge and Attitudes of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ruth; Shen, T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of economic knowledge and attitudes of 873 upper secondary school, Chinese students. Finds that Chinese students performed better than northern California students on the Test of Economic Literacy. Concludes that the relatively high level of economic knowledge and the impact of Western economic ideas will encourage further…

  10. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in order to effectively address greenhouse effects in China, thereby setting the nation on a low-carbon growth path. PMID:26520261

  11. 75 FR 53873 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level Fishery...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch for vessels participating in the rockfish... to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch allocated to...

  12. 77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries.... SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations that govern fisheries managed under the Western Alaska Community...://www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska Region Web site at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov ....

  13. 75 FR 11471 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is consistent with Sec. 679.23(g)(1), which... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; opening. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for sablefish with fixed gear...

  14. 76 FR 11161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is consistent with Sec. 679.23(g)(1), which... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; opening. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for sablefish with fixed gear...

  15. 78 FR 16617 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Register, November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; opening. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for sablefish with fixed gear...

  16. Urban Youth Economic Enterprise Zones: An Intervention Strategy for Reversing the Gang Crisis in American Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur L.

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that any strategy designed to combat the problem of urban youth groups must (1) have high visibility; (2) be youth intense; and (3) use economic development approaches such as community-based small business enterprises. The proposed youth enterprise zones model is a youth and community revitalization strategy. (SLD)

  17. 78 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska CFR Correction 0 In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 660 to End,...

  18. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 2, 2012 (77 FR 19605) with comments invited through June 1, 2012... Amendment 12 (77 FR 19605, April 2, 2012). Proposed Rule To implement Amendment 12, this proposed rule would... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  19. 78 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 660 to End, revised...

  20. Restoring ecosystem services to littoral zones of rivers in the urban core of Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xian, Xu-Dong; Feng, Yi-Long; Willison, J H Martin; Ai, Li-Jiao; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhi-Neng

    2015-08-01

    Two examples of the creation of naturalized areas in the littoral zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the urban core of Chongqing City, China, are described. The areas were created for the purpose of restoring ecological functions and services. Plants were selected based on surveys of natural wetland vegetation in the region, and experiments were conducted to discover the capacity of species of interest to survive the sometimes extreme hydrological regimes at the sites. Novel methods were developed to stabilize the plants against the rigors of extreme summer floods and constant swash, notably zigzag berms of rocks wrapped in iron mesh. The areas include native reeds, grasses, shrubs, and trees. Plant communities in the areas are zoned according to flooding stress, and their structure is less stable at lower elevations that are subjected to greater stress. The tall grass Saccharum spontaneum (widespread in Southern Asia) and the tree Pterocarya stenoptera (native to Southwest China) are notable for their utility at these sites in the center of a large city. Communities of tall reeds and grasses have become so dense and stable that they now provide the ecosystem services of capturing river sediments and resisting erosion of the river banks. It is recommended that extensive greening of the riparian zones in urban areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir be conducted for the purpose of providing ecosystem services, based in part on the experiences described here. PMID:25907628

  1. Markets Hidden on Thoroughfares: The Social Construction of Economic Informality/Illegality in Beijing's Zhongguancun, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ho-Jun

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the tense relation between the visibility of unauthorized economic practices and the invisibility of law in Zhongguancun (ZGC) Beijing, a Chinese information technology (IT) industry center dubbed "China's Silicon Valley." This dissertation ethnographically examines the double process of extra-legal/illegal economic…

  2. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  3. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  4. Mommy, Buy Me a China Doll: A Kindergarten Economics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Mary M.

    This monthlong interdisciplinary, award winning project was designed to help kindergarten children in Kentucky understand basic economic principles that affect their daily lives. The children study about the poverty-stricken people of the Appalachian mountain area of the state. Through the operation of a classroom coal mine and company store, the…

  5. Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  6. Alternative zoning scenarios for regional sustainable land use controls in China: a knowledge-based multiobjective optimisation model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  7. 75 FR 64172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file (pdf) formats only. FOR FURTHER... in the GOA exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of...

  8. 75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file (pdf... manages the groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery...

  9. Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Song Guojun Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

    2011-11-15

    The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: > National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. > We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. > The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

  10. Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the coastal zone: The LOICZ approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talaue-McManus, L.; Smith, S.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focused on quantifying the role of the global coastal zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for site-specific and global assessments of coastal processes and their drivers. Indicators used in coastal assessments include the contribution of population and economic activities to waste load generation, and the resulting coastal system states relative to net production and nitrogen cycling. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Jerald

    2014-03-31

    The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs).

  12. Urban spring phenology in the middle temperate zone of China: dynamics and influence factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shouzhen; Shi, Ping; Li, Hongzhong

    2015-08-01

    Urbanization and its resultant urban heat island provide a means for evaluating the impact of climate warming on vegetation phenology. To predict the possible response of vegetation phenology to rise of temperature, it is necessary to investigate factors influencing vegetation phenology in different climate zones. The start of growing season (SOS) in seven cities located in the middle temperate humid, semi-humid, semi-arid, and arid climate zones in China was extracted based on satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. The dynamics of urban SOS from 2000 to 2009 and the correlations between urban SOS and land surface temperatures (LST), precipitation, and sunshine duration, respectively, were analyzed. The results showed that there were no obvious change trends for urban SOS, and the heat island induced by urbanization can make SOS earlier in urban areas than that in adjacent rural areas. And the impact of altitude on SOS was also not negligible in regions with obvious altitude difference between urban and adjacent rural areas. Precipitation and temperature were two main natural factors influencing urban SOS in the middle temperate zone, but their impacts varied with climate zones. Only in Harbin city with lower sunshine duration in spring, sunshine duration had more significant impact than temperature and precipitation. Interference of human activities on urban vegetation was non-negligible, which can lower the dependence of urban SOS on natural climatic factors.

  13. [Assessment on the changing conditions of ecosystems in key ecological function zones in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Cao, Wei; Wu, Dan; Gong, Guo-li; Zhao, Guo-song

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of ecosystem macrostructure, qualities and core services during 2000 and 2010 were analyzed for the key ecological function zones of China, which were classified into four types of water conservation, soil conservation, wind prevention and sand fixation, and biodiversity maintenance. In the water conservation ecological function zones, the areas of forest and grassland ecosystems were decreased whereas water bodies and wetland were increased in the past 11 years, and the water conservation volume of forest, grassland and wetland ecosystems increased by 2.9%. This region needs to reverse the decreasing trends of forest and grassland ecosystems. In the soil conservation ecological function zones, the area of farmland ecosystem was decreased, and the areas of forest, grassland, water bodies and wetland ecosystems were increased. The total amount of the soil erosion was reduced by 28.2%, however, the soil conservation amount of ecosystems increased by 38.1%. In the wind prevention and sand fixation ecological function zones, the areas of grassland, water bodies and wetland ecosystems were decreased, but forest and farmland ecosystems were increased. The unit amount of the soil. wind erosion was reduced and the sand fixation amount of ecosystems increased lightly. In this kind of region that is located in arid and semiarid areas, ecological conservation needs to reduce farmland area and give priority to the protection of the original ecological system. In the biodiversity maintenance ecological function zones, the areas of grassland and desert ecosystems were decreased and other types were increased. The human disturbances showed a weakly upward trend and needs to be reduced. The key ecological function zones should be aimed at the core services and the protecting objects, to assess quantitatively on the effectiveness of ecosystem conservation and improvement. PMID:26785559

  14. Geophysics Characteristic on Gas Hydrates Zone in Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Zhibin

    2015-04-01

    Gas hydrates are very important because of their vast resources potential, their roles as submarine geohazard, and their effects on global climate in the word. In China, the research of gas hydrates was initiated further later ?but the South China Sea has found a number of geophysical anomalies of gas hydrate by researching of almost 10 years. In order to determine the nature and distribution of marine gas hydrate, a series of geophysical techniques are used. By using the traditional seismic data processing, purpose seismic data processing, wave impedance inversion techniques and geophysical well logging data processing based on Self-organizing feature map neural network, a great deal of useful information are abstracted to determine the gas hydrate zone beneath the seabed. The results show (1) Conventional multi-channel seismic reflection processing data from the SCS reveal various seismic indicators of gas hydrate and associated gas, such as the BSR, enhanced reflections below the BSR, Weak reflection or blanking zone above the BSRs.;(2) special processing techniques, such as attribute extraction and wave impedance inversion, is necessary so as to mine more effective data, they could compensate the shortage of conventional seismic data processing techniques used for distinguishing gas-bearing reservoirs;(3) as a kind of intelligent information processing technology, SOFM neural network is feasible for lithologic identification by logging data and has a high rate of identification of gas hydrate. In the end, the author hopes it may provide some useful clues to the exploration of gas hydrate.

  15. Study of the permeability in melting zone of South China Sea based on percolation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ju-ying; Xu, He-hua; Li, Yan-zhen; Shu, Wei-bing

    2015-09-01

    Oceanic crust is formed at mid-ocean ridges. The melting zone extends up to several hundreds of km laterally, the upwelling area at the spreading axis is confined to a narrow belt of only 2-3 km width. Whereas the parameter of permeability that magma ascending from the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is still poorly understood, despite the important role of the process for the formation of crust. Based on continuum percolation, we build the random fracture network as magma migration channels of South China Sea; with momentum equation, we deduced the dynamic pressure distribution with passive corner flow. After which, the permeability of melting zone is calculated with finite element method. Numerical simulation results indicate that there exists a power law relationship between the permeability and magma migration channels. The simulated result is consistent with that calculated by fractal method. The discovery of the ruler provides sound theoretical basis for the formation and evolution of oceanic crust, and may help us better understanding the formation and evolution of South China Sea.

  16. Coal use in the People`s Republic of China, Volume 2: The economic effects of constraining coal utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.; Benavides, J.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1994-12-01

    The People`s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. The dominance of coal in China`s energy balance has come at a high price to the environment. With the recent attention given to global warming issues, China`s energy consumption and production practices have become the subject of much concern. Of particular concern is China`s ability to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by constraining coal use and the impact such policies will likely have on the Chinese economy. The study is divided into two reports. Volume 1 focuses on the full coal fuel cycle, emissions, and environmental effects. This report (Volume 2) analyzes various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies and determines their effect on economic growth. Contrary to what some analysts have claimed, the current work suggests that it would not be costly for the Chinese to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, some strategies were accompanied by increases in China`s energy and economic efficiency, which actually stimulated economic growth.

  17. Mantle transition zone beneath eastern China and its tectonic implication (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Niu, F.

    2010-12-01

    We analyzed a total of 37000 receiver-function data recorded by regional broadband seismic networks of the China Earthquake Administration to study the mantle transition zone beneath eastern China. Significant topography on both the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities was clearly imaged in the 3D volume of CCP (common-conversion-point) stacked images that covers an area of 97.5-122.5E and 22.0-42.N. 3D crustal and mantle velocity models were used in computing the PS time moveouts to better image the absolute depths of the two discontinuities. We found that the 660-km discontinuity is depressed between ~20 to 40 km along the east coast of China, indicating the presence of the subducted Pacific slab in the region. More interesting, a broad 660-km was observed in most of the depressed area, which was not seen from the 410-km discontinuity. We found a strong and localized anomaly beneath the Datong volcano, one of the three active volcanoes in China, located at the northern end of the Shanxi Graben. The 410-km is depressed by as much as 20 km beneath the volcano. If the amount of the depression is caused by unmodeled low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle, it requires either a strong (5-10%) localized low velocity anomaly near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary or ~2% low velocity column across the entire upper mantle above the 410-km. The later could suggest a deep origin of the Datong volcano, which was attributed to edge driven convection by most of the literatures. We also found a localized depression of the 660-km at the southwest edge of the 3D CCP volume, indicating the existence of the subducted Indian plate beneath the region.

  18. Seasonal and spatial character of PCBs in a chemical industrial zone of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Cheng, Jinping; Xie, Haiyun; Hu, Xiaofang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua

    2007-12-01

    As one of China's great metropolises, Shanghai is suffering from the impact of manufacture and the use of chemical industrial products, and it faces serious pollution from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Therefore, in this study, in order to assess the seasonal and spatial character of contamination from chemical industrial zones, the concentrations of PCBs have been measured in various environmental media, including soil, leaves, and atmospheric particulate samples collected in a chemical industrial zone of Shanghai and compared with samples from presumably unpolluted sites of rural areas. In soils, the PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 ng g(-1) (unpolluted site) to 586.85 ng g(-1) (chlor-alkali industry site). The concentrations of PCBs in evergreen leaves ranged from 0.3 ng g(-1) to 32.46 ng g(-1), and more chlorinated biphenyls congeners, such as penta-biphenyls and hexa-biphenyls, were the dominant contributors in winter and spring. Seasonal differences and the constitution patterns of congeners might be affected by the temperature and industrial activities. The PCB concentrations in the leaves of deciduous trees increase over time as the leaves grow. The PCB concentration in atmospheric particulates was in the range of 9.22-14.15 x 10(3)pg m(-3), which might be the result of influence from climate and industrial activities. The relativity of PCB contents among the environmental media was discussed. The results in this paper provide an important profile of the current contamination status of a key chemical industrial zone in China. PMID:17786567

  19. Regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Zihong; Srensen, Mathilde B.; Lvlie, Reidar; Liu, Liqiang; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study on regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China, was performed in this study. To get a better understanding of the present-day stress status in this area, 31 focal mechanisms of M L ?3 earthquakes since 1965 were compiled, and the best stress tensor was then inverted based on the database. Additionally, magnetic fabrics along the Taigu fault zone were investigated to get an indication of the regional stress field in the past. Our results show that the present-day stress field around the Taigu fault zone is characterized by astable NW-SE extension with a strike-slip component, consistent with the geological surveys and recent GPS data. Results from magnetic fabrics indicate that the orientations of principal stress axes from magnetic fabrics of sedimentary rocks in Neogene coincide to the orientations of principal stress axes from focal mechanisms. The south segment of the Taigu fault displays more complicated magnetic fabrics and more activity of moderate earthquakes. It is connected with the Mianshan west fault and intersects with NW-SE striking Fenyang fault and the north fault of the Lingshi uplift at the south edge of Taiyuan basin. This may be the area needing more attention in terms of seismic risk along the Taigu fault.

  20. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

    2001-05-01

    The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been unable to find any global or regional datasets of groundwater.. Combining Surface and Groundwater Supply Functions Water Demand Curves. Water Use data is reported on political regions. Water Supply is reported and modeled on river basin regions. It is necessary to allocate water demands to river basins. To accomplish this China's 9 major river basins were divided into 36 hydroeconomic regions. The counties were then allocated to one of the 36-hydroeconomic zones. The county-level water use data was aggregated to 5 major water use sectors: 1)industry; 2)urban municipal and vegetable gardens: 3) major irrigation; 4) Energy and 5)Other agriculture (forestry, pasture; fishery). Sectoral Demand functions that include price and income elasticity were developed for the 5 sectors for each of the 9 major river basin. The supply and demand curves were aggregated at a variety of geographical scales as well as levels of economic sectoral aggregation. Implications for investment and sustainable development policies were examined for the various aggregation using partial and general equilibrium modeling of the Chinese economy. These results and policy implications for China as well as insights and recommendation for other developing countries will be presented.

  1. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. PMID:26141885

  2. Receiver function imaging of the mantle transition zone beneath the South China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haibo; Tosi, Nicola; Chang, Sung-Joon; Xia, Shaohong; Qiu, Xuelin

    2015-10-01

    Upper mantle discontinuities are influenced by convection-related thermal heterogeneities arising in complex geodynamic settings. Slab rollback of the Pacific plate and mantle upwelling in the Meso-Cenozoic caused the extension and spreading of continental segments in the South China Block leading to profound variations of the local temperature conditions. We processed 201 teleseismic events beneath 87 stations in the Hainan, Guangdong, and Fujian provinces in the South China Block, and extracted 4172 high-quality receiver functions. We imaged the topography of the local mantle discontinuities by using phase-weighted common conversion point stacking of the receiver functions, which effectively improves the P-to-S-converted phases. We found that the average depths of the discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth are 414 and 657 km, respectively, while no clearly defined discontinuity at 520 km depth was detected. We mapped the thickness of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), which can reflect temperature and/or compositional heterogeneities as well as the presence of water, and discussed possible geodynamic implications. In particular, we found that the MTZ beneath the Leizhou Peninsula in the Hainan province is 42 km thinner than average. This scenario suggests that the Hainan plume is responsible for positive temperature anomalies between ˜270 and 380 K and between ˜200 and 240 K at the 660 and 410 km discontinuities, respectively. We also observed a prominent uplifting of the 660 km boundary beneath the coast regions that may be indicative of lateral flow of the Hainan plume.

  3. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony. PMID:25876419

  4. 75 FR 31717 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in...

  5. 75 FR 59157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  6. 76 FR 47083 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in...

  7. Characteristics and source apportionment of organic matter in PM(2.5) from cities in different climatic zones of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jialiang

    For the first time, the dependency of the characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 on geographical and climatic zones in three metropolitan cities of China was studied. Seasonal samples were collected at suburban and urban sites in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2002 and 2003. To further support the above study, seasonal samples were also collected at Changdao Island, a remote island, in Bohai Sea/Yellow Sea. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) were analyzed. The characteristics of the n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-fatty acids, n-alkanols and molecular markers such as triterpanes were determined and used for source identification. Source apportionment was complemented by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling using the measured organic species as tracers. The impact of wind speed and wind direction on air quality was studied by back trajectory calculations and analysis. In general, traffic emissions were the largest contributors of OC followed by coal burning, kitchen emissions, vegetative detritus and biomass burning. However, in the space-heating season in Northern China, coal burning was the most important contributor of OC in the suburban areas of Beijing and at Changdao. Beijing had the highest concentration of organic aerosol followed by Guangzhou and Shanghai, while seasonal variation was in reverse order. Dispersion conditions determined by local topographies and meteorology were responsible for this trend. Contrary to common understanding, pollutant concentrations at the suburban sites were higher than the urban sites in all three cities. The main reason was the rapid urbanization of the suburban areas in the immediate vicinity of urban centers since China opened up for economic development, in addition, large numbers of manufacturing plants were relocated from the cities to the countryside in an attempt to clean up the urban environment. WSOC/TC ratios were comparable in all three cities at 0.2-0.3 and this value can be considered typical for urban aerosols from Chinese cities. Similar PAH/ALK ratios were found in the three cities, and PAHs were from a mixed contribution of coal burning and engine exhaust. More than half of the resolved SEOC was found to be n-fatty acids and they were mainly from kitchen emissions based on source profile comparisons and CMB analysis. The increase of contribution from coal burning in Beijing due to space heating was identified by the different distribution of triterpanes in summer and winter. The relative concentrations of semivolatile fossil fuel residue n-alkanes (<=C26) were inversely dependent on the ambient temperature. Similar trend was found in the concentrations of the semivolatile PAHs (molecular weight <=228). This was mainly caused by the gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile species in the different climatic zones. The enrichment of higher molecular weight plant wax compounds from Beijing to Shanghai to Guangzhou was a reflection of the variations of the vegetation in the different climatic zones. The seasonal variations in the concentrations and compositions of organic matter at Changdao were similar to the three cities, especially to Beijing. The remote island was also impacted by anthropogenic pollutants, and transported particles played a significant role in the contribution of the organic matter exemplified by the high WSOC/TC, low C18:1/C18 fatty acid, and high BeP/(BeP+BaP) ratios.

  8. Policy support, economic incentives and the adoption of irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2014-11-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in China. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of policy support and economic incentives on the adoption of irrigation technology in China. Based on a unique dataset collected at household and village levels from seven provinces in China, results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption on crop-sown areas was not high, and it was even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analyses results revealed that policy supports via subsidies and extension services have played an important role in promoting the adoption of irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played significant but contradictory roles in promoting the adoption of different types of irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to their substitution relationship, because having higher adoption of household-based irrigation technology reduce the incentives to invest in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  9. Public health in China: An environmental and socio-economic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjing; Li, Yonghua; Hao, Zhe; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-03-01

    Despite the large literature on public health, few studies have examined the associations between public health outcomes and environmental and socio-economic factors. This study bridges this gap by demonstrating the relationships between public health and 10 selected environmental and socio-economic factors from the spatial perspective. In particular, three public health outcomes in China are investigated, namely the number of centenarians per 100,000 people (termed the centenarian ratio), the proportion of nonagenarians of the 65 years and older population (termed the longevity index), and life expectancy at birth. We base our analysis on stepwise regression and geographically weighted regression models, with study areas of 31 provinces in China. Our results show that SO2 (sulfur dioxide) concentration decreases the centenarian ratio; PM10 (particles with diameters of 10 μm or less) concentration and coal consumption (CC) per capita decrease the longevity index, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita prolongs life expectancy at birth, while energy consumption (EC) per capita decreases life expectancy at birth. Further, our findings demonstrate that public health outcomes show clear regional differences in China.

  10. An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, C Z; Huang, H; Zheng, S P; Yin, X L

    2002-05-01

    With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give a financial return owing to the low price of biomass wastes and insufficient power supply at present in some regions of China. In this work, experimental data from 1 MW-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) BGPG plants constructed recently in China were analyzed; and it was found that the unit capital cost of BGPG is only 60-70% of coal power station and its operation cost is much lower than that of conventional power plants. However, due to the relatively low efficiency of small-scale plant, the current BGPG technology will lose its economic attraction when its capacity is smaller than 160 kW or the price of biomass is higher than 200 Yuan RMB/ton. The development of medium-scale BGPG plants, with capacity ranging from 1000 to 5000 kW, is recommended; as is the demonstration of BGPG technology in suitable enterprises (e.g. rice mill and timber mill) in developing countries where large amounts of biomass wastes are available so that biomass collection and transportation can be avoided and the operation cost can be lowered. PMID:12058832

  11. A method of characterizing land-cover swap changes in the arid zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yecheng; Li, Baolin; Gao, Xizhang; Liu, Haijiang; Xu, Lili; Zhou, Chenghu

    2016-03-01

    Net area change analysis can dramatically underestimate total change of land cover, even sometimes seriously misinterpret ecological processes of the ecosystem, especially in arid or semiarid zones. In this paper, a suite of indices are presented to characterize land-cover swaps that may seriously damage the ecosystem in arid or semiarid zones, based on swap-change areas extracted from remotely sensed images. First, swap percentage of total area and swap intensity of total changes were used to determine the status of land-cover swap change in an area. Then, dominated swap category and individual swap-change intensity for a land-cover category were used to determine flagged land-cover swap-change categories. Finally, swap-change mode and Pielou's index were used to determine the land-cover swap-change processes of dominant categories. A case study is conducted using this approach, based on two land-cover maps in the 1980s and 2000 in Naiman Qi, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia, China. This study shows that the approach can clearly quantify the severity and flagged classes of land-cover swap-change and reveal their relationship with ecological processes of the ecosystem. These results indicate that the approach can give deep insights into swap change, which can be very valuable to land-cover policy making and management.

  12. A method of characterizing land-cover swap changes in the arid zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yecheng; Li, Baolin; Gao, Xizhang; Liu, Haijiang; Xu, Lili; Zhou, Chenghu

    2015-04-01

    Net area change analysis can dramatically underestimate total change of land cover, even sometimes seriously misinterpret ecological processes of the ecosystem, especially in arid or semiarid zones. In this paper, a suite of indices are presented to characterize land-cover swaps that may seriously damage the ecosystem in arid or semiarid zones, based on swap-change areas extracted from remotely sensed images. First, swap percentage of total area and swap intensity of total changes were used to determine the status of land-cover swap change in an area. Then, dominated swap category and individual swap-change intensity for a land-cover category were used to determine flagged land-cover swap-change categories. Finally, swap-change mode and Pielou's index were used to determine the land-cover swap-change processes of dominant categories. A case study is conducted using this approach, based on two land-cover maps in the 1980s and 2000 in Naiman Qi, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia, China. This study shows that the approach can clearly quantify the severity and flagged classes of land-cover swap-change and reveal their relationship with ecological processes of the ecosystem. These results indicate that the approach can give deep insights into swap change, which can be very valuable to land-cover policy making and management.

  13. Late Quaternary deformation rates in the Pamir-Tian Shan collision zone, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. A.; Li, T.; Burbank, D. W.; Chen, J.; Bookhagen, B.; Bufe, A.; Yang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation of the Pamir and Tian Shan orogens initiated during the Neogene as a result of the Indo-Eurasian colision. The arid landscape in the western Tarim Basin, NW China, preserves suites of fluvial terraces crossing many of the Late Neogene active structures, creating fault and fold scarps. We present new deformation rates on five faults and folds, which in combination with previous studies, highlight the spatial and temporal patterns of deformation during the Late Quaternary. Suites of terraces spanning ~130 ka to ~8 ka document the basinward propagation of deformation, with the fastest rates currently located on actively deforming structures at the interface of the Pamir-Tian Shan orogens. During the last ~6 ka, the Pamir deformation front has stepped north, creating the Mingyaole South Thrust, which produced the 1985 M7.4 Wuqia Earthquake. Trenching on several sections of this fault reveal an earthquake reoccurence interval of ~1.0 ky. The Late Quaternary deformation rates on faults and folds along the Pamir-Tian Shan collision zone indicate that the locus of deformation was not concentrated on a single structure, but rather was concurrently distributed across a zone of structures. Despite numerous structures accommodating the shortening and the locus of deformation shifting throughout the Late Quaternary, the total shortening across the Pamir-Tian Shan collision zone since ~0.35 Ma has remained steady and is approximately equal to the current geodetic rate of 6-9 mm/a, as well as broadly similar to preliminary InSAR-derived deformation rates across the region.

  14. How can economic schemes curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth in China?

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjya, Debarun; Sudarshan, Anant; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Shachter, Ross; Feldman, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Fertility decline, driven by the one-child policy, and son preference have contributed to an alarming difference in the number of live male and female births in China. We present a quantitative model where people choose to sex-select because they perceive that married sons are more valuable than married daughters. Due to the predominant patrilocal kinship system in China, daughters-in-law provide valuable emotional and financial support, enhancing the perceived present value of married sons. We argue that inter-generational transfer data will help ascertain the extent to which economic schemes (such as pension plans for families with no sons) can curtail the increasing sex ratio at birth. PMID:21113272

  15. Environmental and economic benefits of variable rate nitrogen fertilization in a nitrate vulnerable zone.

    PubMed

    Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin; Cammarano, Davide; Pezzuolo, Andrea; Marinello, Francesco; Sartori, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural fields despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial variability is ignored, uniform agronomic management can be both economically and environmentally inefficient. The objectives of this study were to: i) identify optimal N fertilizer rates using an integrated spatio-temporal analysis of yield and site-specific N rate response; ii) test the sensitivity of site specific N management to nitrate leaching in response to different N rates; and iii) demonstrate the environmental benefits of variable rate N fertilizer in a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. This study was carried out on a 13.6ha field near the Venice Lagoon, northeast Italy over four years (2005-2008). We utilized a validated crop simulation model to evaluate crop response to different N rates at specific zones in the field based on localized soil and landscape properties under rainfed conditions. The simulated rates were: 50kgNha(-1) applied at sowing for the entire study area and increasing fractions, ranging from 150 to 350kgNha(-1) applied at V6 stage. Based on the analysis of yield maps from previous harvests and soil electrical resistivity data, three management zones were defined. Two N rates were applied in each of these zones, one suggested by our simulation analysis and the other with uniform N fertilization as normally applied by the producer. N leaching was lower and net revenue was higher in the zones where variable rates of N were applied when compared to uniform N fertilization. This demonstrates the efficacy of using crop models to determine variable rates of N fertilization within a field and the application of variable rate N fertilizer to achieve higher profit and reduce nitrate leaching. PMID:26747986

  16. 77 FR 52674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... notice of intent for the preparation of the EIS (77 FR 22750, April 17, 2012). Detailed descriptions of... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... potential economic impact on the fishing industry to the extent practicable while meeting the...

  17. Economic development influences on sediment-bound nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of lakes in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhaokui; Wang, Shengrui

    2015-12-01

    China has been confronted with serious water quality deterioration concurrent with rapid socioeconomic progress during the past 40 years. Consequently, knowledge about economic growth and lake water quality dynamics is important to understand eutrophication processes. Objectives were to (i) reconstruct historical nutrient accumulation and the basin economic progress on burial flux (BF); (ii) determine forms and structures of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sediment and water using six cores in three of the most severely eutrophic lake areas in China (i.e., Eastern Plain, Yunnan-Guizhou Plain, and Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang regions). Results suggest that BFs of total nitrogen (TN) continued to increase in sediment, whereas total phosphorus (TP) levels were consistent or only slightly increased, except in highly polluted lakes during the past decades. Similar results were observed for concentrations of nutrients in water (i.e., increased N/P). This historical distribution pattern was correlated to long-term fertilization practices of farmers in the watershed (N fertilization exceeds that of P) and was contingent upon pollution control policies (e.g., emphasized P whereas N was ignored). Vertical profiles of BFs indicated that lake nutrient accumulation included three stages in China. Nutrient accumulation started in the 1980s, accelerated from the 1990s, and then declined after 2000. Before the 1980s, nutrients were relatively low and stable, with nutrient inputs being controlled by natural processes. Thereafter, N- and P-bound sediments dramatically increased due to the increasing influence of anthropogenic processes. Nutrients were primarily derived from industries and domestic sewage. After 2000, BFs of nutrients were steady and even decreased, owing to implementation of watershed load reduction policies. The decreasing NaOH-extracted P (Fe/Al-P) and increasing organic phosphorus (OP) indicated that the source of exogenous pollution underwent a shift. Inputs of nutrients were predominantly from agricultural and domestic sewage, whereas industrial pollution has been gradually controlled in most of the watersheds. Historical nutrient dynamics suggest that the economy of China is growing at the expense of its aquatic ecological environments. Therefore, more attention to nutrient export to groundwater resulting from economic development is important for further aquatic ecosystem deterioration and eutrophication in China. PMID:26385856

  18. New attempts on increasing economic gains in the development of geothermal resources in Beijing, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, K.

    1997-12-31

    The development of geothermal resources in the city of Beijing and its surrounding suburbs has been made possible by investments from companies in the surrounding Provinces of China. The development of these geothermal deposits has created a market for hot spring real estate. The real estate has been developed into comprehensive projects for recreation and vacation resorts, in addition to, heath care centers and greenhouse farming. This new attempt to develop these geothermal resources has increased the economic growth of the area and interest in geothermal expansion.

  19. A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated water that is ineligible for any uses. PMID:17719717

  20. GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

  1. The impact of regional economic reliance on the tobacco industry on current smoking in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Barnett, Ross; Rockett, Ian R H; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Weijun; Li, Lu

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of province of residence and other contextual factors on the likelihood of being a current smoker in China. A cross-sectional, multistage sampling process was used to recruit participants, and their smoking status and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained through face-to-face interviews. The contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of provincial economic reliance on the tobacco industry, as well as individual-level characteristics, on the likelihood of being a current smoker. Participants totaled 20,601 from 27 cities located in 26 of the 31 municipalities/provinces in China. Overall smoking prevalence was 31.3% (95% CI: 19.3-33.2%), with rates being highest in Yinchuan City in Ningxia Province (49.8%) and lowest in Shanghai (21.6%). The multilevel analysis showed an excess likelihood of being a current smoker for individuals living in provinces with the highest rate of cigarette production relative to those with the smallest (p<0.001). Findings underscore the importance of restricting cigarette production and regulating the marketing of tobacco products in China. PMID:25834992

  2. Internal structure of Longmenshan fault zone at Hongkou outcrop, Sichuan, China, that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Tetsuhiro; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Ma, Shengli; Wen, Xueze; He, Honglin

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports the internal structures of the Beichuan fault zone of Longmenshan fault system that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, at an outcrop in Hongkou, Sichuan province, China. Present work is a part of comprehensive project of Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, trying to understand deformation processes in Longmenshan fault zones and eventually to reproduce Wenchuan earthquake by modeling based on measured mechanical and transport properties. Outcrop studies could be integrated with those performed on samples recovered from fault zone drilling, during the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) Project, to understand along-fault and depth variation of fault zone properties. The hanging wall side of the fault zone consists of weakly-foliated, clayey fault gouge of about 1 m in width and of several fault breccia zones of 30-40 m in total width. We could not find any pseudotachylite at this outcrop. Displacement during the Wenchuan earthquake is highly localized within the fault gouge layer along narrower slipping-zones of about 10 to 20 mm in width. This is an important constraint for analyzing thermal pressurization, an important dynamic weakening mechanism of faults. Overlapping patterns of striations on slickenside surface suggest that seismic slip at a given time occurred in even narrower zone of a few to several millimeters, so that localization of deformation must have occurred within a slipping zone during coseismic fault motion. Fault breccia zones are bounded by thin black gouge layers containing amorphous carbon. Fault gouge contains illite and chlorite minerals, but not smectite. Clayey fault gouge next to coseismic slipping zone also contains amorphous carbon and small amounts of graphite. The structural observations and mineralogical data obtained from outcrop exposures of the fault zone of the Wenchuan earthquake can be compared with those obtained from the WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 boreholes, which have been drilled very close to the Hongkou outcrop. The presence of carbon and graphite, observed next to the slipping-zone, may affect the mechanical properties of the fault and also provide useful information about coseismic chemical changes.

  3. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women across Different Socio-Economic Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiuling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jingyi; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective China has a high burden of cervical cancer (CC) and wide disparities in CC burden exist among different socio-economic regions. In order to reduce these disparities, China’s government launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Understanding the factors associated with underutilization of CC screening among target populations is important to improve the screening participation rate, and a high participation rate is key to achieving the goals of a screening program. However, data on the knowledge of CC among target populations in program areas is lacking in China. This study will investigate the knowledge of CC prevention and control among women in specific project counties to develop a better understanding of factors that might influence CC screening participation in order to improve the implementation of the NCCSPRA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted and face-to-face interview questionnaires were completed by 308 women who received CC screening services in 6 project counties of NCCSPRA across different socio-economic regions of China. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge rates and scores across the different subgroups. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with knowledge level. Results The overall CC knowledge rate of the target population was only 19.5%. Regional socio-economic level, advice from doctors, age, and educational status were strong predictors of knowledge level of CC screening. Significantly lower knowledge rates and scores were identified in older women (55–64 years old), less educated women (with primary school or illiterate), women in less developed regions and women who did not receive any advice about screening results from doctors. Conclusion The knowledge of CC screening among women in the project counties of NCCSPRA was found to be very poor. Given the importance of knowledge in encouraging women to participate in screening is key to reducing CC burden in rural women in China, it is urgent that a targeted health promotion intervention is developed and implemented in project counties, especially targeting older women, women with less education and women in less developed regions, and focus on improving their CC knowledge and encouraging them to communicate with health care providers. The health promotion intervention targeting health care providers is also important to improve their knowledge of CC and provide best advice to women. PMID:26657110

  4. The role of taxation in tobacco control and its potential economic impact in China

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhengzhong; Shi, Jian; Chen, Wendong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify key economic issues involved in raising the tobacco tax and to recommend possible options for tobacco tax reform in China. Methods Estimated price elasticities of the demand for cigarettes, prevalence data and epidemiology are used to estimate the impact of a tobacco tax increase on cigarette consumption, government tax revenue, lives saved, employment and revenue loss in the cigarette industry and tobacco farming. Results The recent Chinese tax adjustment, if passed along to the retail price, would reduce the number of smokers by 630?000 saving 210?000 lives, at a price elasticity of ?0.15. A tax increase of 1 RMB (or US$0.13) per pack of cigarettes would increase the Chinese government's tax revenue by 129 billion RMB (US 17.2 billion), decrease consumption by 3.0 billion packs of cigarettes, reduce the number of smokers by 3.42 million and save 1.14 million lives. Conclusion The empirical economic analysis and tax simulation results clearly indicate that increasing the tobacco tax in China is the most cost-effective instrument for tobacco control. PMID:20008158

  5. Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingguo

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental disaster. That is by adopting a policy of sustainable development to protect the already damaged environment. The study is centered by a case study of Yunnan Biomass-to-Electricity (BTE) Program, which is a joint research effort between American and Chinese institutions to implement biomass energy projects in rural areas of Yunnan province, China. By integrating energy production and environmental protection, the BTE Program could serve both the environmental and economic needs of the local regions. Therefore, the Yunnan BTE program can serve as a model of sustainable development. Furthermore, because the Yunnan BTE program was a cooperative research effort involving Chinese and American institutions, it also provides an opportunity to study and assess international joint policy implementation efforts. In this case study, we developed an analytical model that contains key factors, both constraints and opportunities, which may have affected the implementation of the BTE program. We explore the role of environmental policy and relationships among various relevant Chinese and American institutions involved in the BTE program. Through careful examination of these factors, and their roles in the process, we establish which facilitate and inhibit program implementation. The study of Mengpeng BTE project showed that all the factors in the analytical model influenced the outcome of the project implementation. Some played more vital roles while others were just minor players. The study demonstrated that preferential environmental policy and sound institutional setting are essential for the success of environmental program implementation in China. From this study, we have learned that it takes more than advanced technology and funding to implement sustainable development. We need not only good environmental policy, but also effective environmental policy. It was not that China lacked environmental policies to support sustainable development. It was rather that these policies were not thoroughly implemented. This case showed that the Chinese institutional setting posed problems for environmental policy implementation in China.

  6. Climatological Analysis of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico Based on 10 Years of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E.; Trasvia-Castro, A.; Aguirre Bahena, F.

    2013-05-01

    To visualize the variability of inorganic carbon in the waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico we analysed over 10 years of monthly data 4-km resolution from the MODIS-AQUA satellite. This sensor provides various types of information and for this discussion we selected particulate organic carbon, sea surface temperature and euphotic zone depth. We constructed climatological maps for each month of the year to show the average, maximum, minimum and standard deviation of the three variables. The result of the average particulate organic carbon climatology indicates that the main areas of inorganic carbon production (> 200 mg m3) are the Gulf of California, the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California, the coast of Colima, the Gulf of Tehuantepec and in the Gulf of Mexico the coasts of Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas. The months presenting higher production occur between December and April. In comparison, lowest climatological mean sea surface temperature (below 14 oC) occurs on the west coast of the Baja California peninsula and it is observed associated with the highest mean particulate organic carbon (>250 mg m-3). Climatological mean sea surface temperature on the coast of Colima, Yucatan, Tabasco and Tamaulipas are about 25 C and coincide with high values of particulate organic carbon (> 200 mg m-3). The climatological mean euphotic zone depth show lowest values (<50 m) coincide with the highest mean particulate organic carbon values indicating a clear relationship with a reduction of light penetration in the water column. Inspection of the standard deviation maps shows greatest variability of particulate organic carbon from December to February in the Gulf of California, the coast of Colima and the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In the west coast of the peninsula of Baja California greater variability of particulate organic carbon occurs from June to December. In the oceanic domain beyond the continental shelf, particulate organic carbon values are very low (<25 mg m-3) and are not found associated to low temperatures and/or low depths of the euphotic zone. The oceanic region shows maximum values for both sea surface temperatures and depth of the euphotic zone as is to be expected in oligotrophic regions of the sea. Anomalies for all three variables will also shown to discuss the interannual variability of this 10-years period of study.

  7. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002, documents and reports from various power industry actors, and available academic literature analyzing current developments in the industry, I analyze the process of making deregulatory policies in electric power. Specifically, I ask whether or not the developments described above resulted in a shift in the relative power of contending actors in the industry, and consequently influenced policy outcomes.

  8. Economically Feasible Potentials for Wind Power in China and the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; McElroy, M. B.; Chris, N. P.; Tchou, J.

    2011-12-01

    The present study is intended to explore the economic feasible potentials for wind energy in China and the U.S. subject to their policy systems for renewable energy. These two countries were chosen as subject locales for three reasons: first, they are the two largest countries responsible for energy consumption and CO2 emissions; second, these two countries have the largest installed capacities and the fastest annual growth of wind power in the world; third, China and the U.S. have adopted two distinct but representative incentive policies to accelerate exploitation of the renewable energy source from wind. Investments in large-scale wind farms in China gain privileges from the concession policy established under China's Renewable Energy Law. The electricity generated from wind can be sold at a guaranteed price for a concession period (typically the first ten operational years of a wind farm) to ensure the profitability of the wind farm development. The effectiveness of this policy has been evidenced by the swift growth of total installed capacities for wind power over the past five years in China. A spatial financial model was developed to evaluate the bus-bar prices of wind-generated electricity in China following this wind concession policy. The results indicated that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030 assuming a guaranteed bus-bar price of 7.6 U.S. Cents per kWh over the concession period. It is noteworthy that the prices of wind-generated electricity could be as cheap as conventional power generation in the years following the concession period. The power market in the U.S. is more deregulated and electricity is normally traded in a bidding process an hour to a day ahead of real time. Accordingly, the market-oriented policy instrument of PTC subsidies was instituted in the U.S. to ensure the competitiveness of wind power compared to the conventional power generation in the regional power markets. The spatial financial model developed for previous analysis of wind energy in China was tailored to simulate the relevant investment environments for U.S. wind projects. A particular problem was investigated as to how the profitability and competitiveness of onshore wind power in the U.S. would be influenced by PTC subsidy levels varying from 0 to 4 cents per kWh. The results suggested that the current PTC level (2.1 cent per kWh) is at a critical point in determining the competitiveness of wind-generated electricity under normal costs. Setting system integration challenges aside, the potential for profitable wind-generated electricity could accommodate more than seven times U.S. electricity demand at the current PTC subsidy. Similar to the concession policy adopted in China, PTC subsidies are only available for the first ten years following the initiation of wind farms; wind power would still offer a renewable energy source for profitable electricity generation during the post-PTC period.

  9. Currency target-zone modeling: An interplay between physics and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lera, Sandro Claudio; Sornette, Didier

    2015-12-01

    We study the performance of the euro-Swiss franc exchange rate in the extraordinary period from September 6, 2011 to January 15, 2015 when the Swiss National Bank enforced a minimum exchange rate of 1.20 Swiss francs per euro. Within the general framework built on geometric Brownian motions and based on the analogy between Brownian motion in finance and physics, the first-order effect of such a steric constraint would enter a priori in the form of a repulsive entropic force associated with the paths crossing the barrier that are forbidden. Nonparametric empirical estimates of drift and volatility show that the predicted first-order analogy between economics and physics is incorrect. The clue is to realize that the random-walk nature of financial prices results from the continuous anticipation of traders about future opportunities, whose aggregate actions translate into an approximate efficient market with almost no arbitrage opportunities. With the Swiss National Bank's stated commitment to enforce the barrier, traders' anticipation of this action leads to a vanishing drift together with a volatility of the exchange rate that depends on the distance to the barrier. This effect is described by Krugman's model [P. R. Krugman, Target zones and exchange rate dynamics, Q. J. Econ. 106, 669 (1991), 10.2307/2937922]. We present direct quantitative empirical evidence that Krugman's theoretical model provides an accurate description of the euro-Swiss franc target zone. Motivated by the insights from the economic model, we revise the initial economics-physics analogy and show that, within the context of hindered diffusion, the two systems can be described with the same mathematics after all. Using a recently proposed extended analogy in terms of a colloidal Brownian particle embedded in a fluid of molecules associated with the underlying order book, we derive that, close to the restricting boundary, the dynamics of both systems is described by a stochastic differential equation with a very small constant drift and a linear diffusion coefficient. As a side result, we present a simplified derivation of the linear hydrodynamic diffusion coefficient of a Brownian particle close to a wall.

  10. Economic transition and maternal health care for internal migrants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Shaokang, Zhan; Zhenwei, Sun; Blas, Erik

    2002-12-01

    Economic migration and growth in informal employment in many of the major cities of developing countries, combined with health sector reforms that are increasingly relying on insurance and out-of-pocket payment, are raising concerns about equity and sustainability of economic and social development. In China, the number of internal migrants has dramatically grown since economic transition started in 1980, and maternal health care for these is a pressing issue to be addressed. To provide information for policy-makers and health administrators, a medical records review, a questionnaire survey and qualitative interviews were carried out in Minhang District, Shanghai. This paper describes important inequities in main maternal health outcomes and utilization indicators relating to economic and social transformation of the Chinese society. Analysis of the data collected clarifies that insufficient antenatal care is one of the main determinants for poor maternal health outcomes and that migrants are using antenatal care services significantly less than permanent residents. The data suggest that there is no single explanatory factor, but that migrants are faced with a package of obstacles to accessing health care services, and that health systems may need to rethink and redesign their delivery approaches to specifically target those groups that are faced with such multi-faceted packages of obstacles to service-access. Although the study addresses a specific Chinese phenomenon related to internal migration and registration of residency, parallels can be drawn to other settings where a combination of economic and social transitions of the society and a reform of health care financing are potentially creating the same conditions of significant inequalities. PMID:12477741

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs. PMID:26387347

  12. Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery Based on Spatial Correlation Analysis in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Methods Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. Results The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other. PMID:25036182

  13. Rapid East Asian Monsoon change during the Last Interglacial in the Bohai Sea Coastal Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Li, B.; Chen, M.; Zhang, D.; Xiang, R.; Niu, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bohai Sea coastal zone of China faces the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Eurasian continent to the west, hence, this region is influenced by both the ocean and continental landmasses. The Bohai Sea coastal zone has significant monsoon climate characteristics and a strong sensitivity to climate change. The Miaodao stratigraphical section (MDS) contains historical information about climate features in the region, especially the high-frequency variations during the last interglacial, sea level changes, and the evolution of the East Asian monsoon. By analyzing the ages of different sedimentary facies in combination with proxy paleoclimatic indices (i.e., grain <63 ?m fraction, average grain size (Mz), clay + silt/sand content (SC/D), magnetic susceptibility, and the ratios of Na2O/Al2O3 and (Al2O3+TOFe)/SiO2, in the fifth segments of the MDS from the last-interglacial (MDS5), we conclude that subsections 5a, 5c, and 5e were controlled by summer monsoons, whereas subsections 5b and 5d were formed when winter monsoons prevailed. These results were similar to oxygen isotope analyses from previous studies including the Spectral Mapping Project (SPECMAP) and the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). Five and a half comparable oscillations in proxy indices that were dated to ca. 116.1, 118.3, 121.2, 122.7, 125.9, and 128.7 ka occurred within the MDS 5e subsection when winter monsoon winds strengthened. This millennial-scale climate variability during the Eemian period may have reached up to ten and a half oscillations with a quasi-periodicity of approximately a 1,470 year cycle during the late glacial period. This rapid period of climate change has been recorded in northern and central Europe, central Asia, as well as in East Asia. The climate forming mechanism was probably initiated by changes in solar activity, and driven by the East Asian monsoon and sea level oscillations. Comparison of Miaodao section records with other paleoclimatic records during the Eemian period. A) Insolation at 65N for July ; B) NorthGRIP ?18O records ; C) grain <63 ?m fraction (%) of the MDS5 segment; D) Magnetic susceptibility (10-8 m3 kg-1) of the MDS5 segment; E) Potou section >40 ?m quartz size fraction content ; F) GRIP ?18O records ; G) mean grain size (?) of the MGS5 segment ; and H) main sea level highstands.

  14. PERMANENT MIGRANTS TO CITIES IN CHINA: HUKOU ORIGIN AND EARNINGS AMONG MEN IN AN ERA OF ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaozhou; Oropesa, R.S.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    The massive volume of internal migration in China since the late 1970s has attracted considerable research attention. However, the integration of permanent migrants in cities during a time of economic transformation is understudied. Using information on earnings from the 2003 General Social Survey of China, this research examines whether permanent migrants are economically advantaged or disadvantaged in comparison to non-migrants in cities. We find that permanent migrants in cities tend to be economically advantaged and that their advantage depends more on human capital than on political capital. Nevertheless, this does not mean that political capital can be ignored. A nuanced view requires attention to how political and human capital jointly affect earnings in specific economic sectors. PMID:25133084

  15. Environmental Change in the Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone, Northern China: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chong; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Chengde city is located in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in northern China near the capital city of Beijing, which has experienced large-scale ecological construction in the past three decades. This study quantitatively assessed the environmental changes in Chengde through observation records of water resources, water environment, atmospheric environment, and vegetation activity and investigated the possible causes. From the late 1950s to 2002, the streamflow presented a downward trend induced by climate variability and human activities, with contribution ratios of 33.2% and 66.8%, respectively. During 2001-2012, the days of levels I and II air quality presented clear upward trends. Moreover, the air pollutant concentration was relatively low compared with that in the adjacent areas, which means the air quality has improved more than that in the neighboring areas. The water quality, which deteriorated during 1993-2000, began to improve in 2002. The air and water quality changes were closely related to pollutant emissions induced by anthropogenic activities. During 1982-2012, the vegetation in the southeastern and central regions presented restoration trends, whereas that in the northwestern area showed degradation trends. The pixels with obvious degradation trends correlated significantly with annual mean temperature and annual precipitation. Ecological engineering also played a positive role in vegetation restoration. This analysis can be beneficial to environment managers in the active response and adaptation to the possible effects of future climate change, population growth, and industrial development and can be used to ensure sustainable development and environmental safety. PMID:26828508

  16. Environmental Change in the Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone, Northern China: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chong; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Chengde city is located in the agro–pastoral transitional zone in northern China near the capital city of Beijing, which has experienced large-scale ecological construction in the past three decades. This study quantitatively assessed the environmental changes in Chengde through observation records of water resources, water environment, atmospheric environment, and vegetation activity and investigated the possible causes. From the late 1950s to 2002, the streamflow presented a downward trend induced by climate variability and human activities, with contribution ratios of 33.2% and 66.8%, respectively. During 2001–2012, the days of levels I and II air quality presented clear upward trends. Moreover, the air pollutant concentration was relatively low compared with that in the adjacent areas, which means the air quality has improved more than that in the neighboring areas. The water quality, which deteriorated during 1993–2000, began to improve in 2002. The air and water quality changes were closely related to pollutant emissions induced by anthropogenic activities. During 1982–2012, the vegetation in the southeastern and central regions presented restoration trends, whereas that in the northwestern area showed degradation trends. The pixels with obvious degradation trends correlated significantly with annual mean temperature and annual precipitation. Ecological engineering also played a positive role in vegetation restoration. This analysis can be beneficial to environment managers in the active response and adaptation to the possible effects of future climate change, population growth, and industrial development and can be used to ensure sustainable development and environmental safety. PMID:26828508

  17. Study of sedimentation zones in a large sand-bed braided river: an example from the Hanjiang River of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiongxin, Xu

    1997-12-01

    The concept of sedimentation zone is applied to the study of spatial and temporal variations of mid-channel bars in the middle Hanjiang River, a large sand-bed braided river in China. The river channel can be divided into alternating sedimentation zones and transport zones, the formation of which is basically controlled by local channel boundary conditions such as natural and artificial bank controls (bedrock outcrops, local hill spurs, terraces, artificial dikes and influence of tributaries). A systematic comparison between sedimentation and transport zones is made in this study, including the flow shear stress, stream power, mid-channel bar features and channel stability. The results obtained indicate that different channel boundary conditions in sedimentation and transport zones control channel width and width-depth ratio, which in turn control the reach's hydraulic and sediment transport characteristics. The storage and removal of sediment in sedimentation zones correspond to the increase and decrease of the degree to which mid-channel bars develop. When the sediment input of the channel system is altered by reservoir construction, the bed-load sediment historically accumulated is released by clear water scour, thus a macroscopic bed-load `wave' forms and moves gradually downstream. Associated with this is the complex response phenomenon of mid-channel bar evolution.

  18. A systematic review of socio-economic assessments in support of coastal zone management (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Le Gentil, Eric; Mongruel, Rmi

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between the social and natural sciences has become essential in order to encompass all the dimensions of coastal zone management. Socio-economic approaches are increasingly recommended to complement integrated assessment in support of these initiatives. A systematic review of the academic literature was carried out in order to analyze the main types of socio-economic assessments used to inform the coastal zone management process as well as their effectiveness. A corpus of 1682 articles published between 1992 and 2011 was identified by means of the representative coverage approach, from which 170 were selected by applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and then classified using a content analysis methodology. The percentage of articles that mention the use of socio-economic assessment in support of coastal zone management initiatives is increasing but remains relatively low. The review examines the links between the issues addressed by integrated assessments and the chosen analytical frameworks as well as the various economic assessment methods which are used in the successive steps of the coastal zone management process. The results show that i) analytical frameworks such as 'risk and vulnerability', 'DPSIR', 'valuation', 'ecosystem services' and 'preferences' are likely to lead to effective integration of social sciences in coastal zone management research while 'integration', 'sustainability' and 'participation' remain difficult to operationalize, ii) risk assessments are insufficiently implemented in developing countries, and iii) indicator systems in support of multi-criteria analyses could be used during more stages of the coastal zone management process. Finally, it is suggested that improved collaboration between science and management would require that scientists currently involved in coastal zone management processes further educate themselves in integrated assessment approaches and participatory methodologies. PMID:25463574

  19. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  20. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  1. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for Chinas Hunan Province

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in Chinas Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

  2. An Economic Analysis of the External Constraints on Reform of the Higher Education Admissions System in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of an economic analysis of the intertwined role of the educational opportunities market and the educational products market, I believe that the unified entrance exam system currently in effect in China has, in reality, assumed the role of maintaining a price ceiling for opportunities in higher education. If we abolish the…

  3. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. PMID:25662248

  4. A Businessman's Guide to the Economic Geography and International Trade of the People's Republic of China: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.; Madden, Gregory J., Comp.

    Intended to support undergraduate curricula in international business, this annotated listing cites English-language materials dealing mainly with international trade and the economic geography of China. Also included are materials dealing with demography, public health, historical geography, and the geography of cities. All materials included are…

  5. Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

  6. An Economic Analysis of the External Constraints on Reform of the Higher Education Admissions System in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of an economic analysis of the intertwined role of the educational opportunities market and the educational products market, I believe that the unified entrance exam system currently in effect in China has, in reality, assumed the role of maintaining a price ceiling for opportunities in higher education. If we abolish the

  7. Sowing and Reaping a Revolution: Economic Change and Growth in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeffrey R.

    This unit, intended for use with secondary students, presents background information on the Chinese economy. The subject warrants serious consideration because Sino-American trade has grown remarkable in the last decade and economic events occurring in China have the capacity to affect events in this country. The unit contains a six part narrative

  8. The Challenge of Teaching Human Resource Management in China: Enabling Effective Management Education in the Context of Economic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Shiquan; Wood, Elliot; Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of management education in the context of the continuing economic reforms occurring in the People's Republic of China, particularly its importance for state-owned and foreign-invested enterprises. Uses a multiple perspectives model to draw some conclusions for management teaching priorities. (EV)

  9. Sonograph mosaic of northern California and southern Oregon Exclusive Economic Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Clarke, S.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1985-02-01

    During June 15 to July 9, 1984, the third leg of the cooperative US Geological Survey-Institute of Oceanographic Sciences GLORIA survey of the conterminous US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) collected digital acoustic data off northern California and southern Oregon. The region covered during leg 3 extends from the 200-m isobath westward to the 375-km (200-nmi) EEZ boundary and from about 39/sup 0/ to 43/sup 0/N. The survey used the IOS GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar, a 2-channel airgun seismic reflection system, and 3.5 kHz and 10 kHz high-resolution seismic systems. The GLORIA data were collected in a pattern that permitted overlapping coverage so that a mosaic of the sonographs could be constructed. These sonographs were slant-range and anamorphically corrected aboard ship, and a mosaic was constructed at a scale of 1:375,000. Among the most striking geomorphic features revealed in this segment of the EEZ is the Mendocino transform fault, which extends for more than 120 nmi along the northern base of the Mendocino fracture zone and delineates the southern boundary of the Gorda plate. Other features clearly revealed are the complex geometry of the Gorda rift valley, and the subparallel flanking ridges and dramatically deformed base of the continental slope at the eastern boundary of the Gorda plate. The data are presently being processed by image analytical techniques to enhance the fine-scale features such as sediment waves, slumps, and areas of differing sedimentary facies.

  10. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  11. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 C and surface waters at 31.9 C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ?15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  12. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.21(e)(3)(vi)(B) and Sec. 679.21(e... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and ``Other Flatfish'' by Vessels Participating in the... ``other flatfish'' by vessels participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering...

  13. 77 FR 46641 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Flatfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In... groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). The harvest specification for the 2012 ITAC included... Economic Zone Off Alaska; ``Other Flatfish'' in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  14. 75 FR 42337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors...). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific...

  15. 76 FR 39790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...). This action is necessary ] to prevent exceeding the 2011 directed fishing allowance of Pacific...

  16. 75 FR 69598 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80...

  17. 75 FR 69599 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80...

  18. 76 FR 43934 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors...). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific...

  19. 76 FR 39792 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch, Northern Rockfish, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch, Northern Rockfish, and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish in the Western...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch, northern rockfish, and... exceeding the ] 2011 sideboard limits of Pacific ocean perch, northern rockfish, and pelagic shelf...

  20. 76 FR 45709 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat District of the... for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the...

  1. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and... Pacific ocean perch specified for the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  2. 76 FR 39791 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  3. 76 FR 39793 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish for Catcher... northern rockfish, Pacific ocean perch, and pelagic shelf rockfish for catcher vessels participating in the... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of northern rockfish, Pacific...

  4. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  5. 75 FR 43090 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Yakutat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by... appear at subpart H of 50 CFR part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 Pacific ocean perch sideboard...

  6. 75 FR 69361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). The harvest specification for the 2010 Pacific ocean... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In...

  7. 75 FR 38936 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 directed fishing allowance of Pacific...

  8. 75 FR 38938 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and Pelagic Shelf Rockfish for Catcher... northern rockfish, Pacific ocean perch, and pelagic shelf rockfish for catcher vessels participating in the... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of northern rockfish, Pacific...

  9. 75 FR 73981 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory...

  10. 78 FR 27863 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... established by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory...

  11. 77 FR 75399 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Big Skate in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of big skate in the Central Regulatory...

  12. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... final rule implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (Program) was published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR... fishery would be caused in the time it would take to follow standard rulemaking procedures (62 FR 44421... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency...

  13. 75 FR 56483 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Crab and Halibut Prohibited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March... the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) are revised as follows in Tables 8a, 8c, and 8d: Table 8a... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Crab and Halibut Prohibited Species Catch Allowances in...

  14. 76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources.... SUMMARY: The Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. Amendment 30 would amend...

  15. 77 FR 67580 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ....20(d)(1)(iii) on June 29, 2012 (77 FR 39183, July 2, 2012). As of November 5, 2012, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf...

  16. 77 FR 39183 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...

  17. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... INFORMATION: An interim final rule was published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77535... regulatory tables was published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010 (75 FR 53272). The public... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  18. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... GOA (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  19. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... GOA (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and apportionment of non-specified reserves (76 FR 53840, August 30... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  20. 76 FR 24404 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... pot gear in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March 8, 2011 (76 FR 13098, March 10, 2011). NMFS... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or...

  1. 77 FR 20571 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Western Regulatory... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using hook-and-line gear in the...

  2. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea...

  3. 77 FR 65640 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ....20(d)(1)(iii) on October 12, 2012 (77 FR 62464, October 15, 2012). As of October 23, 2012, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf...

  4. 77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i) and (d)(1)(ii)(B), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl...

  5. 75 FR 71045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; prohibition of retention. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod by...

  6. 78 FR 53369 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on February 7, 2013 (78 FR 9328... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or...

  7. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  8. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713, December 29, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  9. 76 FR 66196 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific...

  10. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  11. 75 FR 8841 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non-...

  12. 78 FR 11790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267, January 3, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area...

  13. 77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl...

  14. 77 FR 21683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central...

  15. 76 FR 4551 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 469, January 5, 2011). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non-...

  16. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Western...

  17. 75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  18. 75 FR 3875 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713, December 29, 2009... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non-...

  19. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  20. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by American Fisheries Act (AFA) trawl...

  1. 78 FR 25004 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Western Regulatory... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using hook-and-line gear in the...

  2. 78 FR 18528 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area...

  3. 77 FR 55735 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... February 17, 2012 (77 FR 10400, February 22, 2012). NMFS has determined that as of September 5, 2012... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or...

  4. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  5. 78 FR 13812 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catch Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ...)(iii) on February 14, 2013 (78 FR 11790, February 20, 2013). As of February 25, 2013, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catch Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory...

  6. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... specifications for Pacific cod included in the final harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR... FR 11778, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., June 10, 2010, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  7. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713, December 29, 2009... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non-...

  8. 76 FR 3045 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... FR 11749, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 469, January 5, 2011). In accordance with... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non-...

  9. 75 FR 69597 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod in the Bering...

  10. 75 FR 8839 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  11. 75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  12. 76 FR 5718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 469, January 5, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  13. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012) and inseason adjustment (78 FR 270, January 3, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  14. 77 FR 72243 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). The Regional Administrator has determined that catcher vessels... groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012) and inseason adjustment (77 FR 53152, August 31, 2012... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  15. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific...

  16. 77 FR 19147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... February 29, 2012 (77 FR 13013, March 5, 2012). As of March 21, 2012, NMFS has determined that... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  17. 76 FR 9693 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 469, January 5, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the...

  18. 77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Program. Regulations implementing these amendments were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are... blue king crab, and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab. The North Region is north of 54 20' N... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery...

  19. 76 FR 10779 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...)(1)(iii) on January 23, 2011 (76 FR 4082, January 24, 2011). ] As of February 16, 2011, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF...

  20. 77 FR 69796 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (77 FR 23326). Implementation of the restructured Observer... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC309 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off... Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Electronic copies of the...

  1. 75 FR 9534 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Statistical Area 630 of the GOA under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on February 5, 2010 (75 FR 6589 February 10, 2010... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine..., Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Josh Keaton,...

  2. 76 FR 70972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... implementation of Amendment 80 to the FMP on September 14, 2007 (72 FR 52668), halibut mortality limits were... was conducted by members of the Amendment 80 sector under EFP 09-02 (74 FR 12113, March 23, 2009... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA642 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone...

  3. 77 FR 9588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...) on January 23, 2012 (77 FR 3638, January 25, 2012). As of February 10, 2012, NMFS has determined that... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only....

  4. 76 FR 45219 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... final rule to implement Amendment 80 on September 14, 2007 (72 FR 52668), and fishing began under the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access Privilege Program... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file (pdf) formats only....

  5. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part 680. Regulations implementing the... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications (75 FR 76352, December 8, 2010), NMFS will publish the final... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  6. 76 FR 17570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March 5, 2011 (76 FR 12883, March 9, 2011). As of March 23, 2011, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National... anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect,...

  7. 77 FR 64917 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... (77 FR 64240, October 19, 2012). As of October 17, 2012, NMFS has determined that approximately 1,500... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 610 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER...

  8. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... under Sec. 679.2(d)(1)(iii) on June 11, 2013 (78 FR 35771, June 14, 2013). As of July 8, 2013, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  9. 76 FR 39792 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file (pdf) file formats only. FOR...

  10. 77 FR 48916 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  11. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... fishery in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea on September 1, 2010 (75 FR 53606... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel,...

  12. 75 FR 16021 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March 23, 2010 (75 FR 14498, March 26, 2010). As of March 25, 2010, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National... anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect,...

  13. 75 FR 8547 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009) the HLA limits of the A... dates of the first and second directed fisheries within the HLA in areas 542 and 543 (75 FR 3873... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  14. 77 FR 32037 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012), NMFS closed the directed fishery for... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or...

  15. 76 FR 55606 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... FR 53658, August 29, 2011). As of September 1, 2011, NMFS has determined that approximately 6,300... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 630 in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe portable document file (pdf) formats only. FOR...

  16. 78 FR 76245 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  17. 76 FR 71269 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The harvest specification for the 2011 Greenland turbot... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  18. 78 FR 54591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on May 1, 2013 (78 FR 24361, April 25, 2013). NMFS has determined that as... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  19. 75 FR 38940 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  20. 75 FR 38430 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). In... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). The harvest specification for the 2010... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and...

  1. 75 FR 6588 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock for American Fisheries Act Catcher Vessels in the Inshore Open Access... catcher vessels participating in the inshore open access fishery in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering... season allowance of the 2010 pollock total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to the inshore open...

  2. 76 FR 77757 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... amendment was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 72384) on November 23, 2011, with written comments on... 2012 harvest specifications for the GOA groundfish fisheries (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). Pollock is... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska Pollock...

  3. 75 FR 49422 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XY14 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine...

  4. 75 FR 3180 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XT86 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel Lottery in Areas 542 and 543 AGENCY: National Marine...

  5. 76 FR 20891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... April 4, 2011 (76 FR 18663, April 5, 2011). As of April 6, 2011, NMFS has determined that approximately... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  6. 78 FR 24707 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska: Fixed-Gear Commercial Halibut and Sablefish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Management Council (Council) in 1992 and implementing rules were published by NMFS on November 9, 1993 (58 FR... Economic Zone off Alaska: Fixed-Gear Commercial Halibut and Sablefish Fisheries; Limitations on Use of... Program (IFQ Program) for the fixed-gear commercial Pacific halibut and sablefish fisheries in the...

  7. 78 FR 23864 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-line Gear in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the...

  8. 75 FR 7976 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... by the final 2009 and 2010 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher-Processors Using Trawl Gear in...

  9. 75 FR 1723 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels Using Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine... action is necessary to allow vessels using trawl gear to participate in directed fishing for groundfish... vessels using trawl gear from August 1 to a date no later than September 20 under regulations at Sec....

  10. 75 FR 12463 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  11. 76 FR 18663 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  12. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  13. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...

  14. 78 FR 54592 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using trawl gear in the Central...

  15. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 81875, December 29, 2011). ] In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in...

  16. 76 FR 22057 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... April 14, 2011 (76 FR 20891). As of April 13, 2011, NMFS has determined that approximately 2,000 metric... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  17. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  18. 77 FR 19564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  19. 77 FR 3638 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 81875, December 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and...

  20. 78 FR 4346 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267, January 3, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory...

  1. 77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... tons (mt) by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY:...

  2. 76 FR 3044 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins, Sharks, Squid, and Octopus in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for sculpins, sharks, squid,...

  3. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). The... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) are revised as follows: 4,000 mt to the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

  4. 76 FR 13098 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using... less than 60 feet (18.3 m) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea...

  5. 78 FR 5144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012) and inseason adjustment (78 FR 270, January 3, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3...

  6. 75 FR 5251 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3...

  7. 76 FR 4081 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 467, January 5, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3...

  8. 78 FR 9328 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012), inseason adjustment (78 FR 270, January 3, 2013), and one reallocation from the jig vessel... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length...

  9. 78 FR 17884 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 50 Feet (15.2 Meters... vessels (CVs) greater than or equal to 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in length overall (LOA) using...

  10. 75 FR 70614 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 60 Feet (18.3 Meters... vessels greater than or equal to 60 feet (18.3 meters (m)) length overall (LOA) in the Bering Sea...

  11. 75 FR 15626 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specification for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 feet (18.3 m) Length Overall Using... less than 60 feet (18.3 m) length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea...

  12. 78 FR 17885 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall... (CVs) less than 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line gear in...

  13. 77 FR 10400 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 81875, December 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 60 Feet (18.3 Meters) Length...

  14. 77 FR 3157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... established by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 81875, December 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal To 60 Feet (18.3...

  15. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and an apportionment from the non-specified reserve of groundfish (76 FR 17360, March 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...

  16. 76 FR 76902 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins in the Bering Sea Subarea of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(a)(3) the... the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sculpins in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  17. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY... specified for the trawl shallow-water species fishery in the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local... FR 55726, September 7, 2011). As of September 12, 2011, NMFS has determined that approximately...

  18. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY... trawl shallow-water species fishery in of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t... 679. NMFS prohibited directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the...

  19. Technical and economic assessment on coal-fired power generation FGD in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yongqi; Hao Jiming

    1997-12-31

    Serious pollution of SO{sub 2} and acid deposition have emerged in China in the latest decade due to the stagnant growth of coal use. As a large consumer of energy, thermal power generation takes up about 30% of the total coal consumption and will remain an increasing demand for coal over a long period. In the paper, the pollution status, trend and a series of related policy measures made by the government were presented to give the great significance to the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from power generation. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is widely adopted over the world to control SO{sub 2} emissions. In China, the research and development of power plant FGD technology were initiated in the mid 70`s. Especially since the 7th and 8th Five-Year plan, more efforts have been made on FGD development and introduction. The authors carried out a systematic review on the FGD technical status in China, placing an emphasis on the processes pilot tested, demonstrated, introduced and applied, such as limestone(lime)-gypsum process, lime spray drying, phosphate ammoniate compound fertilizer process, simplified wet limestone process, furnace calcium injection/post-furnace humidification and simplified combined dust/SO{sub 2} removal. The test and operation were described in details and the main technical indices were listed for the various processes. Following the technical assessment, the authors set up a methodology to gave a comparable economic evaluation on the FGD processes. Based on the methodology, unified setting of economic parameters such as discount, inflation and price of materials, the estimation was made for the FGD capital, operation cost and levelized cost. In addition, the sensitivity of main parameters such as generation installing capacity and sulfur content of coal was analyzed on the cost of SO{sub 2} removal. The results showed that the rise of power generation cost would be 0.02-0.03 Yuan/kWh and 0.01-0.02 Yuan/kWh for wet and dry FGD installations, respectively, depending on the specific process used. In view of the relatively small effect of FGD on the power generation cost, the authors thought that the FGD cost could be incorporated into power price with only a small impact on the people`s living.

  20. Interventions to Reduce Drug Abuse in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone

    PubMed Central

    Damari, Behzad; Ahmadi Pishkuhi, Mahin; Masoudiasl, Irvan; Bostanmanesh, Golamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Pars special economic energy zone is the world's second largest gas reservoir that was established two decades ago. High incidence of social harms is observed in this region due to various problems such as drug addiction which is of high prevalence. Objectives: The current study aimed at finding the strategies to prevent drug abuse and formulating policies in the region. Materials and Methods: The research method was a combination of nested type (qualitative-quantitative) and analysis of participated stakeholders’ views. The study was conducted from January 2014 to May 2015 in Bushehr province. Intentional sampling was used in qualitative section. Collected data were classified in 3 areas: recognition, directions, and implementation requirements. Results: Different factors were identified affecting the prevalence of drug addiction. Various prevention and treatment interventions have been conducted in response to drug abuse in the region, though they have been often sectional, insular, inconsistent, and immeasurable in terms of impact. After the study, a combination of compulsory, facilitative, and promotional interventions was proposed to reduce drug abuse by 10% within a strategic 5-year plan. These interventions are based on 3 aspects: people, industry, and governance, which have been announced and approved based on a memorandum of understanding. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement simultaneous national interventions as soon as possible to improve the economic, social, political, technological, international, and environmental conditions. In the current study, unlike the previous attempts, national stakeholders, including ministry of petroleum, ministry of health and medical education, interior ministry, ministry of cooperatives, labor, and social welfare, and Iran drug control headquarters have played active roles. This fact is evident in their formulation of a policy document in the region and action plan after reaching a memorandum of understanding. PMID:26734486

  1. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies. PMID:25023655

  2. Benthos and demersal fish habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Hermann; Reiss, Henning; Ehrich, Siegfried; Sell, Anne; Panten, Kay; Kloppmann, Matthias; Wilhelms, Ingo; Krncke, Ingrid

    2013-09-01

    We compiled data from different monitoring surveys to analyse and compare community and diversity patterns of fish, epi- and infauna in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea in order to identify benthic habitats common to all faunal components. We found congruent community patterns of fish, epi- and infauna for the coastal waters, the Oysterground and the area called "Duck's Bill", which coincided with specific abiotic characteristics of these regions. The three regions were defined as special habitats for fish, epi- and infauna species in the German EEZ. The differences in the seasonal variability of abiotic factors seem to be the most important discriminating abiotic characteristic for the three habitats. The spatial distribution of fish, epifauna and infauna communities remained stable over time although habitat characteristics such as sea surface temperature increased due to climate change. However, it is expected that the coastal habitat will be more sensitive to future climate change effects in contrast to the Oysterground and Duck's Bill habitat.

  3. GLORIA II Sonograph Mosaic of the Western U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacchione, D. A.; Drake, D. E.; Edwards, B.; Field, M.; Gardner, J.; Hampton, M.; Karl, H.; McCulloch, D.; Kenyon, N.; Masson, D.

    In 1983 the United States declared sovereign rights and jurisdiction over living and nonliving resources in an area extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) seaward from its shores. In response to the establishment of this Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented a program, called EEZ-Scan, to systematically map the EEZ, using the Geological Long- Range Inclined ASDIC (GLORIA) II longrange side scan sonar system developed by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) of Great Britain [Somers et al, 1978]. The first part of the EEZ-Scan field program was completed in the summer of 1984, when USGS and IOS scientists surveyed the EEZ off the western conterminous United States aboard the British research vessel Farnella (Figure 1). The west coast survey, requiring 96 days of ship time and four separate legs, has resulted in virtually total sonograph coverage of the sea floor from the continental shelf break to the 200-nautical mile limit between the Mexican and Canadian borders, an area of about 850,000 km2 . Other data collected on the cruises included two-channel digital seismic reflection and 3.5-kHz highresolution and 10-kHz bathymetric profiles, as well as towed magnetometer data along approximately 20,000 km of trackline spaced nominally at 30-km intervals.

  4. Morphology of the Andaman outer shelf and upper slope of the Thai exclusive economic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jintasaeranee, Pachoenchoke; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Klaucke, Ingo; Snidvongs, Anond; Flueh, Ernst R.

    2012-03-01

    Following the devastating 2004 tsunami that hit the southwestern coast of Thailand, the need for detailed bathymetric data of the Andaman Sea outer shelf became evident in order to better predict tsunami wave propagation and coastal impact. Bathymetric data and subbottom profiler records covering the outer shelf and upper slope of the Thai exclusive economic zone (EEZ) were collected onboard Thai RV Chakratong Tongyai in 2006 and 2007. The data cover an area of approximately 3000 km2 between 500 and 1600 m water depth. The soundings allowed generating a final bathymetric grid with 50 m grid cell spacing. The outer shelf is rather smooth and slightly inclined southward, while the upper slope is strongly dissected by gullies. Several previously unknown features are identified including mud-domes, pockmarks, three large plateaus surrounded by moats, gas-charged sediment on subbottom profiler records, and only few indications for small submarine landslides on the upper slope. The largest of these possibly translational submarine landslides involved 2.2 107 m3 of sediment. This slide would have generated a tsunami wave of less than 0.12 m wave height. Considering the entire data, there is no evidence that landslides have been the source of tsunami waves in recent geological time.

  5. Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy. PMID:12288639

  6. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. PMID:26895881

  7. Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is very complex. This paper focus on the development of a methodology to target the ESZ based on currently available tools (Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrologic Model). According to the features of the TGRR, a spatially explicit and process-based method was introduced to help plan the placement of the ESZ in the TGRR for water quality benefits. The methods presented here were based on the integration of grid-based terrain analysis and nonpoint source pollution estimates. Firstly, the contribution of nonpoint source pollution from upslope farmland and urban to the TGRR was determined by grid-based terrain analysis. The upslope contributing area beyond the ESZ was defined as a "source". The SWAT model was used to analyze the characteristics of the pollution load. Secondly, the ESZ was defined as a "sink" and the reducing pollution loads in each grid cell of the ESZ was calculated by the REMM model. Finally, the key areas in the TGRA where the ESZ have the greatest potential to improve water quality were identified and the formula of the width of the ESZ was determined. However, the method in this article considers only the function of pollutants reduction in the ESZ, the next stage of the study will involve detailed modeling for the function of ecological corridor in the ESZ.

  8. Economic Impact of Maternal Death on Households in Rural China: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Huntington, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. Methods A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (13 months after maternal death or childbirth) and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID), linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. Findings The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported household economy became worse during the follow-up period (adjusted OR?=?6.04, p<0.001). During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001). Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p?=?0.024). Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p?=?0.037), clothes and commodity (p?=?0.003), traffic and communication (p?=?0.022) and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p?=?0.014). Conclusion Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported household economy became worse, decreased income and expenditure, increased debts and changed expenditure pattern. PMID:24204648

  9. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  10. The Kyonggi Shear Zone of the Central Korean Peninsula: Late Orogenic Imprint of the North and South China Collision.

    PubMed

    Kim; Ree; Kwon; Park; Choi; Cheong

    2000-07-01

    The crustal-scale Kyonggi shear zone of central Korea has been identified as a major boundary between the Precambrian Kyonggi massif in the south and the Imjingang belt in the north. The latter is an eastward extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collisional belt of China. Field observations and microstructural analysis indicate that the extensional shear zone evolved from a deep crustal ductile regime to a shallow crustal brittle regime, associated with a rapid uplift of the Kyonggi massif following the Late Permian-Early Triassic collision between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. A Rb-Sr muscovite age (226+/-1.2 Ma) of the mylonite suggests that the extensional ductile shearing occurred during the Late Triassic. PMID:10856015

  11. Policies, economic incentives and the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2015-07-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting modern irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in the country. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of governmental support and economic incentives on the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China, with a focus on household-based irrigation technology and community-based irrigation technology. Based on a unique data set collected at household and village levels from seven provinces, the results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption in crop sown areas was not high, even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analysis results revealed that governmental support instruments like subsidies and extension services policies have played an important role in promoting the adoption of modern irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played a significant but contradictory role in promoting the adoption of different types of modern irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to the substitution effect that is, the higher rate of adoption of household-based irrigation technology leads to lower incentives for investment in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  12. The impacts of lower population growth on the quality of life and economic development: China's experience.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Zhang, L

    1994-02-01

    China's population in 1993 was 1.18 billion, which makes it the most populous nation in the world. The Chinese population policy aims to control growth and improve the quality of human resources. Most Chinese recognize the need for family planning. Replacement level fertility has been achieved, because there are limited resources to support a large population. Scarce resources are limiting economic development. There has been a loss of arable land, and the dream of 2 hectares of land, a cow, a wife and children, and a comfortable bed are not attainable. Water resources are also limited, the ratio of water to arable land is unevenly balanced, and there is overdrawing of groundwater. Energy shortages, environmental pollution, and pressure on employment are other effects of population pressure. The surplus labor force is about 150-190 million farmering laborers. Labor productivity has declined due to excess labor. Projections are that 20-25% of employees are surplus, and unemployed in urban areas will total 10 million. Without a strong family planning program, there will be a rural labor surplus of 200-360 million people by the year 2000. One benefit of lower population growth is the savings in child-rearing expenses. Estimated births averted between 1971 and 1992 was about 250 million, which translates to a savings of $500 billion. About 66% of this sum would be recovered in the same period and 33% would be recovered between 1993-2007. Government and nongovernmental spending on family planning totaled an estimated $10 billion between 1971-92. The ratio of input to output for averted births is 1 to 17. Total spending would have been RMB 2500 billion yuan for child rearing of averted births between 1971-92 and RMB 1828 billion yuan between 1991-2005. The saved money could be invested in economic development. An estimated 10% of national income could be saved. Another benefit from low population growth is the increased consumption evident between 1971-90. There has not been any significant change in the employment pattern in China. Women have benefitted from smaller families and greater involvement in the work force. 689 poor counties were identified as needing assistance, which resulted in increased incomes. PMID:12318709

  13. GLORIA mosaic of west coast U. S. Exclusive Economic Zone, southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range side-scan sonar system GLORIA was used to produce digitally enhanced mosaics of the sea floor of the entire US Exclusive Economic Zone. The data resolution, about 50 x 50 m, provides a mesoscale reconnaissance that reveals the continuity and extent of bottom features, some of which were previously unrecognized. The transform continental margin from the Mendocino Escarpment to the US-Mexican border is cut by numerous submarine canyons and gullies of varied size and complexity. The number, size, and extent of gullies appear directly related to the underlying bed-rock geology. Surprisingly, relatively few slumps and slump scarps are apparent. Submarine fans characterize the basins adjacent to the margin in this sector. The fans vary in size and complexity: relatively small, immature fans of the borderland basins, such as Redondo and Hueneme; fans intermediate in size and age, such as Arguello and Farallon; and large, relatively mature fans, such as Monterey and Delgada. Most fans have well-defined depositional lobes at the distal reach of a single channel. Distributary channels are not apparent on all fans, and on some (e.g., Monterey Fan), the single channel can be seen in seismic reflection profiles to have originated on or close to the basement, directly below its present position. The older depositional lobes that have been identified on the fan systems are adjacent to the present main channel, which implies that channel avulsion is not always a process that accompanies fan growth. Seamounts are prominent features in the region, ranging in number from hundreds in the Baja Seamount province to tens in the region west of San Francisco. The gradient of increasing numbers of exposed seamounts and volcanic ridges from north to south is a direct result of decreasing sediment supply from the continent to the south.

  14. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2. PMID:16784172

  15. Optimization of geometry, material and economic parameters of a two-zone subcritical reactor for transmutation of nuclear waste with SERPENT Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-06-01

    An optimization study of a subcritical two-zone homogeneous reactor was carried out, taking into consideration geometry, material, and economic parameters. The advantage of a two-zone subcritical system over a single-zone system is demonstrated. The study investigated the optimal volume ratio for the inner and outer zones of the subcritical reactor, in terms of the neutron-physical parameters as well as fuel cost. Optimal geometrical parameters of the system are suggested for different material compositions.

  16. Economic Performance and Sustainability of a Novel Intercropping System on the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Heerink, Nico; Stomph, TjeerdJan; Li, Baoshen; Liu, Ruili; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; van der Werf, Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop into the system. We examine the economic performance and sustainability of this novel intercropping system using crop yield data from 2010 to 2012 and farm household survey data collected in 2012. Our results show that the gross margin of the intercropping system exceeded that of the double cropping system by more than 50% in 2012. Labor use in the intercropping system was more than three times that in double cropping. The lower returns per labor hour in intercropping, however, exceeded the average off-farm wage in the region by a significant margin. Nutrient surpluses and irrigation water use are significant larger under the intercropping system. We conclude that the novel wheat-maize/watermelon intercropping system contributes to rural poverty alleviation and household-level food security, by raising farm incomes and generating more employment, but needs further improvement to enhance its sustainability. PMID:26275297

  17. Economic Performance and Sustainability of a Novel Intercropping System on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Heerink, Nico; Stomph, TjeerdJan; Li, Baoshen; Liu, Ruili; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; van der Werf, Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop into the system. We examine the economic performance and sustainability of this novel intercropping system using crop yield data from 2010 to 2012 and farm household survey data collected in 2012. Our results show that the gross margin of the intercropping system exceeded that of the double cropping system by more than 50% in 2012. Labor use in the intercropping system was more than three times that in double cropping. The lower returns per labor hour in intercropping, however, exceeded the average off-farm wage in the region by a significant margin. Nutrient surpluses and irrigation water use are significant larger under the intercropping system. We conclude that the novel wheat-maize/watermelon intercropping system contributes to rural poverty alleviation and household-level food security, by raising farm incomes and generating more employment, but needs further improvement to enhance its sustainability. PMID:26275297

  18. Health and economic impacts of air pollution in China: a comparison of the general equilibrium approach and human capital approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hong-Wei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-12-01

    In China, combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has produced serious air pollution that does harm to human health. Based on dose-response relationships derived from epidemiological studies, the authors calculated the number of deaths and people with health problems which were thought to be attributable to China's air pollution in the year of 2000. In order to estimate the corresponding economic impacts from the national point of view, the general equilibrium approach was selected as an analysis tool for this study. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was constructed involving 39 sectors and 32 commodities. The human capital approach (HCA) was also used for comparison. The economic burden of disease for people estimated by HCA was equivalent to 1.26 per thousand (ranging from 0.44 per thousand to 1.84 per thousand) of China's gross domestic product (GDP). China's GDP loss estimated by the general equilibrium approach reached 0.38 per thousand (ranging from 0.16 per thousand to 0.51 per thousand). The difference between the two approaches and the implications of the results were discussed. PMID:16544525

  19. JOINT WORLD BANK INSTITUTE/EPA CHINA WORKSHOP ON ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE - E&C ROLES IN DEALING WITH CURRENT AND PROJECTED MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN CHINA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Bank Institute (WBI) provides funding for economic development in China. Modules of this funding are specifically dedicated for environmental protection projects. One of these modules is the development of compliance and enforcement. This is broken down into identifi...

  20. Economic impact study of regulations for activities within setback zones and regulated recharge areas (R89-5). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.; Scott, R.; Garbade, J.

    1991-04-01

    Spills and leaks near potable water wells have caused the contamination of groundwater, resulting in detrimental environmental and human health impacts. Conforming with the Illinois Groundwater Protection Act, regulations were offered prescribing standards for certain activities within setback zones and regulated recharge areas, including on-site landfills, land treatment units, surface impoundments, waste piles, underground storage tanks; and facilities for the storage and handling of pesticides, fertilizers, road oils, and de-icing agents. The economic impact study was developed to identify, quantify and evaluate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of the proposed regulations. Estimated costs for existing facilities are $36.3 million for those in minimum setback zones, between $8.4 and $43.3 million in potential maximum setback zones, and between $13.3 and $66 million in potential regulated recharge areas. For surface impoundments, agrichemical and on-site landfill facilities in minimum setback zones, the quantified benefits were estimated at between $2.3 and $4.0 million, while compliance costs would total about $30.0 million. Estimates do not include qualitative benefits such as avoided instances of environmental degradation, land value losses, diminished aesthetic value, or long-term neurological and reproductive effects. The report discussed the importance of such benefits, but quantified values could not be estimated.

  1. Evaluation of indirect loss from hypothetical catastrophes in two regions with different economic development levels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Liu, X.-Q.

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates and compares the indirect economic loss (IEL) resulting from two hypothetical catastrophes occurring in China - in developed Shanghai and in less-developed Sichuan - to provide new measures of disaster reduction. IEL was divided into indirect economic loss due to the disruption of production process (IEL I) and indirect economic loss induced by the disturbance of industrial lines (IEL II). An input-output model was used to assess these two types of IEL. The study showed that (1) developed regions may be more vulnerable with respect to IEL; (2) IEL II is the primary factor contributing to total IEL; (3) decision makers need to focus on IEL II beside IEL I which is usually the main disaster-reduction target after a disaster; and (4) tradeoff between economic growth and disaster prevention is needed to achieve regional sustainable development.

  2. A speculative analysis of socio-economic influences on the fertility transition in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C

    1991-09-01

    A broad range of causes related to institutional and socioeconomic development are examined in terms of their influence on fertility transition in China. The question is raised as to whether a uniform government population policy sufficiently accounts for the urban and rural differences in fertility and declines which preceded policy. Significant changes which may be determinants of fertility decline are discussed as: the 1) the emancipation of women, 2) the socialization of agriculture and industry, 3) social security and other welfare benefits, 4) public health care, 5) the expansion of education, 6) changes in female labor force participation, 5) the rise in urban residence, and 8) the "sending down" campaigns. As a result of these changes, people have become aware of choices and aspire to nontraditional life styles. These socioeconomic changes have been gradual and strenuous, and have given women a new decision-making power in forming their families. A new relationship exists between the individual and society. Children as a course of labor in family enterprises is no longer possible with the elimination of the private sector. Economic uncertainties have been minimized since 1949 so that children are no longer valued as risk aversion. A minimum income is guaranteed. Savings and institutionalized pension and insurance programs have brought security to many Chinese families, and children are no longer crucial to the support of parents in the traditional Chinese family. These changes removed the impetus for high fertility. The feudal marriage system no longer constrains women; educational levels are rising. Changes in rural areas occur rapidly with advances in electrification and road construction. There are alternatives to childbearing. It is the interaction of these dynamic factors and the accumulative process that provided the context for reproductive change, and hence fertility decline. The 1970s was a period of both intense family planning and socioeconomic development, and reflects not only the transition of society in the 1970s but also the cumulative changes of the 1950s and 60s. It is concluded that family has been influential, but direct and indirect socioeconomic changes are also determinants of fertility decline. There is no Western counterpart. The socioeconomic forces are not unique to China. PMID:12284857

  3. An Analytical Solution of Groundwater Evapotranspiration in Arid Riparian Zone: A Case Study for the Tarim River in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Z.; Dang, Q.; Wang, L.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET) constitutes a major component of the water balance in arid riparian zone. Most of groundwater ET studies depend on numerical models but it is not easy to discuss the controling factors of groundwater ET in riparian zone. A two-dimension conceptal framework was set up to understand the groundwater ET in arid riparian zone. We deduced an analytical solution and its simplification of riparian ET based on a negative exponential relation between groundwater ET and groundwater depth. The groundwaer ET is controlled by soil type (soil hydraulic condontivity and parameter in the negative exponential relation), aquifer thickness, potential ET and river water table. Three soil types (sand, sandy loam and loam) with different soil texture were selected to discuss the riparian ET and it was found that the riaprian ET is similar for different soil type. The framework and analytical solution are applied in Tarim River in China where a river restoration project had been put into practice. The discussions are helpful to design water supply pattern of river restoration.

  4. Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

  5. Horizontal oil and gas wells prove value in bringing economic sense to tough zones

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    From the Northeast to the Pacific Coast, horizontal wells make previously uneconomic pay zones look like oilpatch winners. The horizontal revolution has passed, and the nation`s oil and gas industry is moving into a refinement of the technology.

  6. China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    China has the longest continuous civilization in the world--about 4000 years. Another reason to study China is its sheer size in both area and population. This text gives students the opportunity to explore those aspects of Chinese life which have changed in recent years. The extensive history and religion sections allow these changes to be seen

  7. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  8. An economic evaluation of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China from 1992 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ming-Gang; Wang, Tian-Ping; Guo, Jia-Gang; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Qing-Wu; Zheng, Jiang; Chen, Xian-Yi

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project, by far the largest effort in China for schistosomiasis control since control activities were initiated in the mid 1950s, was carried out for a 9-year period commencing in 1992 in the 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remained endemic when the project started. To evaluate its impact, a retrospective economic evaluation was done in 2001. Six representative counties, i.e. Huarong in Hunan province, Qianjiang in Hubei province, Yugan in Jiangxi province, Tongling in Anhui province, Xichang in Sichuan province and Dali in Yunnan province, were selected for the study. The total financial input in these counties from 1992 to 2000 was RMB Yuan 90.334 million with the World Bank loan accounting for 40.9%. Control efforts resulted in reduction of human prevalence rates in the six counties from 0.7-9.0% in 1992 to 0.1-2.7% in 2000. With regard to S. japonicum infection in bovines, a high reduction was observed in Qianjiang, and smaller decreases were noted in four counties, while there was an increase in Dali. In general, the areas infested by the intermediate host snail fluctuated around the initial level. The net benefit-cost ratio was 6.20, which means that this project gained US$ 6.20 for every dollar spent. The correlation coefficients of the net benefit-cost ratio to the human and bovine infection rates at the beginning of the project were 0.55 and 0.66, respectively. It is conceivable that further progress in schistosomiasis control is an important feature for sustained growth of the local economy, particularly in areas where control of the disease has been most challenging. PMID:16154104

  9. Niche partitioning of marine group I Crenarchaeota in the euphotic and upper mesopelagic zones of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anyi; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Zao

    2011-11-01

    Marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGI) represents a ubiquitous and numerically predominant microbial population in marine environments. An understanding of the spatial dynamics of MGI and its controlling mechanisms is essential for an understanding of the role of MGI in energy and element cycling in the ocean. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of MGI in the East China Sea (ECS) by analysis of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, and the biotin carboxylase gene accA. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that these genes were higher in abundance in the mesopelagic than in the euphotic zone. In addition, the crenarchaeal amoA gene was positively correlated with the copy number of the MGI 16S rRNA gene, suggesting that most of the MGI in the ECS are nitrifiers. Furthermore, the ratios of crenarchaeal accA to amoA or to MGI 16S rRNA genes increased from the euphotic to the mesopelagic zone, suggesting that the role of MGI in carbon cycling may change from the epipelagic to the mesopelagic zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic profiling of the 16S rRNA genes revealed depth partitioning in MGI community structures. Clone libraries of the crenarchaeal amoA and accA genes showed both "shallow" and "deep" groups, and their relative abundances varied in the water column. Ecotype simulation analysis revealed that MGI in the upper ocean could diverge into special ecotypes associated with depth to adapt to the light gradient across the water column. Overall, our results showed niche partitioning of the MGI population and suggested a shift in their ecological functions between the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the ECS. PMID:21873485

  10. Sedimentary loadings and ecological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a typical mariculture zone of South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wong, Charles S; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-10-26

    Two sediment cores were collected from Hailing Bay located in a typical mariculture zone of Guangdong Province, South China, and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of the sum of 27 PAHs ranged from 62 to 1200 ng g(-1) dry wt, and sediment in the study area was considered to be moderately polluted by PAHs. Source diagnostics based on PAH composition and principal component analysis suggested that PAHs in the study area were mainly derived from petroleum combustion, with discharge of PAHs from fishing boats as an important source. Ecological risk assessment results indicate that PAHs in sediment of the present study currently have minimal adverse effect on the mariculture environment. Comparison of sedimentary inventory of PAHs in the fish harbor of the study area with those in the Pearl River Estuary and the coastal Bohai Bay indicate that the sediment has become an important reservoir of PAHs. PMID:22898895

  11. Land Use Zoning at the County Level Based on a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study from Yicheng, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Hua; Ji, Yingli; Liu, Zhongqiu; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive land-use planning (CLUP) at the county level in China must include land-use zoning. This is specifically stipulated by the China Land Management Law and aims to achieve strict control on the usages of land. The land-use zoning problem is treated as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP) in this article, which is different from the traditional treatment. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) based model is applied to the problem and is developed to maximize the attribute differences between land-use zones, the spatial compactness, the degree of spatial harmony and the ecological benefits of the land-use zones. This is subject to some constraints such as: the quantity limitations for varying land-use zones, regulations assigning land units to a certain land-use zone, and the stipulation of a minimum parcel area in a land-use zoning map. In addition, a crossover and mutation operator from a genetic algorithm is adopted to avoid the prematurity of PSO. The results obtained for Yicheng, a county in central China, using different objective weighting schemes, are compared and suggest that: (1) the fundamental demand for attribute difference between land-use zones leads to a mass of fragmentary land-use zones; (2) the spatial pattern of land-use zones is remarkably optimized when a weight is given to the sub-objectives of spatial compactness and the degree of spatial harmony, simultaneously, with a reduction of attribute difference between land-use zones; (3) when a weight is given to the sub-objective of ecological benefits of the land-use zones, the ecological benefits get a slight increase also at the expense of a reduction in attribute difference between land-use zones; (4) the pursuit of spatial harmony or spatial compactness may have a negative effect on each other; (5) an increase in the ecological benefits may improve the spatial compactness and spatial harmony of the land-use zones; (6) adjusting the weights assigned to each sub-objective can generate a corresponding optimal solution, with a different quantity structure and spatial pattern to satisfy the preference of the different decision makers; (7) the model proposed in this paper is capable of handling the land-use zoning problem, and the crossover and mutation operator can improve the performance of the model, but, nevertheless, leads to increased time consumption. PMID:23066398

  12. [Spatial distribution characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol during summer in Beibu Gulf Zone, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Hong; Tao, Jun; Gao, Jian; Li, Xiong; Shi, Zhan; Han, Bao-Xin; Xie, Wen-Zhang; Cao, Jun-Ji

    2013-11-01

    Daily (24-h average) PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at urban and suburban sites of nine cities (Nanning, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, Beihai, Zhanjiang, Maoming, Haikou, Yangpu and Dongfang) in Beibu Gulf Zone during August 2009. All samples were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) analyses by the thermal/optical reflectance following IMPROVE protocol. Characteristics of OC and EC concentration levels, spatial distribution, and the possible sources were discussed. The average concentrations of PM2.5, OC and EC in Beibu Gulf zone were (38.4 +/- 17.7), (9.2 +/- 2.6) and (1.9 +/- 1.1) microg x m(-3), respectively. The total carbonaceous aerosol (TCA) accounted for over 56.8% of PM2.5. OC mainly came from biomass burning and secondary organic carbon (SOC), while motor exhaust and industrial emissions were the primary source of EC during summer in Beibu Gulf Zone. PMID:24455918

  13. Relationship between Air Pollutants and Economic Development of the Provincial Capital Cities in China during the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictorssuch as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provinical cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  14. Systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination programs in mainland China: Are they sufficient to inform decision making?

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Griffiths, Ulla K; Pennington, Mark; Yu, Hongjie; Jit, Mark

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review economic evaluations of vaccine programs conducted in mainland China. We searched for economic evaluations of vaccination in China published prior to August 3, 2015 in eight English-language and three Chinese-language databases. Each article was appraised against the 19-item Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). We found 23 papers evaluating vaccines against hepatitis B (8 articles), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 articles), human papillomavirus (3 articles), Japanese encephalitis (2 articles), rotavirus (2 articles), hepatitis A (1 article), Enterovirus 71 (1 article) and influenza (1 article). Studies conformed to a mean of 12 (range: 6-18) items in the CHEC-list criteria. Five of six Chinese-language articles conformed to fewer than half of the 19 criteria items. The main criteria that studies failed to conform to included: inappropriate measurement (20 articles) and valuation (18 articles) of treatment and/or vaccination costs, no discussion about distributional implications (18 articles), missing major health outcomes (14 articles), no discussion about generalizability to other contexts (14 articles), and inadequate sensitivity analysis (13 articles). In addition, ten studies did not include major cost components of vaccination programs, and nine did not report outcomes in terms of life years even in cases where QALYs or DALYs were calculated. Only 13 studies adopted a societal perspective for analysis. All studies concluded that the appraised vaccination programs were cost-effective except for one evaluation of universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in children. However, three of the five studies on PCV-7 showed poor overall quality, and the number of studies on vaccines other than hepatitis B vaccine and PCV-7 was limited. In conclusion, major methodological flaws and reporting problems exist in current economic evaluations of vaccination programs in China. Local guidelines for good practice and reporting, institutional mechanisms and education may help to improve the overall quality of these evaluations. PMID:26435189

  15. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  16. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi Universitys North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  17. Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD/VCD players and copiers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Li, Tienan; Li, Aizhen; Zhang, Guoqing

    2004-06-01

    With the popularization of household electrical appliances and the rapid development of office automation and networking, a huge number of consumer electronic devices, computers, copiers, and fax machines have been put into use in China over the last two decades. These products almost all use a certain amount of standby power--the power that is consumed when a device is connected but not performing its primary function. The rapid growth of standby energy consumption due to these products--and the consequent environmental problems--has attracted more and more attentions from researchers and from many government and international agencies. Numerous countries have developed policies and measures to restrict and reduce standby energy consumption (US EPA, 2004, IEA, 2001, and GEEA, 2004). However, standby energy consumption is still a new concept for Chinese consumers and the phenomenon of ''unconscious waste of energy'' is still very common in the people's daily life and work. With the goal of reducing China's standby energy consumption, China Certification Center for Energy Conservation Products (CECP) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have, under the sponsorship of the Energy Foundation (EF), entered into a collaboration to develop technical requirements for CECP's labeling program for consumer electronics and office equipment. These technical requirements will be used to qualify products for CECP's energy efficiency endorsement label in China. In the phase I of this collaborative project, CECP and LBNL conducted technical and economic research on televisions and printers in China. Based on the results of this research, CECP developed specifications for, and carried out corresponding energy conservation certifications for these two products. CECP's standby power certification program has made impressive gains in China. Leading manufacturers, such as Haier, Hesons, TCL, Chuangwei, Lenovo, EPSON, Fujitsu, and Brother have participated in CECP's certification activities. Media events organized by CECP have greatly improved the country's awareness of standby power loss. Reducing standby power loss has been formally incorporated into China's energy efficiency policy portfolio and in China's collaboration with the international community on the subject of energy efficiency (IEA, 2001). In phase II of the program, CECP's main task was to assess the market for DVD/VCD (Digital Versatile/Video Disc and Video Compact Disc) players and copiers to analyze the economic and technical benefits of energy conservation potential, and to develop technical specifications for DVD/VCD players and copiers, with technical assistance from LBNL. Having built on the success of Phase I, CECP paid great attention to the appraisal of market conditions and the economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power loss in DVD/VCD players and copiers, and solicited inputs from stakeholders before finalizing the product certification requirements. This paper summarizes the expected energy conservation and environmental benefits due to the implementation of certification programs for DVD/VCD players and copiers in China.

  18. The upper mantle beneath the continental rift of Tanlu, Eastern China: evidence for the intra-lithospheric shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Ross, John V.; Mercier, Jean-Claude C.

    1993-10-01

    Spinel-lherzolite xenoliths from four Neogene basanite volcanic cones of Yitong within the Tanlu Rift of eastern China can be divided into two groups according to their grain sizes: coarse-grained peridotites (> 1.5 mm) and mylonite peridotites (<0.1 mm). Coarse-grained samples display various texture types ranging from protogranular to tabular granoblastic, implying a virtually steady-state stress in the mantle. Some recovery of olivines (up to 4 mm) in tabular granoblastic matrix (1 mm) reflect a stress relaxation, followed by another stress increase inferred from some rare kink bands in these crystals. Such cyclic stress variation is probably related to the multistage of formation of the Yitong graben which has been subject to both tensile and compressive stress. Two subtypes are found for mylonite peridotites: porphyroclastic and mosaic. The extremely fine grain size ( < 0.01 mm) yield the highest stress estimates ( > 400 Mpa) among those reported in literature so far. One spinel-mylonite peridotite contains minor plagioclase, indicating their shallow depth of origin. Electron microprobe analysis reveals distinct chemical features for these two different textural groups. Coarse-grained peridotites are compositionally homogeneous. Sample to sample variations are ascribed to different degrees of extraction of basalt during ancient partial melting events related to the regional upwelling of the upper mantle during subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern continent of China. Geothermometric calculations show that all coarse-grained samples as well as the intruded pyroxenite are equilibrated between 900-1050C. Conversely, in the mylonite samples, compositional zoning is found at the rims (200 ?m) of the pyroxenes with decreasing Ca, AI and Cr from cores to rims, whereas the composition profile of the porphyroclast cores indicate that these fine-grained samples were in equilibrium some time prior to mylonitization. Compositional disequilibrium at porphyroclast rims reflects the kinetics of diffusion-controlled reactions due to a cooling event associated with later intense shearing deformation some time before eruption. This cooling history (from 980 to 740C) is further revealed by the geothermometric study of the core/rim and porphyroclast/neoblast compositions in these mylonite peridotites. These highly deformed peridotites indicate the presence of an intra-lithospheric shear zone(s) near the crust/mantle boundary, which formed synchronously with the fullest development of Yuan-Yitong rift during Oligocene and Eocene times. We infer, then, that these Yitong Iherzolite xenoliths record at least two superimposed episodes of deformation and chemical evolution which were closely related to the regional geodynamic evolution.

  19. Reconsidering brownfield redevelopment strategy in China's old industrial zone: a health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wanxia; Geng, Yong; Ma, Zhixiao; Sun, Lina; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Urban environmental quality in brownfield redevelopment sites is of vital importance after most of former industrial areas were replanned or changed into residential and recreational areas. Hence, it is necessary to rethink if those brownfield redevelopment sites have been cleaned up so that there will be no negative health impacts to local residents. Under such a circumstance, this paper aims to evaluate the contamination level of heavy metals within a brownfield redevelopment site in China, namely, the Tiexi old industrial zone in Shenyang. Surface soil and dust samples were collected from local industrial sites, residential/commercial sites, traffic sites, and recreational sites, respectively. Our analysis results revealed that although the soils in the brownfield redevelopment sites had been treated and remediated, heavy metal pollution still exists in certain sites, especially in the current industrial sites that will be planned into residential/commercial or recreational zones, and the current residential sites where the former industrial sites located, showing that past industrial activities did and will continue to influence the soil quality. Further health risk assessment indicates that As and Pb generated from industrial sites and traffic sites has a potential to pose serious health risks to local residents, especially children. The hotspots with more serious health risks to children are mainly concentrated in the areas close to the former Shenyang Smelting Plant. After one decade of redevelopment, the Tiexi old industrial zone has become a new urban area which is not suitable for large-scaled soil remediation efforts. Thus, the phytoremediation by trees or herbs in heavy-metal-contaminated land is more appropriate and should be embedded into urban green land planning. This study provides innovative policy insights on urban brownfield redevelopment to both governmental officials and related stakeholders so that they can make appropriate remediation actions. PMID:25205156

  20. Characteristics of Carbonaceous Materials in the Fault Zone of the Longmen Shan Fault Belt, China, by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. R.; Song, S. R.; Li, H.; Yeh, E. C.; Kuo, L. W.; Fang, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    On 12 May 2008, the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred in the Longmen Shan fault belt (China), and produced a 240km-long surface rupture along the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault. To retrieve faulting information of this destructive earthquake, the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Drilling Project (WFSD-1) was drilled to a depth of 1,200 m in 2009. The principal slip zone (PSZ) corresponding to the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake was recognized at the depth of 589m and contained carbonaceous materials within fault gouge. Rock deformation experiments suggest that graphitization occurred within the PSZ by frictional heat of faulting. Because graphite is an inerasable indicator of transient frictional heating, we aim at the investigation of the graphitization along successive carbonaceous-rich gouges enclosed PSZ collected from the WFSD-1 by using the Raman spectrometer. The Raman spectra of carbonaceous materials (RSCM) include the graphite band (1580cm-1, G band) and the defect bands (1350cm-1, D1 band; 1520cm-1, D3 band). The R1 ratio of D1 over G is utilized to determine the degree of graphitization.The results of RSCM analyses revealed that (1) black gouges was heated and pulverized; (2) one of the graphitized zones (low values of R1 ratio) was found at the depth of 589.22 m where was recognized as the PSZ related to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Consequently, we surmise graphitization took place in the PSZ during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and furthermore, the other graphitized zones could be signatures of transient frictional heating during ancient seismic events.

  1. Socio-economic analysis of the risk management of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in China in the context of the Stockholm Convention.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hu, Jian-Xin; Yi, Shan

    2016-05-01

    Socio-economic analysis (SEA) plays an important role in decision-making on risk management actions for certain chemicals under Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in developing countries. This paper showed the first holistic and quantitative SEA case study on that by developing a country-specific SEA framwork and methodologies and applying the case of HBCD phase-out in China under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The study indicates that, under the possible scenarios of 10 years and 5 years , the economic costs of HBCD phase-out in China would be between 9.032 and 19.021 billion RMB. Although the total economic costs seems to be significant, it would only have a marginal impact on the house building industry with a likely cost increase by about 0.07‰-0.14‰. Meanwhile, the HBCD phase-out may render significant environmental and health benefits, including about 23-29 tons of HBCD release prevented to the environment, 1.142-1.469 million tons of potentially HBCD contained hazardous wastes avoided, along with significant reduction from 58% up to almost 100% in local environmental concentrations of HBCD, and about 0.0996-0.128 million workers at risk avoided and at least 3.067-4.033 billion RMB of the health care savings. While the scenario of phasing out HBCD over 10 years would be less costly than the scenario of that over 5 years, the later scenario suggested much greater environmental and health benefits for China. PMID:26615892

  2. Pseudolella major sp. nov. (Axonolaimidae, Nematoda) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunming; Huang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    A new species of free-living nematode, Pseudolella major sp. nov. is described from the intertidal mudflats of Ximen Island in the East China Sea. Pseudolella major sp. nov. is characterized as follows: body length ~1 300 μm; short cephalic setae, 2-3 μm long; amphidial fovea loop-shaped with elongated ventral branch; ventral branch 50-60 μm long and extending past the base of buccal cavity; buccal cavity cylindrical with arching or spherical base; three heavy outwardly-curving odontia with blunt tips located at anterior of buccal cavity; pharynx short with posterior bulb; ventral gland cell elongate oval-shaped, located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore situated at the level of the middle of buccal cavity; tail conical to cylindrical; spicules arched, with double-cephalate proximal end; gubernaculum with a strong dorsal caudal apophysis.

  3. Characteristics of urban heat island distribution in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone based on MOD11A2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-feng; Jing, Juan-li

    2015-12-01

    The diurnal variation and inter-annual variation of urban heat island in Beibu Gulf Economic Zone were quantitatively analyzed, based on 2005-2014 MOD11A2 land surface temperature dataset, by the method of land surface temperature departure. Furthermore, the relationship between vegetation NDVI and urban heat island intensity were studied. Results showed: (1) Spatial distribution and extent of urban heat island in Beibu Gulf Economic Zone had a certain difference between daytime and nighttime in summer, the temperature departure decrease with distance from the city center increasing, and the decreasing trend of daytime was significant compared with nighttime. The temperature difference was about 4 to C between the city and suburb in the daytime, and was about 2-6C at night (2) The inter-annual variation intensity of urban heat island was not obvious in summer daytime during 2005-2014, while the difference of spatial distribution was significant. The urban heat island intensity increased in Nanning city during 2005-2011, and slowed in 2014. The heat island variation intensity was not obvious in Beihai city before 2011, but increased significantly in 2014. (3) The correlation coefficient between NDVI and land surface temperature in summer is -0.29, which showed high vegetation coverage plays an important role in reducing the urban heat island.

  4. 76 FR 40336 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ...NMFS announces the renewal of permits to SeaShare authorizing this organization to distribute Pacific salmon and Pacific halibut to economically disadvantaged individuals under the prohibited species donation (PSD) program. Salmon and halibut are caught incidentally during directed fishing for groundfish with trawl gear off Alaska. This action is necessary to comply with provisions of the PSD......

  5. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention. PMID:22878900

  6. Deep resistivity structure along the Longmen Mountain fault zone in the eastern Tibetan plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhang, G.; Luo, W.; Luo, H.; Cai, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, W.; Qin, Q.

    2012-12-01

    1.Introduction Many researchers (e.g.,Wang et al.,2009) have proposed the relevant knowledge of tectonic evolution and dynamic characteristics of the Longmen Mountain belt as well as the Songpan-Ganzi and Yangtze blocks in the past few decades, the knowledge of shallow thrust nappe tectonic along the belt has then been generally recognized. It's, however, still difficult to image the deep crust and mantle structures and reveal the dynamic mechanism of the crustal formation under the Longmen Mountain. In this study, we carried out the MT experiments along and across the Longmen mountain region and investigated the relationships between the crust structure and seismic activity basing on the latest MT geological results. 2. Field observations We conducted three MT experiment profiles in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. One is along the Mingshan-Guangyuan profile parallel with the structural direction, and another two profiles (Maqu-Gaoliangzhen and Luqu-Hechuan) perpendicular to the Longmen Mountain fault zone. In this study, we use the conventional magnetotelluric (MT) data combine with the long-period magnetotelluric (LMT) data to observe electromagnetic response. The MT and LMT data was observed by using the V8 instrument and LEMI-417, respectively. 3. Conclusion (1) According to the results of MT inversion, we find that the high concentration of stress process along the Songpan-Ganzi block and the Yangtze block colliding zone might result from the deep crust-mantle tough shear Zone of Longmen Mountain expanded to mid-upper crust, and finally leads to a new rupture. This could be one of the focal mechanisms of the Wenchuan earthquake (Ms 8.0) generating. The deep resistivity structure along the Longmen Mountain fault zone can be divided into southern,middle and northern segments from southwest to northeast. The total resistivity of southern segment is lower than the middle and northern portions. We suggest that the upper crust of the Longmen Mountain, south of Dayi, might be of lower rock strength. We then propose that it's difficult to accumulate the stress to result in upper crust crack under the south segment compared with that of the northern segment. This may be one of the reasons that the southern segment has fewer aftershocks after Wenchuan earthquake. (2) Due to the thick rigid plate and the western Qinghai-Tibet Yangtze plate extrusion from the southeast direction, the Longmen Mountain and Songpan-Ganzi region have dynamic properties of the shallow abduction to the Yangtze plate, and the deep subduction to the Yangtze plate. In addition, the GPS study indicates that there is a relative movement between Yangtze plate and Songpan-Ganzi region, and the displacement rate of Yangtze plate is faster than Songpan-Ganzi region. Therefore, the Yangtze plate forms a wedge insert into the Longmen Mountain, i.e., the thrust nappe structure of upper crust and the development of the lower crust "subduction zone", leading to a "Crocodile mouth"-shape structure across the Longmen fault zone.

  7. Nutrient dynamics in the winter thermohaline frontal zone of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su Mei; Guo, Xinyu; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Bi, Yan Feng; Luo, Xin; Li, Jian Bing

    2010-11-01

    As the first attempt to estimate the nutrient transport across the winter thermohaline frontal zone on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the nutrient dynamics around the front and the effects of cross-frontal water exchange on nutrient transport were investigated using wintertime field observations. Both water temperature and salinity increased from coastal to oceanic waters, showing the presence of a thermohaline front. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients decreased oceanward, especially across the thermohaline front, while those of dissolved organic nutrients (i.e., dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus) showed patchy distributions. Ammonium was the major constituent of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and DON was the main component of total dissolved nitrogen. Molar ratios of PO43-/total dissolved phosphorus decreased from coastal to oceanic waters, indicating that PO43- was rapidly removed and/or consumed from the water column and that organic matter degradation increased offshore, replenishing PO43-. Molar ratios of NO3-/(NH4+ + DON) were 0.01-0.6, indicating dominance of regenerated nitrogen. Surface water convergence and bottom water divergence were identified in the across-shore velocity field, and the calculated across-shore nutrient fluxes suggest that the presence of the winter thermohaline front promotes the offshore transport of nutrients from coastal waters. The transport path begins with convergence of surface coastal waters toward the front, followed by the sinking in the frontal region and the oceanward movement through the bottom layer of the front offshore side. With an assumption of 500 km as the length of thermohaline front on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the calculated offshore fluxes of nutrients across the entire front are larger than those from the Zhujiang (Pearl River) and the Changjiang (Yangtze River).

  8. Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or "Community Learning Centers" (CLCs). Second, we describe extensive site visits to CLCs in impoverished portions of China and Mexico, the centers operated by premier universities in each respective country. These CLCs constitute the core of new emerging systems of distance education, and their newness poses challenges and opportunities, which are discussed. Finally, we offer 12 points to develop further the concept and reality of distance learning in support of economic development.

  9. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the provinces growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  10. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  11. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  12. Eutrophication and nutrient limitation in the aquatic zones around Huainan coal mine subsidence areas, Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qitao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Tingting; Qu, Xijie; Xie, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The eutrophication of three small lakes in the aquatic zones at the Huainan coal mine subsidence areas, designated as east site (ES), central site (CS), and west site (WS), were studied. Nutrient content, species, and nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios were obtained through water quality analyses. Nutrient limitation was evaluated by nutrient enrichment bioassays (NEBs) in the autumn of 2012 and spring of 2013. Average annual concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) were 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 mg/L, and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were 0.77, 1.95, and 2.06 mg/L in the water column at CS, ES, and WS, respectively. All of the three lakes exhibited 'meso-eutrophic' states and the TN:TP ratio ranged from 25:1 to 74:1 with variability between seasons and sites. NEBs verified that primary productivity in the lakes at ES and WS were mainly limited by P, while N limitation or N and P co-limitation was present in the aquatic zones at CS due to unavailable dissolved inorganic nitrogen. In the studied lakes, the blue-green algae, which comprised 70% of all identified species, was the predominant taxa, while the micro-zooplankton taxa was dominant, indicating a typical trophic structure of eutrophic lakes. PMID:25225936

  13. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  14. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  15. Annual economic burden of hepatitis B virus-related diseases among hospitalized patients in twelve cities in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Ma, Q; Liang, S; Xiao, H; Zhuang, G; Zou, Y; Tan, H; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, L; Feng, X; Xue, L; Hu, D; Cui, F; Liang, X

    2016-03-01

    A nationwide survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated economic burden has not previously been performed in China. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct, indirect, and intangible costs of HBV-related diseases within the span of one year. A random sample was taken from specialty and general hospitals across 12 cities in six provinces of China. Intangible costs were estimated based on willingness to pay or open-ended answers provided by patients. The results showed that 27 hospitals were enrolled, with a sample population of 4726 patients (77.7% response rate). The average annual costs were $4454.0 (direct), $924.3 (indirect), and $6611.10 (intangible), corresponding to 37.3%, 7.7%, and 55.1% of the total costs, respectively. The direct medical fees were substantially greater than the non-medical fees. Annual indirect costs were divided into outpatient ($112.9) and inpatient ($811.40) loss of income. The intangible costs of chronic HBV were notably higher than either the direct or indirect costs, consistent with the social stigma in China. The comparison amongst individual cities for the average ratio of direct to indirect costs revealed that the sizes of ratios were negatively correlated with the socioeconomic status of the regions. This study suggested that as a whole in China, the HBV-related diseases caused a heavy financial burden which was positively associated with disease severity. Although the intangible costs coincided with a high prevalence of discrimination against CHB patients in Chinese society, our study may serve as future reference for detailed exploration. PMID:26663525

  16. A new species of Parodontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study described a new species of free-living nematode discovered in the intertidal mudflat of Ximen Island, East China Sea. The new species, designated Parodontophora longiamphidata sp. nov., was characterized by a cylindrical body with tapering extremeties; cuticle smooth without somatic setae; four short cephalic setae; cylindrical buccal cavity with six clawlike teeth at the top of stoma; pharynx cylindrical with widened base; amphidial fovea crook-shaped with elongated scalariform branch extending past level of base of pharynx and ventral gland; ventral gland cell long-oval shaped located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore at level of middle of buccal cavity; tail conico-cylindrical with enlarged tip; three caudal gland cells, male spicules arched with cephalic proximal end and tapered distal end; gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis; female with two opposed outstretched ovaries; and vulva at slightly post-midpoint of body length. This new species was close to P. wuleidaowanensis Zhang, 2005 and P. polita Gerlach, 1955 in terms of long amphidial fovea branch. The newly found species was easily distinguishable from the two documented; its amphidial fovea branch (255-290 µm versus 72-106 and 125-150 µm) was obviously longer. Key to the Parodontophora species with a longer amphidial fovea branch was given.

  17. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

  18. The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-zhong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion. Ecological engineering approaches can therefore reduce environmental impacts of LZTGR and optimize ecological services. In view of the current situation and existing ecological problems of LZTGR, according to function demands such as environmental purification, biodiversity conservation, and vegetation carbon sink enhancement, we should explore the eco-friendly utilization mode of resources in LZTGR. Ecological engineering approaches might minimize the impacts or optimize the ecological services. Natural regeneration and ecological restoration in LZTGR are valuable for soil erosion decrease, pollutant purification, biodiversity conservation, carbon sink increase, and ecosystem health maintenance in TGR. PMID:23296972

  19. Coulomb stress evolution over the past 200 years and seismic hazard along the Xianshuihe fault zone of Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhigang; Xu, Jing; Ma, Hongsheng; Zhang, Langping

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the M ≥ 6.7 earthquakes that have occurred since 1816 on the Xianshuihe fault zone in southwest China. The interseismic Coulomb stress accumulation and the Coulomb stress changes caused by coseismic dislocation and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation of the previous shocks were computed for different periods on the relevant fault segments. Based on these results, we analyzed the relationship between time-adjacent strong shocks and the Coulomb stress evolution before every earthquake. The analysis suggests that strong earthquakes mostly occurred in the Coulomb stress enhancement region caused by coseismic dislocation and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation of the last earthquake. Considering the Coulomb stress evolution at the fault planes of the epicentral area before earthquakes, we found that the Coulomb stress accumulation caused by the interseismic tectonic loading was dominant for most strong earthquakes. For some other earthquakes the stress changes caused by coseismic dislocation and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation of surrounding earthquakes were very significant, which may be equivalent to the effect of interseismic tectonic loading lasting hundreds of years. Based on the time-dependent probabilistic risk model and the Dieterich (1994) model, we estimate the background seismic activity and the future earthquake probability for different fault segments, using long term seismic activity and strong earthquake recurrence cycles. It is shown that the Bamei, Selaha, and Kangding segments of the Xianshuihe fault zone have high earthquake probability, and are likely to have strong earthquakes. If energy is accumulated up to the year 2050, the magnitude of an event on these three segments could reach Mw 7.2, Mw 7.0, and Mw 7.1 respectively, while if the S7 and S8 cascades rupture, the event on these segments could reach a magnitude of up to Mw 7.2.

  20. Sedimentation and associated trace metal enrichment in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiang; Bao, Yuhai; He, Xiubin; Zhou, Huaidong; Cao, Zhijing; Gao, Peng; Zhong, Ronghua; Hu, Yunhua; Zhang, Xinbao

    2014-05-01

    Impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir has created an artificial riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km(2), which has been subjected to seasonal inundation and exposure due to regular reservoir impoundment and the occurrence of natural floods. The significant alteration of hydrologic regime has caused numerous environmental changes. The present study investigated the magnitude and spatial pattern of sedimentation and metal enrichment in a typical section of the riparian zone, composed of bench terraces with previous agricultural land uses, and explored their links to the changed hydrologic regime. In particular, we measured the total sediment depths and collected surface riparian sediments and down-profile sectioned riparian soils (at 5 cm intervals) for trace metal determination. Our analysis showed that the annual average sedimentation rates varied from 0.5 to 10 cmyr(-1) and they decreased significantly with increasing elevation. This lateral distribution was principally attributed to seasonal variations in water levels and suspended sediment concentrations. Enriched concentrations of trace metals were found both in the riparian sediments and soils, but they were generally higher in the riparian sediments than in riparian soils and followed a similar lateral decreasing trend. Metal contamination assessment showed that the riparian sediments were slightly contaminated by Ni, Zn, and Pb, moderately contaminated by Cu, and moderately to strongly contaminated by Cd; while riparian soils were slightly contaminated by As, and moderately contaminated by Cd. Trace metal enrichment in the riparian sediments may be attributed to external input of contaminated sediments produced from upstream anthropogenic sources and chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions during pure sediment mobilization and after sink for a prolonged flooding period due to reservoir impoundment. PMID:24561931

  1. A Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming Model for Uncertainty-Based Environmental Economic Optimization in the Lake Fuxian Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Rui; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yajuan

    2013-01-01

    The conflict of water environment protection and economic development has brought severe water pollution and restricted the sustainable development in the watershed. A risk explicit interval linear programming (REILP) method was used to solve integrated watershed environmental-economic optimization problem. Interval linear programming (ILP) and REILP models for uncertainty-based environmental economic optimization at the watershed scale were developed for the management of Lake Fuxian watershed, China. Scenario analysis was introduced into model solution process to ensure the practicality and operability of optimization schemes. Decision makers' preferences for risk levels can be expressed through inputting different discrete aspiration level values into the REILP model in three periods under two scenarios. Through balancing the optimal system returns and corresponding system risks, decision makers can develop an efficient industrial restructuring scheme based directly on the window of low risk and high return efficiency in the trade-off curve. The representative schemes at the turning points of two scenarios were interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative, which has the relatively low risks and nearly maximum benefits. This study provides new insights and proposes a tool, which was REILP, for decision makers to develop an effectively environmental economic optimization scheme in integrated watershed management. PMID:24191144

  2. The study on variation of influential regions in China from a perspective of asymmetry economic information flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunxia; Tang, Minxuan; Cao, Yongjian; Chen, Yanhua; Deng, Qiangqiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on the annual GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in 27 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions, the asymmetric economic information flows between different regions are calculated by the symbolic transfer entropy method and corresponding economic information flow networks are built over two periods, one is before the reform and opening up policy, the other is after that. By analyzing such networks, the obtained results are as follows. First, before the policy, balanced development strategy weakens or cuts off the ties between adjacent areas, resulting in a slow regional economic development, does not conform to the law of scientific development. Second, with introducing market mechanisms and promoting the reform and opening up policy, increasing economic activities have gradually shifted from coast to inland of China over Period II. Last but not least, there has a dramatic alternation of the influential centers that Jilin, Beijing and Jiangsu become new influential centers. Especially, at Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolis circle Beijing becomes an influential center after the policy.

  3. Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickenbach, Frank; Liu, Wan-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies have attempted to make use of scale expansion as a tool to reduce inequality of higher education among regions with different development levels by providing poor regions with preferential treatment and support. This paper analyzes

  4. Species composition and diversity of macrobenthos in the intertidal zone of Xiangshan bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Haifeng; Zheng, Dan; You, Zhongjie; Xu, Nianjun; Lou, Dan; Huang, Chengwei

    2015-04-01

    Xiangshan bay is a narrow semi-closed bay and situated on the northwestern coast of the East China Sea. Over past decades, it has become to a major bay with intensive human activities, dense urbanized area, and poor water quality. The aim of this paper was to reveal the ecological status through the elucidation of the species composition, abundance, biomass and diversity of macrobenthos in this bay. Six intertidal sections were surveyed from January 2007 to November 2008 quarterly. Sections TG, HD and XH are located in the three inner bays, sections QJ and WS are located near the thermal power plants, and section XX is located at the outer part of Xiangshan Bay. Great variations in macrobenthos community were indentified, and the species composition of the community in the present study showed the dominance in the order of molluscs (bivalves and gastropods), crustaceans and others, and only few Polychaeta were recorded. Only three dominant species, Littorina brevicula, Ilyplax tansuiensis, and Cerithidea cingulata were collected in all the sections, and a total of 19 dominant species were recorded only in one section. Two-way ANOVA analyses of abundance indicated that there were significant differences among sections or seasons. Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H') had its maximum (2.45) in section QJ, and minimum (1.76) in section TG. Multiple irregular k-dominance plots clearly showed that the study area was polluted and the macrobenthos community was under stress. We conclude that the macrobenthos of Xiangshan Bay have been disturbed by human activities, especially at the interior bay.

  5. Heavy metal concentrations and enzymatic activities in the functional zone sediments of Haizhou Bay, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Liu, Fu-cheng

    2015-11-01

    Surface sediments were collected at 31 sites covering five functional zones of Haizhou Bay, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China. Heavy metal concentrations and enzymatic activity of phosphatase and urease were determined on a dry-weight basis of sediments. Metal concentrations in sediments were comparable to the Chinese National Standard of Marine Sediment Quality and were as follows: Cu, 8.60-55.8 mg kg(-1); Zn, 107-384 mg kg(-1); Pb, 33.6-200 mg kg(-1); Cd, 0.24-2.57 mg kg(-1); Cr, 30.3-92.1 mg kg(-1); As, 12.9-110 mg kg(-1); Ni, 15.8-49.6 mg kg(-1); Mn, 379-1272 mg kg(-1); and Fe, 13,790-38,240 mg kg(-1). A geoaccumulation index (I geo) was calculated to help researchers understand the status of pollutants in the sediments. I geo showed that Cd and As contamination existed in the study area. The mobility of the metals and the relationship between heavy metal concentrations of chemical fractions and enzymatic activities were also investigated. Results showed that Cd and Mn had higher mobility than other metals, and enzymatic activities may play an important role in controlling the bioavailability and transformation trend of heavy metals from one fraction to another in sediments. PMID:26431704

  6. Assessment of desertification in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in Northern China (1982-2006) using GIMMS NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Youzhi; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chaoshun; Shi, Runhe

    2013-09-01

    The Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in Northern China (hereafter APTZNC) is situated in an arid/semi-arid area, and is one of the most vulnerable areas in the world subject to climate change. Annual integrated the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (hereafter GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (hereafter ?NDVI) and annual rainfall were used in this study. Meanwhile, the dynamics of ?NDVI and rain-use efficiency (hereafter RUE) were predicted during the period, through the use of the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test and linear regression temporal trend analysis. The tendency of desertification under different precipitation scenarios was also analyzed. The results showed that annual ?NDVI and rainfall were not significantly correlated in most sections of the study area, yet opposite results were observed for a smaller percentage of the study area (p<0.01). Changes in vegetation productivity may increase, whereas a significant decrease in a small pixel proportion was observed. The northeast and central sections of the study area are characterized by positive trends in RUE slope values, contrary to what was observed in the southwestern sections of the study area. The results fit well with the findings through ?NDVI and RUE. Rainfall in the range of 200-500 mm can be seen as a threshold value as the desertification trend decreases and vegetation restoration capacity is enhanced with increasing rainfall.

  7. [Seasonal variations of calorific values of Pinus koraiensis-broadleaved mixed forest litters and soil macrofauna in China temperate zone].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-Qin; Xin, Wei-Dong; Qi, Yan-Hong

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the calorific values of Pinus koraiensis-broadleaved mixed forest litters and soil microfauna in China temperate zone were determined, with their seasonal variation patterns studied. The results showed that both the calorific values and their seasonal variation patterns were differed with the kinds of tree species litters and soil macrofauna in the mixed forest. The mean gross calorific value (GCV) of P. koraiensis litter was the highest (19.71 kJ x g(-1)), followed by Betula costata (18.22 kJ x g(-1)), Tilia amurensis (18.13 kJ x g(-1)), mixed litter (17.91 kJ x g(-1)), Fraxinus mandshurica (16.94 kJ x g(-1)), and Acer mono (16.25 kJ x g(-1)). With the decomposition of litter, the GCV of P. koraiensis and A. mono litters decreased, while that of F. mandshurica litter had little change. The GCV of T. amurensis and B. costata litters presented an increasing trend in the next year of decomposition. Among the marofauna, scolopendra had the highest GCV (22.07 kJ x g(-1)), followed by earthworm (16.72 kJ x g(-1)) and diplopod (13.28 kJ x g(-1)). Earthworm and diplopod had the identical seasonal variation pattern of GCV, while scolopendra was different from them. There was no significant relationship between the seasonal variation of GCV in litters and soil macrofauna. PMID:17615867

  8. Concentration, composition and sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Qatar, Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Y S; Al Ansari, E M S; Wade, T L

    2014-08-30

    Surface sediments were collected from sixteen locations in order to assess levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Qatar exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Samples were analyzed for 16 parent PAHs, 18 alkyl homologs and for dibenzothiophenes. Total PAHs concentration (∑PAHs) ranged from 2.6 ng g(-1) to 1025 ng g(-1). The highest PAHs concentrations were in sediments in and adjacent to harbors. Alkylated PAHs predominated most of the sampling locations reaching up to 80% in offshore locations. Parent PAHs and parent high molecular weight PAHs dominated location adjacent to industrial activities and urban areas. The origin of PAHs sources to the sediments was elucidated using ternary plot, indices, and molecular ratios of specific compounds such as (Ant/Phe+Ant), (Flt/Flt+Pyr). PAHs inputs to most coastal sites consisted of mixture of petroleum and combustion derived sources. However, inputs to the offshore sediments were mainly of petroleum origin. PMID:24798421

  9. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  10. Rural Education and Economic Development in China, Mexico, Japan, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Baldwin

    1988-01-01

    Traces the histories of rural education and rural technology in four countries. Suggests that the economic function of education is the transmission of technologically relevant skills, and that technologically appropriate curricula are a necessary part of economic development policy. 30 references. (SV)

  11. Late Cenozoic deformation of the Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone and its implications for the earthquake activities in the Songliao basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhongyuan, Yu; Peizhen, Zhang; Wei, Min; Qinghai, Wei; Limei, Wang; Bin, Zhao; Shuang, Liu; Jian, Kang

    2015-08-01

    The Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone is a major tectonic feature cutting through the Songliao Basin from south to north in NE China. Five earthquakes with magnitudes over 5 that occurred during the past 30 years suggest the fault zone is a seismogenic structure with future seismic potential. The structural pattern, tectonic history, Quaternary activity and seismic potential have previously been unknown due to the Quaternary sedimentary coverage and lack of large historic earthquakes (M > 7). In this paper, we use seismic reflection profiles and drilling from petroleum explorations and shallow-depth seismic reflections to study those problems. The total length of the Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone is more than 400 km; modern seismicity delineates it into 4 segments each with a length of 90-100 km. In cross-section view, the folds and associated faults form a complex structural belt with a width of more than 10 km. Shallow-level seismic reflection across the Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone reveals that the Late Quaternary sediments were folded and faulted, indicating its present tectonic activity. The Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone and Songliao Basin have been subjected to three stages of tectonic evolution: a rifting stage characterized by normal faulting and extension (?145-112 Ma), a prolonged stage of thermal subsidence (?112-65 Ma), and a tectonic reversal that has been taking place since ?65 Ma. Our shallow-level reflection profiles show that the folding and reverse faulting have influenced the Late Quaternary sediments. The seismicity and moderate earthquakes suggest that the tectonic activity persists today. The deformation rate across the Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone, however, is measured to be very slow. In conjunction with the inference that most deformation in NE China may be taken up by the Yilan-Yitong Fault Zone bounding the Songliao Basin to the east, we suggest moderate earthquake potential and thus moderate seismic hazards along the Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone. The geological structures, which include anticlines and reverse faults, imply that the Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone has been a contractive structure since ?65 Ma, and this type of contraction dominates the tectonic deformation in the Songliao Basin and the entire NE China, although the reasons for these conditions need to be further studied.

  12. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced technologies and more efficient industries. On the other hand, institutional change (i.e., marketization) and innovation (i.e., technological progress) exerted positive impacts on AVEC improvement, as always expected in this and other studies. Finally, the model comparison indicated that SEM was capable of separating spatial effect from the error term of OLS, so as to improve goodness-of-fit and the significance level of individual determinants.

  13. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced technologies and more efficient industries. On the other hand, institutional change (i.e., marketization) and innovation (i.e., technological progress) exerted positive impacts on AVEC improvement, as always expected in this and other studies. Finally, the model comparison indicated that SEM was capable of separating spatial effect from the error term of OLS, so as to improve goodness-of-fit and the significance level of individual determinants.

  14. Health economic evaluations of medical devices in the Peoples Republic of China: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongrong; Modaresi, Farhang; Borisenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify and review the methodological quality of health economic evaluations of medical devices performed in the Peoples Republic of China. To our knowledge, no such investigations have been performed to date. Methods A systematic literature review involving searches of Medline, Medline In-Process, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of the Tufts Medical Center, and the Wanfang Database was performed. The search spanned the period from 1990 to 2013. Studies on health economic evaluations of medical devices, in-vitro diagnostics, procedures, and the use of medical devices in Chinese health care settings were included. Full-text articles and conference abstracts in English and Chinese were included. Results Fifty-seven publications were included, 26 (46%) of which were in English and 31 (54%) of which were in Chinese. The included publications covered a wide range of clinical areas, such as surgery (n=23, 40%), screening (n=9, 16%), imaging use (n=6, 11%), kidney intervention (n=4, 7%), and nine other technological areas. Most of the studies (n=31, 54%) were cost analyses. Among the others, 13 (50%) studies used modeling, and another 13 (50%) were within-trial evaluations. Among studies that used modeling, eleven (85%) conducted sensitivity analyses, six of which had one-way sensitivity analysis, whereas one conducted both one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses; four of these eleven modeling-based analyses included probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was reported in ten (18%) studies, eight of which were screening studies. The remaining two modeling studies were in areas of imaging and oncology. Conclusion This study indicates that there are major limitations and deficiencies in the health economic evaluations on medical devices performed in the Peoples Republic of China. Further efforts are required from different stakeholders academic, governmental, and privatized to improve health economic research capacity and to put it to use when informative decisions are made in the health care setting. PMID:25914551

  15. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  16. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3C and 27.7C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.031.6C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.130.3C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9C and 27.3C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like slightly cool to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making people comfortable, which supports the regulation in China that in public and office buildings the set-point temperature of air-conditioning system should not be lower than 26C.

  17. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3 degrees C and 27.7 degrees C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0-31.6 degrees C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1-30.3 degrees C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9 degrees C and 27.3 degrees C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4 degrees C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like "slightly cool" to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants' comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26 degrees C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making people comfortable, which supports the regulation in China that in public and office buildings the set-point temperature of air-conditioning system should not be lower than 26 degrees C. PMID:18074157

  18. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  19. Distribution of economic benefits from ecotourism: a case study of Wolong Nature Reserve For Giant Pandas in China.

    PubMed

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities. PMID:18853224

  20. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income stream discounted over a 30 year period at 20 percent discount rate in 2008 was between 642.20/ha and 2,852.62/ha. Consequently, the welfare loss due to the loss of 21,340 hectares of mangrove was between 13,704,548 and 60,874,911. The study also established, for the first time, the high social value of the Niger Delta Mangroves.

  1. Study on economic withholding in electricity market of Zhejiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Chen, B.; Han, Z. X.; Zhang, F. Q.

    2009-05-01

    Power suppliers with market power intend to bid high-price to obtain excessive profit when intensions in the balance of electricity supply and demand emerge. New index is thus necessary to be defined to assess the economic withholding behavior associated with both bidding prices and corresponding bidding capacity. Stages of low price section, economic withholding section and reasonable adventure section were classified in this paper. Based on bidding prices and capacity, absolute index and relative index were proposed to measure the economic withholding degree, with the former used for estimation of the total power system while the latter for comparisons amongst different units. A case study on Zhejiang electricity market indicated that these two proposed indices can accurately assess the economic withholding behavior in the electricity market. Finally, upper limit was suggested to be set for the relative index to suppress the behavior of excessive bidding prices in short of capacity.

  2. Understanding China in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part I, U.S. and Japanese Relations with China: Case Studies of Cooperation and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Moore, Carey; Young, Jocelyn; Cheng, Amy; Fairbrother, Greg

    This curriculum unit is part one of a three-part series. The unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with China at the beginning of the 21st century. By identifying and examining these options, students gain an awareness of U.S., Japanese, and Chinese perspectives on political, economic, and security issues.

  3. Feeling good about the iron rice bowl: Economic sector and happiness in post-reform urban China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Situated in China's market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker's happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being - reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty. PMID:26188448

  4. P and SH velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath Northeast China: Evidence for a stagnant slab in hydrous mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiujiao; Yuen, David A.

    2013-04-01

    Using high-dense regional body waves for three deep earthquakes that occurred around Russia-China border, we investigate both S and P wave velocity structures in the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast China and northern part of North China Craton, where the northwestern Pacific plate is imaged to subhorizontally lie above the 660-km discontinuity. We observe an increasing trend of S-P travel time residuals along the epicentral distance within a distance range of 11-16.5, indicating a velocity anomaly in MTZ. We seek the simplest model that explains the observed broadband waveforms and relative travel times of triplication for a confined azimuth sector. Both SH and P data suggest a 14020 km high velocity layer lying above a slightly depressed and broad 660-km discontinuity. Shear velocity reduction of 2.5% in the deeper part of the transition zone is required to compensate for the significantly large relative time between AB and CD triplicate branches and the increased trending of S-P travel time residuals as well. The MTZ, as a whole, is featured by low shear velocity and high Vp/Vs ratio. A water-rich mantle transition zone with 0.2-0.4 wt% of H2O may account for the discrepancy between the observed Vp and Vs velocity structures. Our result supports the scenario of a viscosity-dominated stagnant slab with an increased thickness of 140 km, which was caused by the large viscosity contrast between the lower and upper mantles. The addition of water and eastward trench retreat might facilitate stagnation of the subducting Pacific slab beneath Northeast China.

  5. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  6. [Adaptability assessment of economic and environmental development of Tangshan, Hebei, China].

    PubMed

    Han, Rui-Ling; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Qiu-Luan

    2014-10-01

    It is vital to explore whether the economic system adapts to the environmental system as the relationship between economy and environment becomes a gradually concerned problem. Tangshan, a typical resource-based city, was chosen to study the adaptabilities and performances of economic developments in response to environmental changes from 1992 to 2011. It was found that the economic-environmental adaptation curve of Tangshan City had an overall fluctuating and increasing tendency. The systematic adaptability kept advancing, reflecting Tangshan paid much attention to environmental development in addition to economic performances, and the two aspects became more and more coordinated. Filtering analysis of the adaptive curve with Eviews software revealed that the potential systematic coordinating index was rising continuously, however, the sum of resilience gap for 20 years was still negative, which implied that fundamental contradictions between high economic development and high energy consumption and high pollutant emission still existed. Carrying out adaptive researches not only helps people to adapt to climate changes better, but also has significances for economic and environmental coordination and sustainability research. PMID:25796907

  7. Maintaining Economic Value of Ecosystem Services Whilst Reducing Environmental Cost: A Way to Achieve Freshwater Restoration in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mingli; Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Jiashou; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Lek, Sovan; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries are central to food security in China and this remains one of the most important priorities for the growing human population. Thus, combining ecosystem restoration with economics is pivotal in setting successful conservation in China. Here, we have developed a practical management model that combines fishery improvement with conservation. For six years, a ban on fertilizer and a reduction of planktivorous fish stocking along with the introduction of both mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was apparent in Wuhu Lake, a highly eutrophic lake located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Annual fish yield decreased slightly after the change in management, whereas fisheries income increased 2.6 times. Mandarin fish and Chinese mitten crab accounted for only 16% of total fisheries production but for 48% of total fisheries income. During this six year period, water clarity increased significantly from 61 cm to 111 cm. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll decreased significantly from 1.14 to 0.84 mg/L, 0.077 to 0.045 mg/L, and 21.45 to 11.59 μg/L respectively, and macrophyte coverage increased by about 30%. Our results showed that the ecological status of shallow lakes could be rapidly reversed from eutrophic to oligotrophic using simple biomanipulation, whilst maintaining fisheries economic value. It also offers a better approach to shallow fisheries lake management in Asia where traditionally the stocking of Chinese carp and use of fertilizers is still popular. PMID:25803696

  8. Maintaining economic value of ecosystem services whilst reducing environmental cost: a way to achieve freshwater restoration in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingli; Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Jiashou; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Lek, Sovan; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries are central to food security in China and this remains one of the most important priorities for the growing human population. Thus, combining ecosystem restoration with economics is pivotal in setting successful conservation in China. Here, we have developed a practical management model that combines fishery improvement with conservation. For six years, a ban on fertilizer and a reduction of planktivorous fish stocking along with the introduction of both mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was apparent in Wuhu Lake, a highly eutrophic lake located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Annual fish yield decreased slightly after the change in management, whereas fisheries income increased 2.6 times. Mandarin fish and Chinese mitten crab accounted for only 16% of total fisheries production but for 48% of total fisheries income. During this six year period, water clarity increased significantly from 61 cm to 111 cm. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll decreased significantly from 1.14 to 0.84 mg/L, 0.077 to 0.045 mg/L, and 21.45 to 11.59 μg/L respectively, and macrophyte coverage increased by about 30%. Our results showed that the ecological status of shallow lakes could be rapidly reversed from eutrophic to oligotrophic using simple biomanipulation, whilst maintaining fisheries economic value. It also offers a better approach to shallow fisheries lake management in Asia where traditionally the stocking of Chinese carp and use of fertilizers is still popular. PMID:25803696

  9. MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology applied in China: combustion temperature, flue gas loss and economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhe; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Xiangpeng; Shao, Jingai; Wang, Ke; Chen, Hanping

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the application prospect of MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology in China, the technical and economical analyses of a municipal solid waste (MSW) grate furnace with oxy-fuel incineration technology in comparison to co-incineration with coal are performed. The rated capacity of the grate furnace is 350 tonnes MSW per day. When raw MSW is burned, the amount of pure oxygen injected should be about 14.5 wt.% under 25% O2 oxy-fuel combustion conditions with the mode of oxygen supply determined by the actual situation. According to the isothermal combustion temperature (Ta), the combustion effect of 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (? = 1.43) is identical with that of MSW co-incineration with 20% mass ratio of coal (? = 1.91). However, the former is better than the latter in terms of plant cost, flue gas loss, and environmental impact. Despite the lower costs of MSW co-incineration with mass ratio of 5% and 10% coal (? = 1.91), 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (? = 1.43) is far more advantageous in combustion and pollutant control. Conventional combustion flue gas loss (q2) for co-incineration with 0% coal, 20% coal, 10% coal, 5% coal are around 17%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, while that under the condition of 25% O2 oxy-enriched combustion is approximately 12% (? = 1.43). Clearly, q2 of oxy-enriched incineration is less than other methods under the same combustion conditions. High moisture content presents challenges for MSW incineration, therefore it is necessary to dry MSW prior to incineration, and making oxy-enriched incineration technology achieves higher combustion temperature and lower flue gas loss. In conclusion, based on technical and economical analysis, MSW oxy-enriched incineration retains obvious advantages and demonstrates great future prospects for MSW incineration in China. PMID:25680237

  10. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  11. Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov., isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Shiqi; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain H50(T), was isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China. Cells were observed to be ovoid or short rods, lacked flagella and were found to contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was found to be accumulated. The temperature range for growth was determined to be 0-37C (optimum 28-37C). The halotolerance range for growth is 1-15% NaCl (optimum 2-7%). The pH range for growth is 6.0-8.0 (optimum 7.0). The major fatty acids were identified as C18:1?7c and C16:0. The following polar lipids were found to be present: diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and a lipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-10. DNA G+C content was determined to be 57.7mol%. Strain H50(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pelagicola litoralis DSM 18290(T) (96.1%), Roseovarius mucosus DSM 17069(T) (95.8%) and Roseovarius tolerans DSM 11457(T) (95.7%). In the phylogenetic trees, strain H50(T) was clustered with the genus Roseovarius but not Pelagicola. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, strain H50(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H50(T) (=CGMCC 1.10799(T)=JCM 17553(T)). PMID:23828179

  12. Litorilituus sediminis gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment of an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Shiqi; Li, Zhao; Yu, Tong; Li, Bingyu; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, curved-rod shaped bacterium with polar or subpolar flagellum, designated strain JYr2(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of Qingdao, China. The organism grew optimally at 37C, pH 8-9 and in the presence of 3% (w/v) NaCl or 3-4% sea salts (w/v; Sigma). Salt was required for growth. The strain contained isoprenoid quinone 8 (Q-8, 100%) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C16:0 (24.1%) and C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c (35.8%) as major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid (PN) and two aminolipid (AL1, AL2) were the major constituents of the phospholipids. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JYr2(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Colwelliaceae. It showed <95.0% sequence similarities to all validly published species in the family Colwelliaceae, except 95.2% to Thalassomonas viridans DSM 13754(T) and 95.0% to Colwellia polaris JCM 537(T). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.7mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic study, strain JYr2(T) (=CGMCC 1.10794(T)=JCM 17549(T)) was considered to represent a novel genus and species in Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Litorilituus sediminis gen. nov. sp. nov. was proposed. PMID:23839057

  13. Active flexural-slip faulting: A study from the Pamir-Tian Shan convergent zone, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Chen, Jie; Thompson, Jessica A.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    The flexural-slip fault (FSF), a type of secondary fault generated by bed-parallel slip, occurs commonly and plays an important role in accommodating fold growth. Although the kinematics and mechanics of FSFs are well studied, relatively few field observations or geometric models explore its geomorphic expression. In the Pamir-Tian Shan convergent zone, NW China, suites of well-preserved FSF scarps displace fluvial terraces in the Mingyaole and Wulagen folds. Integrating interpretations of Google Earth images, detailed geologic and geomorphic mapping, and differential GPS measurements of terrace surfaces, we summarize geomorphic features that typify these faults and create kinematic models of active flexural-slip faulting. Our study indicates the following: (i) FSF scarps commonly occur near synclinal hinges, irrespective of whether (a) the dip direction of beds on either side of the hinge is unidirectional or in opposite directions, (b) the hinge is migrating or fixed, or (c) the hinge shape is narrow and angular or wide and curved. (ii) Active FSFs are likely to produce higher scarps on steeper beds, whereas lower or no topographic scarps typify gentler beds. (iii) Tilt angles of the terrace surface displaced above FSFs progressively decrease farther away from the hinge, with abrupt changes in slope coinciding with FSF scarps; the changes in tilt angle and scarp height have a predictable geometric relationship. (iv) Active FSFs can accommodate a significant fraction of total slip and play a significant role in folding deformation. (v) Active FSFs may be used to assess seismic hazards associated with active folds and associated blind thrusts.

  14. Seed weight and germination behavior of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiang; Lu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Kong, Xianghong; Deng, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    Variation in seed weight is common within and among plant species, but few studies have attempted to document the pattern of seed weight and germination attributes for aquatic macrophytes at a large scale. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight and germination attributes and the effects of environmental factors on seed traits of the submerged plant Potamogeton pectinatus in the arid zone of northwest China. Our results showed that the average seed weight was 0.24 g per 100 seeds with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 28.4% among the eight P. pectinatus populations. The total germination fraction of seeds of P. pectinatus was relatively poor, less than 35% in seven P. pectinatus populations, and the lowest germination percentage found was only 2%. There were significant differences in seed weight, time to onset of germination, and total germination fraction among the eight different populations. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed a strongly positive correlation between seed weight and water temperature and pH. Seed weight and the maternal environmental factors significantly affected both time to initiation of germination and total germination fraction. Our results suggest that (1) seed weight variation in P. pectinatus primarily is the result of temperature variation during fruit development; (2) relatively poor germination fraction suggests that seeds are relatively unimportant in the short-term survival of populations and that it may be another adaptive trait allowing plants to take place in the right place and at the right time, especially in harsh environment; and (3) variation in seed germination traits should be determined by local environmental and intrinsic factors that interact in a complex fashion. PMID:25897389

  15. Recent geomorphic change in LingDing Bay, China, in response to economic and urban growth on the Pearl River Delta, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziyin; Milliman, John D.; Zhao, Dineng; Zhou, Jieqiong; Yao, Caihua

    2014-12-01

    Decreased fluvial water and sediment discharge, increasing land reclamation, changing climate, and rising sea level have had an ever-increasing impact on river deltas, particularly those deltas bordering Southeast Asia. Utilizing 100 years of navigational and bathymetric data, together with more than 50 years of fluvial discharge data, we here document the impact of human activities on the Pearl River Delta and its estuary at LingDing Bay, China, the site of recent rapid economic expansion and urbanization. Between 1906 and 1988, approximately 80 km2, ~ 1 km2/yr, of land was reclaimed from the Bay, almost entirely for agriculture. During the ensuing 20 years, 1988-2008, nearly 200 km2 of land was reclaimed (10 km2/yr), mostly to be used for manufacturing and shipping facilities; even some of the previously reclaimed agricultural land was converted to industrial use. Most of the reclaimed land came from a corresponding loss of intertidal and shallow depths: between 1988 and 2008, the area occupied by supratidal and subtidal flats (- 2 to 5 m water depths) declined by ~ 180 km2. Channel dredging to accommodate ever larger ships, in contrast, increased areas with depths greater than 10 m by about 36 km2. Although water volume in the northern bay has decreased by 20% since 1906, decreasing bay area has resulted an overall 15% deepening of the bay. With continued economic expansion in the Pearl River Delta, LingDing Bay should continue to shrink in both area and water volume, although the bay should continue to deepen.

  16. Crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the north and south china collision zone by joint inversion of receiver functions and ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Shen, W.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Xiong, X.

    2014-12-01

    The collision zone between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB) is one of the most important tectonic boundaries in the eastern part of China. There are several characteristics in this collision zone, including the exposure of high pressure and ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (HPM/UHPM) rocks. However, the detail structure under this collision zone is still uclear. In this work we try to obtain high resolution and reliable crustal and uppermost mantle structure in this collision zone. We process continuous ambient noise data collected from ~300 stations of Chinese provincial networks operating during 2010 and 2013 to extract inter-station surface wave dispersion curves. Then we generate Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity maps at 5-60 sec periods. In order to improve the precision of Moho depth and shear wave structure, we further collect teleseismic data to calculate receiver functions for all of the stations, and do a joint inversion with receiver function and surface wave dispersion curves to construct a 3D isotropic Vsv model. The 3D Vsv model reveals detailed crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structures which help to decipher the tectonic mechanisms of the SCB and NCB collision zone. Two belts with thin Moho thickness are observed: one belt starts from south part of the Yangtze block and extends to Sulu Basin along the Tancheng-Lujiang Fault (TLF), the other one starts from the south part of Yangtze block and extends to the west part of the eastern North China Craton. There is a dramatic crustal thickness gradient along the North-South gravity Lineament (NSGL), which means that the NSGL is the consequence of the variation of crustal thickness. The shear wave velocity structure of the Qinling-Dabie orogen (QDO) is different from the surrounding NCB and SCB, there is a deep rooted high velocity anomaly in east end of the QDO this region, which may be the residuals of the exhumation of the UHPM rocks. The upper mantle velocity under the Subei Basin is much lower than that of Sulu Belt and the west side of TLF, which may be resulted from the thinning of the lithosphere in the east side of TLF, arguing for significant extension of the Subei Basin during the collision process of the NCB and the SCB blocks.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

  18. The Effects of Affirmative Quality Feedback on Low Socio-Economic Students' Zone of Proximal Development Reading Gains (ZPDRL): A Causal-Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Sharon H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore upper elementary reading classes in a low socio-economic area to determine the effects frequent praise, both academically and socially, have on the zone of proximal development in reading (ZPD[subscript RL], Renaissance Learning, 2006). A causal-comparative study was utilized by observing two groups of

  19. Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…

  20. Large-Scale Economic Change and Youth Development: The Case of Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Way, Niobe; Chen, Xinyin

    2012-01-01

    Social ecological and dynamic systems theories propose that human development is shaped by the cumulative impact of social interactions in proximal and distal settings, which are themselves influenced by social and economic forces. The understanding of the links between microsystem-level factors (such as parenting styles and parent-child

  1. A Study on the Rate of Contribution of Education Investment to the Economic Growth in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Bo-nai; Lai, Xiong-xiang

    2006-01-01

    There is an evident bi-directional causality relationship between education investment and economic growth based on an analysis of statistics from 1952 to 2003 released by the State Statistics Bureau. A generalized difference regression model is set up to investigate the relationship between the two. Studies show that the rate of contribution of

  2. Economic Growth, Institutional Development and Personal Freedom: The Educational Needs of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    To sustain growth requires changes in the Chinese economy and society. The Asian financial crisis shows that independent institutions and individual freedoms are necessary to stimulate entrepreneurship and innovation. Conservative social values often promoted by the education and training system could hinder economic growth. (SK)

  3. Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education

  4. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  5. Economic Security, Social Cohesion, and Depression Disparities in Post-transition Societies: A Comparison of Older Adults in China and Russia.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Although both China and Russia have experienced several decades of market reform, initial evidence suggests that this structural change has compromised mental and physical health among the Russian population but not the Chinese population. Using data from the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (2007-2010), this study examines the factors associated with the disparity in depression between older adults in China and their Russian counterparts, all of whom experienced market transition in the prime of their lives (N?= 10,896). Results show that the lower level of depression among Chinese respondents is attributable to higher levels of economic security and social cohesion as well as stronger effects of economic and social resources on depression, while health-rating style is likely a minor factor. The study advances the sociological understanding of global/comparative mental health by considering the effects of macrolevel political, economic, social, and cultural conditions. PMID:26578542

  6. Projected Shifts in Kppen Climate Zones over China and Their Temporal Evolution in CMIP5 Multi-Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Chan, D.; Jiang, G.; Dai, X.

    2014-12-01

    This study uses CMIP5 multi-model ensemble projections to calculate Kppen-Geiger climate classifications and changes in China from 1990 to 2100. The projected climate types would shift toward warmer climate types from current climate distribution, changes are characterized by pronounced retreat of alpine (ET) climate type on the Tibetan Plateau, disappearance of sub-polar continental winter dry (Dwc) over Northeast China, expansion of temperate (C-type) climate over eastern China. Projected climate shifts are time-dependent. Large climate shifts are already detected in transition regions (7.5% of total land area) around 2010, including rapid replacement of mixed forest (Dwb) by deciduous forest (Dwa) over Northeast China and strong shrinkage of ET on the Tibetan Plateau, weak northward expansion of subtropical winter-dry (Cwa) over eastern China and contract of oceanic climate (Cwb) in Southwest China. Reduction of Dwb in Northeast China and ET on the Tibetan Plateau accelerates substantially during 2010-2030 under all scenarios. Half of the total area occupied by ET in 1990 is projected to be redistributed by 2040. Under the RCP 8.5 scenario, Dwc over Northeast China disappears by 2040-2050, ET on the Tibetan Plateaus disappears by 2070, shift of subtropical humid (Cfa) climate to Cwa over large parts of southeastern China occurs after 2050 due to decreasing wintertime precipitation, and the coverage of C-type climate increases about 7.6% by 2090. Under the RCP2.6, 4.5, 6 and 8.5 emissions pathways, climate types in 22.8%, 39.0%, 46.4% and 52.6% of China's land area change by 2100, primarily following simulated warming changes.

  7. Assessing economic impacts of China's water pollution mitigation measures through a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Changbo; Bressers, Hans T. A.; (Bob Su, Z.; Jia, Yangwen; Wang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.

  8. Applications and outcomes of periodic epidemiological surveys for schistosomiasis and related economic evaluation in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Sheng; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Ellis, Magda; McManus, Donald P

    2005-01-01

    The great success in schistosomiasis control in China is attributable to a range of factors. Periodic epidemiological surveys (PES) used for monitoring and adapting control interventions over time are an integral feature of the national schistosomiasis control programme. PES have enabled the dynamic trends of schistosomiasis epidemics to be closely pursued and have assisted in analysing subtle changes in endemicity. The results can be summarised mathematically allowing the variation in efficacy of control measures to be readily determined and enabling control strategies to be adjusted and updated. PES have been used in both cross-sectional and longitudinal pilot studies selected by appropriate sampling methods. In the early 1990s, when the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control commenced, economic evaluations were initiated in parallel. Cost-effectiveness analysis became a necessary tool to identify the most financially feasible yet effective options among a range of alternative control strategies. There was, however, a lack of standardised approaches rendering study comparisons across sites difficult. The global burden of disease study established the disability adjusted life year (DALY) as a measure of population health, combining in a single indicator years lost from premature death and years of life lived with disability. However, a recent meta-analysis reveals that the burden of schistosomiasis is underestimated, and hence, needs to be revised. It is envisaged that after the revision of DALYs lost due to schistosomiasis japonica, they will become an essential measure in future schistosomiasis control assessments in China and in other schistosome-endemic areas of the world. PMID:16202595

  9. Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on sea floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23N to 20N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea north of 21N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China Sea and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.

  10. Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern. Moreover, according to the spatial clustering index, the urban growth pattern predicted through MOP is more reasonable. In summary, the proposed model provides a set of Pareto urban growth solutions, which compromise environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed. PMID:24994100

  11. Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zhang W; Wang H; Han F; Gao J; Nguyen T; Chen Y; Huang B; Zhan FB; Zhou L; Hong S

    2014-11-01

    Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern. Moreover, according to the spatial clustering index, the urban growth pattern predicted through MOP is more reasonable. In summary, the proposed model provides a set of Pareto urban growth solutions, which compromise environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed.

  12. Relative role of transfer zones in controlling sequence stacking patterns and facies distribution: insights from the Fushan Depression, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Entao; Wang, Hua; Li, Yuan; Huang, Chuanyan

    2015-04-01

    In sedimentary basins, a transfer zone can be defined as a coordinated system of deformational features which has good prospects for hydrocarbon exploration. Although the term 'transfer zone' has been widely applied to the study of extensional basins, little attention has been paid to its controlling effect on sequence tracking pattern and depositional facies distribution. Fushan Depression is a half-graben rift sub-basin, located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. In this study, comparative analysis of seismic reflection, palaeogeomorphology, fault activity and depositional facies distribution in the southern slope indicates that three different types of sequence stacking patterns (i.e. multi-level step-fault belt in the western area, flexure slope belt in the central area, gentle slope belt in the eastern area) were developed along the southern slope, together with a large-scale transfer zone in the central area, at the intersection of the western and eastern fault systems. Further analysis shows that the transfer zone played an important role in the diversity of sequence stacking patterns in the southern slope by dividing the Fushan Depression into two non-interfering tectonic systems forming different sequence patterns, and leading to the formation of the flexure slope belt in the central area. The transfer zone had an important controlling effect on not only the diversity of sequence tracking patterns, but also the facies distribution on the relay ramp. During the high-stand stage, under the controlling effect of the transfer zone, the sediments contain a significant proportion of coarser material accumulated and distributed along the ramp axis. By contrast, during the low-stand stage, the transfer zone did not seem to contribute significantly to the low-stand fan distribution which was mainly controlled by the slope gradient (palaeogeomorphology). Therefore, analysis of the transfer zone can provide a new perspective for basin analysis. In addition, the transfer zone area demonstrated unique hydrocarbon accumulation models different from the western and eastern areas. It was not only a structural high combined with sufficient coarse-grained reservoir quality sands, but was also associated with large-scale sublacustrine fan deposits with high quality reservoirs, indicating that the recognition of transfer zones can improve the prediction of hydrocarbon occurrences in similar settings.

  13. [Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Organochlorine residues in Surface Soil of Pearl River Delta Economic Zone].

    PubMed

    Dou, Lei; Yang, Guo-yi

    2015-08-01

    The contents of 17 Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of 605 samples collected from the surface of agriculture land from Pearl River Delta Economic Zone were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The residual characteristics, sources and ecological risk of OCPs were also analyzed. The results showed that the detection rate of OCPs was 97.85%. The mean value of residue level was 20.67 microg x kg(-1), with the highest value of 649.33 microg x kg(-1). The main contaminants included DDTs, HCHs, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Compared with the soils of other cities, the levels of HCHs and DDTs in the studied area were arranged from low to middle levels. The OCPs were obviously regionally distributed. High content areas were mainly distributed in the central area with dense population, intense industrial and agricultural activities. The residue levels in different types of lands were significantly different: the arable land > garden land > woodland. Especially, the residue level was the highest in the vegetable land. Source analysis indicated that the HCHs might come from the use of lindane. DDTs in soil mainly came from early residues, but the dicofol might be the important source in partial area. Comparing the contents of HCHs and DDTs with our National Standard (GB 15618-2008), the qualified rates of the first and second standard of HCHs were 97.5% and 100%, respectively, and the DDTs were 95.5% and 97.7%, respectively. According to the risk assessment, DDTs may still have some potential ecological impact on the studied area. PMID:26592027

  14. No pre-eruptive uplift in the Emeishan large igneous province: New evidences from its 'inner zone', Dali area, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bei; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Liu, Dongdong; Du, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in Southwest China has been considered a typical example of crustal domal uplift caused by mantle plume upwelling prior to the onset of volcanism. However, this model has been questioned by the discovery of hydromagmatic volcaniclastic deposits formed in a marine environment, located near the central ELIP area (the 'inner zone') which is inferred to be the zone of maximum uplift. The volcanology of the inner zone has thus far been poorly documented, fueling the debate about whether or not pre-eruptive uplift occurred prior to plume upwelling. Understanding the volcanology of this inner zone is therefore critical in constraining the eruption environment of the central ELIP. Our work has revealed new volcanological observations in the inner zone (Dali area), which can systematically constrain volcanism and paleoenvironment. The Basal Succession of the sequence is a thick pillow lavas pile with hyaloclastites, implying an initial deeper submarine stage of eruptions. Limestones and submarine fallout tuffs are interbedded with these pillow lavas. Above that, abundant mafic volcaniclastic products developed, which contain palagonite-rimmed lapilli-tuffs, base surge deposits and peperites, suggesting hydroclastic volcanism in a shallower submarine environment. The Upper Succession of the sequence preserves columnar-jointed lava flows and subaerial fallout tuffs, reflecting subaerial volcanism after the volcanic center emerged above the sea level. These abundant and systematic natures of this evidence suggest that the initial volcanism of the central ELIP occurred in a deep submarine environment. The submarine-to-subaerial transition is caused by progressive emplacement of voluminous magmatic products infilling the inner zone during the continuous emplacement of ELIP, rather than by crustal doming prior to the onset of volcanisms.

  15. Feeling Good About the Iron Rice Bowl: Economic Sector and Happiness in Post-Reform Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Situated in China’s market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker’s happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being – reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty. PMID:26188448

  16. Environmental and economic assessment of municipal sewage sludge management - a case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyi; Takaoka, Masaki; Zhu, Fenfen; Wang, Jiawei; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    A case study was conducted in Beijing to identify municipal sewage sludge (SS) management systems appropriate for a sound material-cycle society. The environmental and economic impacts of four realistic SS-handling scenarios were investigated: stabilization by thermal drying, increased inclusion of SS in cement manufacture, and using either dried or carbonized SS as substitute fuel for coal-fired power generation plants. The results showed that the current sludge management system had the lowest operating cost but higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a low recycling rate. The case with the use of carbonized SS reused in coal-fired power plants had higher energy consumption and almost the same GHG emissions as the current system. On the other hand, the case including more SS in cement manufacture had the same level of energy consumption with much lower GHG emissions. The case with the use of dried SS in coal-fired power plants also resulted in lower energy consumption and lower GHG emissions than at present. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis showed that drying SS with surplus heat from cement plants used less energy and emitted less GHG compared to the other two drying methods. PMID:23552233

  17. The Economic Impact of Climate, CO2, and Tropospheric Ozone Effects on Crop Yields in China, the US, and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. M.; Felzer, B. S.; Paltsev, S.; Melillo, J. M.; Prinn, R. G.; Wang, C.; Sokolov, A. P.; Wang, X.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple environmental changes that may occur over the next century will affect crop productivity. Some of these effects are likely to be positive (CO2 fertilization), some negative (tropospheric ozone damage), and some may be either positive or negative (temperature and precipitation). Climate effects may operate in either direction because the direction of change may differ across regions (more precipitation in some areas and less in others) and warming may increase growing season lengths in cold-limited growing areas while acting as a detriment to productivity in areas with already high temperatures. Previous work has shown the effects of these combined environmental changes on carbon sequestration in natural and managed systems, and valued these effects in terms of avoided costs of fossil fuel carbon abatement. The more direct and obvious economic effect, however, is the changes in crop yields implied by these vegetation effects. Here we use the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) to analyze the potential economic impact of changes in crop yields. For this work we have augmented the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model by further disaggregating the agricultural sector. This allows us to simulate economic effects of changes in yield (i.e. the productivity of cropland) on the regional economies of the world, including impacts on agricultural trade. The EPPA model includes multiple channels of market-based adaptation, including input substitution and trade. We are thus able to examine the extent to which market forces contribute toward adaptation and thus modify the initial yield effects. We examine multiple scenarios where tropospheric ozone precursors are controlled or not, and where greenhouse gas emissions are abated or not. This allows us to consider how these policies interact. We focus on China, the US, and Europe which are currently regions with high levels of tropospheric ozone damage. We find significant negative effects of tropospheric ozone on crop yields and the agricultural economy under current conditions. Our results compare favorably with other methods that show damages of the same level. Our future simulations depend highly on whether tropospheric ozone precursors are controlled in the future. While policies exist in countries to limit tropospheric ozone as a local/regional pollutant, a growing problem particularly in the northern latitudes that include our focus regions, will be that background levels of ozone could reach levels such that it will be difficult for any one country to control its ozone levels without similar control efforts in other regions. This preliminary work highlights the importance of these policy interactions, and emphasizes the need for improved modeling of the atmospheric transport of pollutants.

  18. Female streetwalkers' perspectives on migration and HIV/STI risks in a changing economic and social environment: a qualitative study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Jennifer; Hu, Dier; Chang, Ruth; Zaccaro, Heather; Iguchi, Martin; Zheng, Huang; He, Na

    2015-01-01

    China's 30-year economic boom has created a unique social and economic market for commercial sex, as well as for a workforce of migrant women from rural China. This qualitative study explores the impact of the rapidly changing social and economic environment on migration patterns, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), STI risk behaviours and health beliefs among female streetwalkers in Shanghai. Qualitative data were collected in 2010 through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 16 streetwalkers to characterise their migration passages, sexual health and behaviours, and peer networks. Many streetwalkers reported histories of childhood impoverishment, of family or partner violence or trauma, of migration consistent with the timeline and routes of economic development and of a scarcity in health, social or economic support. Their knowledge of the prevention and treatment of HIV and STIs was limited. They had little bargaining power on condom use and the majority resorted to vaginal douching and self-management with antibiotics as preventative measures. The study identifies streetwalkers' perspectives on the changing environment, their options and actions and, finally, HIV/STI risks that were unique to this hidden population. PMID:25587711

  19. Velocity contrast along the rupture zone of the 2010 Mw6.9 Yushu, China, earthquake from fault zone head waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Peng, Zhigang; Wang, Baoshan; Li, Zefeng; Yuan, Songyong

    2015-04-01

    Fault zone head waves (FZHWs) travel along the bimaterial fault interface and can be used to provide high-resolution imaging of fault zone properties. Here we use aftershock data following the 2010/04/13 Mw6.9 Yushu earthquake to quantify velocity contrast along the Garzê-Yushu Fault (GYF). FZHWs are identified as low-amplitude, long-period seismic signals with polarities opposite to the direct P arrivals. We observe FZHWs at 4 stations near faults that bound both sides of the Jielong basin, which is a pull-apart basin that is partially filled by Longbao Lake. The time delays between the direct P and FZHWs increase systematically with along-strike distances, and the corresponding observed velocity contrast is on the order of 5-8%. However, we do not observe a clear increase of time delay with hypocentral depth, suggesting that the pull-apart basin forms a thick low-velocity zone that likely exists in the top few kilometers of the crust. The velocity contrast southeast of the mainshock epicenter is very small (1-3%), consistent with both field observations and seismic tomographic results.

  20. Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengzhen, Yang

    2002-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China's economy has been developing rapidly. Yet is China's education keeping up the same pace as its economic development? What is the current situation for China's education? With the advent of knowledge-based economy, how will education in China adjust itself in order to meet the growing demands of economy? This paper will

  1. Structures, kinematic analysis, rheological parameters and temperature-pressure estimate of the Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone in the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chenyue; Liu, Yongjiang; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Zeng, Zuoxun; Wen, Quanbo; Zhao, Yingli

    2015-09-01

    The NE to ENE trending Mesozoic Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone of the northeastern North China Craton was shaped by three phases of deformation. Deformation phase D1 is characterized by a steep, generally E-W striking gneissosity. It was then overprinted by deformation phase D2 with NE-sinistral shear with K-feldspar porphyroclasts forming a subhorizontal low-angle stretching lineation on a steep foliation. During deformation phase D3, lateral motion accommodated by ENE sinistral strike-slip shear zones dominated. Associated fabrics developed at upper greenschist metamorphic facies conditions and show the deformation characteristics of middle- to shallow crustal levels. In some parts, the older structures have been in turn overprinted by late-stage sinistral D3 shearing. Finite strain and kinematic vorticity in all deformed granitic rocks indicate a prolate ellipsoid (L-S tectonites) near plane strain. Simple shear-dominated general shear during D3 deformation is probably of general significance. The quartz c-axis textures indicate prism-gliding with a dominant rhomb slip and basal slip system formed mainly at low-middle temperatures. Mineral deformation behavior, quartz c-axis textures, quartz grain size and the Kruhl thermometer demonstrate that the ductile shear zone developed under greenschist facies metamorphic conditions at deformation temperatures ranging from 400 to 500C. Dislocation creep is the main deformation mechanism at a shallow crustal level. Fractal analysis showed that the boundaries of recrystallized quartz grains had statistically self-similarities. Differential stresses deduced from dynamically recrystallized quartz grain size are at around 20-39MPa, and strain rates in the order of 10-12 to 10-14s-1. This indicates deformation of granitic rocks in the Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone at low strain rates, which is consistent with most other ductile shear zones. Hornblende-plagioclase thermometer and white mica barometer indicate metamorphic conditions of medium pressures at around ca. 3-5kbar and temperatures of 400-500C within greenschist facies conditions. The main D3 deformation of the ENE-trending sinistral strike-slip ductile shearing is related to the roll-back of the subducting Pacific plate beneath the North China Craton.

  2. Mental health, duration of unemployment, and coping strategy: a cross-sectional study of unemployed migrant workers in eastern china during the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. Results The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. Conclusions The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers. PMID:22856556

  3. Geological and isotopic constraints on the timing of movement in the Tan-Lu Fault Zone, northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, C. J. N.; Fitches, W. R.; Rundle, C. C.; Evans, J. A.

    The Tan-Lu Fault Zone forms part of a major fault system which can be traced for over 5000 km parallel to the present Asian continental margin. A sinistral displacement of about 700 km has been postulated on the zone, and it has been argued that this displacement occurred between late Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. However, the geological and isotopic evidence presented in this paper indicate that there was substantial ductile movement on the fault zone during the middle Proterozoic, and that normal faulting was active during the late Proterozoic. In west Shandong Province undeformed late Proterozoic (Qingbaikouan) sediments lie with marked unconformity on Archaean to early Proterozoic schists and gneisses, which contain mylonitic shear zones associated with strike-slip displacements in the fault zone. The Qingbaikouan rocks of this area are comparable to the transgressive sequences of the type area near Beijing. However, syn-depositional fault movements along the Tan-Lu Fault Zone resulted in confined depocentres and rapid facies changes. The limestone micrites at, and near, the bases of some of these sequences are interpreted as calcretes which formed on an irregular landscape. Isotopic studies of the gneisses and schists, within and close to the Tan-Lu Fault Zone, have shown that mineral growth and isotopic resetting were predominantly Precambrian events. Rb-Sr whole-rock data suggest that some of the gneisses first crystallized during the early Proterozoic ( c. 2340 Ma). Biotites and hornblendes from a gneiss within the Tan-Lu Fault Zone gave K-Ar ages between 2342-2059 Ma, a confirmation of this early event. Disturbance of the mineral isotope systems and the growth of muscovite occurred at the end of the middle Proterozoic ( c. 1700 Ma), in response to movement along the Tan-Lu Fault Zone. Whole-rock K-Ar ages of mylonites range from 1025 to 519 Ma, a result of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration, probably no younger than early Palaeozoic.

  4. Fault weakening by water in the brittle-plastic transition zone of the Wenchuan fault zone (Longmenshan, China):a study through deformed exhumed granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, L.; Zhou, Y.; Li, H.

    2012-12-01

    The seismogenic fault of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake showed a high-angle reverse slip, and the hypocenter lies in the middle crust. High pore fluid pressure and/or low friction coefficient related to water-rock reaction may have contributed to fault sliding. The current technologies cannot give us the water content in the deep fault. We determined the water content in deformed granites at the outcrops of two ductile shear zones found in the southern and middle sections of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, and estimated the deformation temperature and flow stress that the samples experienced in early geological history to explore the past earthquake mechanisms in the Longmenshan region. The microstructures of deformed granites showed that inhomogeneous ductile deformation occurred in the deep fault. The deformation temperature is ~400 to 500C , obtained by the deformation fabrics of quartz, and the flow stress ranges from 15 to 80 MPa. Using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the trace amount water in quartz and feldspar include hydroxyl in crystals, grain boundaries water and fluid inclusions. The quartz water content ranges from 0.001 wt% to 0.031 wt%, and that of feldspar from 0.004 wt% to 0.103 wt%. Trace-amount water increases with the strain of rocks, and water contents with fluid inclusions decrease with deformation. Based on the study of fluid inclusions with the composition of NaCl-H2O using micro-thermometer and Laser Raman micro-spectrometer, the temperature of fluid capture is estimated to range from 330 to 350C, corresponding to a depth of 18 to 19 km in the Longmengshan fault zone, which indicates that the fluid pressure coefficient ranges from 0.15 to 0.9, implying that the pore fluid pressure varied form low to high. Both high pore fluid pressure and minerals with low friction coefficient generated by water-rock reaction could weaken the fault significantly and increase the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone according to the reconstructed rheological structures of the Longmenshan region. All of these could lead to a brittle fault slip on top of the brittle-plastic transition zone. In addition, we built a preliminary model with respect to water transition in a seismic cycle using the data of water content and fluid pressure across the deep fault.

  5. Socio-Economic Differentials in Impoverishment Effects of Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditure in China and India: Evidence from WHO SAGE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Ashish; Kumar, Santosh; Ram, Faujdar; Singh, Abhishek; Ram, Usha; Negin, Joel; Kowal, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The provision of affordable health care is generally considered a fundamental goal of a welfare state. In addition to its role in maintaining and improving the health status of individuals and households, it impacts the economic prosperity of a society through its positive effects on labor productivity. Given this context, this paper assesses socioeconomic-differentials in the impact of out-of-pocket-health-expenditure (OOPHE) on impoverishment in China and India, two of the fastest growing economies of the world. Data and Methods The paper uses data from the World Health Organisations Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (WHO SAGE), and Bivariate as well as Multivariate analyses for investigating the socioeconomic-differentials in the impact of out-of-pocket-health-expenditure (OOPHE) on impoverishment in China and India. Results and Conclusions Annually, about 7% and 8% of the population in China and India, respectively, fall in poverty due to OOPHE. Also, the percentage shortfall in income for the population from poverty line due to OOPHE is 2% in China and 1.3% in India. Further, findings from the multivariate analysis indicate that lower wealth status and inpatient as well as outpatient care increase the odds of falling below poverty line significantly (with the extent much higher in the case of in-patient care) due to OOPHE in both China and India. In addition, having at least an under-5 child in the household, living in rural areas and having a household head with no formal education increases the odds of falling below poverty line significantly (compared to a head with college level education) due to OOPHE in China; whereas having at least an under-5 child, not having health insurance and residing in rural areas increases the odds of becoming poor significantly due to OOPHE in India. PMID:26270049

  6. Changes in land use, climate and the environment during a period of rapid economic development in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Mingli; Zou, Jun; Zhu, A-xing; Chen, Xia; Mi, Yin; Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Hao; Li, Yunmei

    2015-12-01

    Understanding changes in climate and environment on a regional scale can provide useful guidance for regional socio-economic development. The present study characterizes changes in the environment, climate, land use and cover types via in situ observed, statistical data and remote sensing images for Jiangsu Province, China, during the period 1980-2012. Statistical and spatial analyses indicate that the pace of urbanization in southern Jiangsu is more rapid than that in northern Jiangsu. Urbanization (92.7%) results primarily from the loss of farmland. While emissions of pollutants from industrial sources were well controlled, and wastewater, which more frequently derives from urban domestic sources, was found to be increasing. The rates of wastewater to population increased from 0.17±0.017 to 0.32±0.090 (billion ton/million persons) during the two periods of 1980-2000 and 2000-2012. However, the rates of wastewater to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decreased from 0.26±0.20 to 0.014±0.009 (billion ton/billion Yuan), respectively. The significant increase in scattering radiance and Earth's albedo caused by the urbanization and its process (Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between urban land and scattering radiance=0.86, p<0.0001; r between farmland and scattering radiance=-0.92, p<0.0001) aggravates the warming in the regional scale. This correlation analysis indicates that temperature will decrease with the increase of woodland, grassland and farmland, and will increase with the increase of urbanized and unexploited lands. Added to warming caused by an increase in CO2, land use/cover change and human activities may be the primary reason for the rising temperatures in Jiangsu Province. The change in regional thermal conditions reduces both local humidity and land atmosphere flux exchange. The low atmosphere flux exhange contributes to the spread of atmospheric pollutants and the deposition of atmospheric particles. PMID:26204053

  7. Epidemiologic and Economic Burden of Influenza in the Outpatient Setting: A Prospective Study in a Subtropical Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Chan-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; He, Jian-feng; Zhang, Jin-qing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand the incidence of outpatient influenza cases in a subtropical area of China and the associated economic burden on patients' families. Methods A hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Zhuhai City during 20082009. All outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were identified in 28 sentinel hospitals. A representative sample of throat swabs from ILI cases were collected for virus isolation using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The incidence of outpatient influenza cases in Zhuhai was estimated on the basis of the number of influenza patients detected by the sentinel sites. A telephone survey on the direct costs associated with illness was conducted as a follow-up. Results The incidence of influenza was estimated to be 4.1 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 19.2 per 1,000 population in 2009. Children aged <5 years were the most-affected population, suffering from influenza at the highest rates (34.3 per 1,000 population in 2008 and 95.3 per 1,000 population in 2009). A high incidence of 29.240.9 per 1000 population was also seen in young people aged 524 years in 2009. ILI activity and influenza virus isolations adopted a consistent seasonal pattern, with a summer peak in July 2008 and the longest epidemic period lasting from JulyDecember 2009. The medical costs per episode of influenza among urban patients were higher than those for rural patients. A total of $1.1 million in direct economic losses were estimated to be associated with outpatient influenza during 20082009 in Zhuhai community. Conclusions Influenza attacks children aged <5 years in greater proportions than children in other age groups. Seasonal influenza 2008 and Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 had different epidemiological and etiological characteristics. Direct costs (mostly medical costs) impose an enormous burden on the patient family. Vaccination strategies for high-risk groups need to be further strengthened. PMID:22911789

  8. Truth concealed behind "Zero Increase of Total Water Use" and coordination approach of socio-economic and eco-environmental water uses in the Weihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Wei, N.; Hao, C.; You, J.; Niu, C.; Qiu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The water resources situation in the water-stressed Weihe River Basin, China, is more serious now than ever before because of a decrease in water resources and socio-economic development. A "Zero increase of socio-economic water use" in recent years gives people a wrong understanding and conceals the water crisis in the basin because the socio-economic water consumption has actually increased. Water use for the hydro-ecological system has been greatly reduced by a decrease in water resources and socio-economic water consumption increase. New concepts of hierarchical water uses for every sector and water consumption control are suggested for coordinating water uses of the socio-economy and ecosystems in the water-stressed basin. The traditional water resources allocation and regulation in China usually set up a priority sequence for water use sectors. Generally speaking, domestic water use has the highest priority and a highest guarantee rate, followed by industrial water use, irrigation and lastly ecological water use. The concept of hierarchical water use for every sector is to distinguish the water use of every sector into minimum part, appropriate part, and expected extra part with different guarantee rates, and the minimum parts of all sectors should be first guaranteed. By applying a water allocation model, we compared the water allocation results of the traditional approach and the newly suggested approach. Although further study is desired, the results are believed to be of an important referential value to sustainable development in the basin.

  9. Receiver function images of the mantle transition zone beneath NE China: New constraints on intraplate volcanism, deep subduction and their potential link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Yongshun John; Grand, Steve; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ning, Jieyuan; Tanaka, Satoru; Obayashi, Masayuki; Ni, James

    2015-02-01

    In order to better understand the deep subduction geometry of the Pacific plate and genesis of intraplate volcanism in northeast China (NE China), we computed a total of 45,505 receiver functions from 788 teleseismic events recorded by 255 stations (NECESSArray temporal and permanent stations) in NE China. We used a common-conversion-point stacking (CCP) method to generate a 3D reflectivity volume beneath the study area. To position the P-to-S conversions to the correct depths, we employed 3D crustal and mantle models as references to make time to depth conversion. The 3D reflectivity volume was generated in an area between 115-135E and 40-49N, in the depth range of 300 to 800 km. We found significant topographic relief on the 660-km discontinuity across the study area. In particular, in a westward Pacific plate subduction section between 40N and ?45.5N, the 660-km discontinuity is depressed by as much as ?30-40 km along the western extension of the deep seismicity. The depression is elongated along the strike of the deep seismicity and is confined to a 200-300 km region in the E-W direction of subduction. To the west of this depression the 660-km discontinuity is uplifted by 5-10 km in a rectangular area of ?100 km by 200 km centered at about 125E and 43N. In the north, the 660-km discontinuity is moderately depressed (?20 km) in a broad area that extends further west. The high and low regions in the 660-km topographic map correlate, respectively, with low- and high-velocity anomalies in the P- and S-wave tomographic velocity images at the same depth. Our results suggest that slab stagnation might not be occurring in the southern part of the NE China, where the Changbaishan volcanic complex is located, thus the magmatism is unlikely caused by dehydration of the flat-lying Pacific slab in the transition zone. The low velocity mantle upwelling arising from a gap of stagnant slabs is a likely source that feeds the volcanic complex in NE China.

  10. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

  11. Microscale characterization and trace element distribution in bacteriogenic ferromanganese coatings on sand grains from an intertidal zone of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linxi; Sun, Liguang; Fortin, Danielle; Wang, Yuhong; Yin, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 yr BP by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C was discovered in an intertidal zone of the East China Sea. Extensive and horizontally stratified sediments with black color on the top and yellowish-red at the bottom, and some nodule-cemented concretions with brown surface and black inclusions occurred in this intertidal zone. Microscale analysis methods were employed to study the microscale characterization and trace element distribution in the stratified sediments and concretions. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered electron imaging (BSE) revealed the presence of different coatings on the sand grains. The main mineral compositions of the coatings were ferrihydrite and goethite in the yellowish-red parts, and birnessite in the black parts using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). SEM observations showed that bacteriogenic products and bacterial remnants extensively occurred in the coatings, indicating that bacteria likely played an important role in the formation of ferromanganese coatings. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized middle rare earth element (MREE) enrichment patterns of the coatings indicated that they were caused by two sub-sequential processes: (1) preferentially release of Fe-Mn from the beach rocks by fermentation of ancient woods and colloidal flocculation in the mixing water zone and (2) preferential adsorption of MREE by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the seawater. The chemical results indicated that the coatings were enriched with Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, especially with respect to Co, Ni. The findings of the present study provide an insight in the microscale features of ferromanganese coatings and the Fe-Mn biogeochemical cycling during the degradation of buried organic matter in intertidal zones or shallow coasts. PMID:25786213

  12. Microscale Characterization and Trace Element Distribution in Bacteriogenic Ferromanganese Coatings on Sand Grains from an Intertidal Zone of the East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linxi; Sun, Liguang; Fortin, Danielle; Wang, Yuhong; Yin, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    An ancient wood layer dated at about 5600 yr BP by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C was discovered in an intertidal zone of the East China Sea. Extensive and horizontally stratified sediments with black color on the top and yellowish-red at the bottom, and some nodule-cemented concretions with brown surface and black inclusions occurred in this intertidal zone. Microscale analysis methods were employed to study the microscale characterization and trace element distribution in the stratified sediments and concretions. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered electron imaging (BSE) revealed the presence of different coatings on the sand grains. The main mineral compositions of the coatings were ferrihydrite and goethite in the yellowish-red parts, and birnessite in the black parts using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). SEM observations showed that bacteriogenic products and bacterial remnants extensively occurred in the coatings, indicating that bacteria likely played an important role in the formation of ferromanganese coatings. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized middle rare earth element (MREE) enrichment patterns of the coatings indicated that they were caused by two sub-sequential processes: (1) preferentially release of Fe-Mn from the beach rocks by fermentation of ancient woods and colloidal flocculation in the mixing water zone and (2) preferential adsorption of MREE by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the seawater. The chemical results indicated that the coatings were enriched with Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, especially with respect to Co, Ni. The findings of the present study provide an insight in the microscale features of ferromanganese coatings and the Fe-Mn biogeochemical cycling during the degradation of buried organic matter in intertidal zones or shallow coasts. PMID:25786213

  13. A root zone model for estimating soil water balance and crop yield responses to deficit irrigation in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Song, X.; Feng, S.

    2012-12-01

    This study proposed a new soil water balance model by quantifying drainage out of the root zone with the simplification of the Darcy's law, which combined the advantages of conceptual and physically based models. This model was connected with the Jensen crop water production function to simulate soil water components and relative crop yield. Field experiments with the winter wheat-summer corn cropping system were conducted in Beijing area in the North China Plain (2007-2009) to evaluate the model. The model could give quite reasonable predictions of soil water content in the root zone with the average root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (RE) and model efficiency (EF) of 0.02 cm3/cm3, 6.69% and 0.78, respectively. Furthermore, the predicted soil water flux through the bottom of root zone agreed well with the measured ones supported by the values of RMSE (0.10 mm/d) and EF (0.92). The Jensen crop water production function with the calculated actual evapotranspitation from the soil water balance model could satisfactorily evaluate crop yield response to deficit irrigation with the EF values greater than 0.95 and the RE values lower than 6%. As an application, the model was used to obtain the optimal irrigation management schedules for the hydrologic years of 75%, 50% and 25% in the study area. The average amount of irrigation saving and reduction of water losses through drainage under optimal irrigation alternative were about 175 mm and 101.9 mm, respectively. This study indicates that the developed root zone model is more available for agricultural water management as it has minimal input requirement, robust physical meaning and satisfactory simulation performance.

  14. 77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY...) Crab Economic Data Reports (EDR) currently required from catcher vessels, catcher/processors, shoreside processors, and stationary floating crab processors participating in the BSAI Crab Rationalization...

  15. Seismic Velocity Imaging of the Aftershock Zone of the 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan Earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Wang, H.; Pei, S.

    2013-12-01

    On April 20, 2013, an Mw6.6 earthquake occurred in the Lushan, Sichuan area, about 80 km southwest of the epicenter of the catastrophic 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. To monitor aftershocks, we installed a temporary seismic network consisting of 29 short period seismic stations in the aftershock zone. Within 3 weeks of operation, ~4000 events were detected and located. To characterize the seismogenic zone, we applied the double-difference seismic tomography method to determine the detailed Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models of the aftershock zone. Both catalog and cross-correlation differential times are included when using double-difference tomography. In this study, we used a so-called multiscale method to improve the velocity model step by step. The grid intervals of 5, 2 and 1 km are used sequentially with the velocity models from coarser grids used as the starting models for finer grids. Overall, the earthquake relocations clearly show a 'Y' like distribution, indicating a thrust faulting system with the conjugate fault. The mainshock of the Lushan earthquake occurred on a blind, high-angle thrust fault dipping to the west. In the northwest of the aftershock zone, aftershocks are located on the back thrust fault of the thrust fault system. Majority of aftershocks are located between 6 km and 20 km, in the brittle zone of the crust. The velocity models clearly show that there is a velocity contrast at a depth of ~8 km, below which the velocity is much higher than the above zone. The high velocity anomaly zone with a Vp of ~6.2 km/s and a Vs of ~3.6 km/s corresponds very well with the high slip zone (Hao et al., 2013), where most of earthquakes are located. In fact, for the region from the surface to 8 km depth, the slip is very weak. The weak slip zone is associated with low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/Vs anomalies and very few earthquakes, indicating the materials are too weak to accommodate stress accumulation. For the thrust fault where the mainshock is located, a clear velocity contrast can be seen across the fault above 8 km with the velocity lower to the west.

  16. Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the magnitudes of the He and H2 anomalies of three surveys declined significantly with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found in three replicates at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity. PMID:21134257

  17. Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaocheng; Du, Jianguo; Chen, Zhi; Cheng, Jianwu; Tang, Yi; Yang, Liming; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Liu, Lei; Yi, Li; Yang, Panxin; Li, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the magnitudes of the He and H2 anomalies of three surveys declined significantly with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found in three replicates at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity. PMID:21134257

  18. Response of Vegetation and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Storage to Grazing Intensity in Semi-Arid Grasslands in the Agro-Pastoral Zone of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min-yun; Xie, Fan; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Overgrazing has been the primary cause of grassland degradation in the semi-arid grasslands of the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China. However, there has been little evidence regarding grazing intensity impacts on vegetation change and soil C and N dynamics in this region. This paper reports the effects of four grazing intensities namely un-grazed (UG), lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG) on vegetation characteristics and soil properties of grasslands in the Guyuan county in the agro-pastoral transition region, Hebei province, northern China. Our study showed that the vegetation height, canopy cover, plant species abundance and aboveground biomass decreased significantly with increased grazing intensity. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in the 050 cm were highest under UG (13.3 kg C m?2 and 1.69 kg N m?2) and lowest under HG (9.8 kg C m?2 and 1.22 kg N m?2). Soil available nitrogen (SAN) was significantly lower under HG (644 kg N hm?2) than under other treatments (725731 kg N hm?2) in the 050 cm. Our results indicate that the pasture management of take half-leave half has potential benefits for primary production and livestock grazing in this region. However, grazing exclusion was perhaps the most effective choice for restoring degraded grasslands in this region. Therefore, flexible rangeland management should be adopted in this region. PMID:24819162

  19. The spatial and temporal changes of chlorophyll-a and suspended matter in the eastern coastal zones of China during 1997-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Liu, Jianli

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the spatial and temporal changes of chlorophyll-a and suspended matter (denoted using the back-scattering coefficient of suspended matter at 555 nm, bb(555)) in China's eastern coastal zones (CECZ) over a 16 year period, using remote sensing technology, are explored. It was found that chlorophyll-a concentration and bb(555) gradually decrease from the northeastern to the southeastern CECZ due to global warming. The monthly average bb(555) slowly decreased in the CECZ from September, 1997 to September, 2013. The decreases of bb(555) led to decreases of nutrient supports and the diffuse attenuation coefficient, because the CECZ fell into the TSM-dominated coastal water category. However, the phytoplankton growth was not only limited by the nutrients provided, but also depended on the environmental temperatures, as well as some other factors. As a result, the chlorophyll-a concentration gradually increased in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, but slowly decreased in the East China Sea. Since a large amount of the river around the CECZ discharged suspended matter into the global oceanic system, there was a strong co-variation of bb(555) between the CECZ and the global oceans. The use of bb(555) in the CECZ can account for 59% of the variations of bb(555) in the global oceanic system, which is much higher than that of the chlorophyll-a concentration, due to the variables impacting the spatial distribution of phytoplankton being much more complicated than those of the suspended matter.

  20. The Implications of Rapid Economic Growth for Health-Related Behaviors and Chronic Metabolic Diseases: An Exploratory Study in Post-Earthquake West China

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hilary; Gipson, Jessica D.; Yang, Fan; Li, Jinrong; Li, Ping; Liu, Wei; Yang, Cui; Mao, Meng; Chang, Yen-Jung; Seto, Edmund; Wang, May C.

    2015-01-01

    A devastating earthquake struck west China in 2008. Reconstruction efforts have focused on urbanization and modernization, hastening economic growth in the area. This rapid growth provides a unique opportunity to explore the potential impact of rapid environmental changes on metabolic disease risk. The study objective was to gather qualitative information from residents of a rapidly changing area in China to determine perceived changes in food- and physical activity-related aspects of the environment and their perceived effects on health. We conducted extensive interviews with 30 residents of an area where towns were rapidly rebuilt after being destroyed by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Findings suggest that a longitudinal investigation of children and their families in this rapidly developing region may identify mechanisms by which environmental factors influence the development of diet-related chronic illnesses. PMID:26478828

  1. [Distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches, Shandong Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Li, Ha; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was conducted on the abundance, group composition, and distribution of meiofauna at the Second Beach of Taiping Bay and the Shilaoren Beach in Qingdao in January, April, July, and October 2008, aimed to analyze the distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in the intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches. The measurements of environmental factors, including sediment grain size, interstitial water salinity, interstitial water temperature, organic matter content (TOC), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, were made simultaneously. There existed obvious seasonal differences in the environment factors, which could be clustered into two groups, i. e. , spring-winter group (January and April) and summer-autumn group (July and October). At the Second Beach of Taiping Bay, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1167.3 +/- 768.3) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the most dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 91% of the total. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance at the Second Beach differed horizontally, with the abundance ranked as high tide zone < middle tide zone < low tide zone. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance also varied seasonally, with high values in spring/winter and low values in summer/autumn (spring > winter > autumn > summer). The vertical distribution of the meiofauna in the high and middle tide zones of the Second Beach varied seasonally too. The meiofauna migrated downward with increasing temperature, concentrated in surface layer in winter and migrated downward in summer. At the Shilaoren Beach, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1130.2 +/- 1419.1) ind x 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda accounted for 85% of the total. There was a great similarity of the environmental factors in the middle tide zone of the Second Beach and Shilaoren Beach, which led to no differences in the meiofaunal group composition and abundance. However, the vertical distribution of the meiofauna differed between the two beaches. When the temperature decreased, the meiofauna at Shilaoren Beach migrated downward. The ANOVA and BIOENV analyses showed that the TOC and MD phi were most responsible for the distribution of meiofauna among the tidal zones, the interstitial water temperature, MD phi, and TOC were the main causes of the seasonal variation of meiofaunal group composition and abundance, whereas the sediment Chl a affected the vertical migration of meiofauna. Tourism-induced sediment variation was another factor affecting the meiofaunal abundance, group composition, and distribution. PMID:23479891

  2. Chemical apportionment of aerosol optical properties during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tingting; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xiujuan; Du, Wei; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China, using the highly time-resolved measurements by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction monitor. The average (±σ) extinction coefficient (bext) and absorption coefficient (bap) were 186.5 (±184.5) M m-1 and 23.3 (±21.9) M m-1 during APEC, which were decreased by 63% and 56%, respectively, compared to those before APEC primarily due to strict emission controls. The aerosol composition and size distributions showed substantial changes during APEC; as a response, the mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM1 was decreased from 4.7 m2 g-1 to 3.5 m2 g-1. Comparatively, the average single-scattering albedo (SSA) remained relatively unchanged, illustrating the synchronous reductions of bext and bap during APEC. MSE and SSA were found to increase as function of the oxidation degree of organic aerosol (OA), indicating a change of aerosol optical properties during the aging processes. The empirical relationships between chemical composition and particle extinction were established using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed the largest contribution of ammonium nitrate to particle extinction, accounting for 35.1% and 29.3% before and during APEC, respectively. This result highlights the important role of ammonium nitrate in the formation of severe haze pollution during this study period. We also observed very different optical properties of primary and secondary aerosol. Owing to emission controls in Beijing and surrounding regions and also partly the influences of meteorological changes, the average bext of secondary aerosol during APEC was decreased by 71% from 372.3 M m-1 to 108.5 M m-1, whereas that of primary aerosol mainly from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning emissions showed a smaller reduction from 136.7 M m-1 to 71.3 M m-1. As a result, the contribution of primary aerosol to particle extinction increased from 26.8% to 39.6%, elucidating an enhanced role of local primary sources in visibility deterioration during APEC. Further analysis of chemically resolved particle extinction showed that the extinction contributions of aerosol species varied greatly between different air masses but generally with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and secondary OA being the three major contributors.

  3. Application of Short-Offset TEM (SOTEM) Technique in Mapping Water-Enriched Zones of Coal Stratum, an Example from East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-ying; Xue, G. Q.; Muhammad, Younis Khan; Gelius, L. J.; Zhou, Nan-nan; Li, Hai; Zhong, Hua-sen

    2015-06-01

    Water inrush from limestone coal beds is disastrous for coal mining. In general, it is very difficult to detect such water-enriched zones because of their relatively large burial depth. In this paper, we propose a novel transient electromagnetic method (TEM) configuration, short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM). Consistency of the results obtained from SOTEM measurements in the Shandong province, East China and drilling information indicate that the proposed TEM configuration not only improves the accuracy, but also enlarges the exploration depth for detecting water-enriched areas in coal mines ranging from 1,000 to 1,200 m depth. In this region, a majority of the deep coal beds are filled with water. The SOTEM technique was successfully employed in detecting the floor of a coal seam at a depth of about 1,500 m, as well as in identifying the location of the water-saturated area. These findings were later confirmed by subsequent drillings. Thus, our study indicates that SOTEM represents a convenient and effective technique for deep mineral and hydrogeological investigations due to its high sensitivity to conductive zones (water enriched areas) and vertical resolution.

  4. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. PMID:22311560

  5. Occurrence of soluble salts and moisture in the unsaturated zone and groundwater hydrochemistry along the middle and lower reaches of the Heihe River in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xun; Fang, Bin; Wan, Li; Cao, Wenbing; Wu, Shengjun; Feng, Weidong

    2006-08-01

    Deforestation, over-development of water resources and population growth have contributed to degeneration of vegetation in the Heihe River Basin in northwest China. Salts and water contents are the most important factors affecting the growth of vegetation in this arid area. This study was conducted to determine soluble salt levels of soils in the unsaturated zone and the hydrochemistry of groundwater at 14 sites in this region. Concentrations of soluble ions in the soils deceased with depth. Soil ion contents increased at depths below the root system of native plants. Sulfate was the dominant anion in both the unsaturated zone and the groundwater. Total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater ranged from less than 1 g/L in the middle reaches of the watershed to about 10 g/L in the arid lower reaches. In the middle and upper reaches of the watershed, salinity in soil and groundwater decreased. Groundwater was highly variable in hydrochemistry. The lower reaches was predominated by SO4-NaMg and SO4-MgNa type water, whereas in the middle reaches groundwater is characterized by lower TDS and HCO3-dominated type water. Evapotranspiration is responsible for occurrence of the soluble salts in the soil profiles. Dissolution is the dominant chemical process in the middle reaches, whereas evapotranspiration prevails in the lower reaches of the Heihe River.

  6. Flow regulation manipulates contemporary seasonal sedimentary dynamics in the reservoir fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiang; Bao, Yuhai; He, Xiubin; Fu, Bojie; Collins, Adrian L; Zhang, Xinbao

    2016-04-01

    Since the launch of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River, a distinctive reservoir fluctuation zone has been created and significantly modified by regular dam operations. Sediment redistribution within this artificial landscape differs substantially from that in natural fluvial riparian zones, due to a specific hydrological regime comprising steps of water impoundment with increasing magnitudes and seasonal water level fluctuation holding a range of sediment fluxes. This study reinterpreted post-dam sedimentary dynamics in the reservoir fluctuation zone by stratigraphy determination of a 345-cm long sediment core, and related it to impact of the hydrological regime. Seasonality in absolute grain-size composition of suspended sediment was applied as a methodological basis for stratigraphic differentiation. Sedimentary laminations with relatively higher proportions of sandy fractions were ascribed to sedimentation during the dry season when proximal subsurface bank erosion dominates source contributions, while stratigraphy with a lower proportion of sandy fractions is possibly contributed by sedimentation during the wet season when distal upstream surface erosion prevails. Chronology determination revealed non-linear and high annual sedimentation rates ranging from 21.7 to 152.1cm/yr. Although channel geomorphology may primarily determine the spatial extent of sedimentation, seasonal sedimentary dynamics was predominantly governed by the frequency, magnitude, and duration of flooding. Summer inundation by natural floods with enhanced sediment loads produced from upstream basins induced higher sedimentation rates than water impoundment during the dry season when distal sediment supply was limited. We thus conclude that flow regulation manipulates contemporary seasonal sedimentary dynamics in the reservoir fluctuation zone, though little impact on total sediment retention rate was detected. Ongoing reductions in flow and sediment supply under human disturbance may have profound implications in affecting sedimentary equilibrium in the reservoir fluctuation zone. The results herein provide insights of how big dams have disrupted the sediment conveyance processes of large scale fluvial systems. PMID:26803740

  7. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    .../processors using hook-and-line in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on November 16, 2009 (74 FR 59918... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod...

  8. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March 25, 2010 (75 FR 15626, March 26, 2010). NMFS has determined that as of... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod...

  9. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on May 19, 2010 (75 FR 28502, May 21, 2010). NMFS has determined that as of... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod...

  10. 76 FR 39790 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.82(d)(9)(i)(B), the Administrator... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher Vessels in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY... the deep-water species fishery for catcher vessels subject to sideboard limits established under...

  11. 75 FR 38937 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.82(d)(9)(i)(B), the Administrator... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher Vessels in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY... the deep-water species fishery for catcher vessels subject to sideboard limits established under...

  12. 77 FR 46338 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 1, 2012, through... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska... comprise the deep-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA)....

  13. 75 FR 38939 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...(d), the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher/Processor Rockfish Cooperatives in the Gulf... for species that comprise the deep-water species fishery by catcher/processor rockfish...

  14. 76 FR 23511 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2011, through 1200 hrs... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska... comprise the deep-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA)....

  15. 77 FR 12213 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Amendment 80...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Amendment 80 Vessels in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY... the shallow-water species fishery by Amendment 80 vessels in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is... prohibited species catch (PSC) specified for the shallow-water species fishery by Amendment 80 vessels in...

  16. 75 FR 38938 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Catcher/Processors in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY... the shallow-water species fishery for catcher/processors subject to sideboard limits established under... 2010 Pacific halibut prohibited species catch (PSC) sideboard limit specified for the...

  17. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska... comprise the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This... specified for the shallow-water species fishery in the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200...

  18. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska... comprise the shallow-water species fishery by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This... specified for the shallow-water species fishery in the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200...

  19. 76 FR 39794 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species Fishery by Catcher/Processors in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY... the shallow-water species fishery for catcher/processors subject to sideboard limits established under... 2011 Pacific halibut prohibited species catch (PSC) sideboard limit specified for the...

  20. Dynamic analysis on coastline and sea reclamation in the efficient ecological economic zone of the Yellow River Delta based on 30-years satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Lu, Qingshui

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, with four remote sensing images from the 1980 to 2010 periods and the coastal survey data as data sources, then integrated use remote sensing and GIS technology, the Efficient Ecological Economic Zone of the Yellow River Delta's coastline and sea reclamation changes were extracted by the means of visual interpretation and the artificial vector method. The conclusions are as follows: The coastline of this study area showed a rising trend during 1980 to 2010, the silty coastline showed a reduction trend while the artificial coastline showed an increasing trend, natural and social factors together determined the evolution of coastline. The reclamation area was the largest during 1980 to 1990 and the area was the smallest during 1990 to 2000, demographic factors and economic factors are the most prominent driving reasons of the reclamation. This paper can provide data support and services for the study area to implement management and sustainable development more efficiently.

  1. The Hengshan low-angle normal fault zone: Structural and geochronological constraints on the Late Mesozoic crustal extension in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Su, Jinbao; Li, Yong; Cui, Jianjun; Shi, Wei

    2013-10-01

    We document in this paper a significant low-angle normal fault, namely the Hengshan detachment fault, which extends more than 150 km long in NNE orientation and bounds an elongated Early Cretaceous basin in Hunan Province, central South China. Detailed structural and geochronological analyses have been conducted along its southern segment, where a well exposed, ~ 3 km thick, flat ductile shear zone develops along the western margin of the Hengshan granitic massif. This zone is featured by shallow-dipping foliations of varied trend from NE to NW, which bear penetrative stretching lineations varying from NW to SW trend. Shear sense criteria indicate top-to-the-NW and top-to-the-SW motions along its northern and southern parts, respectively. Quartz c-axis orientations of mylonitic rocks from the shear zone exhibit asymmetric single or crossed girdle patterns, and the distributions of fabric point maxima suggest a simultaneous operation of basal and prism slips, indicating a deformation temperature ranging from 400 C to 550 C. One zircon U-Pb age of the sheared albitite and three muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages of the mylonitic rocks indicate that the ductile shearing initiated at 136 Ma and lasted till 97 Ma. The zircon U-Pb dating results of five granitic samples from the Hengshan granitic pluton yield two phases of crystallization ages of 232-228 Ma and 150-151 Ma respectively, indicating two preceding magmatic events prior to the ductile shearing in the lower plate. Our structural and geochronological data allow defining the Hengshan massif as an extensional dome, rather than a metamorphic core complex as previously predicted, due to the lack of syn-tectonic plutonism and the origin of detachment fault associated with the reactivation of the inherited thrust. This study provides crucial evidence for understanding how the mid-upper crust deformed during the process of extension, which testifies to a coeval occurrence of non-coaxial deformation of the ductile flow in the middle crust and brittle faulting in the upper crust. It also sheds new insights into the timing of the regional crustal extension in South China, and permits to constrain its onset time to be ca. 136 Ma.

  2. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  3. Rn and CO2 geochemistry of soil gas across the active fault zones in the capital area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Li, Y.; Du, J.; Zhou, X.; Xie, C.; Zhang, W.

    2014-10-01

    The present work is proposed to investigate the spatiotemporal variations in soil gas Rn and CO2 across the active faults in the capital area of China in order to understand fault activities and assess seismic hazard. A total of 342 soil gas sampling sites were measured twice in 2011 and 2012 along seven profiles and across four faults. The results of soil gas surveys show that, in each profile, due to the variation in gas emission rate, the concentrations of Rn and CO2 changed in the vicinity of faults. Spatial distributions of Rn and CO2 in the study areas were different from each other, which was attributed to soil types affecting the existence of Rn and CO2. Compared with the measurement result of 2011, the increasing amplitude of average concentration value of Rn and CO2 in profiles in 2012 ranged from 30.2 to 123.4% and 66.3 to 131.7%, respectively, which were coincident with the enhancement of seismic activities in the capital area of China. Our results indicate that special attention with regard to seismic monitoring should be paid to the Xinbaoan-Shacheng Fault and the northeastern segment of the Tangshan Fault in the future.

  4. Impacts of LUCC on soil properties in the riparian zones of desert oasis with remote sensing data: a case study of the middle Heihe River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Penghui; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Zhao, Ruifeng; Duan, Yuewei

    2015-02-15

    Large-scale changes in land use and land cover over long timescales can induce significant variations in soil physicochemical properties, particularly in the riparian zones of arid regions. Frequent reclamation of wetlands and grasslands and intensive agricultural activity have induced significant changes in both land use/cover and soil physicochemical properties in the riparian zones of the middle Heihe River basin of China. The present study aims to explore whether land use/land cover change (LUCC) can well explain the variations in soil properties in the riparian zones of the middle Heihe River basin. To achieve this, we mapped LUCC and quantified the type of land use change using remote sensing images, topographic maps, and GIS analysis techniques. Forty-two sites were selected for soil and vegetation sampling. Then, physical and chemical experiments were employed to determine soil moisture, soil bulk density, soil pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total potassium, total phosphorous, available nitrogen, available potassium, and available phosphorous. The Independent-Samples Kruskal-Wallis Test, principal component analysis, and a scatter matrix were used to analyze the effects of LUCC on soil properties. The results indicate that the majority of the parameters investigated were affected significantly by LUCC. In particular, soil moisture and soil organic carbon can be explained well by land cover change and land use change, respectively. Furthermore, changes in soil moisture could be attributed primarily to land cover changes. Changes in soil organic carbon were correlated closely with the following land use change types: wetlands-arable, forest-grasslands, and grasslands-desert. Other parameters, including pH and total K, were also found to exhibit significant correlations with LUCC. However, changes in soil nutrients were shown to be induced most probably by human agricultural activity (i.e. fertilize, irrigation, tillage, etc.), rather than by simple conversions from one land use/cover types to the others. PMID:25460959

  5. Crustal Structure and Fracture Zone in the Central Sea Basin of the South China Sea from Wide Angle Seismic Experiments Using OBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Aiguo; Wei, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    We present two E-W trending wide-angle seismic profiles (OBS2013-ZN, OBS2014-ZN), which cross the boundary (Zhongnan fault) between the east sub-basin and the southwest sub-basin of the South China Sea (SCS). We processed the data and used 2D ray-tracing to determine the oceanic crust thickness, velocity structures and Moho depth variations related to faults. The simulated velocity models show that the sea basin of the SCS has a typical oceanic crust covered by a 1~2 km thick sediment layer with a velocity of 2~3.5 km/s. The crust has a thickness of 5~8 km, of which the oceanic layer 2 is 1.8~3 km thick, with velocity increasing downward from 4.3 km/s to 6.4 km/s, and the oceanic layer 3 is 3~5 km thick, with velocity increasing downward from 6.4 km/s~7.0 km/s. The sea basin Moho depth is approximately 10 km. The Moho discontinuity has an obvious upheaval zone with a low velocity of 7.6 km/s, which corresponds to the low velocity zone in oceanic layer 2. We constructed an arc-shaped fracture zone (40-50 km wide) by connecting the upheaval portions of the Moho in the two profiles based on seabed relief and sea mounts distribution and suggest that it is the trace of the break-up of the Macclesfield and Reed Banks caused by the triangular opening system of the southwest sub-basin. We suggest that the faults or fracture zones in the oceanic basin of the SCS were formed in segmentation with varied directions controlled by varied stress fields during the multi-episode evolution of the SCS. The seafloor spreading abrupt direction change around 116E maybe is because of lithosphere heterogeneity caused by early episode seafloor spreading in the east sub-basin or caused by the arc-shaped fracture zone, which results in different local stress filed.

  6. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.

  7. Spatial distribution characteristics of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in unsaturated zone of Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan; Ma, Teng; Cui, Yahui; Qi, Zhichong

    2014-12-01

    Sewage irrigation is one of the best options to reduce the stress on limited fresh water and to meet the nutrient requirement of crops. Environment pollution caused by volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (VHCs) associated with sewage irrigation has received increasing attention due to the toxicological importance in ecosystem. The aim of this study was to discuss the spatial distribution characteristics of VHCs in unsaturated zone under sewage irrigation and their migration in the environment. Soil samples were collected from XiaoDian district of TaiYuan city and measured for the major VHCs including of chloroform (CHCl3), tetrachloromethane (CCl4), trichloroethylene (C(2)HCl(3)), tetrachloroethylene(C(2)Cl(4)), pentachlorobenzene (C(6)HCl(5)), hexachlorobenzene (C(6)Cl(6)). Results showed that VHCs were accumulated in the unsaturated zone with long-term sewage irrigation. The contents of VHCs in the unsaturated zone of the study area were 34, 2, 3, 1.5, 8.3, 4.8 times higher than the background value respectively. Soils with long-term irrigation of sewage showed higher contents of VHCs than that with short-term irrigation of sewage. Not only the irrigation time, soil physical properties (e.g. soil texture) also played an important role on VHCs accumulation in soil. PMID:25193606

  8. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-02-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature of economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of economic impact from drought by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact with a model based on cost-and-benefit analysis. By using analysis of "with-and-without", profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis on a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified, and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained using an autoregressive error model to separate impact by disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free condition and disaster-hit condition, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote the reflections on economic equality among various economic bodies at the occurrence of natural disasters.

  9. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: National... crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization program. The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga... products. The BSAI Crab Economic Data Report (EDR) program administered by NMFS began collecting...

  10. Impacts of land use and land cover change on regional climate: a case study in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Yu, Deyong; Georgescu, Matei; Han, Zhe; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the impacts of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on regional climate is essential for understanding land–atmosphere interactions and for designing climate adaptation and mitigation strategies. Using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model, we examined how different land use and land cover patterns affect regional climate in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China, whose environmental and socioeconomic conditions are sensitive to climate change. We parameterized WRF using land use and land cover maps corresponding to 2001 and 2010 conditions, which differ in the representation of four land surface biophysical parameters: vegetation fraction, leaf area index (LAI), albedo, and emissivity. From 2001 to 2010, vegetation fraction and LAI increased in summer, emissivity increased and albedo decreased in winter. Our WRF simulations show that differences in land use and land cover patterns led to widespread reduction in summer temperature with local cooling on the order of 1 °C, and extensive increase in winter temperature with local warming exceeding 0.8 °C. By contrast, simulations using the default landscape representation, provided by WRF itself, show only minor and random changes in temperature. Model evaluation further reveals that our simulations with appropriate land surface properties improve the performance of the WRF model. Our findings demonstrate that LUCC in Northern China has altered the regional climate over the past decade. The magnitude and spatial patterns of temperature changes quantified by our simulations provide useful information for understanding the impacts of LUCC on climate and for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies in arid and semiarid regions.

  11. Recycling of oceanic crust from a stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone: Evidence from Cenozoic continental basalts in Zhejiang Province, SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Qing; Ma, Chang-Qian; Robinson, Paul T.; Zhou, Qin; Liu, Ming-Liang

    2015-08-01

    Cenozoic continental basalts from Zhejiang Province, southeast China are tholeiitic to weakly alkalic in composition, with moderate MgO contents (6-11 wt.%) and an average Mg# of 62. They display typical OIB-like trace element features, including enrichment in most incompatible elements, both LILE and LREE, and negative K, Pb, Zr, Hf anomalies. In particular, they are characterized by high Fe/Mn (73 5), La/Yb (19 6) and Nb/Ta (18.8 0.4) ratios, which can be attributed to the presence of residual clinopyroxene, garnet and rutile in the mantle source. Based on these minerals, the following hybrid source rocks are hypothesized: garnet pyroxenite/eclogite and peridotite. Clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometry indicates clinopyroxene crystallization temperatures of > 1257 C. This is higher than the assumed temperature at the base of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) (~ 1220 C) beneath Zhejiang, thus the magmas were presumably derived from the asthenosphere. Some typical geochemical features such as negative K, Pb anomalies, positive Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta anomalies and the extremely high Os isotopic signatures, suggest participation of EM-like mantle sources, indicative of ancient subducted oceanic crust. (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7037-0.7046) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512832-0.512990) isotope ratios point to the presence of mixed components in the source region, i.e., DMM, EM1 and EM2. Recent seismic tomographic images of the mantle beneath Zhejiang suggest the presence of a subducted slab of oceanic lithosphere in the transition zone. Based on the combined geophysical and geochemical evidence, we propose that the major source of the Zhejiang basaltic magmas was the ancient subducted oceanic slab in the transition zone with an EM-like signature. The other magma sources include depleted asthenospheric peridotite possessing a DMM-like signature. The dynamics of this upwelling hybrid magma was apparently related to westward subduction of the Pacific plate underneath the eastern Asian continent. This process may have triggered the widespread Cenozoic volcanism related to the lithospheric thinning in East China in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic.

  12. Economic Development and the Market Place for Education: Dynamics of the International Schools Sector in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamato, Yoko; Bray, Mark

    2006-01-01

    To some extent, all schools operate in a market place; but the interaction with the market place may be particularly evident in the international schools sector, since many such schools are operated by foundations or private companies which charge fees. This article focuses on the distinctive market place of Shanghai, China, which has undergone

  13. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher

  14. Meritocracy and the "Gaokao:" A Survey Study of Higher Education Selection and Socio-Economic Participation in East China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy is a powerful ideology that was used by the Chinese Communist Party during China's transition to a market economy. With the "Gaokao" in particular, higher education selection became an ideal vehicle for the Party to associate itself with the ideology of meritocracy. This article investigates the extent to which higher…

  15. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. PMID:20702024

  16. Estimation of total suspended matter concentration from MODIS data using a neural network model in the China eastern coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Quan, Wenting; Cui, Tingwei; Song, Qingjun

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the applicability of three existing retrieval models of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas (BYES), and to propose a multilayer back propagation neural network (MBPNN) model. Based on the comparison of TSM predicted by these models with in situ measurements taken in the BYES, it was found that the MBPNN model produces a superior performance to the three existing models selected. Near-infrared band-based and shortwave infrared band-based combined model was used to remove the atmospheric effects from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and the TSM concentration was quantified from the MODIS data after atmospheric correction using the MBPNN model. It was found that the MBPNN model produces 41.4% uncertainty in deriving TSM concentration from the MODIS data. The MBPNN model-based climatological seasonal mean TSM concentration indicated that the highest TSM concentrations were found around the river estuaries, while the lowest values were found in the far offshore regions of the BYES. The MBPNN model-based monthly mean TSM concentration revealed that the highest TSM concentrations occurred in February, and the lowest in July. The diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd(490)) depended heavily on TSM concentration in the BYES. The significant relationship (R2 = 0.72, p < 0.05) between Kd(490) and TSM concentration indicated that the BYES waters are TSM dominated types.

  17. Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici presents high diversity and recombination in the over-summering zone of Gansu, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, X; Tellier, A; Wan, A; Leconte, M; de Vallavieille-Pope, C; Enjalbert, J

    2010-01-01

    Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), a basidiomycota responsible for wheat yellow rust, has a strict clonal behavior and a low genetic diversity in European and Australian populations. On the other hand high diversity has been reported in Chinese populations. Moreover it is thought that in China yellow rust epidemics start recurrently from the western highlands where over-summering occurs. To compare PST genetic diversity in this area to the one described in France seven AFLP primer combinations were used to analyze a sample of 160 isolates collected in 2001 in five counties of Gansu Province. The AFLP data revealed 40 polymorphic bands, discriminating 139 AFLP genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium and phylogeographic analyses support the hypothesis of a reproductive mode that is not strictly clonal. In this regard Chinese isolates from Gansu strongly contrast with the European studies using the same markers. Genetic diversity of this 1 y sampling in Gansu is found to be seven times higher than the one observed in France over 20 y and exhibits lower linkage disequilibrium. The effective population size of the French sample was estimated to be 1000 times smaller than the Gansu population. These results support the hypothesis of large population size as well as the occurrence of genetic recombination, while the importance of Gansu as a main over-summering area requires assessment through larger scale studies. PMID:20120228

  18. Comparison of phosphorus fractions and phosphatase activities in coastal wetland soils along vegetation zones of Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lidong; Zhang, Yaohong; Shi, Yiming; Liu, Yibo; Wang, Lin; Yan, Ning

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) fractions and phosphatase activities were measured in 22 coastal wetland soils with typical vegetation successions in Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China. P forms and phosphatase activities varied greatly from site to site even under the same vegetation cover. NH4Cl-P, bicarbonate/dithionite extracted P and NaOH-P were remarkably higher (p < 0.05) in soils with exotic invasive plants, Spartina alterniflora, than in soils with the native species Suaeda salsa, Scirpus mariquete and Phragmites australis. HCl-P and refractory P showed little variation. No significant differences were detected for either alkaline phosphatase (ALAP) or acid phosphatase (ACAP) among the soils. All of the above properties were much higher in soils with plant growth compared to bare flat soils. Regression analysis demonstrated that organic matter (OM), Al, Ca, Fe and total P (TP) were able to explain more than 70% of the variations in the P fractions (except 29% of NH4Cl-P), and OM was the most important contributing factor. ALAP and ACAP were irrelevant to P but were significantly related to TOC, suggesting that carbon was a limiting factor for P mineralization in this area. Owing to its huge biomass and densities, Spartina alterniflora displayed great potential for carbon input, thus facilitating P mineralization and cycling. The results enhance our understanding of P availability differences in this area covered by invasive and native vegetation.

  19. Nitrate pollution from agriculture in different hydrogeological zones of the regional groundwater flow system in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Sakura, Yasuo; Yu, Jingjie; Fukushima, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    A survey of the quality of groundwater across a broad area of the North China Plain, undertaken in 1998 to 2000, indicates that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting the drinking water for a vast population. The use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer in agriculture has greatly increased over the past 20 years to meet the food needs of the rapidly expanding population. During the study, 295 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine the water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. High concentrations of nitrate, especially in a recharge area along the western side, but also in the vicinity of Beijing and locally in other parts of the plain, pose a serious problem for the drinking water supply. In places, the nitrate concentration exceeds the maximum for safe drinking water of 45 mg/L. The intense use of N-fertilizer and the widespread use of untreated groundwater for crop irrigation contribute greatly to the problem, but no doubt the disposal of industrial and municipal waste into streams and infiltrating the aquifer also contribute to the problem; however, the lack of data prevents evaluation of those sources. In the recharge area, nitrate is found at depths of as much as 50 m. Near Beijing, relatively high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of as much as 80 m. In the discharge area, in the vicinity of the Yellow River, high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of <8 m.

  20. U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: Implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction-zone UHP metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.Y.; Yang, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Li, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the Zhimafang ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) peridotite from pre-pilot drill hole PP-1 of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. The peridotite occurs as lens within quartofeldspathic gneiss, and has an assemblage of Ol + Opx + Cpx + Phl + Ti-clinohumite (Ti-Chu) + Grt (or chromite) ?? magnesite (Mgs). Zircons were separated from cores at depths of 152 m (C24, garnet lhezolite), 160 m (C27, strongly retrograded phlogopite-rich peridotite) and 225 m (C50, banded peridotite), and were dated by SHRIMP mass spectrometer. Isometric zircons without inherited cores contain inclusions of olivine (Fo91-92), enstatite (En91-92), Ti-clinohumite, diopside, phlogopite and apatite. The enstatite inclusions have low Al2O3 contents of only 0.04-0.13 wt.%, indicating a UHP metamorphic origin. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age for garnet lherzolite (C24) is 221 ?? 3 Ma, and a discordia lower intercept age for peridotite (C50) is 220 ?? 2 Ma. These ages are within error and represent the time of subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. A younger lower intercept age of 212 ?? 3 Ma for a foliated wehrlite (C27) was probably caused by Pb loss during retrograde metamorphism. The source of zirconium may be partially attributed to melt/fluid metasomatism within the mantle wedge. Geochronological and geochemical data confirm that the mantle-derived Zhimafang garnet peridotites (probably the most representative type of Sulu garnet peridotites) were tectonically inserted into a subducting crustal slab and subjected to in situ Triassic subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of storm runoff on the thermal regime and water quality of a deep, stratified reservoir in a temperate monsoon zone, in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim; Ma, Weixing; Sun, Xin; Xu, Jinlan

    2014-07-01

    Jinpen Reservoir is a deep, stratified reservoir in Shaanxi province, located in a warm temperate zone of Northwest China. Influenced by a temperate monsoon climate, more than 60% of the annual precipitation is concentrated from late summer to autumn (July-September). In recent years, extreme rainfall events occurred more frequently and strongly affected the thermal structure, mixing layer depth and evolution of stratification of Jinpen Reservoir. The reservoir's inflow volume increased sharply after heavy rainfall during the flooding season. Large volumes of inflow induced mixing of stratified water zones in early autumn and disturbed the stratification significantly. A temporary positive effect of such disturbance was the oxygenation of the water close to the bottom of the reservoir, leading to inhibition of the release of nutrients from sediments, especially phosphate. However, the massive inflow induced by storm runoff with increased oxygen-consuming substances led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate. After the bottom water became anaerobic again, the bottom water quality would deteriorate due to the release of pollutants from sediments. Heavy rainfall events could lead to very high nutrient input into the reservoir due to massive erosion from the surrounding uninhabited steep mountains, and the particulate matter contributed to most nutrient inputs. Reasonably releasing density flow is an effective way to reduce the amounts of particulate associated pollutants entering the reservoir. Significant turbid density flow always followed high rainfall events in Jinpen Reservoir, which not only affected the reservoir water quality but also increased costs of the drinking water treatment plant. Understanding the effects of the storm runoff on the vertical distributions of water quality indicators could help water managers to select the proper position of the intake for the water plant in order to avoid high turbidity outflow. PMID:24485908

  2. Impacts of recent climate change on dry-land crop water consumption in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Pan, Xuebiao; Zhao, Peiyi

    2013-08-01

    Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04°C yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1. Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09°C yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1. Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.

  3. Distribution of Cu and Pb in particle size fractions of urban soils from different city zones of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-Hua; Li, Lian-Qing; Wu, Xin-Min; Pan, Gen-Xing

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples from 4 defined city zones of Nanjing were randomly collected at 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm intervals and size fractions of soil particles were separated from undisturbed bulk soils by low energy dispersion procedure. The total contents of Cu and Pb in the different particle size fractions of the urban soils were analyzed by HNO3-HF-HClO4 digestion and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer determination. The total content of Cu and Pb in soil particle size fractions varied with their size and with city zones as well. Both the content and variation with the size fractions of Pb was bigger than of Cu supporting our previous finding that there was Pb pollution to different degrees in the urban soils although the two elements were generally enriched in clay-sized fraction. Contaminated Pb tended to be preferentially enriched in the size fraction of 2000-250 microm and clay-sized fraction. While the size fractions of the soils from newly developed and preserved area contained smaller amount of Cu and Pb, the partitioning of them in coarse and fine particle size fractions were insignificant compared to that from inner residence and commercial area. The very high Pb level over 150 mg/kg of the fine particle fractions from the soils of the inner city could be a cause of high blood Pb level reported of children from the city as acute exposure to Pb of fine particles of the urban soil might occur by soil ingestion and inhalation by young children. Thus, much attention should be paid to the partitioning of toxic metals in fine soil particles of the urban soils and countermeasures against high health risk of Pb exposure by soil ingestion and dust inhalation should be practiced against the health problem of blood Pb for young children from the cities. PMID:17294644

  4. Decadal to millennial deformation in the Pamir - Tian Shan collision zone, NW China and surface expression of active tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufe, A.; Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Bekaert, D. P.; Hussain, E.

    2013-12-01

    The collision between the Pamir and the Tian Shan is a type example of intracontinental collision. GPS studies show that in Northwest China, at the junction between the Tarim basin, the Pamir and the Tian Shan, 7-9 mm/y of north-south shortening are presently accommodated across the boundary between the two orogens. Here, the deformation has mostly stepped out from the high mountain front into the foreland and has formed a complex array of compressional structures. We compare rates of decadal deformation in the area with 104- to 106-year estimates and investigate the extent to which stream profiles and topography reflect the active tectonics in this setting. A dataset of decadal deformation rates around the Tarim-Tian Shan-Pamir junction in Northwest China is obtained from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time-series analysis. We use the StaMPS/MTI package to combine small-baseline and persistent-scatterer techniques and obtain results that show no significant residual topographic phase correlation. Our data show that deformation has stepped away from the high mountain front and is concentrated on a few structures in the foreland of the Pamir and Tian Shan. Line-of-sight deformation of up to 2-4 mm/y on the Pamir Frontal Thrust (PFT) and the Kashi detachment anticline are observed. No significant displacement of the Main Pamir Thrust can be detected. Within error, the modern deformation rates agree with previously published millennial to million-year estimates along the PFT. However, decadal deformation rates deviate from million-year shortening and rock-uplift rates of anticlines in the foreland of the Tian Shan. It remains unclear whether the discrepancy arises from a recent change to a new persistent uplift rate, or merely from short timescale fluctuation of uplift rate, for example within an earthquake cycle. In an additional step, we extract stream profiles and normalized steepness index (ksn) values for rivers with drainage areas larger than 9 km2 using an SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Stream profiles of large catchments (drainage area of > 1000 km2) draining the Pamir and the Tian Shan are straight or slightly convex across the entire foreland with consequent downstream increases in ksn values. However, no significant changes in stream profiles or ksn values are observed where channels cross presently active structures in the foreland. We note exceptions from this observation at locations of strong litholgic contrasts. The analysis of many small streams with headwaters in the active structures is limited by the resolution of the DEM. A few channels that are large enough to be resolved do not consistently have higher ksn values than equivalently sized streams on presently inactive structures. Our observations, therefore, show that the stream profiles and steepness indices of streams with drainage areas > 9 km2 do not clearly indicate the locus of active deformation in this area despite rock-uplift rates of 1-4 mm/y. Possible reasons for this result include the dry climate of the Tarim basin leading to an overestimation of contributing drainage area in the foreland, the rapid erosion of weak lithologies exposed in many of the active structures, and the possible role of sediment load in rivers and aggradation in the foreland in smoothing of any steepening that was due to uplift.

  5. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and granitoids in the coastal tectonic zone of SE China: Constraints on the timing of Late Mesozoic orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jianjun; Zhang, Yueqiao; Dong, Shuwen; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Xianbing; Ma, Licheng

    2013-01-01

    The coastal Changle-Nan'ao tectonic zone of SE China contains important geological records of the Late Mesozoic orogeny and post-orogenic extension in this part of the Asian continent. The folded and metamorphosed T3-J1 sedimentary rocks are unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks or occur as amphibolite facies enclaves in late Jurassic to early Cretaceous gneissic granites. Moreover, all the metamorphic and/or deformed rocks are intruded by Cretaceous fine-grained granitic plutons or dykes. In order to understand the orogenic development, we undertook a comprehensive zircon U-Pb geochronology on a variety of rock types, including paragneiss, migmatitic gneiss, gneissic granite, leucogranite, and fine-grained granitoids. Zircon U-Pb dating on gneissic granites, migmatitic gneisses, and leucogranite dyke yielded a similar age range of 147-135 Ma. Meanwhile, protoliths of some gneissic granites and migmatitic gneisses are found to be late Jurassic magmatic rocks (ca. 165-150 Ma). The little deformed and unmetamorphosed Cretaceous plutons or dykes were dated at 132-117 Ma. These new age data indicate that the orogeny lasted from late Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) to early Cretaceous (ca. 135 Ma). The tectonic transition from the syn-kinematic magmatism and migmatization (147-136 Ma) to the post-kinematic plutonism (132-117 Ma) occurred at 136-132 Ma.

  6. [Characteristics of particle size structure of plankton community in turbidity zone of near-shore waters, Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Song, Lun; Wang, Nian-bin; Song, Yong-Gang; Li, Nan

    2013-04-01

    Estuary and nearshore waters have complicated environment, where plankton community has a frequent feedback regulation and a very unstable particle size structure. In this paper, an investigation was made on the particle size structure of plankton in the turbidity zone of nearshore and port area waters in Liaoning Province of Northeast China. In the waters with high concentration inorganic nitrogen, phytoplankton biomass was mainly of small particle sizes, with the equivalent sphere diameter (ESD) being primarily 20-100 micro m, while in low nutrient waters, the phytoplankton biomass was mainly of larger size particles, with the ESD>100 micro m, indicating that the phytoplankton feedback regulation caused the phytoplankton community to be comprised of small sized organisms as part of the biological responses to high concentration suspended solids, which reduced the individual number of larger organisms such as Coscinodiscus. sp. and other species, and in turn, directly affected the fisheries resources, including a variety of fish and shrimp larvae fed on phytoplankton. A normalized biomass size spectrum with the characteristics of nearshore shallow aquatic oceanic ecosystems exhibiting eutrophication was constructed. The spectrum slope indicated that the plankton community biomass would gradually increase in size. The feasibility of using dinoflagellates and cladocerans as the bio-indicators for eutrophication was discussed. PMID:23898643

  7. Advancing analysis of spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using self-organizing map.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Yang, Yuyi; Shu, Xiao; Zhang, Jiaquan; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-01-01

    The ~350 km2 water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China, situated at the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, experiences a great hydrological change with prolonged winter inundation. Soil samples were collected in 12 sites pre- (September 2008) and post submergence (June 2009) in the WLFZ and analyzed for soil nutrients. Self-organizing map (SOM) and statistical analysis including multi-way ANOVA, paired-T test, and stepwise least squares multiple regression were employed to determine the spatio-temporal variations of soil nutrients in relation to submergence, and their correlations with soil physical characteristics. Results showed significant spatial variability in nutrients along ~600 km long shoreline of the TGR before and after submergence. There were higher contents of organic matter, total nitrogen (TN), and nitrate (NO3-) in the lower reach and total phosphorus (TP) in the upper reach that were primarily due to the spatial variations in soil particle size composition and anthropogenic activities. Submergence enhanced soil available potassium (K), while significantly decreased soil N, possibly due to the alterations of soil particle size composition and increase in soil pH. In addition, SOM analysis determined important roles of soil pH value, bulk density, soil particle size (i.e., silt and sand) and nutrients (TP, TK, and AK) on the spatial and temporal variations in soil quality. Our results suggest that urban sewage and agricultural runoffs are primary pollutants that affect soil nutrients in the WLFZ of TGR. PMID:25789612

  8. [Dynamic changes of vegetation net primary productivity in permafrost zone of Northeast China in 1982-2009 in response to global change].

    PubMed

    Mao, De-Hua; Wang, Zong-Ming; Luo, Ling; Han, Ji-Xing

    2012-06-01

    As one of the high-latitude cold regions, the permafrost zone of Northeast China (PZNC) is more sensitive to global change. Based on the AVHRR GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI, and by using CASA model, this paper simulated the net primary productivity (NPP) in the PZNC from 1982 to 2009. In 1982-2009, the mean annual air temperature, annual solar radiation and sunshine duration, and atmospheric CO2 concentration and its annual increasing rate in the PZNC increased significantly while the annual precipitation had a significant decrease, and the annual NPP showed an up-and-down trend, with the turning point in 1998. The annual NPP had a high spatial heterogeneity, with an average of 623 g C X m(-2). Comparing with air temperature, the precipitation in growth season was the main factor affecting the NPP. Land use change altered land cover, and thus, the spatiotemporal characteristics of NPP. A significant positive correlation was observed between the NPP and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The impact of permafrost degradation on NPP differed with regional environment. The NPP had a significant positive correlation with the mean annual ground temperature, but a negative correlation with the annual maximum permafrost depth. PMID:22937638

  9. Water and Vapor Transfer in Vadose Zone of Gobi Desert and Riparian in the Hyper Arid Environment of Ejina, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, C.; Yu, J.; Wang, P.

    2014-12-01

    To reveal how water and vapor transfer in vadose zone affect evapotranspiration in Gobi desert and riparian in hyper arid region is important for understanding eco-hydrological process. Field studies and numerical simulations were imported to evaluate the water and vapor movement processes under non isothermal and lower water content conditions. The soil profiles (12 layers) in Gobi desert and riparian sites of Ejina were installed with sensors to monitor soil moisture and temperature for 1 year. The meteorological conditions and water table were measured by micro weather stations and mini-Divers respectively in the two sites. Soil properties, including particles composition, moisture, bulk density, water retention curve, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of two site soil profiles, was measured. The observations showed that soil temperatures for the two sites displayed large diurnal and seasonal fluctuations. Temperature gradients with depth resulted in a downward in summer and upward in winter and became driving force for thermal vapor movement. Soil moistures in Gobi desert site were very low and varied slowly with time. While the soil moistures in riparian site were complicated due to root distribution but water potentials remained uniform with time. The hydrus-1D was employed to simulate evapotranspiration processes. The simulation results showed the significant difference of evaporation rate in the Gobi desert and riparian sites.

  10. Multilayer stress from gravity and its tectonic implications in urban active fault zone: A case study in Shenzhen, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuang; Wang, Hai-hong; Luo, Zhi-cai; Ning, Jin-sheng; Liu, Hua-liang

    2015-03-01

    It is significant to identify urban active faults for human life and social sustainable development. The ordinary methods to detect active faults, such as geological survey, artificial seismic exploration, and electromagnetic exploration, are not convenient to be carried out in urban area with dense buildings. It is also difficult to supply information about vertical extension of the deeper faults by these methods. Gravity, reflecting the mass distribution of the Earth's interior, provides an alternative way to detect faults, which is more efficient and convenient for urban active fault detection than the aforementioned techniques. Based on the multi-scale decomposition of gravity anomalies, a novel method to invert multilayer horizontal tectonic stresses is proposed. The inverted multilayer stress fields are further used to infer the distribution and stability of the main faults. In order to validate our method, the multilayer stress fields in the Shenzhen fault zone are calculated as a case study. The calculated stress fields show that their distribution is controlled significantly by the strike of the main faults and can be used to derive depths of the faults. The main faults in Shenzhen may range from 4 km to 20 km in the depth. Each layer of the crust is nearly equipressure since the horizontal tectonic stress has small amplitude. It indicates that the main faults in Shenzhen are relatively stable and have no serious impact on planning and construction of the city.

  11. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

  12. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Exploited Groundfish Species Assemblages Faced to Environmental and Fishing Forcings: Insights from the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    PubMed Central

    Kidé, Saïkou Oumar; Manté, Claude; Dubroca, Laurent; Demarcq, Hervé; Mérigot, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes and human activities can have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study investigates how, from a quantitative point of view, simultaneously both environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species composition and abundance of exploited groundfish assemblages (i.e. target and non-target species) at large spatio-temporal scales. We aim to investigate (1) the spatial and annual stability of groundfish assemblages, (2) relationships between these assemblages and structuring factors in order to better explain the dynamic of the assemblages’ structure. The Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ) is of particular interest as it embeds a productive ecosystem due to upwelling, producing abundant and diverse resources which constitute an attractive socio-economic development. We applied the multi-variate and multi-table STATICO method on a data set consisting of 854 hauls collected during 14-years (1997–2010) from scientific trawl surveys (species abundance), logbooks of industrial fishery (fishing effort), sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration as environmental variables. Our results showed that abiotic factors drove four main persistent fish assemblages. Overall, chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature mainly influenced the structure of assemblages of coastal soft bottoms and those of the offshore near rocky bottoms where upwellings held. While highest levels of fishing effort were located in the northern permanent upwelling zone, effects of this variable on species composition and abundances of assemblages were relatively low, even if not negligible in some years and areas. The temporal trajectories between environmental and fishing conditions and assemblages did not match for all the entire time series analyzed in the MEEZ, but interestingly for some specific years and areas. The quantitative approach used in this work may provide to stakeholders, scientists and fishers a useful assessment for the spatio-temporal dynamics of exploited assemblages under stable or changing conditions in fishing and environment. PMID:26505198

  13. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Exploited Groundfish Species Assemblages Faced to Environmental and Fishing Forcings: Insights from the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone.

    PubMed

    Kid, Sakou Oumar; Mant, Claude; Dubroca, Laurent; Demarcq, Herv; Mrigot, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes and human activities can have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study investigates how, from a quantitative point of view, simultaneously both environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species composition and abundance of exploited groundfish assemblages (i.e. target and non-target species) at large spatio-temporal scales. We aim to investigate (1) the spatial and annual stability of groundfish assemblages, (2) relationships between these assemblages and structuring factors in order to better explain the dynamic of the assemblages' structure. The Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ) is of particular interest as it embeds a productive ecosystem due to upwelling, producing abundant and diverse resources which constitute an attractive socio-economic development. We applied the multi-variate and multi-table STATICO method on a data set consisting of 854 hauls collected during 14-years (1997-2010) from scientific trawl surveys (species abundance), logbooks of industrial fishery (fishing effort), sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration as environmental variables. Our results showed that abiotic factors drove four main persistent fish assemblages. Overall, chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature mainly influenced the structure of assemblages of coastal soft bottoms and those of the offshore near rocky bottoms where upwellings held. While highest levels of fishing effort were located in the northern permanent upwelling zone, effects of this variable on species composition and abundances of assemblages were relatively low, even if not negligible in some years and areas. The temporal trajectories between environmental and fishing conditions and assemblages did not match for all the entire time series analyzed in the MEEZ, but interestingly for some specific years and areas. The quantitative approach used in this work may provide to stakeholders, scientists and fishers a useful assessment for the spatio-temporal dynamics of exploited assemblages under stable or changing conditions in fishing and environment. PMID:26505198

  14. Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challinor, Andrew J.; Simelton, Elisabeth S.; Fraser, Evan D. G.; Hemming, Debbie; Collins, Mathew

    2010-07-01

    Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic data to account for autonomous farmer adaptation. The simulations show crop failure rates increasing under climate change, due to increasing extremes of both heat and water stress. Crop failure rates increase with mean temperature, with increases in maximum failure rates being greater than those in median failure rates. The results suggest that significant adaptation is possible through either socio-economic measures such as greater investment, or biophysical measures such as drought or heat tolerance in crops. The results also show that adaptation becomes increasingly necessitated as mean temperature and the associated number of extremes rise. The results, and the limitations of this study, also suggest directions for research for linking climate and crop models, socio-economic analyses and crop variety trial data in order to prioritize options such as capacity building, plant breeding and biotechnology.

  15. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem. PMID:27006867

  16. Magnetic fingerprinting of hydrodynamic variations and channel erosion across the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chenyin; Zhang, Weiguo; He, Qing; Dong, Yan; Yu, Lizhong

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic measurements were conducted on surface sediments and suspended particles collected across the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze Estuary, in order to examine the spatial distribution of magnetic mineral assemblages and the factors responsible for this distribution. The results indicate that magnetic properties are dominated by ferrimagnetic grains. Bulk magnetic susceptibility (?) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values show positive correlations with the proportion of the > 63 ?m fraction in the North Channel, while anhysteretic remanent magnetization (?ARM) is significantly correlated with the proportion of the < 16 ?m fraction in both surface sediments and suspended particles. Such a bimodal distribution of ferrimagnetic minerals in the sand and finer fractions is confirmed by particle size-specific measurements. Sediments in the North Channel have the highest ? and SIRM values but lowest ?ARM/SIRM ratios, which is consistent with the coarsest particle size due to strong hydrodynamics, i.e. currents. Within each channel, ? and SIRM values are higher in sediments from shallower water depth due to energetic conditions resulting from waves. Compared with surface sediments, suspended particles have lower ? and SIRM values but higher ?ARM/SIRM ratios due to lower sand fractions. The increasing trend of ?ARM/SIRM of suspended particles along the pathway of sediment transport indicates weakening hydrodynamics from the inner estuary to the outer estuary. Diagenesis is another factor influencing magnetic properties in addition to particle size. Channel erosion leads to local exposure of buried sediments on the channel bed. As a result of a stronger diagenetic imprint, they show magnetic properties different from the recently deposited sediments. Our results indicate that magnetic properties cannot only indicate spatial variations in hydrodynamics, but also provide insight into sediment erosion/deposition processes. Combined granulometric and magnetic methods can therefore be used to interpret hydrodynamics and track changes in estuary morphology.

  17. Response of the turbidity maximum zone to fluctuations in sediment discharge from river to estuary in the Changjiang Estuary (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuezhong; Lu, Bing; He, Yuhong

    2013-10-01

    In the Changjiang Estuary, interactions between the sea and the river result in the development of a turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Riverine sediments are an important source for TMZ formation. Since the 1960s, sediment discharge from the river basin to the estuary has decreased due to dam construction, water and soil conservation, and water diversion projects. Thirty-two Landsat images of the estuary, covering the period from 1979 to 2008, were collected to identify the TMZ response to sediment decline. A threshold value of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of 0.7 kg/m3, corresponding to a spectrum reflectance of 5% of Landsat MSS band 7 and 7% of Landsat TM/ETM band 4, was used to identify the Changjiang Estuary TMZ. The TMZ area was then extracted from each image to investigate its temporal and spatial variations during the past 30 years. The images were grouped into five time series; the average TMZ area of each series was estimated. The results show that the TMZ area declined 23% from series (a) to series (e), responding to a 77% reduction in riverine sediment discharge. In addition, the TMZ had strong seasonal and tidal variations; it was generally larger during flood seasons than during dry seasons and during spring tides compared to neap tides. The spring/neap tidal cycle played a more important role in TMZ change than did the seasonal cycle. Due to the continued reduction of sediment discharge to the estuary resulting from dams already constructed and to those that will be constructed upstream in the Changjiang River, it is predicted that the TMZ area will continue decreasing and that the re-suspension of local sediments will play a more important role in the formation of the TMZ.

  18. On the Relationship between Economic Development, Environmental Integrity and Well-Being: The Point of View of Herdsmen in Northern China Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaobin; Dai, Guangshuo; Ulgiati, Sergio; Na, Risu; Zhang, Xinshi; Kang, Muyi; Wang, Xuechao

    2015-01-01

    Inner Mongolia is among the most important regions in terms of contribution to the socio-economic development of China. Furthermore, its grassland is a major ecological barrier for Northern China. The present study evaluates the changes in ecosystem services availability and human wellbeing based on a survey on864 herdsmen of the grassland and 20 governmental officials. The survey provided the following results: (1) The supporting and provisioning services of the grassland have recently declined, thus affecting the herdsmen’s wellbeing. The intensity of grazing, coal exploitation and tourism development heavily limits the availability of ecosystem services, among which provisioning ones are perceived as the most important. Below a certain threshold, grazing and mining are likely to promote the improvement of herdsmen’s wellbeing, while trespassing that point, the enhancement of the herdsmen’s living standards is curbed. (2) The herdsmen’s cultural exchange, health conditions and social relations are better now than before; however, the threats on herdsmen’s health and safety have increased. (3) A better income is among the most urgent herdsmen’s needs. Livestock revenues did not increase at the same rate as the damage to the grassland and human risk exposure did. (4) The governmental ecological compensation policy did not entirely solve the problem of grassland desertification and environmental degradation, although it is also true that the degree of implementation and effectiveness of government policies is related to the still insufficient herdsmen’s understanding and acceptance of these policies. PMID:26331721

  19. On the Relationship between Economic Development, Environmental Integrity and Well-Being: The Point of View of Herdsmen in Northern China Grassland.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaobin; Dai, Guangshuo; Ulgiati, Sergio; Na, Risu; Zhang, Xinshi; Kang, Muyi; Wang, Xuechao

    2015-01-01

    Inner Mongolia is among the most important regions in terms of contribution to the socio-economic development of China. Furthermore, its grassland is a major ecological barrier for Northern China. The present study evaluates the changes in ecosystem services availability and human wellbeing based on a survey on864 herdsmen of the grassland and 20 governmental officials. The survey provided the following results: (1) The supporting and provisioning services of the grassland have recently declined, thus affecting the herdsmen's wellbeing. The intensity of grazing, coal exploitation and tourism development heavily limits the availability of ecosystem services, among which provisioning ones are perceived as the most important. Below a certain threshold, grazing and mining are likely to promote the improvement of herdsmen's wellbeing, while trespassing that point, the enhancement of the herdsmen's living standards is curbed. (2) The herdsmen's cultural exchange, health conditions and social relations are better now than before; however, the threats on herdsmen's health and safety have increased. (3) A better income is among the most urgent herdsmen's needs. Livestock revenues did not increase at the same rate as the damage to the grassland and human risk exposure did. (4) The governmental ecological compensation policy did not entirely solve the problem of grassland desertification and environmental degradation, although it is also true that the degree of implementation and effectiveness of government policies is related to the still insufficient herdsmen's understanding and acceptance of these policies. PMID:26331721

  20. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  1. Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Ni, Mingjiang; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao

    2013-08-01

    In China, the continuously increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in an urgent need for changing the current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system based on mixed collection. A pilot program focusing on source-separated MSW collection was thus launched (2010) in Hangzhou, China, to lessen the related environmental loads. And greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kyoto Protocol) are singled out in particular. This paper uses life cycle assessment modeling to evaluate the potential environmental improvement with regard to GHG emissions. The pre-existing MSWM system is assessed as baseline, while the source separation scenario is compared internally. Results show that 23 % GHG emissions can be decreased by source-separated collection compared with the base scenario. In addition, the use of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) is suggested for further optimizing the management of food waste. 260.79, 82.21, and -86.21 thousand tonnes of GHG emissions are emitted from food waste landfill, composting, and AD, respectively, proving the emission reduction potential brought by advanced food waste treatment technologies. Realizing the fact, a modified MSWM system is proposed by taking AD as food waste substitution option, with additional 44 % GHG emissions saved than current source separation scenario. Moreover, a preliminary economic assessment is implemented. It is demonstrated that both source separation scenarios have a good cost reduction potential than mixed collection, with the proposed new system the most cost-effective one. PMID:23436063

  2. Analysis of farmland fragmentation in China Modernization Demonstration Zone since “Reform and Openness”: a case study of South Jiangsu Province

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Xia, Nan; Jiang, Penghui; Zhong, Lishan; Pian, Yuzhe; Duan, Yuewei; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2015-01-01

    Farmland is a fundamental resource for human survival and development. However, farmland fragmentation has become a serious problem, causing ecological damage and low crop production efficiency in many parts of the world. Based on remote sensing and socioeconomic data, we used landscape pattern indices, Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA), and Markov chain models to analyze the temporal and spatial pattern changes in farmland in South Jiangsu Province (the first “Modernization Demonstration Zone” in China) during 1985–2010. Our results demonstrated that the total farmland area decreased by ca. 24% and the farmland pattern became fragmented during 1985–2008: core farmland decreased and islet farmland increased. Additionally, the farmland patch density (PD) increased and three other landscape indices (NLSI, MESH, and COHESION) showed significant decreases. Although the fragmentation rate slowed after 2008, the convergence rate to a stationary farmland distribution became faster, and transitions tended to be less deterministic after 2000. Economic and population growth and policy changes positively contributed to this phenomenon. Therefore, the primary task of farmland protection should be to preserve contiguous farmlands and reduce scattered patches in order to promote farmland connectivity. PMID:26135496

  3. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions. PMID:25023984

  4. Genesis and Characteristics of the Two Sub-belts in the Western Yarlung-Zangbo Suture Zone, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Yang, J.; Lian, D.; Dilek, Y.; Robinson, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Yarlung Zangbo Suture zone (YZSZ), extending more than 2000 km across southern Tibet, is thought to mark the tectonic boundary between the Indian and Asian plates. West of Saga county of the YZSZ is divided into two sub-belts (Dajiweng-Saga to the north and Daba-Xiugugabu to the south), which are separated by the Zhongba-Zhada microcontinent/terrane containing Sinian to Triassic metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Several large ophiolitic massifs that crop out in the southern sub-belt, e.g., the Dongbo (400 km2), Purang (650km2) and Xiugugabu (700km2), have a seamount-like stratigraphy, consisting from the base upward of peridotites, mafic dikes, massive basalt and basaltic hyaloclastites, mudstone and silty shale and radiolarian chert. The sedimentary sequence also locally contains discontinuous basalt flows and siliceous to massive limestones with minor oolites. The peridotites are highly depleted harzburgites, minor lherzolites and dunites, all of which were enriched by later fluids/melts. Mafic dikes (120-130 Ma) intruding the peridotites exhibit N-MORB-like chondrite-normalized REE patterns and negative Nb anomalies in spider diagrams. These geochemical features are similar to those of volcanic-rifted margin basalts. E-MORB-like basalts (137 Ma) within the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous radiolarian cherts and OIB-like basalts (140 Ma) between the silty shale and peridotites reflect limited seamount volcanism. In the northern sub-belt ophiolitic peridotites, mafic dikes, cumulate gabbros, massive basalts, chert and limestone crop out discontinuously as lenses in mélange complexes. The peridotites are harzburgite and minor dunite, both of which were modified by later LREE-enriched melts/fluids. Mafic dikes (122-127 Ma) intruding the peridotites are geochemically similar to those in the southern sub-belt. A 500-meter-thick sequence of cumulate gabbro is tectonically sandwiched between the peridotites and basalts. A 1- 2 km sequence of OIB-type basalt unconformably overlies the gabbro in the Saga massif. Ophiolitic rocks of the northern belt can be compared with the Xigaze ophiolite in the central YZSZ. If the later formed in Triassic (~170Ma) suggested in some publications, the southern belt should be represented a slightly younger Jurassic to Cretaceous oceanic basin.

  5. Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, an integrated damage from floods in Russia was about 1 billion euros, floods have caused the death of over 200 people. It is one of the most pressing scientific topics, but most of the works devoted to natural risks assessment. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the influence of dangerous hydrological phenomena (e.g. floods, underflooding and surges) on society, using vulnerability and damage assessment techniques. The objectives are to examine domestic and foreign methodologies, to integrate them and to test on specific Russian territory. Foreign training was organized at UNU-EHS (Bonn, Germany). Three different methods were used for each stage of research. The first part of the research was devoted to estimation of potential damage for population and economy of the Baltic Sea coastal zones. The authors used a model, which takes into account direct damage (loss of life, destruction of buildings, etc.) as well as indirect effects of the first, second, etc. orders (loss of profits, loss of the budget, etc.). A database, based on satellite images, maps, yearbooks of Russian Statistical Service and reports of entities, has been prepared. The database is a matrix, in which the rows are coastal zones, and the columns are given indicators: number of people in port areas (people), cost of fixed assets (million rubles), investment (million rubles.), revenue / profit (million rubles.), etc. The authors identified zones with different depth of flooding, using satellite images, and calculated the direct and indirect costs, using the methodology of EMERCOM. Maximum direct potential damage for the Baltic coast is about 15,7 billion euros, but indirect damage is more than 25,5 billion euros. The second part of research was devoted to vulnerability assessment of coastal municipalities of Krasnodar Region. A database, as a matrix of 252 parameters from 2007 to 2009 for 14 coastal municipalities, was developed. The parameters were divided into several blocks according to UNU-EHS methodology: 'exposure' and 'vulnerability', consisting of 'susceptibility', 'coping capacity' and 'adaptive capacity'. Relevant indicators for each block were selected and verified by statistical methods. The authors estimated the share of people potentially exposed to flooding with the help of geographic information system. The authors, using the technique of World Risk Index (2011), calculated sub-indices for each block, and made the maps. Areas with the highest socio-economic risks were identified on the Azov and the Black sea coast: Slavyansky, Krymsky, Krasnoarmeysky, Temryuksky and Primorsko-Akhtarsky municipal districts. On the third stage, the main purpose was to integrate and use both approaches in evaluation of socio-economic risks on micro-geographical level for different categories of the population and different industries (agriculture, utilities, etc.), using 'field' data. Field study was conducted in Slavyansky municipal district of Krasnodar region and included opinion polls, special interviews with businessmen and authorities, collection of municipal statistics and data from companies, etc. Vulnerability maps, speed evacuation maps, maps of possible locations of warning systems and maps of high insurance risks were developed. Proposals for improvement of legislation for coastal zones were prepared. The conducted research has shown the importance of both social ('vulnerability'), and economic ('damage') components of risk assessment. Using the previously discussed methods individually does not bring desired results because of deficiencies of Russian statistics. It is essential for accurate risk assessment to use an 'ensemble' of methods (statistical, field observations, etc.) on micro geographic level. The work has a practical importance for improving safety of local communities.

  6. Projected shifts in Köppen climate zones over China and their temporal evolution in CMIP5 multi-model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Duo; Wu, Qigang; Jiang, Guixiang; Dai, Xianglin

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have examined the projected climate types in China by 2100. This study identified the emergence time of climate shifts at a 1◦ scale over China from 1990 to 2100 and investigated the temporal evolution of Köppen-Geiger climate classifications computed from CMIP5 multi-model outputs. Climate shifts were detected in transition regions (7%-8% of China's land area) by 2010, including rapid replacement of mixed forest (Dwb) by deciduous forest (Dwa) over Northeast China, strong shrinkage of alpine climate type (ET) on the Tibetan Plateau, weak northward expansion of subtropical winterdry climate (Cwa) over Southeast China, and contraction of oceanic climate (Cwb) in Southwest China. Under all future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) scenarios, the reduction of Dwb in Northeast China and ET on the Tibetan Plateau was projected to accelerate substantially during 2010-30, and half of the total area occupied by ET in 1990 was projected to be redistributed by 2040. Under the most severe scenario (RCP8.5), sub-polar continental winter dry climate over Northeast China would disappear by 2040-50, ET on the Tibetan Plateau would disappear by 2070, and the climate types in 35.9% and 50.8% of China's land area would change by 2050 and 2100, respectively. The results presented in this paper indicate imperative impacts of anthropogenic climate change on China's ecoregions in future decades.

  7. [Ecological risk assessment of human activity of rapid economic development regions in southern Jiangsu, China: a case study of Dantu District of Zhenjiang City].

    PubMed

    Fang, Guang-Ling; Xiang, Bao; Wang, Bao-Liang; Jin, Xia; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Li-Kun

    2014-04-01

    This article investigated the spatiotemporal variation of landscape ecological risk in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City with statistical method based on the ETM remote sensing data in 2000 and 2005, and the TM remote sensing data in 2010, and quantitative index of regional ecological risk assessment was established with the employment of landscape index, so as to enhance the ecosystem management, prevent and reduce the regional ecological risk in southern Jiangsu with rapid economic development. The results showed that the fragmentations, divergence, and ecological losses of natural landscape types, such as forestland, wetland, waters, etc., were deteriorated with the expansion of built-up lands from 2000 to 2010. The higher ecological risk zone took up 5.7%, 9.0%, and 10.2% of the whole region in 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively, which mainly distributed in the plain hilly region. During the study period, the area aggravating to the higher ecological risk zone was approximately 296.2 km2, 48% of the whole region. The ecological risk rose up in most of the region. The interference of rapid economic development to landscape patterns was even more intensive, with obvious spatial differences in ecological risk distribution. The measures of exploiting resources near the port, utilizing natural wetlands, constructing industrial parks, and rapid urbanization, etc., intensified the ecological risk and accelerated the conversion rate. Prompt strategies should be established to manage the ecological risk of this region. PMID:25011302

  8. Genetic structure and gene flow in the endangered aquatic economic crop Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmel. (Nymphaeaceae) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuan-Huo; Wahiti Gituru, Robert

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to measure the levels of genetic variation and patterns of population structure within and among five extant populations of Brasenia schreberi, an endangered aquatic plant in China. Six primers selected from sixty ISSR primers were used in the study which amplified 49 reproducible bands with 22 (44.9%) being polymorphic, indicating low levels of genetic diversity at the species level. AMOVA analysis revealed that most genetic variation (85.64%) is present among populations. The low level of gene flow (Nm = 0.1) is estimated among five remaining populations. A Mantel test show significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance (r = 0.91). Several factors including clonal growth, habitat fragment, population isolation, restricted gene flow among populations and agricultural practices, might have played an important role in maintaining the genetic structure of B. schreberi populations in China. In view of the limited genetic information currently available for B. schreberi, we recommend in situ preservation of the remaining population.

  9. Coupled pyrite concentration and sulfur isotopic insight into the paleo sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qi; Wang, Jiasheng; Taladay, Katie; Lu, Hongfeng; Hu, Gaowei; Sun, Fei; Lin, Rongxiao

    2016-01-01

    The sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) is an important diagenetic redox boundary within marine sediments where the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction, can promote sulfur isotopic enrichments in several solid phase minerals including pyrite (FeS2). Authigenic pyrite can form in concentrated abundances within the SMTZ and as such, can be used as a proxy to identify paleo-SMTZs. This study uses enrichments in 34S and anomalously high abundances of authigenic pyrites in 287 samples from the northern South China Sea (SCS) to determine the paleo-SMTZ. The pyrite samples were collected from sediment cores acquired at three sites, each of which are known to be located in natural gas hydrate-bearing regions. We assess the relative abundances of authigenic pyrites, the types of pyrite morphologies recovered in the cored sediments, and the sulfur isotopic values of recovered pyrite samples using two methods: (1) handpicked sample analysis using a binocular microscope, and (2) the chromium reduction method. Our results show that pyrite concentrations and sulfur isotopic compositions exhibit synchronous fluctuations, particularly from 6.8 m below seafloor (mbsf) to 8.4 mbsf at all three study sites. There is a significant increase in the occurrence of rod-like pyrite morphology within this key interval. We define the position of the paleo-SMTZ by the presence of anomalously high accumulations of pyrites at greater than 5.0 wt.% using the handpicking method or greater than 0.5 wt.% via the chromium reduction method, along with positive Δδ34S excursions greater than 10.0‰ VCDT. We discovered a regional paleo-SMTZ that is shallower than the modern SMTZ, suggesting a previous period of elevated methane flux from depth, possibly related to widespread gas hydrate dissociation.

  10. P-T evolution of elusive UHP eclogites from the Luotian dome (North Dabie Zone, China): How far can the thermodynamic modeling lead us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppo, Chiara; Rolfo, Franco; Liu, Yi-Can; Deng, Liang-Peng; Wang, An-Dong

    2015-06-01

    In those ultrahigh pressure (UHP) terranes that experienced protracted high/ultrahigh temperature (HT/UHT) exhumation histories, slow exhumation rates and a widespread anatexis, the UHP metamorphism is often elusive and difficult to be constrained. In the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt of central-eastern China, which is the largest UHP terrane in the world, the migmatitic North Dabie complex Zone (NDZ) stands out for the widespread anatexis that widely overprinted the traces of eclogite-facies metamorphism, hampering a precise reconstruction of its P-T-(t) evolution. Different peak P-T conditions, varying between non-eclogitic to UHP conditions, have been proposed so far for various high-grade metamorphic rocks from the NDZ. Few attempts were also made to reconstruct its P-T evolution. Most of the proposed P-T paths, based on conventional thermobarometry, follow a clockwise trajectory at relatively HT (> 750 C) and almost none of them infer the prograde portion. In this paper we present a detailed petrologic study on two eclogites from the Luotian dome of the NDZ: sample 11-7c2 shows a well preserved eclogitic assemblage (Grt + Cpx + Rt), whereas sample 11-9c1 is a Qtz-Ky-bearing eclogite pervasively retrogressed under granulite-facies conditions. The results of the thermodynamic forward modelling allowed to constrain, for the first time, the prograde portion of the NDZ P-T evolution; the decompression evolution at granulite-facies conditions has been also precisely constrained. However, due to the HT overprinting and to poorly reactive bulk compositions, this method alone is not sufficient to reconstruct the whole P-T trajectory of the NDZ: more specifically, unambiguous evidence of the attainment of UHP conditions have not been found. Different "unconventional" thermobarometric methods (such as those based on trace element and textural characterization of zircons) might be more suitable to decipher the HP/UHP history of this "really hot and slow" UHP terrane.

  11. Seasonal methane emission from a boreal peatland in continuous permafrost zone of Northeast China: effects of active layer depth and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Y.; Song, C.; Sun, L.; Wang, X.; Meng, H.; Mao, R.

    2012-06-01

    Boreal peatlands are significant natural sources of methane and especially vulnerable to abrupt climate change. However, the controlling factors of CH4 emission in boreal peatlands are still unclear. In this study, we investigated CH4 fluxes and abiotic factors (temperature, water table depth, active layer depth, and dissolved CH4 concentrations in pore water) during the growing seasons in 2010 and 2011 both in shrub-sphagnum- and sedge-dominated plant communities in continuous permafrost zone of Northeast China. The objective of our study was to examine the effects of vegetation types and abiotic factors on CH4 fluxes from a boreal peatland. In Eriophorum-dominated community, mean CH4 emissions were 1.015 and 0.801 mg m-2 h-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. CH4 fluxes (0.384 mg m-2 h-1) released from the shrub-mosses-dominated community were lower than that from Eriophorum-dominated community. Moreover, in Eriophorum-dominated community, CH4 fluxes showed a significant temporal pattern with a peak value in late August both in 2010 and 2011. However, no distinct seasonal variation was observed in the CH4 flux in the shrub-mosses-dominated community. Interestingly, both in Eriophorum- and shrub-sphagnum-dominated communities, CH4 fluxes did not show close correlation with air or soil temperature and water table depth, whereas CH4 emissions correlated well to active layer depth and CH4 concentration in soil pore water, especially in Eriophorum-dominated community. Our results suggest that CH4 released from the thawed CH4-rich permafrost layer may be a key factor controlling CH4 emissions in boreal peatlands, and highlight that CH4 fluxes vary with vegetation type in boreal peatlands.

  12. Growing season methane emission from a boreal peatland in the continuous permafrost zone of Northeast China: effects of active layer depth and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Y.; Song, C.; Sun, L.; Wang, X.; Meng, H.; Mao, R.

    2012-11-01

    Boreal peatlands are significant natural sources of methane and especially vulnerable to abrupt climate change. However, the controlling factors of CH4 emission in boreal peatlands are still unclear. In this study, we investigated CH4 fluxes and abiotic factors (temperature, water table depth, active layer depth, and dissolved CH4 concentrations in pore water) during the growing seasons in 2010 and 2011 in both shrub-sphagnum- and sedge-dominated plant communities in the continuous permafrost zone of Northeast China. The objective of our study was to examine the effects of vegetation types and abiotic factors on CH4 fluxes from a boreal peatland. In an Eriophorum-dominated community, mean CH4 emissions were 1.02 and 0.80 mg m-2 h-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. CH4 fluxes (0.38 mg m-2 h-1) released from the shrub-mosses-dominated community were lower than that from Eriophorum-dominated community. Moreover, in the Eriophorum-dominated community, CH4 fluxes showed a significant temporal pattern with a peak value in late August in both 2010 and 2011. However, no distinct seasonal variation was observed in the CH4 flux in the shrub-mosses-dominated community. Interestingly, in both Eriophorum- and shrub-sphagnum-dominated communities, CH4 fluxes did not show close correlation with air or soil temperature and water table depth, whereas CH4 emissions correlated well to active layer depth and CH4 concentration in soil pore water, especially in the Eriophorum-dominated community. Our results suggest that CH4 released from the thawed CH4-rich permafrost layer may be a key factor controlling CH4 emissions in boreal peatlands, and highlight that CH4 fluxes vary with vegetation type in boreal peatlands. With increasing temperature in future climate patterns, increasing active layer depth and shifting plant functional groups in this region may have a significant effect on CH4 emission.

  13. Seasonal succession of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental factors of North Temperate Zone water of the Zhalong Wetland, in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun; Li, Guibai; Li, Jing; Zhou, Hao; Jiang, Bing

    2014-05-01

    A data set of phytoplankton community and environmental parameters in a hydrological integrity period, i.e. a poor water term, a medium term and a rich water term of North Temperate Zone climate, was analyzed in order to describe seasonal variation of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental variables in the Zhalong Wetland of China. The algal population of the Zhalong Wetland was not abundant, with a mean density of 5.08 10(7) cell/L (ranged from 4.54 10(7) cell/L in a poor term to 5.56 10(7) cell/L a medium term). However, its diversity was essentially limited to Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta being the group with highest densities. There were considerable seasonal variations in phytoplankton composition. In general, the dominance of Bacillariophyceae was found in a medium term, which was higher than the other period (p < 0.05). The rich water period also showed Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyta dominance while the phytoplankton was dominated by Cryptophyta erosa in a poor water term. 10 environmental variables, which were significant (p < 0.05) during the studied periods in one-way analysis of covariance, were selected to explore the relationship between phytoplankton structure and environmental factors by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results of the CCA applied to the environmental factors indicated that water temperature (WT) and ammonia (NH3-N) significantly influenced the phytoplankton community (p < 0.05; Monte Carlo test of first constrained axis). Besides WT and NH3-N, the most discriminate physic-chemical variables were nitrite (NO2-N), suspend solid, nitrate (NO3-N), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and all the 10 physical-chemical parameters had a higher marginal effect and ?A in the series of constrained CCAs though they were not significant. PMID:24756328

  14. Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or "Community Learning

  15. Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or "Community Learning…

  16. A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark

    2014-11-01

    China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments. PMID:24945700

  17. Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin in the perspective of source to sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, K.; Yu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on seafloor in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23N to 20N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea (SCS) north of 21N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and is mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the SCS and Kaoping slopes. The Penghu Canyon is located along the tilting basin axis where is the physiographic boundary separating the SCS and Kaoping slopes. Progressive subsidence of the basin floor from this nearby uplifted Taiwan orogen results in the linear basin axis deepening and tilting towards the open SCS, serving as a longitudinal sediment conduit. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision basin in term of source to sink is that terrestrial and shallow marine sediments derived from nearby Taiwan orogen, Chinese margin and the Taiwan Strait are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and the major marine transport route along the basin axis. The multi-sourced sediments in the collision basin are then delivered down-dip via the Penghu Canyon to the deep-sea Penghu Channel and ultimately to the final destination of the Manila Trench, representing a regional longitudinal sediment dispersal route along the convergent margin between Taiwan and Luzon. A comparison with other examples is a simple and useful way to help our understanding of fundamentals of sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-SCS collision zone. The comparison of the Taiwan- SCS collision zone with the Papua New Guinea (PNG) collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision basin. The canyon drainage system in the collision basin in the Taiwan- SCS plays the major role in sediment dispersal from mountain source (Taiwan) to oceanic sink (Manila Trench). In PNG-Solomon Sea region the aligned linear connections of river-canyon-channel-trench indicates that the axial Markham Canyon plays the major role in the longitudinal sediment dispersal system from mountain source (PNG) to oceanic sink (New Britain Trench).

  18. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis. PMID:17207519

  19. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Taijun; Ren, Bowen; Wang, Dahui; Liu, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C) sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001). The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha-1 (1 Mg = 106 g) in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC) increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010). However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y). The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011), yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y). The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y), the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration. PMID:25799100

  20. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-04-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44%, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23%, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced (19.65 ppbv, the contributions before the control period minus the values after the control period), followed by industrial manufacturing (10.29 ppbv) and solvent utilization (6.20 ppbv). Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, with values of 2.85 and 0.35 ppbv, respectively. Contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were the most important precursor sources likely responsible for the reduction in SOA formation during this campaign.